Update: 2019-03-23 06:59 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 180403: The vowel // written as Tha'we'hto or Thwehto {a.w-hto:}, placed on the left of the consonant being modified, is a problem when Bur-Myan is transliterated into Engl-Lat. I've solved this problem using Super Thwehto, resulting in a new form of of the motto of Shin Kic'si. Note: Super Thwehto is only used when it is found placed between two consonants, e.g. it is only used in {t~htau:}, not in {tau:}.

UKT notes :
Nyaya - philosophy
Vritra - Asura- {Na.ga:}

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{g} गे

p086c2-b06/ p064-009

गेण्डुक [ gendu-ka ]
- m. *playing-ball; pillow.
9) गेण्डुक (p. 64) gendu-ka *playing-ball; pillow.


p086c2-b07/ p064-034

गेय [ ge-ya ]
- fp. to be sung; *singing (g.); n. song; buzzing, humming.
34) गेय (p. 64) ge-ya to be sung;


p086c2-b08/ p064-033

गेष्ण [ geshna ]
- m. joint; also = udgtha.
33) गेष्ण (p. 64) geshna joint; also=udgtha.


p086c2-b09/ p064-032

गेह [ geh- ]
- n. house, dwelling: du. house and body; -in, f. housewife, spouse.
32) गेह (p. 64) geh- house, dwelling:



गेहीय [ geh-ya ]
- den. P. take (ac.) for a house.
31) गेहीय (p. 64) geh-ya P. take (ac.) for a house.

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p086c2-b11/ not online

गै [ gai ]
- i. p. (. ) gya , sing, chant, celebrate in song (ac.) ; proclaim in verse (ac.); sing to (d.), sing before (ac.) ...


p086c2-b12/ p064-030

गैरिक gairika [ gairika ]
Skt: [ gairika ] - n. red chalk: rarely , f. -- Mac086
  30) गैरिक (p. 64) gairika red chalk: rarely , f.
Bur: {gw.ni} - red ochre - UHS-BEPD0166
Bur: {kw.ni} - red ochre - MLC-MED2006-046

UKT 140917: Myanmar masons use {kw.ni} pronounced as {gw.ni} to colour cement red for laying floors. I had taken a special course in Physics Dept. Workshop under Supt. U Hla in  1955. I was already working as full-time Assistant Lecturer in the Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Rangoon. I was given special permission by Prof. Dr. U Maung Maung Kha, Head of Physics Dept. Since the course was only for me, who occasionally had to do various tasks on my own for doing scientific research in those days, I learned many things. Lathe machining, carpentry and masonry were among them. With this little note I thank both Dr. U Maung Maung Kha, and U Hla (who became a personal friend). Both have passed away: gone but never will be forgotten.


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p086c2-b13/ p064-029

गो [ g ]
- m. ox, bull; cow's milk (only. pl.); ox-hide; thong: pl. host of heaven, stars; rays; f. cow; earth; speech.
29) गो (p. 64) g ox, bull;


p086c2-b14/ p064-028

गोअग्र [ g-agra ]
- a. having cattle as the chief thing, consisting chiefly of cattle; -gana, a. meant for driving cattle.
28) गोअग्र (p. 64) g-agra having cattle as the chief thing,

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p086c2-b15/ p064-027

गोकर्ण [ go-karna ] = ग ो क र ् ण
- m. cow's ear; kind of antelope; N. of a place of pilgrimage sacred to Siva; Siva worshipped in Gokarna; N. of a king; -karman, n. tending of cows; (g)-kma, a. desirous of cows; -kula, n. herd of cattle; cattle-pen; N. of a temple; -kshr, n. cow's milk; -ghn, a. destroying cattle; m. cow-killer; -kandana, n. kind of sandal wood: , f. kind of leech.
27) गोकर्ण (p. 64) go-karna cow's ear;

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p086c2-b16/ p064-026

गोचर [ go-kara ]
- m. (cow-pasture), sphere of action, province; dwelling; reach, ken, view, range; horizon; familiar matter (to, g.); a. being or dwelling in or on, relating to, within reach of, accessible to, being in the power of (g., --); perceptible; used in the sense of (lc.): -gata, pp. come into contact with (g.); -‿antara-gata, pp. being in the power of (g.).
26) गोचर (p. 64) go-kara (cow-pasture), sphere of action, province;

ken - n. . Perception; understanding: complex issues well beyond our ken. . a. Range of vision. b. View; sight. -- AHTD


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p086c3-b01/ not online

[ gokar-kri ]
- bring into the sphere of; gain possession of .


p086c3-b02/ p064-025

गोचर्या [ go-kary ]
- f. manner of kine: -m kri , browse like cattle.
25) गोचर्या (p. 64) go-kary manner of kine:


p086c3-b03/ p064-024

गोजात [ g-gta ]
- pp. born in the starry sky.
24) गोजात (p. 64) g-gta born in the starry sky.


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p086c3-b04/ p064-023

गोण [ gona ]
- m. ox; sack: -‿asman, m. kind of precious stone.
23) गोण (p. 64) gona ox; sack:


p086c3-b05/ not online

- m. N. of a (despised) people


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p086c3-b06/ p064-022

गोतम [ g-tama ]
- m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyya system of philosophy.
22) गोतम (p. 64) g-tama Rishi (pl. his descendants);

See my note on Nyaya system of philosophy


p086c3-b07/ p064-021

गोत्र [ go-tr ]
- n. cowshed; house = race or family; surname; name; (gr.) grandson or even later descendant (if the earlier generations from the common ancestor are extinct); patronymic suffix (gr.).
21) गोत्र (p. 64) go-tr cowshed;


p086c3-b08/ p064-046

गोत्रक [ gotra-ka ]
- n. race; family name; -kartri, m. founder of a family; -krin, a. founding a family; -ga, a. born in the same race; of high lineage; m. blood-relation; -nman, n. family name; -pravara, m. chief of a family, prime ancestor: -dpa, m., -nirnaya, m., -magar, f. titles of works; -bhg , a. belonging to the family; -bhd, a. bursting open the cowshed; destroying families, name-destroying; m. ep. of Indra (who releases the cows = rain-clouds from the stronghold of Vritra); -riktha, n. du. surname and heritage: -‿amsa-bhgin, a. assuming the family surname and coming into one's share of the inheritance; -vrata, n. family law; -sthiti, f. id.; mountain-like stability.
46) गोत्रक (p. 64) gotra-ka race; family name;

See my note on Vritra वृत्र vṛtra
= व ृ त ् र  --> {wRRi.tra.}

p086c3-b09/ p064-045

गोत्राख्या [ gotra‿khy ]
- f. patronymic (gr.); -‿anta, . m. destruction of families or mountains; . a. having a patronymic suffix; m. patronymic.
45) गोत्राख्या (p. 64) gotra̮khy patronymic (gr.);


p086c3-b10/ p064-044

गोत्व [ go-tv ]
- n. condition of a cow.
44) गोत्व (p. 64) go-tv condition of a cow.


p086c3-b11/ p064-043

गोद go-da, -˚दा [ -d ]
- a. giving cows or cattle; , f. N. of a river; -dna, n. gift of cows; whiskers; kind of ceremony performed on the whiskers.
43) गोद (p. 64) -daN giving cows or cattle;


p086c3-b12/ p064-042

गोदावरी [ go-d-var ]
-- f. (cow-bestowing), N. of a river in the Deccan.
42) गोदावरी (p. 64) go-d-var (cow-bestowing),

UKT 140920: The name of the river can be derived aks-to-aks: {gau:da-wa-ri}. The Godavari River {gau:da-wa-ri mric}, flowing from west to east emptying into the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean), is the second largest river in India and is 910 miles long. It should be compared to the Irrawaddy River {-ra-wa.ti mric} the largest river in Myanmarpr running from north to south emptying into Gulf of Martaban (Indian Ocean). The Myanmar river is 1348 miles long. Based on Wikipedia.


p086c3-b13/ p064-041

गोदुह् [ go-dh (nm. -dhk) ]
- m. cow-milker, cowherd; -doha, m.: -na, n. milking of cows.
41) गोदुह् (p. 64) go-dh (nm. -dhk) cow-milker,


p086c3-b14/ p064-040

गोध [ go-dha ]
- m. N. of a people; , f. bow string; lute-string; leather guard (on bow man's left arm); kind of lizard; -dhana, n. property in cattle; herd of cattle; cattle station; m. N.; -dhra, m. kind of lizard.
40) गोध (p. 64) go-dha aN, f. bowstring;


p086c3-b15/ p064-039

गोधिका [ godh-ik ]
- f. kind of lizard.
39) गोधिका (p. 64) godh-ik lizard.


p086c3-b16/ p064-038

गोधूम [ go-dh&usharp;ma ]
- m. [earth-exhalation], wheat (gnly. pl.); -narda, a. roaring like a bull; m. N. of a king; pl. N. of a people; -nas, -ns, f. snout of a cow.
38) गोधूम (p. 64) go-dhuNma [earth-exhalation], wheat (gnly. pl.);


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p086c3-b17/ p064-037

गोप [ go-p ]
- m. cowherd (a mixed caste); guard, watcher; ep. of Krishna; , f. herds-man's wife, cowherdess, milkmaid; female watcher.
37) गोप (p. 64) go-p cowherd (a mixed caste);


p086c3-b18/ p064-036

गोपति [ g-pati ]
- m. lord of herds, leader, ruler; bull; moon; ep. of Krishna.
36) गोपति (p. 64) g-pati lord of herds, leader, ruler;


p086c3-b19/ p064-062

गोपथ [ go-patha ]
- m. cow-path, cow-pasture; title of a Brhmana of the Atharva-veda: -brhmana, n. id.
62) गोपथ (p. 64) go-patha cow-path, cow-pasture;


p086c3-b20/ p064-035

गोपन [ gp-ana ]
- n. protection, preservation; concealment; keeping secret: , f. protection.
35) गोपन (p. 64) gp-ana protection, preservation;


p086c3-b21/ p064-059

गोपय [ gopa-ya ]
- den. protect, guard, preserve; conceal, keep secret: pp. gopita, concealed. pra, protect; conceal; sam, cover, conceal.
59) गोपय (p. 64) gopa-ya protect, guard, preserve; 

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UKT notes


- UKT 170621, 180430:

Though Buddhism started out as a scientific discovery, and had nothing to do with axiomatic entities such as the creator, gods and goddesses, it is classed among "religions" - systems that explains the relation of men to gods , particularly to  the Creator: Mahabrahma, YHVH, God, and Allah - all dealing with immutable Soul which must not become aged and die. Soul is Atta {t~ta.}. Gautama Buddha had asked for the proof that Atta is unchanging, un-aging, and un-dying. Unable to find it, he had proclaimed Anatta - the antithesis of Atta.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyaya 120207, 190322
UKT 190322: I feel that there were worthwhile points in 120207, and the following is my understanding based on both articles.

Nyāya न्याय nyā-y/ ni-āy lit. "recursion", used in the sense of "syllogism, inference" or "rules", "method" or "judgment". It is also the name of one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy specifically the school of logic. The Nyaya school of philosophical speculation is based on texts known as the Nyaya Sutras, which were written by Aksapada Gautama from around the 2nd century.

Nyaya school's epistemology accepts four out of six Pramanas as reliable means of gaining knowledge
#1. pratyakṣa (perception)
#2. anumāṇa (inference)
#3. upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), and
#4. śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).

The most important contribution made by the Nyaya school to modern Hindu thought is its methodology to prove existence of God, based on the Vedas. [UKT ]

UKT 180430, 190322: Based on the Vdas (premise), i.e. Śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts), is source of the weakness of the Nyaya school, no matter how good the methodology is !
"The proof of a conclusion depends on both the truth of the premises and the validity of the argument."
- Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premise 180430

The Vdas - the body of knowledge that is known to Man at a particular Time and at a Place, and is bound to change as Man becomes more knowledgeable due to new discoveries, and new theories which are checked by experimental proofs. Theories that were not compatible with new found-facts are discarded, and new theories are formed which in their turn must be able to explain newly found facts. Experts and Authorities at one time, are no longer so at the present.

In Science, the Theoretical knowledge and the Experimental proofs must go hand in hand. Theoretically Vdas may be infallible - but the body of knowledge that is known to Man at a particular Time and at a Place, is changing all the time. The scientific Buddhism - the core made up of only two sermons "the Four Noble Principles" and "the Anatta theory" - is able to survive in our times of Quantum Mechanics and Space travel. That is why modern Science can still accept it. But, as new discoveries such as quantum entanglement, are being made, would the Anatta theory, even after modifications, be able able to stand the experimental findings? If not, Buddhism must surely go!

This methodology is based on a system of logic that, subsequently, has been adopted by the majority of the other Indian schools, orthodox or not. This is comparable to how Western science and philosophy can be said to be largely based on Aristotelian logic.

However, Nyaya differs from Aristotelian logic in that it is more than logic in its own right. Its followers believed that obtaining valid knowledge was the only way to obtain release from suffering. They therefore took great pains to identify valid sources of knowledge and to distinguish these from mere false opinions. Nyaya is thus a form of epistemology in addition to logic.

UKT: More in both Wikipedia articles.

Go back Nyaya-note-b

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Vritra : Asura- {Na.ga:}

- UKT 140918, 170619, 190323

The name Vritra is वृत्र vṛtra = व ृ त ् र . I had thought of representing the second syllable with a 'hanging ra'. However, after a preliminary survey of Mon-Myan, where r1c5 is not of the same form as Bur-Myan {gna.}, but {gn~ra.}, I've to drop the idea. The r1c5 {gna.} (Bur) and {gn~ra.} (Mon) are pronounced differently as /ŋa/ & /ŋ/. Because of these considerations, I'm first spelling the name Vritra as (wRRi.tra.} वृत्र vṛtra.

Listen to row#1 of Mon-Myan - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 

Also refer to: Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin. The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. 190323

It is obvious that the name Vritra as (wRRi.tra.} वृत्र vṛtra is not from Tib-Bur group, and is from IE speakers, or from Aus-Asi speakers. The name appears Rigveda hymn 1.32,  and is about Rain and Drought. The story can also be interpreted as the war brought about by damming and diversion of the Saraswati River {u-ru~a.ti mric} by the Ahi people अहि ahi lit. 'snake'). They were the worshippers of the Naga, who lived upstream. They were obviously Tib-Bur speakers, and the Sanskrit speakers (of IE language group who had recently come into India through the north-west frontier. They were those who had taken a foothold downstream. Please note that this conjecture of mine has only indirect evidence.

In analysing what appears in Wikipedia below, remember that in the early Vdic texts originally belonging to the Tib-Bur tribes, the Asuras were not demonized. Since in what appears below, the Asuras are demonized, we can be sure that it was the Sanskrit priests the Brahmana-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} (the Vaishnavites) and/or Siva-Poannars {i-wa. poaN~Na:} (the Shaivites) who styled themselves as the people of the Right-Hand Path, who had altered, or even worse had adulterated the texts. Remember that the {na.ga:} were in good-standing with Gautama Buddha - a Tib-Bur speaker, speaking Old Magadhi, and that they have been his most ardent supporters.

 From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vritra 120207 , 170619, 190323

In the early Vedic religion, Vritra , Skt: वृत्र vṛtra, IPal: वत्र vatra  "the enveloper", is an Asura and also a serpent or dragon , the personification of drought and enemy of [Hindu] Indra. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi ("snake"). He appears as a dragon blocking the course of the Rivers and is heroically slain by Indra.

[The Hindu Indra - the king of Heaven is a drunkard and a womanizer ever-intent upon using sex as a weapon, whereas the Buddhist SAKKO {i.kra:} aka {i.kra: mn:} is much more respectable. See: A Dict. of Pali Language, by R. C. Childers, 1874, p419.]

Vedic version

According to the Rig Veda, Vritra kept the waters of the world captive until he was killed by Indra, who destroyed all the ninety-nine fortresses of Vritra (although the fortresses are sometimes attributed to Sambara) before liberating the imprisoned rivers. [UKT ]

The combat began soon after Indra was born, and he had drunk a large volume of Soma [may be interpreted as liquor {a.rak}] at Tvashtri's tvaṣṭṛ house to empower him before facing Vritra. Tvashtri fashioned the thunderbolt (Vajrayudha) for Indra, and Vishnu, when asked to do so by Indra, made space for the battle by taking the three great strides for which he became famous. [1] [2] [UKT ]

UKT 170619:  {wi.u.kron nt} (Bur-Myan), {wai~a.km~ma.} (Pal-Myan), and Viśwkarma (Skt-Dev) appear to be the same (see UTM PDMD299 for Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan names, and for Skt-Dev name
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvakarman 170619).
However, I could not find link to Tvashtri tvaṣṭṛ, but from the context, he is also the same.

Vritra broke Indra's two jaws during the battle, but was then thrown down by the latter and, in falling, crushed the fortresses that had already been shattered. [3] [4] For this feat, Indra became known as Vritrahan "slayer of Vritra" and also as "slayer of the first-born of dragons". Vritra's mother, Danu (who was also the mother of the Danava race of Asuras), was then attacked and defeated by Indra with his thunderbolt. [3] [4] [UKT ]

UKT 170619: By killing a female, Indra broke the rules of fairness, Dharma, which forbade the killing of females in battle.

In one of the versions of the story, three Devas - Varuna, Soma and Agni - were coaxed by Indra into aiding him in the fight against Vritra whereas before they had been on the side of the demon (whom they called " Father"). [5] [6]

In one verse of a Rig-Vedic hymn eulogising Sarasvati, {u-ra~a.ti nt a.mi:} the latter is credited with the slaying of Vritra. Mention of this occurs nowhere else. [7] [8]

Puranic & later versions

In a later version of the myth, Vritra was created by Tvashtri to avenge the killing of his son by Indra, known as Trisiras or Visvarupa. Vritra won the battle and swallowed Indra, but the other gods forced him to vomit Indra out. The battle continued and Indra was eventually forced to flee. Vishnu and the rishis brokered a truce, with Indra swearing that he would not attack Vritra with anything made of metal, wood or stone, nor anything that was dry or wet, or during the day or the night. Indra used the foam (which Vishnu had entered to ensure victory) from the waves of the ocean to kill him at twilight.

However, in some places, Hindu scriptures also recognize Vritra as a bhakta of Vishnu who was slain only due to his failure to live piously and without aggression. This story runs thus:

Vritra (a brahmin in this version) became the head of the Asuras (portrayed as inherently demonic here, as opposed to the Vedic version in which they can be gods or demons). He renounced his dharma duty to do good unto others and turned to violence, battling with the dvas. Eventually, he gained the upper hand and the Devas were frightened of his evil might. Led by Indra, they approached Lord Vishnu for help. He told them that Vritra could not be destroyed by ordinary means, revealing that only a weapon made from the bones of a sage could slay him. When the deities revealed their doubts about the likelihood of any ascetic donating his body, Vishnu directed them to approach the sage (Rishi) Dadichi. When approached by the gods, Dadhichi gladly gave up his bones for the cause of the good, stating that it would be better for his bones to help them attain victory than to rot in the ground. The Devas collected the bones and Indra crafted the Vajrayudha from them. When they engaged Vritra again, the battle lasted for 360 days before the brahmin breathed his last.

In both of these versions (either for killing Trisiras or the brahmin Vritra), the terrible anthropomorphic personification of Brāhmanahatya (Brahmanicide) chased Indra and forced him into hiding for his sin, [9] [10] and Nahusha was invited to take his place. [11] [12]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

Go back Vritra-note-b

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End of TIL file