Update: 2018-11-27 09:04 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gRRi.} : formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRRi} (2 blk)
  - this is to be compared to {kRi.} p072R.htm & {zRi.} p102.htm &

155) गुप् (p. 63) 2. gup guarding, preserving (--).
118) गुरु (p. 63) gur- (v-) heavy; heavier than (ab.); great, large; violent, serious, hard, severe; weary, sad (days); important, weighty, of much account; venerable; prosodically long; m. venerable or highly respected person: father, mother, or elder relative, esp. teacher: du. parents; pl. parents and other venerable persons, also teacher (pl. of respect); chief of (g. pl. or --).

UKT 180512: Though I realized that the "double R" for Skt-Dev ऋ/ृ is inconvenient in writing e-mail in English (ASCII-compatible), I cannot think of a solution at the moment. Use of italicized R is a possible solution.

UKT notes :
Rahan - Burmese Buddhist

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p085c3-b16/ not online

गृ [ gri ]
- v. गागृ [ ggri ]


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p085c3-b17/ p063-147 

गृञ्ज [ grig-a ] = ग ृ ञ ् ज
- m. a plant; -ana: -ka, m. kind of onion or garlic.
147) गृञ्ज (p. 63) grig-a -ana:

गृञ्जन gṛjana
Skt: [ -ana: -ka, ] - m. kind of onion or garlic. - Mac085c3
Skt: गृञ्जन gṛjana - m. turnip, kind of onion or garlic or a small red variety of it,
   tops of hemp chewed to produce an inebriating effect. n. poisoned flesh - SpkSkt

inebriate v. tr. . To make drunk; intoxicate. . To exhilarate or stupefy as if with alcohol. - AHTD 


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p085c3-b18/ not online

गृणत् [ gri-n-at ]
- (pr.pt. of √1. gr ) m. singer


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p085c3-b19/ p063-146

गृत्स [ grt-sa ]
- a. [eager: √gridh] nimble; dexterous, clever: -mad, m. N. of a Rishi: pl. his descendants.
146) गृत्स (p. 63) grt-sa [eager: √gridh] nimble;

Gritsamada गृत्समद , is a rishi, credited with most of Mandala 2 of the Rigveda (36 out of 43, hymns 27-29 being attributed to his son Kurma and 4-7 to Somahuti). Grtsamada was a son of Shunahotra of the family of Angiras, but by Indra's will he was transferred to the Bhrigu {Ba.gu. ra.e.} family. In the plural, the name refers to the clan of Grtsamada, so used in RV 2.4, 19, 39, 41. - Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gritsamada 170618

UKT 180422: Rishi Bhrigu {Ba.gu. ra.e.} was one of the Ancient Vedic rishi who was revered by Gautama Buddha, who himself was a rishi. That the historical Buddha was rishi could be seen by the knot of hair on his head. He was not a rahan, who were clean shaven.

Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..}, and Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..} * are among the ancient Vedic rishis revered by Gautama Buddha. "In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [14] section the Buddha pays respect to these rishis by declaring that the Veda in its true form* was became known declared to them (UKT: became due to the yogic practice - not by grace of any axiomatic god)  "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto (Visvamitra),  Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho (Vashistha) Vsettho**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) " [15] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [16]
[equivalents of Pali to Skt names by Maurice Walshe (2005) translation of Digha Nikaya - see note in
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_(sage) 170618 ]

See how the colonial British judges saw the Vinaya rules when they had to judge a property case between a Burmese Buddhist Rahan and a layperson in my notes on: Rahan:


p085c3-b20/ online

गृध् [ gridh ]
- iv. p.


p085c3-b21/ p063-145

गृध्नु [ gridh-n ] = ग ृ ध ् न ु
- a. quick, hasty; greedy, eager (for, lc., --); (u)-t, f. greed; eagerness for (--).
145) गृध्नु (p. 63) gridh-n quick, hasty;

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p085c3-b22/ p063-144

गृध्य grdhya [ grdh-ya ] = (ग ृ) (ध ् य) = गृ ध्य 
   --> {gRi.Dya.}
-- a. coveted.
144) गृध्य (p. 63) grdh-ya coveted.

UKT 140916: Pal-Myan words that might be related to गृध्य grdhya implying 'greed' & 'covetousness' are found in UHS-PMD0354 with the suffix {ga.Nha.}, e.g.,
Pal: {ga.Nha.ti.} - UHS-PMD0354  


p085c3-b23/ p063-143

गृध्या [ gridh-y ]
- f. greed; eagerness for (--); -yin, a. greedy; eager for (--).
143) गृध्या (p. 63) gridh-y greed; eagerness for (--); -yin, a. greedy; eager for (--).


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p085c3-b24/ p063-142

गृध्र grdhra [ grdh-ra ] =  ग ृ ध ् र --> {gRi.Dra.}
Skt: -- a. id.; m. (, f.) vulture: -kta, m. N. of a mountain (vulture-peak); -drishti, a. vulture-eyed; -pati, -rg, -rga, m. vulture-king,
  ep. of Jatāyū -- Mac085-c3
  142) गृध्र (p. 63) grdh-ra (, f.) vulture:
Pal: {gaiz~Za.}
- - UHS-PMD0365

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p085c3-b25/ not online

गृभ् [ gribh ]
- v. [ grabh ]


p085c3-b26/ p063-141

गृभ [ gribh- ]
- m. haft, handle.
141) गृभ (p. 63) gribh- haft, handle.


p085c3-b27/ not online 

गृभय [ gribh-ya ]
- den. P. grasp, seize.

( end of old p085end)

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UKT notes


- UKT 180422:

This note will be expanded into a full folder in later updates. Materials for preparation are stored in LAW section under index.htm
as A Contemporary Legal Perspective by David C. Buxbaum, in later updates

There is a world of difference in meaning between the words Rishi and Rahan in Myanmarpr. We should note how the British colonial judges take the legal definition of the word Rahan.

To the Burmese Buddhists, a Rahan is bounded by Vinaya Rules set down by Buddha himself for his ecclesiastical followers, whereas a Rishi is not bounded. He is therefor free to set up his own rules of conduct to be observed by himself and his followers.

Refer to: Family Law and Customary Law in Asia: A Contemporary Legal Perspective, by David C. Buxbaum, Assoc. of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning, Springer Netherlands, Jan 1, 1967, pp288. [only a book preview is available to me]. Concentrate on chapters on:
Anglo-Indian Legislation and Burmese Customary Law , approx p071.
Customary Law and the Formal Legal Institutions, p072 ... , p086 

From: https://books.google.com.mm/books?id=ouPuCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=Lord+Dufferin+found+the+Burmese+too+patriotic&source=bl&ots=1u9Pr3clJe&sig=q2MInOX74q-QwBx0aUGqkMYzGO0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjP5KGG38_aAhVHL48KHS0JCLQQ6AEIMzAF#v=onepage&q=Lord%20Dufferin%20found%20the%20Burmese%20too%20patriotic&f=true 180423

However, on his visit to Burma in the same year Lord Dufferin found the Burmese too patriotic and the possibility of the French extending their influence to Burma so strong, that he finally recommended "annexation pure and simple, and the direct administration of the Province by British Officers" as offering "the best prospect of securing the peace and prosperity of Upper Burmah and our own Imperial and commercial interests." (fn2-p071). This recommendation was of course accepted by the "Home Government."

Thus, by historical accident, Burma became an integral part of what was then known as "British India." The authority of the Chief Commissioner of Lower Burma was extended to Upper Burma. In 1897 both Lower Burma and Upper Burma were "promoted" to the status of a Province of India and the Chief Commissionership was raised to a Lieutenant-Governorship with a "Legislative Council." A year before, the Court of the judicial Commissioner for Upper Burma had been established. In 1922 the high Court of Judicature at Rangoon was established by Letters Patent consolidating the powers and jurisdictions of both the Chief Court of Lower Burma and the Court of the Judicial Commissioner of Upper Burma. When Burma was formally separated from India in 1937 * [UKT],

*UKT 180422: I was by then 2 years old. Child as I was, I could speak Bur-Myan very well and knew a few words and sentences of English. I remember my father U Tun Pe having to take on the duties of a polling officer in a referendum to decide the question of "remaining" as a part of India {tw: r:}, or "separation" {hkw: r:} which led to the separation from India in 1937.

A little personal joke on me was that as responsive child, my parents as well as elders would ask me in endearment:
  "My little Puppy dog {ko hkw:l:}, what will you be when you grow up."
I used to answer:
  "I'll be Sir J A Maung Gyi".
However, during the campaign of {hkw:r:} {tw: r:}, the usual way of protest by the opposition when a politician whom they did not like was speaking, was to "drum him out" by banging on tin-cans. Such methods got stuck in my childhood brain, and when asked "My little Puppy dog {ko hkw:l:}", I kept silent. When pressed why I kept silent, I would answer:
  "I'm afraid of the banging of tin-cans!" 

The next, political event I had to endure, was the outbreak of WWII and Burma being occupied by the Japanese Imperial Army. Japan granted us independence when as a sovereign nation, with a fully armed force in 1942. A few minutes later, Burma joined the Axis Powers and fought the Allies, by declaring war. See a BBC documentary of the event in TIL HD-VIDEO library, in Burma Section:
- BurmaIndependence1942<> (link chk 180422)
A traumatic event I cannot forget is being bombed and strafed at by the Allied (not our allies) airplanes during the water festival of 1945 in Kungyangon.

a new High Court replacing the High Court of Judicature was established under the Government of Burma Act, 1935 with headquarters at Rangoon. This High Court continue to function when Burma became an independent Republic in 1948 but a new set of Judges. A Supreme Court was also established as the final Court of Appeal with powers previously exercised by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

II. Codes versus Custom
Indian codes for the Burmese

The logical result of direct rule as an Indian Province was that the codes, statutes and regulations passed by the British Governor- (p071end p072begin) General of India and meant for the Indians came to be extended to Burma as a matter of course. By that time the British-Indian government had produced a large amount of legislation for Indian. According to Mr. Justice Baden-Powell, in the days of the "Regulations" (1793-1834) no less than 596 regulations of the Bengal Code were passed. The number of Acts passed from 1834 to 1862 was 793 and those from 1862 to the close of 1883 amounted to 546. (fn01p072) Among the codes and statutes extended to Burma were: the Indian Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, the Code of Civil Procedure, the Indian Contract Act, the Transfer of Property Act, the Indian Evidence Act, the Specific Relief Act and the Indian Trusts Act, to mention just a select few.

This massive monument of law has been built up in little more than a quarter of a century by a "legislature" whose very existence is unknown to many well-educated persons and the men, who planned and drafted these Codes, who discussed and amended and passed them, are almost unknown in England even by name. (fn02-p072)

All these codes and statutes with the exception of those dealing with family and ecclesiastical matters were based on English law. This was "as unjust and impolitic as it would be to establish the Muhammedan or Hindoo law in England." (fn03-p072) But if the law introduced was modern English law to be found in the latest statutes and rulings, the situation would have been better. However, Mr. Justice-Powel has told us that the English Law incorporated was "that of a period when the law itself was th most technical, the least systematic and the least founded on general, equitable and coherent principles that the world has ever seen. (fn04-p072) Sir Joshua Child, Chairman of the Court of Directors of the East India Colk had described the laws of England as "a heap of nonsense, compiled by a few ignorant country gentleman, who hardly knew how to make laws for the good of own private families, much less for the regulating of companies and foreign commerce." (fn05-p072). In England public opinion has prevented the evil introduced into countries wh;ere this public opinion or a free press did not exist, the evil effects have been lamentable." (fn06-p072).

The most common criticism made against legislation in India is that they are not prepared (p072end)

From: https://books.google.com.mm/books?id=ouPuCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=legal+definition+of+the+word+Rahan.&source=bl&ots=1u9Pr3gnJ8&sig=R-alamB3nYlQPCcwg8M5smgWHVc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwji5a_W7s_aAhVIQo8KHcG5AZIQ6AEISTAG#v=onepage&q=legal%20definition%20of%20the%20word%20Rahan.&f=false 180423

Customary Law and the Formal Legal Institutions

The case had, therefore, to be referred again to another Full Bench of five Judges none of whom ...


Go back Rahan-note-b


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End of TIL file