Update: 2016-03-10 04:13 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gar~za.} : repha - contd
{gar~wa.} : Pal {gb~ba.}
{ga} : Maukcha-Weikcha Rule : {mauk-hkya.}-{weik-hkya.} rule
{gaang-} : in Kin'si form

Maukcha-Weikcha Rule : {mauk-hkya.}-{weik-hkya.} rule

- UKT 160310:
I hold that there is a reason why certain glyphs are based on a single-circle, whilst others are based on double-circles. The reason is either on "pronunciation" or on "meaning", and I try to stick to the rule which I had learnt as a child, that {mauk-hkya.} is used for single-circle glyphs and {weik-hkya.} is for double circles. My friend U Tun Tint of MLC has disputed what I have remembered and holds that the choice of {mauk-hkya.} or {weik-hkya.} is set arbitrarily.


UKT notes :
Mythical Kuru dynasty


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{gar~za.} : repha - contd



  गर्जित [ garg-ita ]
- pp. n. id.; thunder; boasting: -rava, m. roar.


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गर्त [garta]
- . m. high chair, throne; seat of a war-chariot; car; . m.n. hole; ditch; grave; canal.



गर्ताश्रय [ garta‿sraya ]
= ग र ् त ा श ् र य
- m. animal living in holes.

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गर्द [ grd-a ]
- a. hungry.



गर्दभ [ garda-bh ]
- m. ass: &isharp;, f. she-ass; (-bha)-ratha, m. car drawn by asses.


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गर्ध [ gardh-a ]
- m. greed; eagerness for (--); -in, a. greedy; eager for, devoted to (--).


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गर्भ [ grbh-a ]
- m. womb; interior (-- a. containing -within); foetus, embryo; new-born child; child; offspring, brood (of birds); conception; sprout: *-ka, m. wreath of flowers interwoven with the hair; -kma, a. desirous of the fruit of the womb; -kra, n. N. of a Sastra (producing fertility); -kla, m. time of pregnancy; -gata, pp. lying in the womb; -griha, -geha, n. inner apartment, bed chamber; inner sanctuary containing the image of the deity; -graha, m., -grahana, n. conception; -kyuti, f. birth; -t, f., -tva, n. pregnancy; -dsa, m. (, f.) slave by birth (Pr.); -dvdasa, m. pl. twelfth year after conception; -dhar, a. f. pregnant; -dhr ana, n. pregnancy; -purodsa, m. cake offered during the pregnancy of a female animal; -bhartri-druh, a. injuring the foetus and the husband; -bharman, n. nurture of the foetus; -bhavana, n. inner sanctuary con taining the image of the deity; -bhra, m. burden of the womb: -m dhri, become pregnant; -mandapa, m. inner apartment, bed chamber; -msa, m. month of pregnancy; -rpaka, m. young man; -lakshana, n. sign of pregnancy; -vat, a. f. pregnant; -vasati, f., -vsa, m. womb; -vesman, n. inner chamber; lying-in room; -stana, n. causing of abortion; -samsravana, n. miscarriage; -samkarita, m. one of mixed extraction; -sambhava, m. conception; -sambhti, f. id.; -stha, a. being in the womb; -sthna, n. womb; -srva, m. miscarriage.



गर्भागार [ garbha‿gra ]
- n. womb; bed chamber; lying-in room; inner sanctuary; -‿di, a. beginning with conception; -‿dh na, n. impregnation; a certain ceremony preceding impregnation; -‿ashtama, m. eighth year after conception.



गर्भिन् [ garbh-in ]
- a. pregnant (also fig.), with (ac., in.): (n)-, f. pregnant woman.



गर्भेश््वर [ garbha‿svara ]
- m. hereditary sovereign: -t, f., -tva, n. hereditary dominion.



गर्भैकादश [ garbha‿ekdasa ]
- m. pl. eleventh year after conception.


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गर्मुत् [ garmt ]
- f. kind of wild bean.


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UKT 151231: Two transforms are involved in inter-transliteration between Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan
  {gar~wa.} --> --> {gar~ba.} --> {gb~ba.}


गर्व [ gar-va ]
- m. pride: -m kri or y, become haughty: -gir, f. pl. haughty speeches, vauntings.

गर्व [ gar-va ]
Skt: गर्व [ gar-va ] - m. pride - Mac083c1
Pal: {gb~ba.} - UHS PMD0358
  UKT from UHS: - m. aggressiveness, haughtiness


गर्वाय [ garv-ya ]
- den. . behave haughtily; ita, pp. haughty; proud of (in., --).


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गर्ह [garh]
- i. (p.) . garha, x. (p) . garhaya, complain of anything (ac.) to (d.); accuse, reproach, censure, blame;



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गर्हण [ garh-ana ]
- a. involving reproach; n. blame, reproach (on the part of, in.): , f. id.: -m y, incur blame (among, lc.); -anya, fp. blameworthy; -, f. blame, reproach; -in, a. blaming, railing at (--); -ya, fp. blameworthy.

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गल् [gal], i.p.
gala , drip, trickle down, drop; fall or slip down, off or out; disappear;





गल [ gal-a ]
- m. throat, neck: -vrtta, a. living only for his throat (=belly); -sundik, f. uvula: du. soft palate; -hasta, m. hand on (=seizure by) the throat.

Skt: गल gala - m. rope, reed, throat, ... - SpkSkt
Pal: {ga.la.} - UHS PMD-0361
  UKT from UHS: m. neck



गलितक [ galita-ka ]
- m. kind of dance or gesticulation; -pradpa, m., -pradpik, f. Lamp of omitted passages, T. of a work; -vayas, a. whose youth is past, stricken in years, aged.



गलून [galna]
- m. N. of a man



गल्ल [ galla ]
- m. cheek.



गल्वर्क [ galvarka ]
- m. crystal; crystal bowl (also gallaka).


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गव [ gava ]
- m. ox (only -or --).



गवय [ gava-y ]
Skt: गवय [ gava-y ] - m. species of ox (Bos gavaeus); -la, m. buffalo. - Mac083c2
Pal: {ga.wa.ya.} - UHS PMD0361
  UKT from UHS: m. {nwa:nauk}, 'jungle ox'

"Bos frontalis laosiensis [ 5] seladang en malay, krating en tha, katu poth, peoung (Birmanie) {praung}".
- https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayal 151231


गवाक्ष [ gava‿aksha ]
- m. (bull's eye), round window, air-hole; (n. ?) N. of a lake: i-ta, pp. latticed (with, in.).



गवानृत [ gava‿anrita ]
- n. false testimony regarding kine.



  गवामयन [ gavm-ayana ]
- n. N. of a sattra lasting a whole year; (m)-pati, m. bull (lord of cows); lord of rays, ep. of the sun or Agni.



गवाशन [ gava‿asana ]
- m. tanner, shoemaker; - ‿asva, n. cattle and horses; -‿ahnika, n. daily allowance of fodder for a cow.



गविष्टि [ gv-ishti ]
- a. desiring cows; f. heat, ardour, fervour; eagerness for or heat of battle; combat.



गविष्ठ [ gavi-shtha ]
- m. sun.



गवी [ gav ]
- f. 1. cow (only --); 2. speech.








गवेषण [ gava‿eshana ]
- a. ardently desirous; longing for battle; n. search; -‿eshin, a. seek ing (-- ).



गव्य [ 1. gav-ya ]
- den. desire cattle: only pr. pt. gavyt: desiring cattle; ardently desirous; eager for battle.



गव्य [ 2. gv-ya (or -y) ]
- a. consisting of or relating to cattle; produced by a cow; n. herd of cows; pasture; cow's milk.



गव्यु [ gav-y ]
- a. desiring cattle; eager for battle.



गव्यूति [ gvyti ]
- f. pasturage, domain, dwelling- place; a measure of length (=2 krosas).

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गहन [ gh-ana ]
- a. deep; dense; impenetrable (also fig.); n. depth, abyss; thicket; lurking-place; impenetrable darkness; thick cluster: -tva, n. denseness; impenetrability.


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गह्वर [ gh-vara ]
- a. (, ); n. = gahana.


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गा [g] . iii. p.
- gig , go or come, to or toward







गा [g]
- . v. गै [gai]


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{gaang-} : in Kin'si form

UKT 160101: Note the long vowel is checked by {nga.}-killed in Kin'si form.
It is not allowed in regular Bur-Myan, it is only the short vowel of 1 blk duration that can be checked.


गाङ्ग [ gṅg-a ]
- a. () belonging to the Ganges; m. met. of Bhshma; -eya, -y, m. id.

UKT 160101: You need to related the almost-disjointed stories related in Kurukshetra War  कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध described in the Indian epic Mahabharata in which Krishna preached the Bhagavad-Gita to Arjuna, you need to know the mythical Kuru dynasty. See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurukshetra_War 160101

गाङ्ग [ gṅg-a ]
Skt: गाङ्ग [ gṅg-a ] - a. () belonging to the Ganges; - Mac083c3
Pal: {gn~ga} - UHS PMD0352
  UKT from UHS: - f. Ganges river, river


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गाढ [ gdha ]
- pp. (√gh) bathed in; deep; fast tight, close; strong, vehement: --or-m, ad.- ly; -t, f., -tva, n. depth; vehemence, intensity; - nidra, a. sound asleep; -‿nurgin, a. deeply enamoured.


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गाणपत्य [ g&asharp;na-patya ]
- a. relating to Ganesa; m. worshipper of Ganesa.



गाणेश [ gnesa ]
- a. relating to Ganesa; m. worshipper of Ganesa.



गाण्डिव [ gndiva ]
- m. n. Arguna's bow: -dhara, m. ep. of Arguna.



गाण्डीव [ gndva ]
- m. Arguna's bow; -dhanvan, m. Arguna.


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गातु [ 1. g-t ]
- m. (f.) motion; course, path; space; place, abode; welfare.



गातु [ 2. g-t ]
- m. song; singer.



गातुमत् [ gtu-mt ]
- a. spacious, commodious.



गातृ [g-tri ]
- m. singer 



गात्र [ g&asharp;-tra ]
- n. (-- a. , ) limb; body; wing.



गात्रक [ gtra-ka ]
- n. body; -bhaṅga, m. bending or stretching the limbs or the body; -yashti, f. delicate body (-- a. brev;); -vat, a. having a beautiful body; -‿anulepan, f. unguent, paint.


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गाथ [ g-th ]
- m. song: -ka, m. singer; i-k, f. song, hymn.

Skt: -ka, m. singer - Mac083c3
Pal: {ga-hta.ka.} - UHS PMD0363
  UKT from UHS: m. singer



गाथा [ g&asharp;-th ]
- f. hymn, verse; specifically non-Vedic verse (in ritual works); versified portion of Buddhistic stras; a metre (=ry).



गाथानी [ gth-n&isharp; ]
- m. precentor.

A precentor (not to be confused with presenter ) is a person who helps facilitate worship. The details vary depending on the religion, denomination, and era in question. The Latin derivation is "prcentor", from cantor, meaning "the one who sings before" (or alternatively, "first singer").
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precentor

UKT 160102: In a randomly chosen pair, <captor> /'kp.təʳ/ (DJPD16-082), and <presenter> /pri'zen.təʳ/ (DJPD16-427), the suffixes <tor> and <ter> are pronounced the same. So there is actually no difference in pronouncing <presentor> 'singer of versified Buddhist sutras'  गाथानी {ga-hta-ni} , and <presenter>, yet the two words have entirely different meanings. Looking online for the difference in pronunciation of suffixes <tor> and <ter> I came across a rule of thumb in English Language Learners
- http://ell.stackexchange.com/questions/7340/when-is-the-suffix-tor-and-ter-used 150102
"If the 't' is part of the root, then English uses the suffix -er. If 't' is not a part of the root, then English uses Latin suffix -tor-.".

गाथानी gāthānī {ga-hta-ni}
- adj. leading a song or a choir - SpkSkt



गाथिन् [ gth-n ]
- a. skilled in song; m. singer; N. of Rishi Visvmitra's father: pl. his descendants.


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गाध [ gdh- ]
- a. fordable, shallow; n. shallow, ford.



गाधि [ gdhi ]
- m. = gthin, Rishi Visvmitra's father: -ga, m. ep. of Visvmitra; -nanda na, -putra, m. pat. of Visvmitra; -pura, n. ep. of Knyakubga; - snu, m. pat. of Visvmitra.



गाधेय [ gdh-eya ]
- m. Visvmitra.


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गान [ g-na ]
- n. song.


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गान्धर्व [ gndharv ]
- a. (f. g&asharp;ndharv) relating to the Gandharvas; m. singer: pl. N. of a people; n. music, song: -vidy, f. music; -vidhi, -vivha, m. Gandharva-marriage consummated without any ceremony, by mutual consent only; -sl, f. concert-room.



गान्धार [ gndhra ]
- m. prince, , f. princess, of the Gndhris; third note in the musical scale.


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UKT notes

Mythical Kuru dynasty

- UKT 160101: Most Bur-Myan Buddhists know something of the Indian epic Ramayana. But most of us do not know anything about the second epic Mahabharata in which is embedded the Hindu Philosophy of Bhagavad Gita preached by King Krishna the reincarnate of Hindu Dva-god Vishnu to Arjuna one of the Pandavas right on the battlefield of Kurukshetra War.

UKT 160101: There is an episode in the Kuru's lineage in which a close relative impregnates by levirate (an ancient custom predating modern artificial insemination) the wives of a deceased person to preserve the lineage with the consent of all parties.

In the episode prince Vicitravirya had died without leaving a successor to the throne, thereupon the wily dowager queen Satyvati asked her illegitimate son Rishi Vysa (splitter of the Vda) to impregnate by levirate her daughters-in-law Ambik & Amblik to get issues to occupy the throne.

Ambik gave birth to a blind child who was unfit to occupy the throne alone. Amblik gave birth to a pale (& physically weak) child who co-occupied the throne with his elder blind brother. Sdri (f. Sdra) - the concubine of Vicitravirya gave birth to a healthy son. But the son, Vidura, because of the lower rank of his mother, even with his sagacity, could not occupy the throne. He served as a wise counsellor and minister.

Genetically, Pandavas & Vidura are not related to the Ancestor Kuru. The reader should note that this Vidura is probably not the embryo-Buddha Vidura of the Ten Great Birth Stories of Buddhism. The Buddhist story is listed in Jataka Tales in the Sixth Buddhist Synod version of Tipitaka shown on the right. See: {za/HTa./7/151}
An excerpt in Pal-Myan is also given. For those who do not read Pal-Myan, just concentrate on the words: {ku.ru.}, {kau:ra.ba.}, and {wi.Du.ra.pN~i.ta.}. The usual way of presentation of text-Pal is to give a direct translation to text-Bur, which is almost equally difficult to read.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurukshetra_War 160101

The Kurukshetra War कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध kurukṣetra yuddha is a war described in the Indian epic Mahabharata as a conflict that arose from a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura हास्तिन पुर hāstina pura 'elephant city' in an Indian kingdom called Kuru. It involved a number of ancient kingdoms participating as allies of the rival groups.

The location of the battle is described as having occurred in Kurukshetra in the modern state of Haryana. Despite only referring to these eighteen days, the war narrative forms more than a quarter of the book, suggesting its relative importance within the epic, which overall spans decades of the warring families. The narrative describes individual battles and deaths of various heroes of both sides, military formations, war diplomacy, meetings and discussions among the characters, and the weapons used. The chapters (parvas) dealing with the war (from chapter six to ten) are considered amongst the oldest in the entire Mahabharata.

UKT 160101: When I first read the story, I didn't pay any attention to the language issue. There are two language groups involved - the Tib-Bur speakers and the IE speakers. The original indigenous peoples spoke various dialects and languages belonging to Tib-Bur. Even the IE speakers would be speaking two dialects - the ancestors of the modern Hindi speakers of the north, and the speakers of modern Tamil speakers of the south with diverse dialects. Imagine the command structures on the battle-field. Each group would be speaking different mutually unintelligible languages. Did they have a common language? The language issue resulting in community riots have not been resolved satisfactorily even to this day. The modern Indians are more fortunate than their ancestors - they speak a common foreign language, English, in their Parliament.

UKT: More in the Wiki article

Go back Kuru-dynasty-note-b

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End of TIL file