Update: 2019-03-17 06:12 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gRRi.} : formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRRi} (2 blk)
  - this is to be compared to {kRRi.} p072R.htm

155) गुप् (p. 63) 2. gup guarding, preserving (--).
118) गुरु (p. 63) gur- (v-) heavy; heavier than (ab.); great, large; violent, serious, hard, severe; weary, sad (days); important, weighty, of much account; venerable; prosodically long; m. venerable or highly respected person: father, mother, or elder relative, esp. teacher: du. parents; pl. parents and other venerable persons, also teacher (pl. of respect); chief of (g. pl. or --).

UKT notes :
Rahan - Myanmar Buddhist {ra.hn:}

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p085c3-b16/ not online

गृ [ gri ]
- v. गागृ [ ggri ]


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p085c3-b17/ p063-147 

गृञ्ज [ grig-a ] = ग ृ ञ ् ज
- m. a plant; -ana: -ka, m. kind of onion or garlic.
147) गृञ्ज (p. 63) grig-a -ana:

गृञ्जन gṛjana
Skt: [ -ana: -ka, ] - m. kind of onion or garlic. - Mac085c3
Skt: गृञ्जन gṛjana - m. turnip, kind of onion or garlic or a small red variety of it,
   tops of hemp chewed to produce an inebriating effect. n. poisoned flesh - SpkSkt

inebriate v. tr. . To make drunk; intoxicate. . To exhilarate or stupefy as if with alcohol. - AHTD 


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p085c3-b18/ not online

गृणत् [ gri-n-at ]
- (pr.pt. of √1. gr ) m. singer

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p085c3-b19/ p063-146

गृत्स [ grt-sa ]
- a. [eager: √gridh] nimble; dexterous, clever: -mad, m. N. of a Rishi: pl. his descendants.
146) गृत्स (p. 63) grt-sa [eager: √gridh] nimble;

Gritsamada गृत्समद , is a rishi, credited with most of Mandala 2 of the Rigveda (36 out of 43, hymns 27-29 being attributed to his son Kurma and 4-7 to Somahuti). Grtsamada was a son of Shunahotra of the family of Angiras, but by Indra's will he was transferred to the Bhrigu {Ba.gu. ra.e.} family. In the plural, the name refers to the clan of Grtsamada, so used in RV 2.4, 19, 39, 41. - Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gritsamada 170618

UKT 180422: Rishi Bhrigu {Ba.gu. ra.e.} was one of the Ancient Vedic rishi who was revered by Gautama Buddha, who himself was a rishi. That the historical Buddha was rishi could be seen by the knot of hair on his head. He was not a rahan {ra.hn:}, who were clean shaven.

Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..}, and Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..} * are among the ancient Vedic rishis revered by Gautama Buddha. "In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [14] section the Buddha pays respect to these rishis by declaring that the Veda in its true form* was became known declared to them (UKT: became due to the yogic practice - not by grace of any axiomatic god)  "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto (Visvamitra),  Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho (Vashistha) Vsettho**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) " [15] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [16]
[equivalents of Pali to Skt names by Maurice Walshe (2005) translation of Digha Nikaya - see note in
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_(sage) 170618

See how the colonial British judges saw the Vinaya rules when they had to judge a property case between a Burmese Buddhist Rahan and a layperson in my notes on: Rahan {ra.hn:}


p085c3-b20/ online

गृध् [ gridh ]
- iv. p.


p085c3-b21/ p063-145

गृध्नु [ gridh-n ] = ग ृ ध ् न ु
- a. quick, hasty; greedy, eager (for, lc., --); (u)-t, f. greed; eagerness for (--).
145) गृध्नु (p. 63) gridh-n quick, hasty;

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p085c3-b22/ p063-144

गृध्य grdhya [ grdh-ya ] = (ग ृ) (ध ् य) = गृ ध्य 
-- a. coveted.
144) गृध्य (p. 63) grdh-ya coveted.

UKT 140916: Pal-Myan words that might be related to गृध्य grdhya implying 'greed' & 'covetousness' are found in UHS-PMD0354 with the suffix {ga.Nha.}, e.g.,
BPal: {ga.Nha.ti.} - UHS-PMD0354  


p085c3-b23/ p063-143

गृध्या [ gridh-y ]
- f. greed; eagerness for (--); -yin, a. greedy; eager for (--).
143) गृध्या (p. 63) gridh-y greed;


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p085c3-b24/ p063-142

गृध्र grdhra [ grdh-ra ] =  ग ृ ध ् र
Skt: -- a. id.; m. (, f.) vulture: -kta, m. N. of a mountain (vulture-peak); -drishti, a. vulture-eyed; -pati, -rg, -rga, m. vulture-king,
  ep. of Jatāyū -- Mac085-c3
  142) गृध्र (p. 63) grdh-ra (, f.) vulture:
BPal: {gaiz~Za.} - UHS-PMD0365

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p085c3-b25/ not online

गृभ् [ gribh ]
- v. [ grabh ]


p085c3-b26/ p063-141

गृभ [ gribh- ]
- m. haft, handle.
141) गृभ (p. 63) gribh- haft, handle.


p085c3-b27/ not online 

गृभय [ gribh-ya ]
- den. P. grasp, seize.

( end of old p085end)

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UKT notes


Refer to: A Contemporary Legal Perspective by David C. Buxbaum , Assoc. of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning, Springer Netherlands, Jan 1, 1967, pp288. Concentrate on chapters on:
Anglo-Indian Legislation and Burmese Customary Law , approx p071.
Customary Law and the Formal Legal Institutions, p072 ... , p086 
Search string: Customary law and the formal legal institutions - Burma - Buxbaum
UKT 190310: (Go online and view in 100%. User-friendly edited. This is a preview and only some pages are available. Opens at p070.)
-Customary-law-and-the-formal-legal-institutions--Burma--Buxbaum- 180423, 180506, 190310 )
And look for Part II, Chapter 06 .The downloaded pages are under ~~CUTS/ LAW : NOT to be uploaded to the Internet.

See Subsection 5.6 Law and Legal perspectives: (note - some of the following links may not work)
- index.htm > Section 5 > On Burma - OnBurma.htm (link chk 190317)

- UKT 180422, 190307: There is a world of difference in meaning between the words Rishi {ra..} and Rahan {ra.hn:} in Myanmarpr. To the Burmese Buddhists, a Rahan is bounded by Vinaya Rules set down by Buddha himself for his ecclesiastical followers. A Rishi {ra..} is not bounded by such rules: he is therefore free to set up his own rules of conduct to be observed by himself and by his followers alone. This and similar views, the British colonial judges did not know, or on purpose chose to ignore: 


II. Codes versus Custom
Indian codes for the Burmese

The logical result of direct rule as an Indian Province was that the codes, statutes and regulations passed by the British Governor- (p071end-p072begin)  General of India and meant for the Indians came to be extended to Burma as a matter of course. By that time the British-Indian government had produced a large amount of legislation for Indian. According to Mr. Justice Baden-Powell, in the days of the "Regulations" (1793-1834) no less than 596 regulations of the Bengal Code were passed. The number of Acts passed from 1834 to 1862 was 793 and those from 1862 to the close of 1883 amounted to 546. (fn01p072) Among the codes and statutes extended to Burma were: the Indian Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, the Code of Civil Procedure, the Indian Contract Act, the Transfer of Property Act, the Indian Evidence Act, the Specific Relief Act and the Indian Trusts Act, to mention just a select few.

This massive monument of law has been built up in little more than a quarter of a century by a "legislature" whose very existence is unknown to many well-educated persons and the men, who planned and drafted these Codes, who discussed and amended and passed them, are almost unknown in England even by name. (fn02-p072)

All these codes and statutes with the exception of those dealing with family and ecclesiastical matters were based on English law. This was "as unjust and impolitic as it would be to establish the Muhammedan or Hindoo law in England." (fn03-p072) But if the law introduced was modern English law to be found in the latest statutes and rulings, the situation would have been better. However, Mr. Justice-Powel has told us that the English Law incorporated was "that of a period when the law itself was the most technical, the least systematic and the least founded on general, equitable and coherent principles that the world has ever seen. (fn04-p072)


fn01-p072 - See B.H. Baden-Powell, "English Legislation in India" II The Asiatic Quarterly Review (1886) at 365. The numbers given also include those repealed or amended - fn01-p072b
fn02-p072 - See John D. Mayne, "The Anglo-Indian Codes" IV The A.Q.R. (1887) at 351. - fn02-p072b
fn03-p072 - See F.J. Shore, Notes on Indian Affairs (1837) (Vol. I) at 302 - fn03-p072b
fn04-p072 - See Baden-Powell, op.cit. at 372 - fn04-p072b
fn05-p072 - Quoted by F.J. Shore, op.cit. at 117 - fn05-p072b
fn06-p072 - Ibid. - fn06-p072b



Sir Joshua Child, Chairman of the Court of Directors of the East India Co. had described the laws of England as "a heap of nonsense, compiled by a few ignorant country gentleman, who hardly knew how to make laws for the good of own private families, much less for the regulating of companies and foreign commerce." (fn05-p072). In England public opinion has prevented the evil introduced into countries where this public opinion or a free press did not exist, the evil effects have been lamentable." (fn06-p072).

The most common criticism made against legislation in India is that they are not prepared (p072end)


fn01-p071 - Id. at 24 - fn01-p071b
fn02-p071 - Ibid. - fn02-p071b

fn01-p072 -
fn02-p072 -
fn03-p072 -
fn04-p072 -


UKT 190308: The following is from another part of the same book:
- https://books.google.com.mm/books?id=ouPuCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=legal+definition+of+the+word+Rahan.&source=bl&ots=1u9Pr3gnJ8&sig=R-alamB3nYlQPCcwg8M5smgWHVc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwji5a_W7s_aAhVIQo8KHcG5AZIQ6AEISTAG#v=onepage&q=legal%20definition%20of%20the%20word%20Rahan.&f=false 180423

The case had, therefore, to be referred again to another Full Bench of five Judges none of whom participated in the previous Reference. This time the opinion was unanimous, all the five Judges answering the question in the negative, namely, that the sale of immovable property to a Burmese Buddhist monk was not void on the ground that a monk was prohibited by the rules of the Vinaya from entering into such pecuniary transactions and that a Buddhist monk was not disqualified from contracting under section 11 of the Contract Act. (fn01-p086) The ratio decidendi of the decision is; ...

    The definition of the word "laws" in its juridical sense is that "laws" are rules of civil conduct enforced by the State. From this it follows that the rules of conduct as laid in Vinaya for the guidance of Buddhist monks cannot be deemed to be "laws" unless they are enforced by the State. According to section 13(1), Burma Laws Act, they are not enforced by the state except in cases in which questions regarding any religious usage or institution arise. A sale being a pure matter of contract is not " a question regarding any religious usage or institution." A Buddhist monk therefore is not disqualified from contracting by law within the meaning of s. 11, Contract Act. (fn02-p086)

Thus, by adhering strictly to the letter of the law and ignoring its spirits, the British Judges had, by judical legislation, struck down in one stroke the time-honoured rule, originally laid down by Lord Buddha and observed by millions of His disciples throughout the centuries, that "a rahan (monk) who does buying and selling is guilty of Nissagi pacitayam." (fn03-p086) No good Buddhist would appreciate the reasoning of the Full Bench. The only explanation one could think of is that to British Judges the "legal" always precedes the "reasonable" and private interest must come before social welfare.


"Justice, Equity and Good Conscience"

This phrase is very familiar, particularly to those who have lived under the influence of English law. Its meaning is obscure and is as variable as the colour of a chameleon. It is the convenient phrase put into a statute to fill gaps in the law. Thus, if, in deciding cases, the courts can obtain no help or guidance form legislative enactments or religious law books or other authorities, the Judges are expected to act in accordance with "justice, equity and good conscience." This usually means what each judge thinks best to do in the particular case. But (p086end-p087begin) for judges, who are either British or British-trained, the phrase generally means principles of "English law if applicable to the society and circumstances of Burma." (fn01-p086)

However, in the field of personal law such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and succession, principles of English law are hardly applicable. Thus, in a case dealing with the question of validity of a marriage between a Burmese Buddhist woman and a Chinese Confucian, section 13 (1) of the Burma Laws Act did not apply because one of the parties was not a Buddhist. So section 13(3) came into play and the question had to be decided according to justice, equity and good conscience. But to apply the principles of English law to such a case would be ridiculous. Chinese customary law would not be applicable either, because it was foreign law and to apply it would not be in accordance with justice, equity and good conscience. The court, therefore, arrived at the same result by applying Burmese customary law as lex loci contractus and the marriage was held valid. 2 This case was decided iin 1937 by which time the practice of applying Chinese customary law to Burmese Chinese marriages had already stopped thanks to the ruling of a Full Bench in the case of Ma Yin Mya v. Tan Yauk Pu wher Rutledge, C.J. held that (1) the Burmese Buddhist Law regarding marriage was prima facie applicable to Chinese Buddhists as the lex loci contractus and (2) that to escape from the application of Burmese Buddhist law a Chinese must prove that he is subject to a custom having the force of law in Burma and (3) that the application of such custom would not work injustice to the Burmese woman. 3

IV. Conclusion

It has been said that  " the impact of English law has not affected appreciably the ancient Hindu, Mohammedan and Buddhist Laws..." 4 However, the foregoing analysis would seem to have shown us that the introduction of English law into India and the wholesale and un-



fn01-p086 - See U Pyinnya v. Maung Law, A.I.R. (1929) Rangoon 354. Section 11 of the Contract Act says: "Every person is competent to contract who is of the age of majority according to the law to which he is subject, and who is of sound mind, and is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject." - fn01-p086b / fn01-p086b2
fn02-p086 - Id. at 362 - fn02-p086b
fn03-p086 - See the opinion of Maung Ba, J. Ibid . - fn03-p086b


UKT personal note:

*UKT 180422: I was by then 2 years old. Child as I was, I could speak Bur-Myan very well and knew a few words and sentences of English. I remember my father U Tun Pe having to take on the duties of a polling officer in a referendum to decide the question of "remaining" as a part of India {tw: r:}, or "separation" {hkw: r:} which led to the separation from India in 1937.

A little personal joke on me was that as responsive child, my parents as well as elders would ask me in endearment:

  "My little Puppy dog {ko hkw:l:}, what will you be when you grow up."
I used to answer:
  "I'll be Sir J A Maung Gyi".
However, during the campaign of {hkw:r:} {tw: r:}, the usual way of protest by the opposition when a politician whom they did not like was speaking, was to "drum him out" by banging on tin-cans. Such methods got stuck in my childhood brain, and when asked "My little Puppy dog {ko hkw:l:}", I kept silent. When pressed why I kept silent, I would answer:
  "I'm afraid of the banging of tin-cans!" 

The next, political event I had to endure, was the outbreak of WWII and Burma being occupied by the Japanese Imperial Army. Japan granted us independence when as a sovereign nation, with a fully armed force in 1942. A few minutes later, Burma joined the Axis Powers and fought the Allies, by declaring war. See a BBC documentary of the event in TIL HD-VIDEO library, in Burma Section:
- BurmaIndependence1942<> (link chk 190307)

A traumatic event I cannot forget is being bombed and strafed at by the Allied (not our allies) airplanes during the water festival of 1945 in Kungyangon.

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