Update: 2017-06-21 08:55 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p086E.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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{g}
{g:}
{gau:}
{gau:ka.}
{gau:sa.}
  p086c3
{gau:Na.}
{gau:ta.}
{gau:pa.}

 

UKT notes :
Nyaya - philosophy
Vritra - Asura- {Na.ga:}

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{g}

p086c2-b06

गेण्डुक [ gendu-ka ]
- m. *playing-ball; pillow.

 

p086c2-b07

गेय [ ge-ya ]
- fp. to be sung; *singing (g.); n. song; buzzing, humming.

 

p086c2-b08

गेष्ण [ geshna ]
- m. joint; also = udgtha.

 

p086c2-b09

गेह [ geh- ]
- n. house, dwelling: du. house and body; -in, f. housewife, spouse.

 

p086c2-b10

गेहीय [ geh-ya ]
- den. P. take (ac.) for a house.

 

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{g:}

p086c2-b11

गै [ gai ]
- i. p. (. ) gya , sing, chant, celebrate in song (ac.) ; proclaim in verse (ac.); sing to (d.), sing before (ac.) ...

 

 

 

 

p086c2-b12

गैरिक gairika [ gairika ]
Skt: [ gairika ] - n. red chalk: rarely , f. -- Mac086
Bur: {gw.ni} - red ochre - UHS-BEPD0166
Bur: {kw.ni} - red ochre - MLC-MED2006-046

UKT 140917: Myanmar masons use {kw.ni} pronounced as {gw.ni} to colour cement red for laying floors. I had taken a special course in Physics Dept. Workshop under Supt. U Hla in  1955. I was already working as full-time Assistant Lecturer in the Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Rangoon. I was given special permission by Prof. Dr. U Maung Maung Kha, Head of Physics Dept. Since the course was only for me, who occasionally had to do various tasks on my own for doing scientific research in those days, I learned many things. Lathe machining, carpentry and masonry were among them. With this little note I thank both Dr. U Maung Maung Kha, and U Hla (who became a personal friend). Both have passed away: gone but never will be forgotten.

 

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{gau:}

p086c2-b13

गो [ g ]
- m. ox, bull; cow's milk (only. pl.); ox-hide; thong: pl. host of heaven, stars; rays; f. cow; earth; speech.

 

p086c2-b14

गोअग्र [ g-agra ]
- a. having cattle as the chief thing, consisting chiefly of cattle; -gana, a. meant for driving cattle.

 

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{gau:ka.}

p086c2-b15

गोकर्ण [ go-karna ]
= ग ो क र ् ण
- m. cow's ear; kind of antelope; N. of a place of pilgrimage sacred to Siva; Siva worshipped in Gokarna; N. of a king; -karman, n. tending of cows; (g)-kma, a. desirous of cows; -kula, n. herd of cattle; cattle-pen; N. of a temple; -kshr, n. cow's milk; -ghn, a. destroying cattle; m. cow-killer; -kandana, n. kind of sandal wood: , f. kind of leech.

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{gau:sa.}

p086c2-b16

गोचर [ go-kara ]
- m. (cow-pasture), sphere of action, province; dwelling; reach, ken, view, range; horizon; familiar matter (to, g.); a. being or dwelling in or on, relating to, within reach of, accessible to, being in the power of (g., --); perceptible; used in the sense of (lc.): -gata, pp. come into contact with (g.); -‿antara-gata, pp. being in the power of (g.).

ken - n. . Perception; understanding: complex issues well beyond our ken. . a. Range of vision. b. View; sight. -- AHTD

 

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p086c3

p086c3-b01

[ gokar-kri ]
- bring into the sphere of; gain possession of .

 

p086c3-b02

गोचर्या [ go-kary ]
- f. manner of kine: -m kri , browse like cattle.

 

p086c3-b03

गोजात [ g-gta ]
- pp. born in the starry sky.

 

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{gau:Na.}

p086c3-b04

गोण [ gona ]
- m. ox; sack: -‿asman, m. kind of precious stone.

 

p086c3-b05

[gonda]
- m. N. of a (despised) people

 

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{gau:ta.}

p086c3-b06

गोतम [ g-tama ]
- m. N. of a Rishi (pl. his descendants); the biggest ox; N. of the founder of the Nyya system of philosophy.

See my note on Nyaya system of philosophy

 

p086c3-b07

गोत्र [ go-tr ]
- n. cowshed; house = race or family; surname; name; (gr.) grandson or even later descendant (if the earlier generations from the common ancestor are extinct); patronymic suffix (gr.).

 

p086c3-b08

गोत्रक [ gotra-ka ]
- n. race; family name; -kartri, m. founder of a family; -krin, a. founding a family; -ga, a. born in the same race; of high lineage; m. blood-relation; -nman, n. family name; -pravara, m. chief of a family, prime ancestor: -dpa, m., -nirnaya, m., -magar, f. titles of works; -bhg , a. belonging to the family; -bhd, a. bursting open the cowshed; destroying families, name-destroying; m. ep. of Indra (who releases the cows = rain-clouds from the stronghold of Vritra); -riktha, n. du. surname and heritage: -‿amsa-bhgin, a. assuming the family surname and coming into one's share of the inheritance; -vrata, n. family law; -sthiti, f. id.; mountain-like stability.

See my note on Vritra वृत्र vṛtra
= व ृ त ् र  --> {wRi.tra.}

 

p086c3-b09

गोत्राख्या [ gotra‿khy ]
- f. patronymic (gr.); -‿anta, . m. destruction of families or mountains; . a. having a patronymic suffix; m. patronymic.

 

p086c3-b10

गोत्व [ go-tv ]
- n. condition of a cow.

 

p086c3-b11

गोद go-da, -˚दा [ -d ]
- a. giving cows or cattle; , f. N. of a river; -dna, n. gift of cows; whiskers; kind of ceremony performed on the whiskers.

 

p086c3-b12

गोदावरी [ go-d-var ]
-- f. (cow-bestowing), N. of a river in the Deccan.

UKT 140920: The name of the river can be derived aks-to-aks: {gau:da-wa-ri}. The Godavari River flowing from west to east emptying into the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean), is the second largest river in India and is 910 miles long. It should be compared to the Irrawaddy River {-ra-wa.ti mric} the largest river in Myanmarpr running from north to south emptying into Gulf of Martaban (Indian Ocean). The Myanmar river is 1348 miles long. Based on Wikipedia.

 

p086c3-b13

गोदुह् [ go-dh (nm. -dhk) ]
- m. cow-milker, cowherd; -doha, m.: -na, n. milking of cows.

 

p086c3-b14

गोध [ go-dha ]
- m. N. of a people; , f. bow string; lute-string; leather guard (on bow man's left arm); kind of lizard; -dhana, n. property in cattle; herd of cattle; cattle station; m. N.; -dhra, m. kind of lizard.

 

p086c3-b15

गोधिका [ godh-ik ]
- f. kind of lizard.

 

p086c3-b16

गोधूम [ go-dh&usharp;ma ]
- m. [earth-exhalation], wheat (gnly. pl.); -narda, a. roaring like a bull; m. N. of a king; pl. N. of a people; -nas, -ns, f. snout of a cow.

 

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{gau:pa.}

p086c3-b17

गोप [ go-p ]
- m. cowherd (a mixed caste); guard, watcher; ep. of Krishna; , f. herds-man's wife, cowherdess, milkmaid; female watcher.

 

p086c3-b18

गोपति [ g-pati ]
- m. lord of herds, leader, ruler; bull; moon; ep. of Krishna.

 

p086c3-b19

गोपथ [ go-patha ]
- m. cow-path, cow-pasture; title of a Brhmana of the Atharva-veda: -brhmana, n. id.

 

p086c3-b20

गोपन [ gp-ana ]
- n. protection, preservation; concealment; keeping secret: , f. protection.

 

p086c3-b21

गोपय [ gopa-ya ]
- den. protect, guard, preserve; conceal, keep secret: pp. gopita, concealed. pra, protect; conceal; sam, cover, conceal.

 

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UKT notes

Nyāya

- UKT 170621: Though Buddhism started out as a scientific discovery, and has nothing to do with axiomatic entities such as the creator, gods and goddesses, it is classed among "religions" - systems that explains the relation of men to gods , particularly to  the Creator: Mahabrahma, YHVH, God, and Allah - all dealing with immutable Soul which must not become aged and die. Soul is Atta. Gautama Buddha had asked for the proof that Atta is unchanging, un-aging, and un-dying. Unable to find it, he had proclaimed Anatta - the antithesis of Atta.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyaya 120207

Nyāya (Skt: ni-āy, literally "recursion", used in the sense of "syllogism, inference") is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy specifically the school of logic. The Nyaya school of philosophical speculation is based on texts known as the Nyaya Sutras, which were written by Aksapada Gautama from around the 2nd century.

Overview

The most important contribution made by the Nyaya school to modern Hindu thought is its methodology to prove existence of God, based on the Vedas. This methodology is based on a system of logic that, subsequently, has been adopted by the majority of the other Indian schools, orthodox or not. This is comparable to how Western science and philosophy can be said to be largely based on Aristotelian logic.

However, Nyaya differs from Aristotelian logic in that it is more than logic in its own right. Its followers believed that obtaining valid knowledge was the only way to obtain release from suffering. They therefore took great pains to identify valid sources of knowledge and to distinguish these from mere false opinions. Nyaya is thus a form of epistemology in addition to logic.

According to the Nyaya school, there are exactly four sources of knowledge ( pramanas): perception, inference, comparison, and testimony. Knowledge obtained through each of these can, of course, still be either valid or invalid. As a result, Nyaya scholars again went to great pains to identify, in each case, what it took to make knowledge valid, in the process creating a number of explanatory schemes. In this sense, Nyaya is probably the closest Indian equivalent to contemporary analtic philosophy.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Nyaya-note-b

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Vritra : Asura- {Na.ga:}

- UKT 140918, 170619

The name Vritra is वृत्र vṛtra = व ृ त ् र . I had thought of representing the second syllable with a 'hanging ra' as {wRi.t~ra.}. However, after a preliminary survey of Mon-Myan, where r1c5 is not the same as Bur-Myan {nga.}, but {ng}, I had to change my representation to (wRi.tra.}.

Listen to row#1 of Mon-Myan - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 

It is obvious that the name is not from Tib-Bur group, and is from IE speakers, or from Aus-Asi speakers. The name appears Rigveda hymn 1.32,  and is about Rain and Drought. The story can also be interpreted as the war brought about by damming and diversion of the Saraswati River by the Ahi people अहि ahi lit. 'snake'). They were the worshippers of the Naga, who lived upstream. They were obviously Tib-Bur speakers, and the Sanskrit speakers (of IE language group who had recently come into India through the north-west frontier. They were those who had taken a foot hold downstream. Please note that this conjecture of mine has only indirect evidence.

In analysing what appears in Wikipedia below, remember that in the early Vdic texts originally belonging to the Tib-Bur tribes, the Asuras were not demonized. Since in what appears below, the Asuras are demonized, we can be sure that it was the Sanskrit priests the Brahmana-Poannars (the Vaishnavites) and/or Siva-Poannars (the Shaivites) who styled themselves as the people of the Right-Hand Path, who had altered, or even worse had adulterated the texts. Remember that the {na.ga:} were in good-standing with Gautama Buddha - a Tib-Bur speaker, speaking Old Magadhi, and that they have been his most ardent supporters.

 From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vritra 120207 , 170619

In the early Vedic religion, Vritra , वृत्र vṛtra "the enveloper", is an Asura and also a serpent or dragon , the personification of drought and enemy of [Hindu] Indra. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi ("snake"). He appears as a dragon blocking the course of the Rivers and is heroically slain by Indra.

[The Hindu Indra - the king of Heaven is a drunkard and a womanizer ever-intent upon using sex as a weapon, whereas the Buddhist SAKKO {i.kra:} is much more respectable. See: A Dict. of Pali Language, by R. C. Childers, 1874, p419.]

Vedic version

According to the Rig Veda, Vritra kept the waters of the world captive until he was killed by Indra, who destroyed all the ninety-nine fortresses of Vritra (although the fortresses are sometimes attributed to Sambara) before liberating the imprisoned rivers. [UKT ]

The combat began soon after Indra was born, and he had drunk a large volume of Soma [may be interpreted as liquor {a.rak}] at Tvashtri's tvaṣṭṛ house to empower him before facing Vritra. Tvashtri fashioned the thunderbolt ( Vajrayudha) for Indra, and Vishnu, when asked to do so by Indra, made space for the battle by taking the three great strides for which he became famous. [1] [2] [UKT ]

UKT 170619:  {wi.u.kron nt} (Bur-Myan), {wai~a.km~ma.} (Pal-Myan), and Viśwkarma (Skt-Dev) appear to be the same (see UTM PDMD299 for Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan names, and for Skt-Dev name
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvakarman 170619).
However, I could not find link to Tvashtri tvaṣṭṛ, but from the context, he is also the same.

Vritra broke Indra's two jaws during the battle, but was then thrown down by the latter and, in falling, crushed the fortresses that had already been shattered. [3] [4] For this feat, Indra became known as Vritrahan "slayer of Vritra" and also as "slayer of the first-born of dragons". Vritra's mother, Danu (who was also the mother of the Danava race of Asuras), was then attacked and defeated by Indra with his thunderbolt. [3] [4] [UKT ]

UKT 170619: By killing a female, Indra broke the rules of fairness, Dharma, which forbade the killing of females in battle.

In one of the versions of the story, three Devas - Varuna, Soma and Agni - were coaxed by Indra into aiding him in the fight against Vritra whereas before they had been on the side of the demon (whom they called " Father"). [5] [6]

In one verse of a Rig-Vedic hymn eulogising Sarasvati, {u-ra~a.ti mric} the latter is credited with the slaying of Vritra. Mention of this occurs nowhere else. [7] [8]

Puranic & later versions

In a later version of the myth, Vritra was created by Tvashtri to avenge the killing of his son by Indra, known as Trisiras or Visvarupa. Vritra won the battle and swallowed Indra, but the other gods forced him to vomit Indra out. The battle continued and Indra was eventually forced to flee. Vishnu and the rishis brokered a truce, with Indra swearing that he would not attack Vritra with anything made of metal, wood or stone, nor anything that was dry or wet, or during the day or the night. Indra used the foam (which Vishnu had entered to ensure victory) from the waves of the ocean to kill him at twilight.

However, in some places, Hindu scriptures also recognize Vritra as a bhakta of Vishnu who was slain only due to his failure to live piously and without aggression. This story runs thus:

Vritra (a brahmin in this version) became the head of the Asuras (portrayed as inherently demonic here, as opposed to the Vedic version in which they can be gods or demons). He renounced his dharma duty to do good unto others and turned to violence, battling with the dvas. Eventually, he gained the upper hand and the Devas were frightened of his evil might. Led by Indra, they approached Lord Vishnu for help. He told them that Vritra could not be destroyed by ordinary means, revealing that only a weapon made from the bones of a sage could slay him. When the deities revealed their doubts about the likelihood of any ascetic donating his body, Vishnu directed them to approach the sage (Rishi) Dadichi. When approached by the gods, Dadhichi gladly gave up his bones for the cause of the good, stating that it would be better for his bones to help them attain victory than to rot in the ground. The Devas collected the bones and Indra crafted the Vajrayudha from them. When they engaged Vritra again, the battle lasted for 360 days before the brahmin breathed his last.

In both of these versions (either for killing Trisiras or the brahmin Vritra), the terrible anthropomorphic personification of Brāhmanahatya (Brahmanicide) chased Indra and forced him into hiding for his sin, [9] [10] and Nahusha was invited to take his place. [11] [12]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

Go back Vritra-note-b

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End of TIL file