Update: 2019-03-07 05:43 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 190306: Refer to Sanskrit in Dvanagari by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal, Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature - Downloaded videos in TIL libraries:
Part01: 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि guṇitākṣaraṇi 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
  - Lesson109<> / Lesson109<)) (link chk 190306)
What Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal referring to is NOT the "Akshara" of the Abugida-Akshara system. Her "Akshara" is actually the "Letter" from the Alphabet-Letter system. Remember the BEPS "Akshara" is a syllable and is pronounceable by itself. The "Letter" on the other hand is mute. The relationship between between the two systems can be illustrated as follows, with the actual relationship between Myanmar Akshara, and Georgian Letter :

{ta.} + "killer" {a.t} --> {t} : the hallmark of Abugida-Akshara system is the {a.t} "vowel-killer" 
{t} + "life-giver" {a.} --> {ta.}
  e.g. Georgian: თ + ა --> თა (pronounced the same as Myanmar {ta.})

गुणिताक्षराणि guṇitākṣaraṇi is Akshara of the Abugida-Akshara system used in Bur-Myan.

  {gu.Na.} : cont

    {gur~} : short vowel repha
  {gu.a.} --> {goa}

    {guur~} : long vowel repha
  {gu-ha.} --> {guuh}

{gRRi.} - moved to p085R.htm-

UKT 180512:

गर्भेश्््वर garbhesvara [ garbha‿svara ]
  - m. hereditary sovereign: -t, f., -tva, n. hereditary dominion.
गर्भैकादश garbhaikadasa [ garbha‿ekdasa ]
  - m. pl. eleventh year after conception.

UKT notes :
bdellium - aromatic gum like myrrh
Gulma - an army unit
Jatayu - the vulture
Old World vulture
Revanta  रेवन्त,
  -lit. "brilliant", is a minor Hindu deity - the chief of the Guhyakas गुह्यक, semi-divine and demonic class entities like the Yakshas who are believed to live as forest dwellers in Himalayas. Remember Hindus worship anything and anybody. Myanmar people, under the influence of Hinduism believed in {son:} and {Bi-lu:} who were real people living in remote mountainous Himalayan in northern parts of Myanmarpr among the Kachin tribes.  See: my note on {son:} and {Bi-lu:}
Treasure guardians  - {OAc~sa-san.} गुह्यक guhyaka
Vulture Peak


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{gu.Na.} : cont


p085c1-b01/ p063-107

गुणाकर [ guna‿kara ]
- m. mine of virtues; ‿aguna, m. pl. virtues and faults; ‿dhya, m. N. of a poet; ‿antara, n. another quality: -m vrag = attain superior excellence: ‿dhna, n. contributing something on one's own part = caring for (g.); ‿anvita, pp. endowed with good qualities; auspicious (constellation); ‿abhilshin, a. desirous of virtues.
107) गुणाकर (p. 63) guna̮kara mine of virtues;.



गुणाय [ gun-ya ]
- den. . become a merit.
106) गुणाय (p. 63) gun-ya . become a merit.



गुणालय [ guna‿laya ]
- m. abode of ( = possessor of many) virtues; ‿sraya, m. id.
105) गुणालय (p. 63) guna̮laya abode of (=possessor of many) virtues;



गुणिता [ gun-i-t ]
- f. possession of virtues; -in, a. furnished with a thread or rope; possessing virtues; consisting of parts; having qualities; auspicious (day); having the virtues of (--); m. object; (i)-liṅga, a. having the gender of the substantive.
104) गुणिता (p. 63) gun-i-t possession of virtues;


गुणिताक्षराणि guṇitākṣaraṇi
- from two words:
गुणित guṇita 'augmented' + अक्षर akṣara 'dead Letter'
- the Akshara of the Abugida-Akshara system - UKT

UKT 170531: See: Sanskrit in Dvanagari by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal, Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature - Downloaded videos in TIL libraries:
- SktDevGramLect-indx.htm (link chk 170531)
See Part01: 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि guṇitākṣaraṇi 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
  - Lesson109<> / Lesson109<)) (link chk 190306)

UKT 190306: What Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal referring is NOT the akshara of the Abugida-Akshara system. Her "Akshara" is actually the "Letter" from the Alphabet-Letter system. Remember the BEPS "Akshara" is a syllable and is pronounceable by itself. The "Letter" on the other hand is mute. The relationship between between the two systems can be illustrated as follows, with the actual relationship between Myanmar Akshara, and Georgian Letter :

{ta.} + "killer" {a.t} --> {t} : the hallmark of Abugida-Akshara system is the {a.t} "vowel-killer" 
{t} + "life-giver" {a.} --> {ta.}
  e.g. Georgian: თ + ა --> თა (pronounced the same as Myanmar {ta.})

गुणिताक्षराणि guṇitākṣaraṇi is Akshara of the Abugida-Akshara system used in Bur-Myan


p085c1-b05/ not online

- subordinate oneself to (g.); pp. -bhta , at the disposal of (g.); become subordinate or meaningless.



गुणोत्कर्ष [ guna‿utkarsha ]
- m. superiority in virtues; superior merits; ‿utkrishta, pp. superior in good qualities, better.
151) गुणोत्कर्ष (p. 63) guna̮utkarsha superiority in virtues; superior merits;

गुणोत्कर्ष [ guna‿utkarsha ]
गुणोत्कर्ष [ guna‿utkarsha ] - m. superiority in virtues; superior merits; - Mac085c1
गुणोत्कर्ष guṇtkarsha - m. superiority in merit orᅠin good qualities
  -- http://translate.enacademic.com/gunotkarsha/sa/en/ 170531


p085c1-b07/ not online

गुणोत्कर्ष [ gunth ] x. p.
- gunthaya , cover: pp. gunthita , covered, with (in. or -). ava , id.; gd. -gunthya , veiling the head



गुण्ठन [ gunth-ana ]
- n., , f. covering, with (in. or --).
154) गुण्ठन (p. 63) gunth-ana covering, with (in. or --).



गुण्य [ gun-ya ]
- fp. to be multiplied: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
153) गुण्य (p. 63) gun-ya to be multiplied:


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गुत्स [ *gutsa ]
- m. pearl necklace of 32 strings: *‿ardha, m. pearl necklace of 24 strings.
152) गुत्स (p. 63) gutsa pearl necklace of 32 strings:



गुद [ gud ]
- m. (n.) gut; anus: (a)-ga, m. n. pl. hemorrhoids.
140) गुद (p. 63) gud gut; anus:



गुदा [ gd ]
- f. entrails.
156) गुदा (p. 63) gd entrails.


p085c1-b13/ not online

गुन्द्र [gundra]
= ग ु न ् द ् र --> {goan~dRa.}
Skt: -- m., f. names of plants -- Mac085c1
Skt: गुन्द्र gundra - m. baruwa sugarcane (Saccharum bengalense ), or (Cyperus pertenuis) - SpkSkt


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p085c1-b14/ not online

गुप् gup [ . gup ]
- . (no pr.st.) guard, protect, from (ab.); preserve; keep secret, conceal: p. gupit (V.) and gupt, q.v.; inf. gopitum; des. gugupsa, (P.) . be on one's guard aginst (ab.); avoid, disdain, abhor; reproach: gugupsita, pp. abhorred; *abhorring (ab.) adhi, pp. protected by (--). anu, pp. guarded; concealed. abhi, pp. protected. sam, pp. id.; concealed.


p085c1-b15/ not online

गुप् gup [ . gup ]
-- a. guarding, preserving (--). 



गुप्त [ gup-t ] = ग ु प ् त
- pp. guarded, protected; concealed, secret: with danda = blackmail: -m, ad. secretly, privately; n. secret place: lc. in concealment; m. N. of several kings: often -- in the names of Vaisyas.
122) गुप्त (p. 63) gup-t guarded, protected;



गुप्तधन [ gupta-dhana ]
- n. money hoarded; a. hoarding his money; -sla, a. wily, crafty, cunning; ‿ryaka, m. N. of a prince.
121) गुप्तधन (p. 63) gupta-dhana money hoarded;

गुप्तार्यक guptāryaka
Skt: [ ‿ryaka ] - m. N. of a prince - Mac085c1
Skt: गुप्तार्यक guptāryaka - m. prince Aryaka - SpkSkt

UKT 170617: Prince Aryaka is a Naga prince mentioned in Mahabharata Epic. It is probable that there were ancient races in the subcontinent of India extending into Burma who have been known by the deities they worshipped, such as the Naga-people who had worshipped the mythical flying Naga-dragons {na.ga:}.

Naga-sailors were mentioned in the history of King Duttabaung of central Burma. These Naga-people are said to have magic powers with which they can transform the bodies from snake-form to human-form. Lately I have come across two such fabulous peoples, the {soan:}, and {Bi-lu:} in the Burma Gazetteer by J. G. Scott, 1900 (all links chk 190306)
Ref1. - JGScott-GazettUpperBurShanPt1v1<> / Bkp<>
Ref2. - JGScott-GazettUpperBurShanPt1v2<> / Bkp<>
Ref3. - JGScott-UpperBurGazett5vol<> / Bkp<>
Ref4. - JGScott-UpperBurGazettChap10<> / Bkp<> 
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom 170617



गुप्ति [ gp-ti ]
- f. preservation; concealment; protection; defences.
120) गुप्ति (p. 63) gp-ti preservation;



गुमगुमायित [ guma-gumyita ]
- (pp.) n. buzzing.
119) गुमगुमायित (p. 63) guma-gumyita buzzing.


p085c1-b20/ not online

गुम्फ् [ gumph ]
- vi. p. gumpha , twine; string together; pp. gumphita ; cs. gumphaya, id.


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p085c1-b21/ not online

गुर् [ gur ]
- vi. (p.), . gurte : simple verb only in pp. grt , welcome, pleasing. apa, disapprove; threaten. ava, threaten, assault (d., lc.); gd. -grya. , approve, assent to (ac.); pronounce the gur. ud, pp. -grna, ndsed threateningly; lited up.


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p085c2-b00/ not online

गुर् [ gur ] 
= gus , 3 pl. aor. of √g


p085c2-b01/ not online

गुरु [ gur- ]
= ग ु र ु --> {gu.ru.}
- a. (v-) heavy; heavier than (ab.); great, large; violent, serious, hard, severe; weary, sad (days); important, weighty, of much account; venerable; prosodically long; m. venerable or highly respected person: father, mother, or elder relative, esp. teacher: du. parents; pl. parents and other venerable persons, also teacher (pl. of respect); chief of (g. pl. or --).



गुरुकर्मन् [ guru-karman ]
- n. affair of the teacher; -krya, n. important business; -kula, n. teacher's house: -vsa, m. sojourn in a teacher's house, tutelary stage in a Brhman's life; -krita, pp. made much of, lauded; -kratu, m. great sacrifice; -griha, n. preceptor's house; -gana, m. venerable person, father, mother, parents; -talpa, m. teacher's conjugal bed; violation of one's preceptor's bed: -ga, -gmin, a. defiling a teacher's conjugal bed, ‿abhigamana, n. violation of one's teacher's bed; -talpin, a. = -talpaga; -t, f. heaviness; importance; dignity; condition of a teacher; -tva, n. id.; prosodical length: -ka, n. heaviness; -darsana, n. sight of one's teacher; -dra, m. teacher's wife; -dhur, f. pl. severe task; -patn, f. teacher's wife; -pg, f. reverence towards a teacher; -prasdanya, fp. obliging to one's teacher; -prasta, pp. permitted or bidden by elder relatives; -bhry, f. teacher's wife.
117) गुरुकर्मन् (p. 63) guru-karman affair of the teacher;


p085c2-b03/ not online 

गुरुलघुता [ guru-laghu-t ]
- f. great and little value; -lghava, n. importance and insignificance, relative value; -loka, m. powerful men; -vat, ad. like a preceptor (= nm. or lc.); -vsa, m. sojourn with a preceptor, pupilage; -vritti, f. (proper) behaviour towards one's teacher: -para, a. intent on one's teacher; -susrsh, f. obedience towards one's teacher; -susrshu, a. obedient to one's teacher; -sakh, f. female friend of an elder relative; -samnidhi, m. presence of the teacher; -samavya, m. plurality of teachers; -str-gamanya, fp. relating to adultery with a teacher's wife.
114) गुरुलघुता (p. 63) guru-laghu-t great and little value; 

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गुर्जर [ gurgara ]
- m. Gujerat; , f. id.
113) गुर्जर (p. 63) gurgara Gujerat; , f. id.


p085c2-b05/ not online

[ guru‿artha ]
- . m. imprtant matter; affair concerning one's teacher; preceptor's fee; -m , ad. for one's parents or teacher . . a. begging for one's teacher



गुर्विणी [ gurv-in ]
- f. pregnant woman; a metre.
112) गुर्विणी (p. 63) gurv-in pregnant woman; a metre.



गुर्वीसखी [ gurv-sakh ]
- f. female friend of an elderly female relative.
111) गुर्वीसखी (p. 63) gurv-sakh female friend of an elderly female relative.


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गुल [ gula ]
- m. (= guda) molasses.
110) गुल (p. 63) gula (=guda) molasses.



गुलिका [ gul-ik ]
- f. pellet; ball; pearl; pill.
109) गुलिका (p. 63) gul-ik pellet;



गुल्गुलु [ gl-gul-u ]
- n. bdellium.
139) गुल्गुलु (p. 63) gl-gul-u bdellium.



गुल्फ [ gulph ]
- m. ankle; -daghna, pp. reaching to the ankles; -dvayasa, a. id.
138) गुल्फ (p. 63) gulph ankle;


p085c2-b12/ not online

[ gulpha-ya ]
- p. accumulate : pp. gulphita, n. = gushpita , q.v.



गुल्म [ glma ]
- m. (n.) shrub, bush; company of soldiers, kind of mixed troop (consisting of 9 elephants, 9 chariots, 27 horses, and 45 foot); diseased swelling of the abdomen: -ka, m. N. of a Brhman.
137) गुल्म (p. 63) glma shrub, bush; company of soldiers,


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गुवाक [ guvka ]
- m. betel-nut tree.
136) गुवाक (p. 63) guvka betel-nut tree.


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गुष्पित [ gushpita ] = ग ु ष ् प ि त
- n. confused mass; accumulation. |
135) गुष्पित (p. 63) gushpita confused mass;


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{gu.a.} --> {goa}


गुस् [ g-us ]
- V. 3 pl. aor. √g, go.
134) गुस् (p. 63) g-us 3 pl. aor. √g, go.


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p085c2-b17/ not online

गुह् [ guh ]
- gha , conceal, cover; keep secret : pp. gdh ( glh ), covered; disguised; invisible ; secret : -m , ad. privately, privily, secretly; with purusha , m. spy, with danda , m. blackmail. apa, conceal. ava, cover, hide; embrace; upa, cover, conceal; wind round; embrace. ni, cover, conceal; pp. hidden. secret; -- and -m, ad. privatelyp; cs. ghaya, hide, conceal. vi, pp. concealed; cs. ghaya, hide, conceal. vi. pp. concealed; [disguised.


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गुह् [ gh ] = ग ु ह ्
- f. hiding-place.
  133) गुह् (p. 63) gh hiding-place.
Bur: - an underground cave where treasures may be hidden - UKT190306



  गुह [ guh-a ]
- m. ep. of Siva and of Skanda; N. of a king of Nishda: -kandra, -sena, m. names of merchants.
132) गुह (p. 63) guh-a Skanda; N. of a king of Nishda:



गुहा [ gh- ]
- f. hiding-place, cave; fig. in most heart: in. gh, in hiding, in secret: esp. with dh or kri, conceal, hide; remove.
131) गुहा (p. 63) gh- hiding-place, cave; fig. inmost heart:



गुहाशय [ guh-saya ]
- a. dwelling in lurking places or caves; abiding in secret or in the heart; -hita, pp. dwelling in secret or in the heart.
130) गुहाशय (p. 63) guh-saya dwelling in lurking places or caves;



गुह्य [ gh-ya ]
= ग ु ह ् य
- fp. to be concealed, hidden, or kept secret; hidden, secret, mysterious: -m, ad. secretly; silently; n. secret; mystery; pudenda .
129) गुह्य (p. 63) gh-ya to be concealed, hidden, 


p085c3-b06/ not online

गुह्यक [guhya-ka]
  =  (ग ु) (ह ् य) (क) = गु ह्य क
Skt: गुह्यक [guhya-ka] -- m. kind of demigods, guardians of Kubera's treasure
  (generally distinguished from the Yakshas). - Mac085c3
Bur: {OAc~sa-san.}: beautiful women with mystical powers guarding the underground caves of gold-nuggets
  owned by the Nagas [not Kubera - the Bi-lu:], or by deceased humans who intended the gold-nuggets to be spent
  on Buddhist religion in future time of the Fifth Buddha. - UKT 190306

UKT 140918, 190306: See my note on Treasure guardians, गुह्यक guhyaka.
I opine that the stories of discovering gold as small specks or as sizeable nuggets have some underlying truth, because the area of Burma (or Myanmarpr) had been under the ocean known as Tethys Ocean. 
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tethys_Ocean 190306
See also Section 8 : Geology {Bu-mi.b-Da.} - geol-indx (link chk 190306)
and go to Geology of Myanmarpr - myan-geol.htm (link chk 190306)
UKT Opinion: Subcontinent India was not under an ocean, and stories of Treasure-guardians must be of Myanmar origin.


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{gu} गू 
Bur: {gu} 
- . cave. . cave-shrine . tomb - MLC PMD2006-085

UKT 140910: There are many cave-temples in Pagan built in the 11th century AD. There is usually only one large image of the Buddha, and only one entrance. They are very cool inside suitable for the dry-hot weather of central Myanmarpr.


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गूढ [ gdha ]
- pp. (√guh) n. mystery; secret: lc. secretly; -katurtha-pda-prahelik-pradna, n. propounding a riddle in which the fourth pda is concealed; -kra, m. spy; -krin, a. going about secretly or disguised; -ga, a. begotten in secret (not by the husband); -t, f. secretness: in. secretly; -tva, n. id.; -pda, a. whose feet are covered with (--); -purusha, m. spy; -maithuna, n. secret copulation; -vasati, f. dwelling in secret.
128) गूढ (p. 63) gdha (√guh) n. mystery; secret: lc. secretly;

गूढपुरुष gūḍhapuruṣa
Skt: गूढपुरुष [ gdhapurusha ] - m. spy - Mac085c3
Skt: गूढपुरुष gūḍhapuruṣa - m. spy - SpkSkt 



गूढागार [ gdha‿agra ]
- n. prison; ‿artha, m. hidden or mystical meaning; a. having a hidden or mystical meaning; ‿saya, a. concealing his purpose; ‿utpanna, pp. begotten in secret (not by the husband).
126) गूढागार (p. 63) gdha̮agra prison;

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गुधित  gudhita
Skt: गुधित  gudhita - adj. enclosed, surrounded - SpkSkt

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गूरण [ gr-ana ]
- n. blame, reproach.
125) गूरण (p. 63) gr-ana blame, reproach.

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गूर्ण grna, गूर्त [ grt ]
- pp. of √gur.
124) गूर्ण (p. 63) grt √gur.



गूर्ति [ gr-t ]
- f. praise, approbation, flattery.
123) गूर्ति (p. 63) gr-t praise, approbation, flattery.



गूर्द [ grda ]
- m. leap, bound.
150) गूर्द (p. 63) grda leap, bound.


p085c3-b13/ not online

- p. praise

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{gu-ha.} --> {guuh}


गूह् [ gh ] = ग ू ह ्
- v. √guh.
149) गूह् (p. 63) gh √guh.



गूहन [ gh-ana ]
- n. concealment.
148) गूहन (p. 63) gh-ana concealment.

UKT: p085c3-b16  and the remainder on p085 moved to p085R


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UKT notes


- UKT 140911

The English speakers do not know how to pronounce the word <bdellium>. So they say <b> is silent.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bdellium 120204

Bdellium (dĕl'ē-əm) (Hebrew: bedolach) is an aromatic gum like myrrh that is exuded from a tree. A medieval Arab writer first made the identification with gum guggul, the species Commiphora wightii, [1] although "bdellium" has also been used to identify the African species C. africana and at least one other Indian species, C. stocksiana. [2] Bdellium was an adulterant of the more costly myrrh (Commiphora myrrha); guggul is still used as a binder in perfumes.

The word bedolach occurs only twice in the Hebrew Bible. The first is in Genesis 2:12, where it is described as a product of the land of Havilah; the context has led some readers to link bedolach with pearls or other precious stones. [3] Bdellium is mentioned once again, as something familiar, in Numbers 11:7, where manna is compared to it in color:

"Now the manna was like zera gad [coriander seed], and its appearance as the appearance of  bedolach."

Bdellium appears in a number of ancient sources. In Akkadian, it was known as budulhu, [4] in Sanskrit gulgulu. [5] Theophrastus is perhaps the first classical author to mention it, if the report that came back from his informant in Alexander's expedition refers to Commiphora wightii: "In the region called Aria there is a thorn tree which produces a tear of resin, resembling myrrh in appearance and odour. It liquifies when the sun shines upon it." [6] Plautus in his play Curculio refers to it. Pliny the Elder describes the best bdellium coming from Bactria as a "tree black in colour, and the size of the olive tree; its leaf resembles that of the oak and its fruit the wild fig", but his descriptions [7] seem to cover a range of strongly perfumed resins. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, of the 2nd century CE, reports that bdella is exported from the port of Barbarice at the mouth of the Indus. [8] In China, bdellium, known as an hsi hsiang or " Parthian aromatic", was among the varieties of incense that reached China either along the Silk Route from Central Asia, or by sea. Later an hsi hsiang was applied to an East Indian substitute, gum benzoin from Sumatra. [9]

Bdellium was an ingredient in the prescriptions of ancient physicians from Galen to Paul of Aegina, and in the Greater Kuphi. [10]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

Go back bdellium-note-b

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Gulma - an army unit

- UKT 140917:

Even though Myanmarpr sits in between two huge countries, China & India, it has escaped military invasions from both because of its very thick tropical forests. The chief military vehicle had been the elephant and the principal arms were the short lance which could be thrown from a speeding elephant or horse, and long sword. Its wars were mostly of the guerrilla war-fare type with close hand-to-hand combat with either one sword in hand, or two in both hands. Use of mace or cudgel is unknown.

Excerpt from: Military History of Ancient India,
http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=military_ancient_india 120204

The Persians are famed for their archers, the Turks for their horsemen, and India for its armies.
- Arab proverb

The Army of The Mauryan Empire

The Mauryan empire was the first empire that managed to unite all of India. This was partially because of their complex army structure. Like most ancient Indian armies, the Mauryan army had 4 types of troops- elephant (gaja), chariot (ratha), cavalry (turanga), and infantry (pada).

The army was broken into many units. The smallest unit was called a patti, and had 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 3 cavalry and 5 infantry. The elephant and chariot would typically be in the center with the cavalry and infantry surrounding them. Three patti made up a Sena mukha, and three Sena Mukha made up a Gulma. Other divisions were the Gana, Vahini, Pratana, Camu and Ani kini, each of which was three times as big as the one preceding it. The Aksauhini was composed of ten Ani kini, and was the largest unit in an army.

The Mauryan army had multiple Aksauhini's. The standing army had three-quarter million troops, one of the largest armies in the world at the time.

A variety of formations were used in the Mauryan army. Formations were known as vyuha, each one had a center, two flanks and two wings. There were thirty main vyuha used, divided into four main categories. One example of a vyuha would be the Padma vyuha or lotus formation.

It would be easy to visualise the 'padma vyuha' if it is imagined as a six pointed star. The Deputy Commanders-in-Chief would be placed at each outer point of the petals and at the inner end, where each end of lotus petal joins with the other, to form an inner-circle resembling the corolla of the lotus, the Commanders-in-Chief would be stationed. The space between any two 'petals' is the only access to reach the centre of the 'lotus' where the Supreme Commander was placed. If a contingent of enemy soldiers moved between any two petals for this purpose, the petals would close in and crush the invader like the powerful tentacles of a crab.

The Garuda Vyuha or Eagle formation was another commonly used formation.

The Garuda Vyuha had a 'beak' where the best elite Kshatriya soldiers would be placed in tight wedge formation. The 'head,' behind the beak had a small contingent of reserves, also of good quality. Often, war elephants would be placed in the beak and head. Two broad 'wings' would sweep out behind the head, with the swiftest troops - the chariots and cavalry at the outside. Behind the wings, the body, would consist of reserves.

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- UKT 120204, 190307: In modern times the strongest bird of prey is the Eagle. It is used in the emblems of ancient Rome and present-day United States of America. It portrays the military might. The Vulture, on the other hand, though it lives on flesh of animals and birds, eats only the flesh of dead animals. Burmese-Buddhists view the Vulture as the "one who does not kill". Since abstinence from Killing is the First Precept of Buddhism, the Vulture is acceptable to Buddhists. The Vulture portrays Peace - maybe the Peace of the Graveyard - but still Peace and Tranquility. Therefore, I was surprised that it was the Vulture who fought the abductor of Sita, the wife of Prince Rama.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatayu 120204

In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Jatayu (Skt: जटायू Jatāyū, Tamil: Chatayu, Thai: Sadayu, Malay: Jentayu or Chentayu) is the son of Aruṇa and nephew of Garuda. (UKT )

A demi-god who has the form of a vulture, he was an old friend of Dasharatha (Rama's father). He tries to rescue Sita from Ravana when Ravana is on his way to Lanka after kidnapping Sita. Jatayu fought valiantly with Ravana, but as Jatayu was very old Ravana soon got the better of him. As Rama and Lakshmana chanced upon the stricken and dying Jatayu in their search for Sita, he informs them of the fight between him and Ravana and the direction in which Ravana had gone (i.e., south).

Jatayu and his brother Sampati, when young, used to compete as to who could fly higher. On one such instance Jatayu flew so high that he was about to get seared by the sun's flames. Sampati saved his brother by spreading his own wings and thus shielding Jatayu from the hot flames. In the process, Sampati himself got injured and lost his wings. As a result, Sampati lived wingless for the rest of his life.

The spot where [the mortally] wounded Jatayu was found by Lord Rama is on the outskirts of the Taaked village [1942'1.86"N, 7346'33.93"E] in Nashik District in the state of Maharashtra. While Jatayu was wounded and lying on the ground when Lord Rama arrived, [UKT ]

Lord Rama sensed the end result and decided that Jatayu get moksha. Lord Rama hit an arrow in the ground so as to call all seven sacred rivers, called teertha. Six rivers' waters arrived, one river water failing to obey Lord Rama's call. Since Lord Rama was himself an incarnation of Lord Vishnu, He forced the Gaya teertha to arrive at the spot. [UKT ]

Finally Jatayu was given the waters of seven rivers and he attained moksha. Today, the six river waters are seen together in one pond, whilst the seventh is a few feet away as a punishment. It mixes with the remaining six waters in an invisible manner. Taaked village remains a tourist and religious attraction today. A fair is organized on the Mahashivratri festival near the sacred water pond.

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Old World vulture

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World_vulture 120205

Old World vultures belong to the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, buzzards, kites, and hawks.

Old World vultures are not closely related to the superficially similar New World vultures and condors, and do not share that group's good sense of smell. The similarities between the two groups of vultures are due to convergent evolution rather than a close relationship. They were widespread in both the Old World and North America, during the Neogene. Old World vultures are probably a polyphyletic group within Accipitridae, with Palm-nut Vulture, Egyptian Vulture and Lammergeier separate from the others. [1]

Both Old World and New World vultures are scavenging birds, feeding mostly from carcasses of dead animals. Old World vultures find carcasses exclusively by sight. A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald head, devoid of feathers. If vultures had head feathers, they would become spattered with blood and other fluids when the vultures ate flesh from carcasses, and thus would be difficult to keep clean.


In Southern Africa, the name for a Nubian vultureit is synonymous with the term applied to lovers, because these vultures are always seen in pairs, mother and child remaining closely bonded together. Pairing, bonding, protecting, and loving are essential attributes associated along with the vulture's size and its ability to soar high in the sky.

The Egyptians considered the vulture to be an excellent mother, and the wide wingspan was seen as all-encompassing and providing a protective cover to her infants. The white Egyptian vulture was the animal picked to represent Nekhbet, the mother goddess and protective patron of southern, Upper Egypt. The vulture hieroglyph was the Egyptian sign used for the sound (3 ) including words such as mother, prosperous, grandmother, and ruler.

In the Hindu epic Ramayana, there appear two demi-gods who had the form of vultures, Jatayu (Skt: जटायू, jatāyū) and his brother Sampaati, with whom are associated stories of courage and self-sacrifice.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revanta 120205

Revanta or Raivata (Skt: रेवन्त, lit. "brilliant") is a minor Hindu deity. According to the Rig-Veda, Revanta is the youngest son of the sun-god Surya, and his wife Sanjna (Saranya). [UKT ]

Revanta is chief of the Guhyakas (गुह्यक), semi-divine and demonic class entities like the Yakshas {yak~hka.} who are believed to live as forest dwellers in Himalayas. [1] [2] [UKT ]

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guhyaka 170612
"Guhyaka(s) (गुह्यक, literally "hidden ones") is a class of supernatural beings in Hindu mythology. Like Yakshas (nature-spirits), they are often described as attendants of Kubera, the god of wealth, and protect his hidden treasures. Guhyakas are believed to live in mountain caves; thus their name, "hidden ones".[1] As lord of Guhyakas, Kubera is called "Guhyakadhipati".[2]

Images and sculptures of Revanta often show him as a huntsman on a horse, with a bow and arrow.

Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet and Roger Beck identify Revanta have merged from the Zoroastrian god Mithra, as Iranian invaders, who invaded north-western India, brought their religion with them, that infused into Hinduism by first century AD. [3] They stress on the descriptions of both the deities as riding gods and "Revanta" originating from the Avestan "raevant", which is an epithet of Mithra.


The tale of Revanta's birth is narrated in scriptures like Vishnu Purana and Markandeya Purana. Once, Sanjna, the daughter of celestial architect Vishvakarma and wife of Surya, unable to take the fervour of the Sun-god, repaired to the forests to engage in devout austerities in the form of a mare. She placed her shadow Chhaya, who looked just like Sajna in her position as Surya's wife. When Surya realised that Chhaya was not the real Sanjna, he searched for Sanjna and finally found her in the forests of Uttar Kuru. There, Surya approached Sanjna disguised as a horse. Their union produced the twin - Ashvins and Revanta. [4] In Kurma Purana and Matsya Purana, the mother of Revanta is named Rajni, another wife of Surya. While in another chapter of Markandeya Purana, he is son of Chhaya and his brothers are the Saturn-god Shani and Savarni Manu. [5] [6]

Markandeya Purna further adds he was assigned the duty as chief of Guhyakas by Surya and to protect mortals "amid the terrors of forests and other lonely places, of great conflagration, of enemies and robbers." Sometimes, Revanta is depicted as combating robbers in reliefs. [7]

Another tale from the Devi Bhagavata Purana has a passing reference to Revanta. Once when Revanta riding on the seven headed horse Uchaishravas went to Vishnu's abode, Vishnu's wife goddess Lakshmi lusted for the horse and was thus cursed by her husband to become a mare. [8]


Markandeya Purana describes Revanta as "holding a sword and bow, clad in an armour, riding on horseback, and carrying arrows and a quiver". [9] Kalika Purana describes him carrying a sword in right hand and a whip in his left, seated on a white horse. Thus he is called Haya- Vahana, one who rides a horse. Varahamihira describes him as accompanied by attendants for hunting. [9]

In sculpture, Revanta is often depicted with the Guhyakas, whose chief he is, in scenes of hunting. Apart from the attributes described in texts like the sword, bow; he sometimes also carries a cup of wine in his hand. Revanta is often depicted wearing long boots reaching up to the calves, unlike other Hindu divinities except Surya who are depicted barefoot. [10] [11] Revanta is depicted seated on a horse and accompanied by a hunting dog. Revanta's attendants are depicted with various hunting weapons like lances and swords. Some of them are shown blowing a conch or beaming drums or holding an umbrella over the head of their lord, the umbrella being the symbol of royalty. [3] Also, some of them are depicted as flying or holding wine or water jars. Sometimes, an attendant carries a dead boar in his shoulder or the dog chasing a boar. [12]


Revanta was worshipped as guardian deity of warriors and horses, protector from the dangers of forests and the patron god of hunting. [3] The worship of Revanta is closely associated with Saura, cult of Surya. Often, scriptures like Vishnudharmottara Purana and Kalika Purana recommend worship of Revanta alongside Surya or according to the rituals of Sun worship. [9] Shabha-kalpa-druma records Revanta's worship after Surya's, in the Hindu month of Ashvin by warriors. [13] Nakula, the fourth Pandava, is believed to have written Ashavashastram on horses. He suggests worship of Raivata to protect horses from ghosts. [13]

The worship of Revanta was popular in the early-mediaeval period, particularly in Rajasthan. Revanta is mostly depicted in Vaishnava and Surya temples. [14] There is a stone inscription that talks about a temple to Revanta, as the principal deity, in Vikranapur (modern Kotgaph, Madhya Pradesh) built by the Kalacuri king Ratnadeva II. [15]

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Treasure guardians गुह्यक guhyaka

UKT 140918:
We find their equivalents in Bur-Myan {OAc~sa-saung.}. The females are said to be very beautiful.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mythical_creatures_in_Burmese_folklore 190306
"A wide variety of mythical creatures are found in Burmese folklore and in mythology. Many Burmese creatures are part human or creatures capable of assuming human form. Most mythical creatures are endowed with humanistic mentalities, ability to converse with humans and also supernatural powers."

Stories of Treasure-nests, such as that of {rhw-hkyo:hpru mu-la.hk: eik} lit. "golden white dove (and) elemental-stone treasure-nest} abound in my childhood days of 80 years ago. That particular treasure-nest is supposed to be at the bottom of a creek in MaUbin township in the Irrawaddy Delta near the Kungyangoan town where I was born and had lived up to the age 10 in 1945.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guhyaka  141004

Guhyaka(s) (गुह्यक, literally "hidden ones") is a class of supernatural beings in Hindu mythology. Like Yakshas (nature-spirits), they are often described as attendants of Kubera, the god of wealth, and protect his hidden treasures. Guhyakas are believed to live in mountain caves; thus their name, "hidden ones".[1] As lord of Guhyakas, Kubera is called "Guhyakadhipati".[2]

Edward Washburn Hopkins suggests that Guhyakas may not be distinct beings, but a generic name for spirits of concealment.[2] They are mentioned in the Manu Smriti and the Harivamsa, appendix of the epic Mahabharata, as distinct beings;[1] however, the epic and the Meghaduta identify them with Yakshas.[1][3]

Guhyakas are described as the most trusted and close associates of Kubera, who resides with them on Mount Kailash. Kubera assigns them important tasks like delivering a magic eye-wash to the god and epic-hero Rama, to aid him in war.[2] They also serve as messengers and are sent to witness battles.[4] In other instances, they are described as residing on Hemakuta or on Mount Gandhamandana, in the palace of Kubera.[5] They also live on earth and in hills.[4] They are described as half-bird or half-equine in nature.[5] They have glowing forms in heaven, take demonic forms during war, and look like gnomes on earth.[4]

The Mahabharata, which treats them as a type of Yakshas, mentions that the airborne palaces of Kubera are held in the sky by Guhyakas; in other instances, the god himself is described as being carried by Guhyakas.[6] It is also described that Bhima, a hero in the epic, kills them when he attacks Kubera on Gandhamandana.[2][3] The soldiers who die by sword neither bravely nor cowardly, as mentioned in the Mahabharata war, are said to go to the abode of Guhyakas after death.[4][5] This is the second lowest realm that souls can enter, the lowest being Naraka (hell) for sinners.[4][5] Guhyakas are also associated with Pitrs ("ancestors") and are sometimes equated to ghosts.[4]

The twin-physician gods Ashvins, annual plants, and inferior animals are described as Guhyakas.[5][7] In the Bhagavata Purana, Kubera's son Nalakuvara and Manigriva are described as Guhyakas.[2]

Though often associated with Kubera, the Brihat-Samhita of Varahamihira as well as some Puranas describe Guhyakas as attendants of Revanta, the son of the Sun-god Surya.[1] The Markandeya Purana mentions that Revanta was assigned the duty as the chief of Guhyakas by Surya.[8] In sculpture, Revanta is often depicted with the Guhyakas in hunting scenes.[9]

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Vulture Peak

- UKT 170611

The Vulture Peak {gaiz~Za.koaT tan} is a well-known landmark to most Myanmar-Buddhists even for those who had never visited India, because it is mentioned frequently in Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan literature. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulture_Peak 170611

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griddhraj_Parvat 120205

Griddhraj Parvat (also called, Gridhra-kuta Hill or locally known as Giddhaila Pahar) (English: Vulture Peak, Hindi: गृद्घराज पर्वत), which literally means the hill of vultures, is a hill of religious, archeological and ecological importance situated in Devrajnagar village of tehsil Ramnagar in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is located at a distance of 8 km from Ramnagar town and 65 km from Satna in south direction. Its latitude and longitude are 2418' North and 8115' East. The altitude of the hill is 2354 feet. The hill is situated between Kaimur Range in the north and Maikal hills in the south.

The place is of archeological importance. There are four caves on the hill in which Rock painting and mural paintings are visible.

An annual fair is organized every year in the Indian month of Magha {ma-ga.} [ {ta.po-tw: la.}, Jan-Feb ] on the occasion of Vasant Panchami. [lit. Fifth day of Spring - dedicated to Maa Sarasvatī {u-ra~a.ti m-tau}]. Thousands of people come and take a dip in the Ganges River.

In Hindu mythology

Griddhraj Parvat is of great religious importance in Hindu mythology. It has been mentioned in Skanda Purana as Griddhanchal Parvat (page 208). It is believed to be the nest birthplace [in which the Vulture] Sampati [was hatched. He was] the brother of Griddhraj Jatayu mentioned in Ramayana. The poet Kalidas mentions about this place as the most sacred in his book Griddharaj Mahatmya (Narad Uvach) in Sanskrit language. He has written that a dip in the Mānasī Ganga River originating from Griddhraj Parvat, at an altitude of 2354 feet, is a saviour of all kinds of sins. Sons of Brahma and then goddess Parvati first saw this hill. It finds mention in Shiva Samhita (Chapter 19-Bhoogol varnan).

Mention by Fa-hien

Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Fa-hien had visited probably a different, Buddhist holy place with the same name (Vulture Peak in Rajgir, 2500′07″N 8526′48″E / 25.0019812N 85.4467034E / 25.0019812; 85.4467034) and has mentioned it as Gridhra-kuta Hill in Chapter XXIX (see also James Legge): Chapter XXIX : GRIDHRA-KUTA HILL, AND LEGENDS. FA-HIEN PASSES A NIGHT ON IT. HIS REFLECTIONS.

"Entering the valley, and keeping along the mountains on the south-east, after ascending fifteen le, (the travellers) came to mount Gridhra-kuta.(1) Three le before you reach the top, there is a cavern in the rocks, facing the south, in which Buddha sat in meditation. Thirty paces to the north-west there is another, where Ananda was sitting in meditation, when the deva Mara Pisuna,(2) having assumed the form of a large vulture, took his place in front of the cavern, and frightened the disciple. Then Buddha, by his mysterious, supernatural power, made a cleft in the rock, introduced his hand, and stroked Ananda's shoulder, so that his fear immediately died. The footprints of the bird and the cleft for (Buddha's) hand are still there, and hence comes the name of "The Hill of the Vulture Cavern."

Shanti Stupa, Buddhist sacred monument, is located near the peak (2500′16″N 8526′40″E / 25.00444N 85.44444E / 25.00444; 85.44444 ).

In Buddhist Sutra (Mahayana?)

Vulture Peak Mountain is, by tradition, the site where Gautama Buddha taught the Heart Sutra as is noted in the first several lines of the sutra

Thus have I heard: At one time, the Bhgavan dwelt in Rajagriah at Vulture Peak Mountain together with a great sangha of fully ordained monks and a great sangha of bodhisattvas


In addition, the Saddharmapundarika Sutra (also known as the Lotus Sutra) and the Suramgamasamadhi sutra, as well as many other Prajnaparamita Sutras were first taught there as well.

Habitat of vultures

Griddhraj Parvat is a unique habitat of vultures not only in India but the world also. Vultures in number of thousands can be seen in the crevices of the hill rocks. The vulture species seen here are long billed vulture (Gips indicus) and White backed vulture (Gips bengalensis). Apart from vultures it is also the habitat of number of wild animals.

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