Update: 2017-05-17 05:51 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 170512: I had thought that there is no mention of the Mahabharata -
the Hindu Epic (important because of the philosophical aspect of Bhagavad-Gita) - in Theravada Buddhism until I found {za-ta.kT~Hta.ka.hta} from the Buddhist Sixth Council (1954-1956). An excerpt in Pal-Myan mentions words which you can decipher: {ku.ru.}, {kau:ra.ba.}, and {wi.Du.ra.pN~i.ta.}. See Mythical Kuru dynasty below.

{gar~za.} : repha - contd
{gar~wa.} : Pal {gb~ba.}
{ga} : Romabama Maukcha-Weikcha Rule : {mauk-hkya.} {weik-hkya.} rule
{gaang~} : in Kin'si form


UKT notes :
Checking vowels with killed-approximants
   the problem of Wathut {wa.t} written as {w} / {O} / -
   {gaO} / {pa.oO} 'a Myanmar ethnic group' /  {tauO} 'Taoist religion'
Devanagari conjunct equiv. to Myanmar Kinsi
Eating Meat in Buddhism
Grapheme-shape hypothesis : my theory
Human cheek : cheek slapping by the Japanese forces in Burma (Myanmar)
   during the WWII was one of the reasons why we turned against the Japanese.
Magadhi-Myanmar (Mag-Myan) : the lost language
Mythical Kuru dynasty
Precentor : a church official (singing assistant) - differentiate from <presenter>
Rotacism : trill /r/ vs approximant /ɹ/
  relation between L-sounds sounds and R-sounds
Sattra - sacrificial session
Twelve Worldly Mingala-rites : in Theravada-Buddhist Burma
  - different from Mingala Sutta of Gautama Buddha
Vishvamitra - an ancestor Gautama Buddha who became
  Waizza Rath {waiz~za ra.. } of Ramayana. He was a king
  - a Kshatriya {hkt~ti.ya.}, who gave up his kingship to become a rhisi.
Visit to Naga hills - {nwa:nauk} गवय gavaya
War Song of Dinas Vawr : the First Anglo-Burmese War (5 March 1824 24 February 1826)


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{gar~za.} : repha - contd



  गर्जित [ garg-ita ]
- pp. n. id.; thunder; boasting: -rava, m. roar.


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गर्त [garta]
--> {gar~ta.}
Skt: [garta] - . m. high chair, throne; seat of a war-chariot; . m.n. a hole; ditch; grave; canal -- Mac083c1
Skt: गर्त garta - m. hollow of the the loins (anus, vagina) ... - SpkSkt
Pal: {gt~ta.} -- UHS-PMD0355
  UKT from UHS: n. body parts, body



गर्ताश्रय [ garta‿sraya ]
= ग र ् त ा श ् र य
- m. animal living in holes.

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गर्द् [GARD] I.P.
-- garda , shout, exult



गर्द garda [ grd-a ]
--> {gar~da.}
Skt: [ grd-a ] -- a. hungry -- Mac083c1.
Pal: {gd~da.} -- UHS-PMD0356
  UKT from UHS: mfn. hungry



गर्दभ gardabha [ garda-bh ]
Skt: गर्दभ [ garda-bh ] -- m. ass: &isharp;, f. she-ass; (-bha)-ratha, m. car drawn by asses. -- Mac083c1
Pal: {ga.dra.Ba.} - UHS-PMD0356
  UKT from UHS: m. {mr:} 'ass', 'donkey' -- MED2006-373


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गर्ध [ gardh-a ]
- m. greed; eagerness for (--); -in, a. greedy; eager for, devoted to (--).


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गर्भ [ grbh-a ]
- m. womb; interior (-- a. containing -within); foetus, embryo; new-born child; child; offspring, brood (of birds); conception; sprout: *-ka, m. wreath of flowers interwoven with the hair; -kma, a. desirous of the fruit of the womb; -kra, n. N. of a Sastra (producing fertility); -kla, m. time of pregnancy; -gata, pp. lying in the womb; -griha, -geha, n. inner apartment, bed chamber; inner sanctuary containing the image of the deity; -graha, m., -grahana, n. conception; -kyuti, f. birth; -t, f., -tva, n. pregnancy; -dsa, m. (, f.) slave by birth (Pr.); -dvdasa, m. pl. twelfth year after conception; -dhar, a. f. pregnant; -dhrana, n. pregnancy; -purodsa, m. cake offered during the pregnancy of a female animal; -bhartri-druh, a. injuring the foetus and the husband; -bharman, n. nurture of the foetus; -bhavana, n. inner sanctuary containing the image of the deity; -bhra, m. burden of the womb: -m dhri, become pregnant; -mandapa, m. inner apartment, bed chamber; -msa, m. month of pregnancy; -rpaka, m. young man; -lakshana, n. sign of pregnancy; -vat, a. f. pregnant; -vasati, f., -vsa, m. womb; -vesman, n. inner chamber; lying-in room; -stana, n. causing of abortion; -samsravana, n. miscarriage; -samkarita, m. one of mixed extraction; -sambhava, m. conception; -sambhti, f. id.; -stha, a. being in the womb; -sthna, n. womb; -srva, m. miscarriage.



गर्भागार [ garbha‿gra ]
- n. womb; bed chamber; lying-in room; inner sanctuary; -‿di, a. beginning with conception; -‿dhna, n. impregnation; a certain ceremony preceding impregnation; -‿ashtama, m. eighth year after conception.

गर्भाधान garbhādhāna
Skt: [ -‿dhna ] - n. impregnation; a certain ceremony preceding impregnation; - Mac083c1
Skt: गर्भाधान garbhādhāna - lit. attaining the wealth of the womb, the 1st of 16 Hindu rites of passage - Wikipedia

UKT 170508: See my note on Twelve Worldly Mingala-rites in Theravada-Buddhist Myanmarpr: different from Mingala Sutta of Gautama Buddha.



गर्भिन् [ garbh-in ]
- a. pregnant (also fig.), with (ac., in.): (n)-, f. pregnant woman.



गर्भेश््वर [ garbha‿svara ]
- m. hereditary sovereign: -t, f., -tva, n. hereditary dominion.



गर्भैकादश [ garbha‿ekdasa ]
- m. pl. eleventh year after conception.


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गर्मुत् [ garmt ]
- f. kind of wild bean.


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UKT 151231, 170509: Two transforms are involved in inter-transliteration between Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan
  {gar~wa.} --> --> {gar~ba.} --> {gb~ba.}
See my note on Checking vowels with killed-approximants


गर्व [ gar-va ]
- m. pride: -m kri or y, become haughty: -gir, f. pl. haughty speeches, vauntings.

गर्व [ gar-va ]
Skt: गर्व [ gar-va ] - m. pride - Mac083c1
Pal: {gb~ba.} - UHS PMD0358
  UKT from UHS: - m. aggressiveness, haughtiness



गर्वाय [ garv-ya ]
- den. . behave haughtily; ita, pp. haughty; proud of (in., --).


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गर्ह [garh]
- i. (p.) . garha, x. (p) . garhaya, complain of anything (ac.) to (d.); accuse, reproach, censure, blame; repent, of (ac.) : pp. garhita, blamed, by (in., g, lc., --); despised; blameworthy, reprehensible, forbidden; despicable; -m, ad. badly, ni, l. . speak slightingly of (d.). vi, censure, blame, rail at: pp. blamed, by (in. g., --); contemptible, reprehensible, forbidden (by, ab.), blameworthy (on account of, --).


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गर्हण [ garh-ana ]
- a. involving reproach; n. blame, reproach (on the part of, in.): , f. id.: -m y, incur blame (among, lc.); -anya, fp. blameworthy; -, f. blame, reproach; -in, a. blaming, railing at (--); -ya, fp. blameworthy.


गर्हण garhana [ garh-ana ]
= ग र ् ह ण --> {gar~ha.Na.}
Skt: a. involving reproach; n. blame, reproach (on the part of, in.) - Mac083c2
Pal: {ga.ra.ha.Na.}
- - UHS-PMD0360
   UKT from UHS: n. blame , reproach


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गल् [gal], i.p.
- gala , drip, trickle down, drop; fall or slip down, off or out; disappear; pp. galitea, vanished, gone, lost (--); omitted, esp. of recurring passages left out in the Pada text of the R.V.; cs. gtaya, strain; liquefy, dissolve, melt. ava, fall off or down, , pp. fallen, sunk or flowed down ud, well forth; fall out. nis, pp. effused, distilled. pari, pp. tumbled down; sunk in (--). pra, drip down. vi, flow away, dry up; melt; fall or slip down or off; slip out of (ab.); come to an end, disappear; pp. drained; dissolved; vanished. pra-vi, stream forth; disappear.



गल [ gal-a ]
- m. throat, neck: -vrtta, a. living only for his throat ( = belly); -sundik, f. uvula: du. soft palate; -hasta, m. hand on ( = seizure by) the throat.

गल [ gal-a ]
Skt: गल [ gal-a ] - - m. throat, neck: - Mac083c2
Skt: गल gala - m. rope, reed, throat, ... - SpkSkt
Pal: {ga.la.} - UHS PMD-0361
  UKT from UHS: m. neck

गलशुण्डिका galaśuṇḍikā
Skt: -sundik, f. uvula: du. soft palate; - Mac083c2
Skt: गलशुण्डिका galaśuṇḍikā - f. soft palate, swelling of the uvula, uvula - SpkSkt



गलितक [ galita-ka ]
- m. kind of dance or gesticulation; -pradpa, m., -pradpik, f. Lamp of omitted passages, T. of a work; -vayas, a. whose youth is past, stricken in years, aged.

गलितप्रदीप galitapradīpa
Skt: [ -galitapradīpa] - f. Lamp of omitted passages, T. of a work - Mac083c2
Skt: गलितप्रदीप galitapradīpa - m. light of dropped verses - SpkSkt



गलून [galna]
- m. N. of a man



गल्ल galla [ galla ]
= ग ल ् ल --> {gal~la.}
Skt: m. cheek. -- Mac083c2
Pal: {gal~la.}
  UKT from UHS: m. the buccal cavity .

See my note on the human cheek : cheek slapping by the Japanese forces in Myanmarpr during the Second World War.



गल्वर्क [ galvarka ]
- m. crystal; crystal bowl (also gallaka).


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गव [ gava ]
- m. ox (only -or --).



गवय [ gava-y ]
Skt: गवय [ gava-y ] - m. species of ox (Bos gavaeus); -la, m. buffalo. - Mac083c2
Pal: {ga.wa.ya.} - UHS PMD0361
  UKT from UHS: m. {nwa:nauk}, 'jungle ox'

"Bos frontalis laosiensis [ 5] seladang en malay, krating en tha, katu poth, peoung (Birmanie) {pran}".
- https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayal 151231
See my note on A Visit to the Naga-hills



गवाक्ष [ gava‿aksha ]
- m. (bull's eye), round window, air-hole; (n. ?) N. of a lake: i-ta, pp. latticed (with, in.).



गवानृत [ gava‿anrita ]
- n. false testimony regarding kine.



  गवामयन [ gavm-ayana ]
- n. N. of a sattra lasting a whole year; (m)-pati, m. bull (lord of cows); lord of rays, ep. of the sun or Agni.

UKT 140905: A "sattra" सत्त्र sattra, among many meanings such as <deception> means a "sacrificial session" which can last several hours, a week, a month, or even a year. Do not be alarmed at the word "sacrifice". Of course, it can be killing of a sacrificial victim - a human or an animal - or simply a burnt offering of clarified butter on a wooden fire. See my note on sattra - sacrificial session .



गवाशन [ gava‿asana ]
- m. tanner, shoemaker; -‿asva, n. cattle and horses; -‿ahnika, n. daily allowance of fodder for a cow.



गविष्टि [ gv-ishti ]
- a. desiring cows; f. heat, ardour, fervour; eagerness for or heat of battle; combat.



गविष्ठ [ gavi-shtha ]
- m. sun.



गवी [ gav ]
- f. . cow (only --); . speech.



- n. N. of a town.



गवेष् [gava‿ish] 
- I. . gavesha, X. P. . gaveshaya (look for cows), seek, search for (ac.).



गवेषण [ gava‿eshana ]
- a. ardently desirous; longing for battle; n. search; -‿eshin, a. seeking (-- ).

गवेषण gavesana [ gava‿eshana ]
Skt: a. ardently desirous; longing for battle; n. search; -- Mac083-c2
Pal: {ga.w-a.na.}
- -- UHS-PMD0361
   UKT from UHS: n. search, seek [wealth?]



गव्य [ . gav-ya ]
- den. desire cattle: only pr. pt. gavyt: desiring cattle; ardently desirous; eager for battle.

गव्य  [ . gav-ya ]
Skt: [ . gav-ya ] -- den. desire cattle: -- Mac083c2
Skt: गव्य gavya - adj. got from a cow, consisting of cattle or cows, proper or fit for cattle, sacred to the cow ... - SpkSkt



गव्य gavya [ . gv-ya (or -y) ]
--> {ga.w~ya.} / {ga.v~ya.} (both are disyllabic)
Skt: -- a. consisting of or relating to cattle; produced by a cow; n. herd of cows; pasture; cow's milk. -- Mac083-c2
Pal: {ga.bya.}
- -- UHS-PMD0358
   UKT from UHS: n. beef (meat of cattle).

UKT 170512: Be careful of  {ga.wa.} and {ga.bya.} (both are monosyllabic) in transliteration, which arises from the fact that there probably was no {ba.} in original Sanskrit, and the speakers' pronunciation mix-up of /w/ and /v/.

In Bur-Myan, the generic term for <cattle> is {nwa:}. However, in North America <cow> is being used as the generic term. The generic term for cattle meat is <beef>.
See my note on Eating Meat sic eating beef in Buddhism



गव्यु [ gav-y ]
- a. desiring cattle; eager for battle.

UKT: The two meanings given by Macdonell have reminded me of the sheep and cattle raids in ancient days, in particular the War Song of Dinas Vawr by Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866).
See in my note War Song of Dinas Vawr : the First Anglo-Burmese War (5 March 1824 24 February 1826)



गव्यूति [ gvyti ]
- f. pasturage, domain, dwelling-place; a measure of length (=2 krosas).

UKT: Units of length measure:
   1 yojana = 4 krosa = approx. 9 miles
   1 krosa = 2000 danda
   1 danda = 2 yard
 1760 yards = 1 mile
-- http://www.nandhi.com/speedoflight.htm 120202


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गहन [ gh-ana ]
- a. deep; dense; impenetrable (also fig.); n. depth, abyss; thicket; lurking-place; impenetrable darkness; thick cluster: -tva, n. denseness; impenetrability.

गहन gahana [ gh-ana ]
Skt: a. deep; dense; impenetrable (also fig.); n. depth, abyss; thicket; lurking-place; impenetrable darkness; thick cluster -- Mac083c2
Pal: {ga.ha.na.}
- - UHS-PMD0362
   UKT from UHS: mfn. dense. n. thicket


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- a. (, ); n. = gahana.



गह्वर [ gh-vara ]
- a. (, ); n. = gahana.


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गा [g] . iii. p.
- gig , go or come, to or towards (ac., lc.); follow; fall into, undergo (ac.). ati, pass by, elapse. vi‿ati, pass. adhi, fall into, undergo; hit upon. resolve on (ac.); think of (ac., g.); gnly. .: study; learn, from (ab.). anu, go after or in quest of (ac.); go along (a road), follow. apa, go away; depart or keep aloof from (ab.). abhi, go towards, approach (ac.); attain; undergo. , approach, come to (ac.); appear; befall. abhi‿, approach, go towards (ac.); befall; resolve to (inf.). upa‿, approach, come towards (ac.). anu-pari‿, return again to (ac.) ud, rise (heavenly bodies). upa, approach; fall into (ac.). nis, come forth, from (ab.); depart from (ab.); go out of the house. pari, go round; avoid; disregard. pra, go forward, proceed, towards (ac.); depart from (ab.) apa-pra, go away, depart. upa-pra, approach.



गा [g]
- . v. गै [gai]


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{gan~} : in Kin'si form

UKT 160101: Note the long vowel is checked by {nga.}-killed in Kin'si form.
It is not allowed in regular Bur-Myan, it is only the short vowel of 1 blnk duration that can be checked.




गाङ्ग [ gṅg-a ]
- a. () belonging to the Ganges; m. met. of Bhshma; -eya, -y, m. id.

UKT 170514: To understand the relationship between Ganges the river-goddess, and Bhishma the warrior, you need to know the mythical Kuru dynasty.

गाङ्ग [ gṅg-a ]
Skt: गाङ्ग [ gṅg-a ] - a. () belonging to the Ganges; m. met. of Bhshma; - Mac083c3
Pal: {gn~ga} - UHS PMD0352
  UKT from UHS: - f. Ganges river, river

See my note on the Expanding the Kuruksestra War into the Epic Mahabharata


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गाढ [ gdha ]
- pp. (√gh) bathed in; deep; fast tight, close; strong, vehement: --or-m, ad. -ly; -t, f., -tva, n. depth; vehemence, intensity; -nidra, a. sound asleep; -‿nurgin, a. deeply enamoured.


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गाणपत्य [ gna-patya ]
- a. relating to Ganesa; m. worshipper of Ganesa.



गाणेश [ gnesa ]
- a. relating to Ganesa; m. worshipper of Ganesa.



गाण्डिव [ gndiva ]
- m. n. Arguna's bow: -dhara, m. ep. of Arguna.



गाण्डीव [ gndva ]
- m. Arguna's bow; -dhanvan, m. Arguna.


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गातु [ . g-t ]
- m. (f.) motion; course, path; space; place, abode; welfare.



गातु [ . g-t ]
- m. song; singer.



गातुमत् [ gtu-mt ]
- a. spacious, commodious.



गातृ [g-tri ]
- m. singer 



गात्र [ g-tra ]
- n. (-- a. , ) limb; body; wing.



गात्रक [ gtra-ka ]
- n. body; -bhaṅga, m. bending or stretching the limbs or the body; -yashti, f. delicate body (-- a. brev;); -vat, a. having a beautiful body; -‿anulepan, f. unguent, paint.


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गाथ [ g-th ]
- m. song: -ka, m. singer; i-k, f. song, hymn.

Skt: -ka, m. singer - Mac083c3
Pal: {ga-hta.ka.} - UHS PMD0363
  UKT from UHS: m. singer



गाथा [ g-th ]
- f. hymn, verse; specifically non-Vedic verse (in ritual works); versified portion of Buddhistic stras; a metre (= ry).



गाथानी [ gth-n&isharp; ]
- m. precentor.

A precentor (not to be confused with presenter ) is a person who helps facilitate worship. The details vary depending on the religion, denomination, and era in question. The Latin derivation is "prcentor", from cantor, meaning "the one who sings before" (or alternatively, "first singer").
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precentor

UKT 160102: In a randomly chosen pair, <captor> /'kp.təʳ/ (DJPD16-082), and <presenter> /pri'zen.təʳ/ (DJPD16-427), the suffixes <tor> and <ter> are pronounced the same. So there is actually no difference in pronouncing <presentor> 'singer of versified Buddhist sutras'  गाथानी {ga-hta-ni} , and <presenter>, yet the two words have entirely different meanings. Looking online for the difference in pronunciation of suffixes <tor> and <ter> I came across a rule of thumb in English Language Learners
- http://ell.stackexchange.com/questions/7340/when-is-the-suffix-tor-and-ter-used 150102
"If the 't' is part of the root, then English uses the suffix -er. If 't' is not a part of the root, then English uses Latin suffix -tor-.".

गाथानी gāthānī {ga-hta-ni}
- adj. leading a song or a choir - SpkSkt



गाथिन् [ gth-n ]
- a. skilled in song; m. singer; N. of Rishi Visvmitra's father: pl. his descendants.

See my note on Rishi Visvmitra : author of Gayatri Mantra (equivalent of Mora Sutta Paritta of Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhism).


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गाध [ gdh- ]
- a. fordable, shallow; n. shallow, ford.



गाधि [ gdhi ]
- m. = gthin, Rishi Visvmitra's father: -ga, m. ep. of Visvmitra; -nandana, -putra, m. pat. of Visvmitra; -pura, n. ep. of Knyakubga; -snu, m. pat. of Visvmitra.



गाधेय [ gdh-eya ]
- m. Visvmitra.


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गान [ g-na ]
- n. song.


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गान्धर्व [ gndharv ]
- a. (f. gndharv) relating to the Gandharvas; m. singer: pl. N. of a people; n. music, song: -vidy, f. music; -vidhi, -vivha, m. Gandharva-marriage consummated without any ceremony, by mutual consent only; -sl, f. concert-room.



गान्धार [ gndhra ]
- m. prince, , f. princess, of the Gndhris; third note in the musical scale.

(end of old p083.htm )

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UKT notes

Checking vowels with killed-approximants
- Coda approximants

-- UKT 120725 , 140928, 170507

Remember, Romabama syllables are of the form CV where the coda = 0, 1, 2.
We first run into syllables with no coda, i.e. CV .
Next comes killed approximant as coda, (coda = 1): {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, & {h} .
Third, are loan-words with = 2 : which are mostly from English.

First, we have to note that in Bur-Myan phonology with the exception of {a.}, the others {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, & {ha.} are medial formers. Medial sounds are monosyllabic, and are unique to Bur-Myan.

The most troublesome medial sound for non-indigenous Bur-Myan speakers and foreigners including the Hindi speakers is the {ya.pn.} sound represented by the glyph . These speakers when they tried to articulate this sound could produce the disyllabic conjunct only, which is known as {ya.hsw:} written as .

Hanging-Ya { ~ya.} is one of the Hanging-consonants {by:hsw:} in Mon-Myan. For these representations see
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries - NaingMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170507)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170507)

From the point of view of the syllable structure, CV, the approximant-coda is: {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, & {h}. In Bur-Myan, the coda do influence the nuclear vowel V, resulting in a change from a to some other vowel effecting the pronunciation. In simple transliteration this problem does not arise and the rime is simply written as ay, ar, al, aw, a & ah. Remember the simple transliteration do not give the pronunciation. Since Romabama is a transcription, a has to be changed (with some compromise for inclusion of English and Sanskrit) to reflect the Bur-Myan pronunciation.

It is where the problem of rhoticity comes in because Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, whilst Skt-Dev is highly so. We have to deal with Skt-Dev words involving the repha. With plosive-stops of {wag}-consonants, the problem is solved when we note that a word such as karma or कर्मन् kar-man is changed to {km~ma.}, where the repha is changed to the onset of the second syllable. See p063.htm & p064.htm. However, here we are meeting the {awag}-consonant in Skt --> Pali.

Here I was expecting a vertical conjuncts of two {wa.} , , implying a {wa.t} , .

This immediately poses the problem of Romabama vowel. If we were to say, {gaw~wa.} from , we get {gaw} which is unacceptable because of the confusion from English diphthong. So we will tentatively say {go}. Checking with DJPD16-010 shows that <aeo> is realized in

/iˈɒ ((US)) iˈɑː/ <archaeology> /ˌɑː.kiˈɒl.ə.ʤi/ (US) /ˌɑːr.kiˈɑː.lə-/
/iəʊ ((US)) ioʊ, iə/ <palaeotype> /'pl.əʊ.taɪp/ (US) /'peɪ.li.oʊ-, -ɚ-/

This amounts to saying, {go} for {ga.wa.t}, i.e. {go}, where {o} represents the killed-{wa.}, . Still it is unsatisfactory. Going back to a simple {gao} maybe preferable, or better still {gaO}.

This may cause a confusion with the vowel {o} --> {go}. However, if we are to use cap-O, we can get over this problem. We now have {ga.} with killed-approximants tentatively with its tenuis-voiceless counterpart {ka.} as:

{g}, {gar}, {gal}, {gaO}
{k}, {kar}, {kal}, {kaO}

We have no way of checking the pronunciation of {gaO} and {kaO}, except from
{pa.oO} . The Chinese religion Tao (present in Myanmarpr}
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taoism 120725
is presently spelled {tauk}, which is evidently wrong because of absence of  {ka.} sound in the coda. Romabama is now spelling it since 120725, as {tauO} .

UKT 120725: I do hope that my Taoist friend Daw Win (deceased) and her husband U Sai Latt would be satisfied.

Skt-Dev speakers seems to get confused between {wa.} and {ba.}, because there was no phoneme for {ba.} in their original speech. See Grapheme-shape hypothesis .

From the above, we arrived at Skt {gar~wa.} --> Pal {gb~ba.}

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Devanagari conjunct equivalent to Myanmar Kinsi 

-- UKT 120726, 170510

A. A. Macdonell in his A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg, had used a vertical conjunct in the orthography of words like 'Ganga' [ Bur-Myan: {gn~ga}]. This older orthography is equivalent to the Bur-Myan {kn:si:} 'centipede-ridden'. Obviously this has been changed in India to modern style which shows the killed-{nga.}, {ng}, resulting in {ging} --> {ging:}, or to a completely different form, {gn} using the {::tn} 'dot above'.

The Bur-Myan {kn:si:} has been a problem for me, because the modern day Skt-Dev prefers the {::tn} 'dot above' orthography. In my early days of study of Sanskrit I had concluded - mistakenly - that there was no killed-{nga.} {ng}, and no equivalent to {kn:si:} resulting in mistakes to spellings in words like 'Ganga' the river, and 'Angulimala' the Arahant.

The orthography is unnecessarily confusing because Eng-Lat, the transcription language, does not have the phoneme /ŋ/ in the onset of English words but only in the coda, e.g. <sing> /sɪŋ/. In the word <singer>, the <g> is silent: /'sɪŋ.əʳ/ (US) /-ɚ/ -- DJPD16-490. It is regrettable that English teachers in Myanmarpr, do not generally know phonetics, and also that their very own Myanmar script is a phonetic script. And they insists that the students pronounce the <g> even with emphasis. Such pitfalls are avoided in Romabama which is based on phonetics and phonologies of both Burmese and English.

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Eating Meat sic beef in Buddhism

-- UKT 120726: I have been asked by my friends in the West, whether I as a Theravada Buddhist eat meat of cattle (beef). They did not know that even Gautama Buddha ate beef. He allowed his monks and nuns to eat fish or meat as long as it is not from an animal  whose meat is specifically forbidden (such as elephant and horse which were "royal mounts" and which could have been stolen from the king), and as long as they had no reason to believe that the animal was slaughtered specifically for them.

From: http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma3/meat.html 120726

What the Buddha Said About Eating Meat

-- by Ajahn Brahmavamso
(Newsletter, April-June 1990, Buddhist Society of Western Australia.)

Since the very beginning of Buddhism over 2500 years ago, Buddhist monks and nuns have depended on almsfood. They were, and still are, prohibited from growing their own food, storing their own provisions or cooking their own meals. Instead, every morning they would make their day's meal out of whatever was freely given to them by lay supporters. Whether it was rich food or coarse food, delicious or awful tasting it was to be accepted with gratitude and eaten regarding it as medicine. The Buddha laid down several rules forbidding monks from asking for the food that they liked. As a result, they would receive just the sort of meals that ordinary people ate - and that was often meat.

Once, a rich and influential general by the name of Siha (meaning 'Lion') went to visit the Buddha. Siha had been a famous lay supporter of the Jain monks but he was so impressed and inspired by the Teachings he heard from the Buddha that he took refuge in the Triple Gem (i.e. he became a Buddhist). General Siha then invited the Buddha, together with the large number of monks accompanying Him, to a meal at his house in the city the following morning. In preparation for the meal, Siha told one of his servants to buy some meat from the market for the feast. When the Jain monks heard of their erstwhile patron's conversion to Buddhism and the meal that he was preparing for the Buddha and the monks, they were somewhat peeved:

"Now at the time many Niganthas (Jain monks), waving their arms, were moaning from carriage road to carriage road, from cross road to cross road in the city: 'Today a fat beast, killed by Siha the general, is made into a meal for the recluse Gotama (the Buddha), the recluse Gotama makes use of this meat knowing that it was killed on purpose for him, that the deed was done for his sake'... " [1].

Siha was making the ethical distinction between buying meat already prepared for sale and ordering a certain animal to be killed, a distinction which is not obvious to many westerners but which recurs throughout the Buddha's own teachings. Then, to clarify the position on meat eating to the monks, the Buddha said:

"Monks, I allow you fish and meat that are quite pure in three respects: if they are not seen, heard or suspected to have been killed on purpose for a monk. But, you should not knowingly make use of meat killed on purpose for you." [2]

There are many places in the Buddhist scriptures which tell of the Buddha and his monks being offered meat and eating it. One of the most interesting of these passages occurs in the introductory story to a totally unrelated rule (Nissaggiya Pacittiya 5) and the observation that the meat is purely incidental to the main theme of the story emphasizes the authenticity of the passage:

Uppalavanna (meaning 'she of the lotus-like complexion') was one of the two chief female disciples of the Buddha. She was ordained as a nun while still a young woman and soon became fully enlightened. As well as being an arahant (enlightened) she also possessed various psychic powers to the extent that the Buddha declared her to be foremost among all the women in this field. [UKT ]

UKT 141002: At this moment I could not get the Pal-Myan spelling for
"Uppalavanna" - it is probably {OAp~pa.la. wN~Na. ht-ri} .
See Dhammapada Verse 69.

Once, while Uppalavanna was meditating alone in the afternoon in the 'Blind-Men's Grove', a secluded forest outside of the city of Savatthi, some thieves passed by. The thieves had just stolen a cow, butchered it and were escaping with the meat. Seeing the composed and serene nun, the chief of the thieves quickly put some of the meat in a leaf-bag and left it for her. Uppalavanna picked up the meat and resolved to give it to the Buddha. Early next morning, having had the meat prepared, she rose into the air and flew to where the Buddha was staying, in the Bamboo Grove outside of Rajagaha, over 200 kilometres as the crow (or nun?) flies! Though there is no specific mention of the Buddha actually consuming this meat, obviously a nun of such high attainments would certainly have known what the Buddha ate.

However there are some meats which are specifically prohibited for monks to eat: human meat, for obvious reasons; meat from elephants and horses as these were then considered royal animals; dog meat - as this was considered by ordinary people to be disgusting; and meat from snakes, lions, tigers, panthers, bears and hyenas - because one who had just eaten the flesh of such dangerous jungle animals was thought to give forth such a smell as to draw forth revenge from the same species!

Towards the end of the Buddha's life, his cousin Devadatta attempted to usurp the leadership of the Order of monks. In order to win support from other monks, Devadatta tried to be more strict than the Buddha and show Him up as indulgent. Devadatta proposed to the Buddha that all the monks should henceforth be vegetarians. The Buddha refused and repeated once again the regulation that he had established years before, that monks and nuns may eat fish or meat as long as it is not from an animal whose meat is specifically forbidden, and as long as they had no reason to believe that the animal was slaughtered specifically for them.

The Vinaya, then, is quite clear on this matter. Monks and nuns may eat meat. Even the Buddha ate meat. Unfortunately, meat eating is often seen by westerners as an indulgence on the part of the monks. Nothing could be further from the truth - I was a strict vegetarian for three years before I became a monk. In my first years as a monk in North-East Thailand, when I bravely faced many a meal of sticky rice and boiled frog (the whole body bones and all), or rubbery snails, red-ant curry or fried grasshoppers - I would have given ANYTHING to be a vegetarian again! On my first Christmas in N.E. Thailand an American came to visit the monastery a week or so before the 25th. It seemed too good to be true, he had a turkey farm and yes, he quickly understood how we lived and promised us a turkey for Christmas. He said that he would choose a nice fat one especially for us... and my heart sank. We cannot accept meat knowing it was killed especially for monks. We refused his offer. So I had to settle for part of the villager's meal - frogs again.

Monks may not exercise choice when it comes to food and that is much harder than being a vegetarian. Nonetheless, we may encourage vegetarianism and if our lay supporters brought only vegetarian food and no meat, well... monks may not complain either!

May you take the hint and be kind to animals.

[1] Book of the Discipline, Vol. 4, p. 324
[2] ibid, p. 325

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Grapheme-shape hypothesis

- UKT 170511

In my long study of Linguistics, I have come across speech defects such as Dyslexia, Spoonerism, and others.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia 170511
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spoonerism 170511
"A spoonerism is an error in speech or deliberate play on words in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched (see metathesis) between two words in a phrase. [1] [2] These are named after the Oxford don and ordained minister William Archibald Spooner (18441930), who was famous for doing this.
"The Lord is a loving shepherd." changing < l > and <sh> makes "The Lord is a shoving leopard".

Another problem arises when speakers of a certain linguistic group, find themselves lacking in some phonemes of a foreign language. A present day example is Bur-Myan speakers of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language group) coming face to face with English-speech of the IE (Indo-European) language beginning from the 18th century. To the present day, speakers of each group just came up transliterations (dropping the accompanying suffix and inflexion), instead of transcription resulting in confusion between Burmese and English.

Thus when I see "Mon", a Burmese word written in Latin script, I do not known what it stands for - the name of an indigenous group or the name of a river. On the other hand a foreigner does not know what the word "Myanmar" stands for because it is not a complete word. In correct orthography, "Myanmar" has a suffix for the country, a different suffix for the inhabitants, and still a different one for the language.

Now that I am trying to unify four languages, BEPS - Burmese-speech in Myanmar-script, English-speech in Latin-script, Pali-speech in Myanmar-script, and Sanskrit-speech in Devanagari-script, I need to invent new graphemes for the foreign phonemes. My invention, Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} 'backbone of Bama' designed as ASCII compatible for use on the Internet and email, gives correct spelling, but is still insufficient for pronunciation. Romabama is based on a compromise between phonologies of Burmese and English - the two languages I must have heard even when I was a foetus in my mother's womb!

This problem must have been faced by ancient linguists when Sanskrit speakers (IE) had come into the Indian-subcontinent extending into the present-day Myanmarpr in which natives had been speaking dialects Tib-Bur languages centuries before. I contend that the natives were speaking different dialects of Old Magadha speech similar to the present day Burmese. Magadha was so simple that even animals could understand (not speak -- because of their lack of necessary vocal apparatus, and the Universal Grammar (theory of Noam Chomsky).
"Universal grammar (UG) is a linguistic theory, proposed by Noam Chomsky, that argues that the ability to learn language is innate, distinctly human and distinct from all other aspects of human cognition." - Google
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_grammar 170511

The ancient linguists must have invented new graphemes to solve the problem.

Theory of Grapheme-shapes

My theory essentially says that when a new phoneme has to be introduced into a language, the new glyph is chosen from that phoneme with the nearest sound. In Devanagari, we have two cases:

ड  + dot --> ङ  velar
{wa.} व + diagonal --> {ba.} ब bilabial

Skt-Dev speakers pronounce Bilabial {wa.} /w/ as Labial-dental {va.} /v/, which necessitates Romabama to invent a new the basic akshara {va.} /v/.

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Human cheek

-- UKT 120725

The Bur-Myan culture places a high importance to the human cheek. A slap to the cheek is an extreme form of insult. This kind of punishment was commonly and routinely applied by Japanese soldiers among themselves, but when they applied it to the Myanmar population, not only the individual's pride was hurt, but the whole nation felt insulted. It was one of the reasons why Myanmars of our generation and previous generations hated the Japanese occupiers. I think this fact is still not realized by the Japanese even today -- 60 years after the occupation.

The following is from: http://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/J/a/Japan.htm 120725
" Corporal punishment was pervasive in the Japanese Army and Navy. Japanese author Tasaki Hanama described training of new recruits in the Japanese Army (Browne 1967):
[Ref: Browne, Courtney. 1967. Tojo: The Last Banzai. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80844-7]

Five old soldiers went down the line without warning, slapping each soldier soundly on his cheek. Those that could not keep their posture of attention were slapped more than the others. The sergeant then demanded of each recruit why he thought he had been slapped. As each gave what he thought might be the answer, he was soundly slapped again. Finally, one recruit, when his turn came said he didn't know. "That is right!" The squad leader said. "When you are slapped don't give excuses. As His Majesty has been pleased to admonish in his Imperial Rescript, 'Uninfluenced by worldly thoughts and unhampered by politics, guard well your single destiny of patriotism.' Our sole duty is to be patriotic to the Emperor. You need only obey what you are told."

Whenever we speak of the cheek we should be careful to differentiate the exterior from the interior. The following is from: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/gray/subjects/subject/242 120725
" The Cheeks (bucc) form the sides of the face, and are continuous in front with the lips. They are composed externally of integument; internally of mucous membrane; and between the two of a muscular stratum, besides a large quantity of fat, areolar tissue, vessels, nerves, and buccal glands.
"Structure.The mucous membrane libning the cheek is reflected above and below upon the gums, and is continuous behind with the lining membrane of the soft palate. Opposite the second molar tooth of the maxilla is a papilla, on the summit of which is the aperture of the parotid duct. The principal muscle of the cheek is the Buccinator; but other muscles enter into its formation, viz., the Zygomaticus, Risorius, and Platysma.
"The buccal glands are placed between the mucous membrane and Buccinator muscle: they are similar in structure to the labial glands, but smaller. About five, of a larger size than the rest, are placed between the Masseter and Buccinator muscles around the distal extremity of the parotid duct; their ducts open in the mouth opposite the last molar tooth. They are called molar glands."

The following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheek 120725
" Cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear. They may also be referred to as jowls. "Buccal" means relating to the cheek. In humans, the region is innervated by the buccal nerve. The area between the inside of the cheek and the teeth and gums is called the buccal pouch or buccal cavity and forms part of the mouth."

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Kuruksestra War and Epic Mahabharata

UKT 170513: I hold that many original Vdic stories about Rishis and wars belonging to the native Tib-Bur speakers, were taken over by the invading Sanskrit speakers and their religionists the Brahmin-poannars who had corrupted the ancient stories by rewritting again and again the old stories to glorify their male-gods. Gautama-Buddha a Tib-Burman speaker condemned them roundly. He revered only some 10 Rishis ones as those to whom the secrets of Nature had become known due to their yogic practices. He had rejected the MahaBrahma - the axiomatic entity of the Hindus. The revelation of Nature's secrets were not boons from the axiomatic entities - particularly the Hindu Trimurti. An example is the ever-expanding and elaborating the Kuruksestra War.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurukshetra_War 170513
"... there has been interpolation in the Mahabharata and observes that, 'Originally it (Mahabharata) was a small poem of 8,800 verses and was known by the name Jaya (victory), then it swelled to 24,000 verses and became known as Bharata, and, finally, it reached the present stupendous size of the one hundred thousand verses, passing under the name Mahabharata.' [2]

UKT 120726: In the Hindu Epic Mahabharata (based on the story of Kuruksestra War), Bhishma (the Elder of both the Pandavas and Kauravas) was the eighth son of the Kuru king Sntanu, the human, and his wife the river-goddess Gang in human form.

The story tells that Bhishma was a Vasu (an elemental-god representing an aspect of Nature: one of the 33 dvas of Skt: Trayastriṃśa aka Pali: Tāvatiṃsa), who was punished to be born as a human. The Goddess-Gang undertook to give birth to the human child. She then attempted to rescue him from the troubles and travails from a life-time as a human-being, by drowning him in her river so that he would be able to go back to his heavenly-dva home. The rescue attempt failed, and the Vasu in the form of Bhishma had to suffer a life of human-suffering and a horrible death on the battle-field.
See - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhishma 120726 .

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Magadhi-Myanmar (Mag-Myan)

UKT 120719, 141114, 170506: I opine that Pal-Myan or Magadhi that was brought to Tagaung by King Abhiraza. It was Tib-Bur, and would have a common phonology (pronunciation especially of vowels). It would have the velar phoneme r1c5 /ŋ/ represented by c {nga.} and ċ {ngn}. In fact c {nga.} is present in Nwari, the language of Kathmandu valley of the remnants of relatives of Gautama Buddha, e.g. c {nga.} ङ, in <fish> न्या ; ङा  . See:
. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary (Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 170506)
. Npali-English Dictionary by Karl-Heinz Krmer, 2007.
- KHKramer-NepalDict<> / bkp<> (link chk 170506) 

If so, we should expect it to follow the Bur-Myan trend. Otherwise, it would follow that of Skt-Dev. In my study of BEPS, I have found that, Sanskrit repha is changed into a conjunct of two graphemes in Pali, with a vowel change in some cases, such as:

Skt: ------------- Pal:
{gar~ga.} = {gag~ga.}
{gar~za.} = {giz~za.}
{gar~da.} = {gd~da.}
{gar~Ba.} = {gb~Ba.}

Though not significant in Sanskrit, the influence of coda, exemplified in {giz~za.} & {gd~da.}, on the nuclear vowel is important in Burmese. Here find the same importance in Pal-Myan.

Moreover, there is almost no rhoticity (or repha) in Pali spoken in Myanmarpr. This shows that it is following the Burmese trend. Based on these I have to conclude that Pal-Myan is not IE (Indo-European). See my note on Rotacism

Romabama Maukcha-Weikcha Rule : {mauk-hkya.} {weik-hkya.} rule
- UKT 160310, 170507:
I hold that there is a reason why certain glyphs are based on a single-circle (easy to write without lifting the stylus from the substrate), whilst others are based on double-circles (difficult to write compared to single circle). The single circles are more basic than double circles. Generally, the names of single-circle glyphs have suffixes {l:} or {ng}, whilst those of double-circles have suffix {kri:}. Examples:

{ka.l:} ? --> {ka.kri:}  :
  Note in Pegu-dialect of Mon-Myan, doesn't have /g/ sound.
  It has {k}-sound, prompting me to suggest that Mon-Myan is {ka.l:}.
{ga.ng} --> {Ga.kri:}
{a.l:} --> {a.kri:}
{na.ng} --> {Na.kri:}

The reason is either on "pronunciation" or on "meaning", and I try to stick to the rule which I had learnt as a child, that {mauk-hkya.} is used for single-circle glyphs and {weik-hkya.} is for double circles. My friend U Tun Tint of MLC has disputed what I have remembered and holds that the choice of {mauk-hkya.} or {weik-hkya.} is set arbitrarily.

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Mythical Kuru dynasty

UKT 160101:

You need to related the almost-disjointed stories related in
Kurukshetra War कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध
= क ु र ु क ् ष े त ् र  - kurukṣetra
- n. field of the Kurus (a plain near Delhi) - SpkSkt
= य ु द ् ध yuddha - n. battle, fight, war - SpkSkt

The English words <battle> and <war> are different: in a war many battles can be fought. There were 18 consecutive battles fought on 18 different days, each lasting from sun-rise to sun-down. These battles, the pre-war diplomatic negotiations, and post-war events are described in the Indian Epic Mahabharata.

The original 8,800 verses under the head Jaya (victory), were expanded into 24,000 verses, and finally to one-hundred thousand verses. In the final version Krishna the king preached the Bhagavad-Gita the philosophy to Arjuna the warrior-prince. See also Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurukshetra_War 160101

Though Bhagavad-Gita the philosophy is highly moralistic, the author Krishna the king cheated on the battle field. I believe that if only the Gita were presented in a different setting it would make the philosophy more valuable.
See: Five times Lord Krishna cheated in Mahabharat
- http://daily.bhaskar.com/news/JM-MYTH-5-times-lord-krishna-cheated-in-mahabharat-5136742-PHO.html 170514

As a Buddhist I have hated lying and cheating: one of the vows of Five Precepts. For Theravada Buddhists, you may start your day by taking the Five Precepts from the Sri Lanka monk
- bk-cndl-LankaPali<))  

Even before I had embraced Buddhism as scientific - not axiomatic like the rest of major religions - I had hated cheating. I remember, I entered as a young boy of 8 or 9, into an agreement with my parents, especially with my father U Tun Pe that I would never tell a lie (cheating) and if I had accidentally done something wrong, and had admitted my mistake they should not punish me. I know my mother, coming from the merchant class (a class which place gain and profit above everything else), and everready with her cane would not stick to the agreement. I had to call on my father to save me from my mother's cane if he was around, but had to bear her unjust punishment if he were absent. To me a cheater is a cheater - a liar a lair - whether he be Lord Krishna or not.


- UKT 160101: Most Bur-Myan Buddhists know something of the Indian epic Ramayana. But most of us do not know anything about the second epic Mahabharata in which is embedded the Hindu Philosophy of Bhagavad Gita preached by King Krishna the reincarnate of Hindu Dva-god Vishnu, to Arjuna one of the Pandavas right on the battlefield of Kurukshetra War.

UKT 160101, 170504: There is an episode in the Kuru's lineage in which a close relative impregnates by levirate (an ancient custom predating modern artificial insemination) the wives of a deceased person to preserve the lineage with the consent of all parties.

UKT 170504: Levirate (by brother), and sororate (by sister)
- OMaurice-Levirate<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170514)
"According to Agarwal (1984), Levirate unions were common in Asia. The Punjab and Haryana of India practiced it; in Pakistan and Bangladesh many communities also practiced it. Among the Punjab and Haryana (India), the brother of a diceased man is obliged to marry his brothers widow (Malika Manchanda, 2014)"
See also: Sororate marriage - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sororate_marriage 170514

The first time I came across this Indian-practice, was in 1951. I was then working as a junior auditor cum LDC (Lower Division Clerk) working in the Pension section (Pen 1) of the office of the AG (Accountant General) of Burma. I was responsible to draft an order to settle a case brought about the AG of Bengal against a widow of an Indian policeman who had died on duty working for the Burma Government (before Burma becoming independent). Bengal-AG had cut off the extraordinary pension awarded to the widow who had given birth to a child many years after her husband's death. The extraordinary pension rule had stated that, if a widow were to remarry, the pension would be cut off immediately and Bengal-AG had acted on it. The widow had argued that she had not remarried but had the child according the levirate custom. I, as a Buddhist had not known about the Indian custom, and had argued that giving birth is proof of remarrying. I remember, Mr. Bhattacharya, the officer on special duty working for the independent Burma government to handle such cases, and U Thaung Tin the office Superintendent smiling at me for my ignorance.

In the episode prince Vicitravirya had died without leaving a successor to the throne, thereupon the wily dowager queen Satyvati asked her illegitimate son Rishi Vysa (splitter of the Vda) to impregnate by levirate her daughters-in-law Ambik & Amblik to get issues to occupy the throne.

Ambik gave birth to a blind child who was unfit to occupy the throne alone. Amblik gave birth to a pale (& physically weak) child who co-occupied the throne with his elder blind brother. Sdri (f. Sdra) - the concubine of Vicitravirya gave birth to a healthy son. But the son, Vidura, because of the lower rank of his mother, even with his sagacity, could not occupy the throne. He served as a wise counsellor and minister.

Genetically, Pandavas & Vidura are not related to the Ancestor Kuru. The reader should note that this Vidura is probably not the embryo-Buddha Vidura of the Ten Great Birth Stories of Buddhism.

The Buddhist story is listed in Jataka Tales in the Sixth Buddhist Synod version of Tipitaka shown on the right. See: {za/HTa./7/151}
An excerpt in Pal-Myan is also given. For those who do not read Pal-Myan, just concentrate on the words: {ku.ru.}, {kau:ra.ba.}, and {wi.Du.ra.pN~i.ta.}. The usual way of presentation of text-Pal is to give a direct translation to text-Bur, which is almost equally difficult to read.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurukshetra_War 160101

The Kurukshetra War कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध kurukṣetra yuddha is a war described in the Indian epic Mahabharata as a conflict that arose from a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura हास्तिन पुर hāstina pura 'elephant city' in an Indian kingdom called Kuru. It involved a number of ancient kingdoms participating as allies of the rival groups.

The location of the battle is described as having occurred in Kurukshetra in the modern state of Haryana. Despite only referring to these eighteen days, the war narrative forms more than a quarter of the book, suggesting its relative importance within the epic, which overall spans decades of the warring families. The narrative describes individual battles and deaths of various heroes of both sides, military formations, war diplomacy, meetings and discussions among the characters, and the weapons used. The chapters (parvas) dealing with the war (from chapter six to ten) are considered amongst the oldest in the entire Mahabharata.

UKT 160101, 170506: When I first read the story, I didn't pay any attention to the language issue. There are two language groups involved - the Tib-Bur speakers and the IE speakers. The original indigenous peoples spoke various dialects and languages belonging to Tib-Bur. Even the IE speakers would be speaking two dialects - the ancestors of the modern Hindi speakers of the north, and the speakers of modern Tamil speakers of the south with diverse dialects of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) language group. Imagine the command structures on the battle-field. Each group would be speaking different mutually unintelligible languages. Did they have a common language? The language issue resulting in community riots have not been resolved satisfactorily even to this day in the modern Indian subcontinent.

The modern Indians are more fortunate than their ancestors - they speak a common foreign language, English, in their Parliament! Perhaps in the ancient battle, the lingua franca would have been Magadhi, or more precisely Mag-Myan. If the common phonology and grammar of modern Bur-Myan had been followed: there would be no tense, no number, and no inflexions, so that it could have been the lingua franca understood by everyone including elephants and horses on the battle-field - a tall claim perhaps: but a claim commonly known in Myanmarpr.
Please note, I do not claim that Mag-Myan is Bur-Myan

UKT: More in the Wiki article

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Precentor : worship assistant

- UKT 170509: Precentor is a singer who sings hymns accompanied by music. Since music is banned in Theravada-Buddhism of Myanmarpr, the description below in Wikipedia as 'a person who helps facilitate worship' is misleading to peoples of Myanmarpr.

Theravadims do not worship anyone. They pay respects to the Buddha, his Teachings, his monks, own parents and elders and teacher. To them YHVH, God, Allah and Dva are just axiomatic beings. In Theravada ceremonies music is absent. Beating of the Triangular gong, or Circular gong is just to signify the end of something being recited - not sung.

The story of the Vdi Rishi Brighu (a human being who had acquired supernatural powers due to his yogic practice) mistreating the Hindu Trimurti ‎त्रिमूर्ति - Mahabhahma with a nonworship-curse, Vishnu with a kick in the chest, and Siva with a phallic-curse has led me to conclude that the Ancient Vdic religion (and some 10 rishis revered by Gautama Buddha), is the forerunner of the Theravada-Buddhism.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precentor 120725

A precentor is a person who helps facilitate worship. The details vary depending on the religion, denomination, and era in question. The Latin derivation is "prcentor", from <cantor>, meaning "the one who sings before" (or alternatively, "first singer").

cantor n. 1. The Jewish religious official who leads the musical part of a service. 2. The person who leads a church choir or congregation in singing; a precentor. [Latin singer from canere to sing; See kan- in Indo-European Roots.] -- AHTD

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-- UKT 141114

The relation between L-sounds sounds and R-sounds is important in the study of BEPS. When linguists do not take this into consideration, they usually end up in extreme differences of opinion perhaps leading to enmity. I cite the case of controversy between:
F. Edgerton author of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary , 1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm (link chk 141114), and
Chi Hisen-lin aka Ji Xianlin (季羡林) , author of Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism in Journal of the Burma Research Society, XLIII, i, June 1960 .
See LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm (link chk 141114),
and proceed to - lang-probl.htm (link chk 141114)

Edgerton writes in i02. An 'original language' of Buddhism -- i02original.htm (link chk 141114):
" 1.22. Take Lāghula  = Rāhula  {ra-hu.la} ( fn003-09); l  for r  does indeed agree with Māgadhī,"

The problem of L-sounds and R-sounds take on a new perspective when we note that the POAs of /l/ and /ɹ/ are the same: both are dental (or alveolar). They are both approximants and are different only in mode of articulation. When I pronounce /l/, my tongue tip is touching the roof of the mouth but for/ɹ/ it is touching the lower teeth. The problem is similar to the case of vowels, {iLi.} ऌ (vocalic-L), & ऋ {iRi.}(vocalic-R) shown in three three-dimensional vowel diagram below.


Excerpts from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotacism 120718

Rhotacism refers to several phenomena related to the usage of the consonant r  (whether as an alveolar tap, alveolar trill, or the rarer uvular trill):

the excessive or idiosyncratic use of the r;
the inability to pronounce (or difficulty in pronouncing) r.
the conversion of another consonant into r.

The term comes from the Greek letter rho, denoting "r".

UKT 170508: What are Bur-Myan {ra.} and Skt-Dev र ra ? I have been observing that Bur-Myan {ga.ra.} can easily become monosyllabic {gra.}, whilst Skt-Dev गर pair becomes {gar}-repha which can be written in the Kinsi-form (or centipede-form) . Bur-Myan {ra.} has very little rhoticity and is like the British /ɹ/ and unlike the American /r/ .

Skt-Dev has a rhotic form more rhotic than {gar}-repha, formed from {ga.} and a highly rhotic vowel ऋ (and its sign ृ) . Though it is not connected to {ra.}, in transliteration it is known as Vocalic-R {iRi.} ऋ. Romabama represents

{ga.} ग + {iRi.} ऋ -->  as {gRi.} गृ

differentiated from {gri.} ग्रि ( ग ् र ि ) by the length of its hood.


Rhotacism is more common among speakers of languages that have a trilled R, such as Swedish (except in the landscapes of Skne, Halland, Blekinge, land and southern Smland), Finnish, Italian, Polish, and Spanish. This sound is usually the last one a child masters. Some people never learn to produce it; they substitute other sounds, such as the velar approximant, the uvular approximant, and the uvular trill (often called "French R").


In linguistics, rhotacism or rhotacization is the conversion of a consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant /z/, /d/, /l/, or /n/) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment. The most common may be of /z/ to /r/. [1]

In Sanskrit, words ending in -s other than -as become -r in sandhi with a voiced consonant:

naus (before p/t/k) vs naur bharati
agnis (before p/t/k) vs agnir mata

This is not a case of rhotacism proper, since r and s are simply allophones in those positions.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Sattra : sacrificial session

-- UKT 140905: A "sattra" सत्त्र sattra, among many meanings such as <deception> means a "sacrificial session" which can last several hours, a week, a month, or even a year. Do not be alarmed at the word "sacrifice". Of course, it can be killing of a sacrificial victim - a human or an animal - or simply a burnt offering of clarified butter on a wooden fire.

If you are not squeamish, watch a goat sacrifice at Kamakhya temple, Asom / Assam, India, June 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7u0jtemfkhk 140905.
Caveat: The youtube presentations are not always balanced, because they are presented by people usually with self interest.

From:   www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbr/sbe26/sbe2677.htm 120202
... (for the sacrificial session) is a sitting down, is a session (sattra): hence they say .... undertake) is used of sacrificial performances in the Sattra lasting for twelve ...

Satapatha Brahmana Part II (SBE26), Julius Eggeling tr. [1885], at sacred-texts.com


4:6:8:1 1. Now the consecration-ceremony 3 (for the sacrificial session) is a sitting down, is a session (sattra): hence they say of them, 'they sit.' And when thereafter they perform the sacrifice, then they (under)go; then he, who is the leader, leads: hence they say of them, 'they (under)go 4.'
p. 441

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A Visit to Naga hills

Sacrificing {nwa:nauk} गवय gavaya
UKT: Unfortunately none of the photographs taken during the trip together with my father's official diaries were lost. I need additional info on the accounts told to me by my father.

UKT 141002:

The following is what I remember of the account my father U Tun Pe had told me after a visit to Myanmar Naga hills in 1950s. He and his Epidemic Mobile Team (EMT) were sent to the Naga Hills to do public health work. He told me of Naga chieftains celebrating their wealth by sacrificing {nwa:nauk} गवय gavaya and distributing its meat among the villagers. To mark the event the sacrificer would display the head of {nwa:nauk} in front of his house. You can know his wealth by counting the heads. These species of ox are reared by Naga people more as less as a show of wealth. Because of the terrain these oxen are not used as draught animals.

My father's tour was specifically along the Sumra Track which he said was 45 deg incline, which the Naga people could easily climb whilst  members of his team mostly from the Irrawaddy Delta had to struggle. My father's team had a medical doctor, Dr. U Mya Maung, a personal friend of my father. They were both in their 40s.

During the visit a Para Naga elder, Sangyi Ba by name accompanied them on their visits to various Naga villages which are mostly on the heights because the valleys through which mountain streams run from which the villages had to carry their water were infested by malaria. The result was the Nagas went without bathing for long intervals and their body odour was unbearable to the low-landers. I met Sangyi Ba when he came down to Rangoon heading his Naga-delegation to attend the Union Day celebration held in Rangoon. It was during this trip that he came to see my father in our house. He thanked my father who he looked on as a personal friend for the public health work that EMT had done.

One remarkable thing about the Para-Naga was the hair-do which looked exactly like that of the Mohawks of Canada - a long line of hair from front to back with the sides shaven clean. The men were completely naked except for a circular metal plate hung from their waist. However they have a blanket wrapped around their bodies all the time.

According to one story which I read years later, the Naga call themselves "single-skin people" - they are very truthful and they have nothing to hide. They suspect us who wear clothes - the double skinned people" who hide many untruths under their clothes. From this angle I praise the Nagas for their wisdom.

I remember how Sangyi Ba said, with resentment and anger : "We live like dogs, while you live like people". With this little note I pay my respect to Sangyi Ba and his Naga-people. His message was an eye opener and from that day onwards my outlook on our hill relatives changed. I was then in my third year at Rangoon University studying Chemistry. I think Sangyi Ba's visit was in Feb 1954.

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Twelve Worldly Mingala-rites in Buddhist-Burma

- UKT 170508: We find many Hindu-religious practices in Theravada-Buddhist Burma: one of which is the Hindu-rites of passage. The number has been reduced from 16 in Hinduism to 12 in Buddhism. Both are different from Mingala Sutta of Gautama Buddha.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garbhadhana 170508

"Garbhadhana गर्भाधान (literally: attaining the wealth of the womb) is the first of the 16 saṃskāras (sacraments, rites of passage) in Hinduism. [1] "

Reading through the 16 saṃskāras {mn~ga.la}, I get the impression that these were not from Ancient Vdic, but later additions of Poannars who wrote the required Upanishad . No wonder Gaudama Buddha dismissed these later Poannar as false, though he paid respect to some 10 Rishis as those to whom Truths of Nature had become known because of their yogic-practice. Since Buddhism treats Hindu-axiomatic entities MahaBrahma, Vishnu-dva, and Siva-dva as mere fables, I cannot say that, the Truths of Nature had been revealed to the Rishis.

From: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskara_(rite_of_passage) 170508

"The word samskara is rare in oldest layer of Vedic literature, but its roots sam and kr occur often enough. [10] "

UKT: In Burma during the monarchy, Hindu rites of passage presided by the Brahmins were performed by the royalty. One of the 12 being {n-la.pra..mn~ga.la} "showing the child to the Sun and Moon"

From: Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm (link chk 170508)

The 12 Worldly Mingalar 

#01. {wi.za-ta. m~ga.la} - freedom from mother's womb to be born as a human

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UKT 12026, 140905, 141114, 170514:

Visvamitra Rishi {wi~a mait~ta. ra..} was an ancestor Gautama Buddha, a human king - a Kshatriya {hkt~ti.ya.} - who gave up his kingship to become eventually Waizza Rath {waiz~za ra.. } of Ramayana Epic.

He was also the rishi who suffered a plot by Deva-king Indra (not the Buddhist Deva-king Sakka) who sent one of his dancing girls, Mnaka Apsara मेनका अप्सरा , to seduce him. The rishi succumbed to her charms and fathered a baby daughter - Shakuntala . Realizing the mean trick he had suffered he went back to being a rishi. He reengage in Yogic practices and became a more powerful rishi. The devious Deva-king Indra finally had to acknowledge him as a Brahmarshi brahmarṣi.

He was also one of some 10 ancient Rishi revered by Gautama Buddha. The rest are taken to be just story-tellers, writing what they call the Puranas {pu.raaN kym} which they claimed to have heard from the Creator himself. An example of what they had done can be seen in the Epic of Mahabharata , which they expanded of a collection of 8,800 verses to the present stupendous size of the one hundred thousand verses:  
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurukshetra_War 170513

You'll meet this rishi, Waizza Rath {waiz~za ra..} in many places in my notes. The following Wikipedia article is a very extensive one and I have given only one part here.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishvamitra 120726, 170514
See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 140905

Brahmarshi Vishvamitra (Skt: विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra "friend of the world"; Kannada: ವಿಶ್ವಾಮಿತ್ರ; Telugu: విశ్వామిత్ర; Tamil: விஸ்வாமித்திரன் Visvāmittiraṉ; Thai: Swamit, Malay: Nila Purba ; Burmese: Bodaw  [UKT ]

UKT120726, 170514: I have the impression that the word <Brahmar> can be interpreted as a common word "Great" - not related to the axiomatic entity Brahma. This would then be consistent with the Bur-Myan Bodaw {Bo:tau} literally 'royal ancestor' or "grandfather. The generic term for all Buddhist rishis who have acquired the complete knowledge of the natural phenomena - the world - and are living without the human-body in the Himalayas are known as {waizza ra..}. Though endowed with magical powers, they are not yet free human traits. They have yet to attain the Bodhi-knowledge, and are waiting for the birth of Meitriya Buddha. From this last Buddha of the present world-system, they look forward to acquiring the Bodhi knowledge, escape from the cycle of death and rebirth or Nirvana.

I think the Wikipedia article has got the term from the Ramayana play performed in Myanmarpr in which Sita was protected by a rishi {ra..}. In the play the rishi is referred to as Bodaw  literally meaning "grandfather", or more correctly as {Bo:tau ra..}. 

Javanese: Wiswamitra) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient times in India. He is also credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including the Gayatri Mantra. The Puranas {pu.raaN kym} mention that only 24 rishis since antiquity have understood the whole meaning of, and thus wielded the whole power of, the Gayatri Mantra. Vishvamitra is supposed to be the first and Yajnavalkya याज्ञवल्क्य yājavalkya, the last.

UKT 170515: See Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yajnavalkya 170515
"... He is mentioned in the oldest Upanishadic scriptures, [3] and likely lived in Videha kingdom of northern Bihar around the 8th century BCE, [4] [5] or 7th century. [6]

"According to Ben-Ami Scharfstein a professor emeritus of Philosophy at Tel Aviv University, Yajnavalkya was one of the earliest philosophers in recorded history, after Aruni. [4] Yajnavalkya proposes and then debates metaphysical questions about the nature of existence and impermanence, expounds the epistemic doctrine of neti neti ("not this, not this") to discover the Universal Self and Ātman. [7] He renounced worldly attachments, and his renunciation ideas have been important to the Hindu sannyasa traditions. [8]


UKT: More in Wikipedia article. In the article you see who the Hindu Indra really was. He was different from the Buddhist Śakra. The following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakra 120727

"Śakra (Skt: शक्र or Pali: Sakka ) is the ruler of the Trāyastriṃśa Heaven according to Buddhist cosmology. His full title is

Śakro devānām indraḥ (शक्रो देवानं इन्द्रः;
Pāli: Sakko devānaṃ indo "Śakra, lord of the devas". [1]

In Buddhist texts, Śakra is the proper name and not an epithet of this deity; conversely, Indra in Sanskrit and Inda in Pali are sometimes used as an epithet for Śakra as 'lord'."

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War song of Dinas Vawr

-- UKT 140905:

Reading about the First Anglo Burmese war always brings to my mind the poem of Thomas Peacock. How my ancestors, the common people, must have suffered because of an event over which they had no control. I am also reminded of one of my favorite books in the Old Testament: Ecclesiates:
  1:1 The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem.
  1:2 Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.
1:3 What profit hath a man of all his labour which he taketh under the sun?
  1:4 One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever.
  1:5 The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to his place where he arose.
  1:6 The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits.
  1:7 All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again.
  1:8 All things are full of labour; man cannot utter it: the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing.
  1:9 The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun.
  1:10 Is there any thing whereof it may be said, See, this is new? it hath been already of old time, which was before us.
1:11 There is no remembrance of former things; neither shall there be any remembrance of things that are to come with those that shall come after.
-- From: http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/biblicalcanon/a/020411-Book-Of-Ecclesiastes-Chapter-1.htm 140905
[I remember showing it, many decades ago, to my co-brother, Sap-baikmhan U Aye Maung, author of "Boaddha and Boaddha Wada". He remarked that it could be passed of as a teaching of our teacher the Gautama Buddha.]

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Love_Peacock 120726

Thomas Love Peacock (18 October 1785 23 January 1866) was an English novelist, poet, and official of the East India Company. He was a close friend of Percy Bysshe Shelley and they influenced each other's work. Peacock wrote satirical novels, each with the same basic setting characters at a table discussing and criticising the philosophical opinions of the day.

[UKT remark: the author being an official in the infamous East India Company probably had taken part in the First Anglo-Burmese War. ]

The first part of the poem from: Edmund Clarence Stedman, ed. (18331908). A Victorian Anthology, 18371895. http://www.bartleby.com/246/103.html 120726

THE MOUNTAIN sheep are sweeter,
But the valley sheep are fatter;
We therefore deemd it meeter
To carry off the latter.

We made an expedition;
We met an host and quelld it;
We forced a strong position
And killd the men who held it.

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