Update: 2016-01-16 03:10 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gaan~} : cont


UKT notes :
Rishi Gritsamada
Vdic language poetic meter :
  to be compared with that of Bur-Myan as a Tib-Bur language


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गान्धिक [ gndh-ika ]
- m. vendor of perfumes; n. perfumes.


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गामिन् [ gm-in ]
- a. going anywhere (ad., prati, or *ac.); gnly. --, going, moving, walking (in, to, like); having sexual intercourse with; reaching or extending to; devolving on; befitting, behoving; obtaining; directed to; relating to.



गाम्भीर्य [ gmbhr-ya ]
- n. depth; profoundness; dignity, sereneness.


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गाय [ gya ]



गायक [ gy-aka ]
- m. singer; , f. songstress.



गायत्र [ gya-tr ]
- m. n. song, hymn; a. relating to or composed in gyatr.

UKT 160104: See my note on Vdic language poetic meter
extending into Vedic accent in comparison to that of Bur-Myan.





गायन [ gy-ana ]
- m. public singer; n. song.


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गारुड [ gruda ] alt. spelling गारुड [ gruda ] on p082.htm
- a. having the form of, referring to or coming from Garuda; n. emerald.


गारुत्मत [ grutmata ]
- a. referable or sacred to Garuda: w. asman, emerald (as an antidote).


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गार्ग्य [ grg-ya ]
- m. pat. from Garga; N.: -‿ya- na, m. pat. from Grgya; N. of a teacher.



गार्त्समद [ grtsamad-a ]
- a. referring to Gritsamada; m. pat. descendant of Gritsamada.

UKT 160106: See my note on Rishi Gritsamada


गार्दभ [ grdabha ]
- a. referring to an ass; drawn by asses (yna).



गार्द्ध्य [ grddh-ya ]
- n. greed.



गार्भ [ grbha ]
- a. born from a womb; refer ring to an embryo, performed during pregnancy; i-ka, a. relating to the womb, uterine.



गार्हपत [ grhapat ]
- n. dignity of a house holder.



गार्हपत्य [ g&asharp;rhapat-ya ]
- a. (sc. agni) house holder's (western sacred) fire; m. n. its place; n. domestic authority; household.



गार्हस्थ्य [ grhasth-ya ]
- a. behoving a house holder; n. position of paterfamilias or materfamilias; household.



गार्ह्य [ grh-ya ]
- a. domestic.

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गाल [ gla ]
- a. produced with the throat.



गालन [ glana ]
- n. straining, clarifying.



गालव [glava]
- m. N. of an old sage: pl. his descendants 

UKT 160115: There are many stories of ancient Rishis of Mahabharata period with mix ups between one and another. Rishi Galava is one such one. He was supposed to be a son or a pupil of Rishi Viswamitra. There was also a teacher of the White Yajurveda named Galava, and also an old grammarian named by Panini.
- my note based on http://www.jatland.com/home/Galava 160115


गालि [ gli ]
- f. pl. execration [curse]: -dna, n. abuse; -mat, a. using execrations.




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गाहन [ gh-ana ]
- n. immersion, bathing; -anya, fp. n. one must plunge.


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गिर् [ 3. gr ]
- f. call; voice; speech; word; praise; hymn: in. on the advice, in the name of (g., --).



गिर् [ 4. gir ]
- a. swallowing (--).







गिरि [ gir- ]
- m. [the heavy], mountain.



गिरिकुहर [ giri-kuhara ]
- n. mountain cave; -ksht, a. dwelling on mountains; -kakra vartin, m. prince of mountains, the Him laya; -kar, a. mountain-roaming; m. wild elephant; -ga, a. mountain-born: , f. daughter of the mountain, ep. of Prvat; -nad, f. mountain stream; -tr, a. mountain-ruling, ep. of Siva; -durga, a. inaccessible owing to mountains; n. hill-fort; -dhtu, m. pl. mountain ores; -nadik, f. mountain brook; -nad, f.=giri-nad; -pati, m. king of mountains, lofty mountain; -pri shtha, n. mountain ridge; -prapta, m. precipice; -prastha, m. mountain plain, plateau; -bhid, a. mountain-piercing; -rg, m. king of mountains, lofty mountain; -vsin, a. dwelling in the mountains; -s, a. dwelling in the mountains, ep. of Siva; -shad, a. sitting on mountains (Rudra); -shth&asharp;, a.= giri-vsin; -sut, f. daughter of the mountain, ep. of Prvat.



गिरीन्द्र [ giri‿indra ]
- m. lord of mountains =high mountain; -‿sa, m. lord of mountains, great mountain; ep. of Siva.



गिर्वणस् [ gr-vanas ]
- a. rejoicing in praise.





गीत [ g-t ]
- pp. (√gai) n. song: -ka, n. id.; -kshama, a. capable of being sung; -go vinda, n. Krishna in song: T. of an idyllic drama; -nritya, n. song and dance; -vdana, n. song and (instrumental) music.



गीता [ g-t ]
- (pp.) f. song or poem contain ing an inspired doctrine, esp. the Bhagavad gt.



गीताचार्य [ gta‿krya ]
- m. teacher of singing.



गीति [ g-ti ]
- f. song; a metre: -‿ry, f. a metre.



गीथा [ g&isharp;-th ]
- f. song.



गीर्ण [ gr-na ]
- pp. √gr, swallow.



गीर्वाण [ gr-vna ]
- m. [probably=V. girvanas] god: -vartman, n. sky.

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गु [ 2. gu ]
- a. coming, going (--).




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गुग्गुलु [ gggulu ]
= ग ु ग ् ग ु ल ु
- m. (C.), n. fragrant gum, resin, bdellium.



गुङ्गु [ guṅg ]
- m. N. of a man: pl. his descendants; &usharp;, f. the personified new moon.

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गुच्छ [ gukkha ]
- m. shrub; bunch, cluster of blossoms: -ka, m. (?) id.





गुञ्ज [ gug-a ]
= ग ु ञ ् ज
- m. humming, buzzing.


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गुञ्जा [ gug ]
Skt: गुञ्जा [ gug ] - f. a small shrub; gug-berry: used as a measure of weight. - Mac084c3
Pal: {goa~za} - UHS PMD
  UKT from UHS - f. {hkyn-rw: pn} Abrus precatorious  
  See: MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm > {hka.}-medial (link chk 160115)



गुञ्जित [ gug-ita ]
- (pp.) n. humming, buzzing.

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गुटिका [ gut-ik ]
- f. pellet; pill; pearl: -‿agana, n. collyrium in globules; -pta, m. fall of the ball, casting lots; -‿astra, n. bow discharging clay pellets.

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गुड [ guda ]
- m. ball; molasses; pill: pl. N. of a people: -ka, m. ball; -gihvik-nyya, m. the manner of sugar and the tongue=first but fleeting impression, opinion recommending itself for the moment; -pishta, n. pastry made of flower and sugar; *-dhn, f. pl. grains of corn with sugar; -maya, a. () consisting of sugar; -sarkar, f. sugar; ()-kesa, m. ep. of Arguna.



गुडिका [ gud-ik ]
- f. pill.



गुडोदक [ guda‿udaka ]
- n. sugar-water.



गुडौदन [ guda‿odana ]
- n. boiled rice with sugar.


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गुण [ gun- ]
- m. strand, thread, string, rope; wick; bow-string; lute-string; species; con stituent of policy (of which there are six or four), subordinate element, accessory; second ary dish, seasoning; remote object (of a verb); property, quality; elemental quality (sound, feeling, colour, taste, smell); fundamental quality (sattva, ragas, tamas); good quality, virtue, merit, excellence; high degree of (--= excessive); external articulation (of letters); first strong grade of vowels (a, ar, al, e, o); time (with numerals); multiple: almost always -- a. after numerals=-fold (lit. having so many strands), so many times as much as or more than (in. or ab.).





गुणकर्मन् [ guna-karman ]
- n. unessential secondary action; remote object (gr.); -ka lusha, n. coalescence of the three fundamental qualities; -kritya, n. function of a bow-string; -gana, m. multitude of excellences; -grihya, a. appreciating excellences; -grahana, n. recognition of merit, eulogy; -grma, m. multitude of virtues; -grhin, a. appreciating merit; -ghtin, a. detracting from merit; -kkheda, m. breaking of the rope and disappearance of virtue; -ga, a. recognising merits: -t, f. abst. n.; -tantra, a. guided by virtue; -tas, ad. conformably to the fundamental qualities; with regard to good qualities; -t, f. subordinateness; excellence; -tygin, a. forsaking virtue; -tva, n. consistency of a rope; accessoriness; excellence; -deva, m. N. of a pupil of Gundhya.



गुणन [ gun-ana ]
- n. panegyric, exaltation; -anik, f. repetition.



गुणनिधि [ guna-nidhi ]
- m. treasury of virtue, very virtuous man; -baddha, pp. bound with ropes and captivated by virtues; -bhadra, m. N. of an author; -bhg, a. possessing merits; -bhta, pp. subordinate, dependent, secondary; -maya, a. consisting of threads, fibrous; virtuous; based on the fundamental qualities.



गुणय [ guna-ya ]
- den. P. multiply: pp. gunita, multiplied, by (in. or --); increased by, filled with (--).



गुणयुक्त [ guna-yukta ]
- pp. tied to a rope and endowed with virtues; -rga, m. delight in virtues; -vakana, m. n. adjective; -vat, a. furnished with a thread; having the elemental qualities; possessing good qualities, virtuous, excellent: -t, f. possession of virtues; -varman, m. N.; -vkaka, a. expressing a quality; -sata-slin, a. possessing hundreds of virtues; -sabda, m. adjective; -samyukta, pp. endowed with good qualities; -samskra, --, quality and preparation; -sampanna, pp. endowed with good qualities; -sgara, m. a perfect ocean of virtues; -hni, f. lack of virtues; -hna, pp. devoid of virtues.

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UKT notes

Rishi Gritsamada

- UKT 160106

Our teacher, Gautama Buddha, who himself may be termed a Rishi, did respect Rishis who preceded him by thousands of years. He mentioned ten of them by name: 01. Atthaka, 02. Vamaka, 03. Vamadeva, 04. Vessamitta, 05. Yamataggi, 06. Angirasa, 07. Bharadvaja, 08. Vasettha, 09. Kassapa, and 10. Bhagu [11].

"13. Well then, Vasettha, those ancient sages versed in ancient scriptures, the authors of the verses, the utterers of the verses, whose, ancient form of words so chanted, uttered, or composed, the priests of today chant over again or repeat; intoning or reciting exactly as has been intoned or recited- to wit, Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, and Bhagu [11]  did even they speak thus, saying: "We know it, we have seen it", where the creator is whence the creator is?" -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism_and_Hinduism 160106

Does it mean that Gautama Buddha accepted the existence of the Creator? The same article notes that "The Buddha approved many of the terms already used in philosophical discussions of his era; however, many of these terms carry a different meaning in the Buddhist tradition."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gritsamada 160106

Gritsamada , गृत्समद  is a rishi, credited with most of Mandala 2 of the Rigveda (36 out of 43, hymns 27-29 being attributed to his son Kurma and 4-7 to Somahuti). Grtsamada was a son of Shunahotra of the family of Angiras, but by Indra's will he was transferred to the Bhrigu family.

In the plural, the name refers to the clan of Grtsamada, so used in RV 2.4, 19, 39, 41.

UKT: End of Wiki stub

Go back Gritsamada-note-b

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Vdic language poetic meter

- UKT 160104

It is said (I can not recall the source at present) that originally Gayatri Mantra had 3 padas of 8 syllables containing 24 syllables in each stanza, whilst other Sanskrit verses are of the 4 pada form. This is the distinguishing feature of Vdic language from the Classical Sanskrit language of Panini. And that the word Om was added to make the Gayatri mantra conform to the later Classical Sanskrit verses. This is the basis on which it is proposed that Vedic is different from Sanskrit.

I extended the proposal further that Vedic was the language with a very simple grammar of the original peoples, the Tib-Bur speakers, of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr. And that secondly, Magadhi was the major dialect. The grammar is so simple that even animals such as the higher ones, the apes, the bears, and the birds could understand it. It is claimed that they could also speak it. To many in Myanmarpr Magadha-language, Magadhi, means the language of the animals. What they do not generally understand is that it was also the language of our teacher the Gautama Buddha.

Magadhi is similar to the modern Bur-Myan in grammar, which the new comers, the IE speakers, could not pronounce properly and that many grammarians amongst them set out to transform Vedic sic Magadhi into a refined language. The most successful one was Panini and that his grammar became the standard, the Classical Sanskrit. I emphasize that the above is just my conjecture, and I still need more evidence to confirm it. My work on BEPS is my attempt to provide one.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_meter 160104

The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. They are grouped by the number of padas in a verse, and by the number of syllables in a pada. Chandas (छन्दः), the study of Vedic meter, is one of the six Vedanga disciplines, or "organs of the vedas".

There are several Chandas. The seven main ones are:

Gayatri: 3 padas of 8 syllables containing 24 syllables in each stanza.

Ushnuk : 4 padas of 7 syllables containing 28 syllables in each stanza.
Anustubh: 4 padas of 8 syllables containing 32 syllables in each stanza. The typical shloka of classical Sanskrit poetry is in this category.
Brihati : 4 padas (8 + 8 + 12 + 8) containing 36 syllables in each stanza.
Pankti : 4 padas (sometimes 5 padas) containing 40 syllables in each stanza.
Tristubh: 4 padas of 11 syllables containing 44 syllabes in each stanza
Jagati: 4 padas of 12 syllables containing 48 syllables in each stanza

There are several others such as:

Virāj: 4 padas of 10 syllables

[Now a direct quotation from E. V. Arnold, Vedic metre in its historical development, Cambridge, UP, 1905 ] -
There is, however, considerable freedom in relation to the strict metrical canons of Classical Sanskrit prosody, which Arnold (1905) holds to the credit of the Vedic bards:

"It must be plain that as works of mechanical art the metres of the Rigveda stand high above those of modern Europe in variety of motive and in flexibility of form. They seem indeed to bear the same relation to them as the rich harmonies of classical music bear to the simple melodies of the peasant. And in proportion as modern students come to appreciate the skill displayed by the Vedic poets, they will be glad to abandon the easy but untenable theory that the variety of form employed by them is due to chance, or the purely personal bias of individuals; and to recognize instead that we find all the signs of a genuine historical development."

UKT: more in the Wiki article. You should continue further by reading on Vedic accent - keeping mind that of Bur-Myan - in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_accent 160104

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