Update: 2018-11-27 08:25 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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  {gn~Da.} continues

{gar~} : repha


UKT notes :

UKT: 151230, 160105, 170501
   #1. One of the differences between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev is the checking of vowels in the syllables. In Bur-Myan (a typical Tib-Bur language), only the short vowel can be checked. However, in Skt-Dev (a typical IE language) both short and long vowels may be checked.
   #2. Garuda, the mythical top predator of the flying animals signifies swiftness and aggression. Note that these attributes are reflected in the meanings of proper names, e.g. Garuda Vyuha - a battle formation, Garuda-vega - the name of a horse.
   #3. The ancient Mahabharata War can be studied not only for the Indian philosophy of Bhagava Gita, but also for ancient Indian military formations such as Garuda (or Heron) Vyuha formation. See my note on Garuda Vyuha.

Gandhāra: the kingdom
Gandhava : different from dvas {gn~Db~ba.}
Garga Muni
Garudha Vyuha
Garga muni : I've 2 notes on Garga, and I need to go over them to see if there is mistaken identity
Garga rishi : {gag~ga.ra..} : Is he mentioned in Buddhist sources?
Garuda : the bird


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p082c1-b01/ p062-040

गन्धन [ gandh-ana ]
- m. kind of rice; n. fragrance; sarcasm.
40) गन्धन (p. 62) gandh-ana rice; n. fragrance; sarcasm.


p082c1-b02/ not online

गन्धर्व [gandhar-v]
- m. N. of a genius closely connected w. Soma and the sun; sts. pl. (V.) celestial musician inhabiting Indra's heaven (C.),
Skt: gandharv  m. a Gandharva [though in later times the Gandharvas are regarded as a class, yet in RV. rarely more   than one is mentioned -- MonWilli346

UKT120131: See my note on Gandharva - a kind of celestial beings not necessarily the servants of devas, some of who (both & female) serve as musicians and dancers at the court of Indra the king of the devas.
From their marriage custom, it seems that the Gandharvas are the most free - especially the females: something approaching the modern idea of freedom. The custom is just the opposite of the Ponnar {poaN~Na:}, in which the female has a subservient role to the males. I wonder whether they were the mythicised ancient Tib-Bur speakers, similar to Pyus of Myanmarpr, of the Indian subcontinent before the Ponnar {poaN~Na:} with kings, male-gods, and the idea of male supremacy intruded into the subcontinent. Though they called themselves Aryans - the perfect race - they did not deserve the term. According to Gaudama Buddha perfection - being an AriAya - is by virtue of conduct, not by virtue of birth. See downloaded pdf txt, Arya Dharma, by A. Dhamapala, 1917, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:,
- ADhamapala-AryaDharma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180321)


p082c1-b03/ not online

गन्धर्वखण्ड [ gandharva-khanda ]
= ग न ् ध र ् व ख ण ् ड
- m. N. of a part of Bhratavarsha; -tva, n. condition of a Gandharva; -datt, f. N. of a Gandharva princess; -nagara, n. city of the Gandharvas; mirage; -pura, n. city of the Gandharvas; -rga, m. king of the Gandharvas.
72) गन्धर्वखण्ड (p. 62) gandharva-khanda part of Bhratavarsha;

UKT 151229: Since we are dealing in these entries with the mythical Gandharva गन्धर्व [gandhar-v], the celestial musicians, the reader is advised to look into facts related to the human musicians in G. N. Devy's Indian Literary Criticism on On Natya and Rasa : Aesthetics of Dramatic Experience. Follow the navigation:
and proceed to Bhartṛhari's Syntax, Meaning, Sphoṭa
and look for Bharatamuni aka Bharata's theory of Rasa connected to the psychology of aesthetic reception.
- lang-thot-indx.htm > spho-bartri-matilal.htm (link chk 170501)
and proceed to On Natya and Rasa : Aesthetics of Dramatic Experience

p082c1-b04/ p062-071

गन्धर्वी [ gandharv&isharp; ]
- f. female being akin to Gandharva.
71) गन्धर्वी (p. 62) gandharv female being akin to Gandharva.


p082c1-b05/ p062-068 

गन्धवत् [ gandha-vat ]
- a. fragrant; having the quality of smell: -, f. N. of a river; -vaha, a. wafting fragrance; m. wind; -vha, m. wind; -sli, m. fragrant rice; *-sra, m. sandal-wood.
68) गन्धवत् (p. 62) gandha-vat fragrant; having the quality of smell:


गन्धसार gandhasāra
Skt: *-sra - m. sandal-wood - Mac082c1
Skt: ○vat mfn. endowed with the quality of smell Tarkas.   -- MonWilli
Skt: गन्धसार gandhasāra - m. kind of jasmine, sandle-wood -- SpkSkt


p082c1-b06/ p062-067

गन्धाढ्य [ gandha‿dhya ]
- a. rich in perfume, fragrant.
67) गन्धाढ्य (p. 62) gandha̮dhya rich in perfume,


p082c1-b07/ not online

गन्धार gandḥārā [gandhra]
-- m. pl. N. of a people in the N.W.; i , m. pl. id.

See my note on the dream of Invisibility and Gandhāra


p082c1-b08/ p062-066

गन्धि [ gandh-i ]
- a. smelling of; having a little of (--); -i-ka, -in, a. id.
66) गन्धि (p. 62) gandh-i smelling of;


p082c1-b09/ not online

-- m. = gandha-dvipa


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गब्भ gabbha :
=  ग ब ् भ --> {gb~Ba.} :
   since ब ba & भ bha are pronounced almost the same, a repha results Skt-Dev.
Pal: {gb~Ba.} - UHS-PMD0358
  UKT from UHS: m. mother's womb, fetus, pregnancy, brick-chamber
Skt: गर्भ garbha - m. embryo - SpkSkt


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p082c1-b10/ not online

गभ् [gabh] , [gambh]
- be cleft, yawn


p082c1-b11/ not online

गभ gabha [gabh-]
Skt: - m. vulva. - Mac082-c1
Skt: gabh m. (√gabh = gambh = jambh) 'slit', the vulva  VS. xxiii ŚBr. xiii, 2, 9, 6 -- MonWilli

UKT: The Latin word <vulva> means the external human-female sex apparatus.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulva 140904


p082c1-b12// p062-065

गभस्तल gabhastala [ gabh-as-tala ]
= ग भ (स ् त) ल -->  {ga.Ba.S~ta.la.}
--> {ga.Ba~ta.la.} [note the /s/ sound is due to स and not ष]
Skt: - n. kind of hell. -- Mac082c1
65) गभस्तल (p. 62) gabh-as-tala hell.

UKT 180322: The word {ga.Ba~ta.la.} गभस्तल = ग भ (स ् त) ल , has the dental fricative akshara {a}/ {a} (the thibilant) which the Skt-Dev speakers could not pronounce. They had to pronounce it as dental fricative {Sa.}/ {S} ष (hisser} - not as palatal plosive-stop {sa.}/ {c} च . So, the Myanmar to Devanagari trans-pronunciation-transcription is {ga.Ba.S~ta.la.}. I have to develop Romabama script before I can come up with an explanation. Using IPA and Hindhi-Dev transcriptions has been dead-end for me.


UKT 140904: There are eight levels of purgatory according to Buddhist lore and none corresponds to {ga.Ba.S~ta.la.} / {ga.Ba~ta.la.} .
The following names are from Wikipedia:
1. Sajīva - the "reviving" Naraka 
2. Kālasūtra - the "black thread" Naraka
3. Saṃghāta - the "crushing" Naraka
4. Raurava - the "screaming" Naraka
5. Mahāraurava - the "great screaming" Naraka
6. Tapana - the "heating" Naraka
7. Pratāpana - the "great heating" Naraka
8. Avīci - the "uninterrupted" Naraka
See MLC PMD2006-090 for Bur-Myan spellings.


p082c1-b13/ p062-064

गभस्ति [ gbhas-ti ]
- m. arm, hand; ray: -mat, a. radiant; m. sun; -mlin, m. sun.
64) गभस्ति (p. 62) gbhas-ti arm, hand;


p082c1-b14/ p062-063

गभीर [ gabh-ra ]
- a. abysmal, unfathomable; deep; dense, impervious; extensive; inexhaustible; secret, inscrutable: -m or --, ad.
63) गभीर (p. 62) gabh-ra abysmal, unfathomable;


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p082c1-b15/ not online

UKT 180322: Entry p082c1-b15, spans across two columns c1 & c2. Such huge entries are found all over the txt-on-paper books. I've cut them into manageable sections: 0 (not shown), 1, 2, 3. My plan is to look up some sub-entries in online dictionaries such as SpkSkt.

गम्  [gam] . gma and . gn-ti (v.);
- I. gkkha, go, move, walk; depart; die; pass, elapse; traverse; betake oneself to, reach, obtain (ac., d., lc.); fall or recoil on (ac.); have sexual intercourse with (ac.); perceive, recognise (ps. be understood or meant); attain, undergo, suffer: very often with ac. of an abst. N., when it may variously be translated by the passive, an intransitive verb or the verb to become with the corresponding noun or adjective: vismayam gam, be amazed; nsam -, perish; sdratvam -, become a Sdra; krodham -, grow angry;

गम [ . gma ]
- adj. going, riding on. m. similar reading in two texts, game played with dice and men, march, superficality, removal, course, going away from, decampment, hasty perusal, road, flightiness, intercourse with a woman - from SpkSkt
UKT 180322: See entry p082c3-b01 गम [ gam-a ] below.

1. [ pratpam
- resist (g.); doshena or doshato -, accuse (ac.); manas -, betake oneself in thought to (ac.): pp. gat, g.v.; cs. gamya, cause to go, bring, send, conduct (to, ac., d., lc.); cause to undergo; pass (time); explain; produce the meaning of (ac.); designate; *induce any one (ac.) to walk by means of any one (in.); des. gigamisha or gigmsa, P. wish or be about to go; intv. ganiganti, visit, frequent. akkh, go to. ati, elapse; pass over. adhi, go to, approach, reach (pp. surrounded by; in.); have sexual intercourse with (ac.); take in hand; begin; obtain, acquire; expouse, marry; come upon, find; find out; accomplish; learn, study, read; des. wish to recover; . wish to study.


2. [ sam-adhi
- approach; acquire, obtain; learn, study. anu, follow, accompany, pursue; visit; cover from behind; take possession of; conform to, be guided by; imitate; be contained in (lc.); perform; pp. amenable, complaisant; --, conformable to, according to; imitated; dominated by; traversing; cs. aaccompany. sam-anu, follow, antar, exclude from (ab.); pp. antargata, q.v. apa, go away disappear (fr., ab.) ; pp. gone away, vanished; devisting from (ab. or--). vi‿ap, depart: pp. departed; awerving from (ab.). api, enter into; be absorbed in (ac.). abhi, advance, approach; go to, visit (ac.); return home; follow; have sexual intercourse with (ac.); find, meet with, obtain; devote oneself to (ac.)


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3. [ sam-abhi ]

unite sexually. aram, present oneself to (d.), ava, come down to (ac. or lc.); come to, enter into (ac.); obtain; hit upon, guess, infer; learn from (ab.); perceive, understand; be convinced, be of opinion, believe to be meant, know (pr. pt. wittingly; pp. with act. and ps. meaning); regard as, consider to be (2 ac.); cs. procure; cause to experience, let know. , aproach, come (to, ac.); come forth; meet with (saha); return (gnly. with punar); come or fall upon; obtain, take, undergo, incur (with abstract nouns); pp. arrived, come (to, ac., lc., or --); come into the world, born; returned (gnly. with punar); coming from (ab.); come to pass in regard to (ac.); having happened or supervened (sts. --); fallen into (ac.); cs. cause to approach; learn (ac.) from (ab.); dcs. be about to come. adhi‿, follow: pp. with act. and ps. mg. abhi‿, approach, come to, visit: pp. arrived, come: kramd - inherited. sam-abhi‿, arrive; come back (with punar).


4. [ upa‿
- approach, come to (ac., lc. ); fall into, incur, undergo (with abst. nouns); appear; fall to one's share: with dyt = inherit: pp. arrived. abhi‿upa‿, come to (ac.). sam-upa‿, id.; befall. prati‿, return from (ab.) to (ac.); come to oneself, recover. sam-, come together, meet, unite (with, in saha or srdham); approach, come to (ac. lc.); return (from, ab.); come upon, find (ac.): pp. united, assembled in conjunction with (in.): cs. unite any one (ac.) with (in. or lc.). ud, rise; go forth, appear; spread: pp. proceeding from (ab. or --); having appreared: widespread; cs. cause to come forth, such (milk). abhi‿ud, rise (moon); go forth to meet (ac.); consent to (ac.). pra‿ud, rise up, project. prati‿ud, advance to meet (pp. with act. and ps. mg.): come forth or appear again; set out for (ac. or lc.) sam-ud, come forth, appear. upa, approach, go to, visit; reach, befall (g.); come across, find; have sexual intercourse with (ac.); fall into. obtain, incur (with abst. nouns): pp. having betaken oneself to any one's protection; accompanied by (--); granted, recognised; cs. cause to approach. abhi‿upa, approach, go to (ac.); admit, grant, assent to (ac.); cs. persuade any one (ac.) to assent.


5. [ sam-upa
- approach; undergo. ni, appear; arrive at, obtain; enter; have intercourse with; cs. put in. nis, go out, depart (from, ab.), come froth, appear; go away, disappear; fall into, undergo: pp. freed from (ab. or --). vi-nis, go out, come forth, depart; free one self from (ab.); be beside oneself: pp. gone out: coming froth, issuing; free from (ab.).


6 [ par ]
-  go away, depart: pp. arrived; filled or covered with (--). pari, go or walk round; wander over, traverse; surround, encompass; spread around; depart, die; attain, undergo: pp. surrounded by (--): extending or diffused on all sides; dead; possessed by, filed with (in. or --); experienced; learned from (ab.); known; cs. pass (time). pra, depart; go to (ac.). prati, advance towards (ac.); return to (ac.). vi, disperse; depart, vanish, pass away: pp. deceased, dead; --, disappeared, gone = -less; cs. pass (time). sam. . (P.) come together, assemble; meet (as friend or foe), unite with (in. saba or srdham); have sexual intercourse with; assemble at (lc.); accord, suti: pp. suitable; according with (--); cs. bring together; unite (ac.) with (in.); lead any one to (2 ac.); transfer to (ic.). upa-sam, come together to (ac.); approach, join (ac.)


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p082c3-b01/ p062-062

गम [ gam-a ]
- a. going, moving (--); m. departure; way, distance; sexual intercourse with (--): -ka, a. cogent; evidencing (g.): -t, f., -tva, n. cogency.
62) गम (p. 62) gam-a going, moving (--);

cogent - adj. . Appealing to the intellect or powers of reasoning; convincing: a cogent argument. See note at valid. -- AHTD


p082c3-b02/ p062-061

गमध्यै [ gma-dhyai ]
- d. inf. to go.
61) गमध्यै (p. 62) gma-dhyai to go.



गमन [ gam-ana ]
- n. gait; going; betaking oneself to (ad.; ac. prati, g., --); sexual intercourse with (--); entering upon, undergoing (--); course; departure; walking; motion: -vat, a. past; -anya, fp. accessible to, as sailable by (g.); -ayitavya, cs. fp. to be passed (time).
60) गमन (p. 62) gam-ana gait;


p082c3-b04/ p062-059

गमागम [ gama‿gama ]
- m. going and coming, going to and fro; sg. & pl. negotiation.
59) गमागम (p. 62) gama̮gama going and coming,


p082c3-b05/ p062-058

गमिन् [ gam-in ]
- a. about to go (to, ac., --).
58) गमिन् (p. 62) gam-in about to go



गमिष्ठ [ gm-ishtha ]
- spv. going gladly to (ac.).
57) गमिष्ठ (p. 62) gm-ishtha going gladly to


p082c3-b07/ p062-056

गमिष्णु [ gam-ishn ]
- a. going; wishing to traverse (ac.).
56) गमिष्णु (p. 62) gam-ishn going;

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p082c3-b08/ not online

[gmbh-an ]
-- depth


p082c3-b09/ not online

-- = gabhira : , f. N. of a river; ()-samsa , a. ruling in the depths.


p082c3-b10/ p062-055

गम्भीरार्थ [ gambhra‿artha ]
- a. of deep significance; -‿saya, a. having a deep thought: -tm kri, conceive a deep thought.
55) गम्भीरार्थ (p. 62) gambhra̮artha of deep significance;


p082c3-b11/ p062-083

गम्य [ gam-ya ]
- fp. to be gone to; accessible to (g., lc., --); feasible; accessible to or in the right condition for, sexual intercourse (f.); profligate (m.); curable by (g.); conceivable, intelligible, comprehensible; to be guessed; meant; suitable.
83) गम्य (p. 62) gam-ya to be gone to;

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p082c3-b12/ p062-082

गय [ gya ]
- m. house; household; family; N. of a Rishi, a mtn., and (pl.) of a people; -sphna, a. conferring prosperity on the household.
  82) गय (p. 62) gya house; household;
Pal: {ga.ya.} - UHS-PMD0360
  UKT from UHS: m. house


p082c3-b13/ not online

गया [gay]
- f. N. of a place of pilgrimage

See: Buddhist Bodh Gaya बोध गया - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodh_Gaya 170503


p082c3-b14/ p062-081

गयाकूप [ gay-kpa ]
- m. N. of a well near Gay; -siras, n. N. of a mtn.; western horizon.
81) गयाकूप (p. 62) gay-kpa well near Gay;

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p082c3-b15/ p062-079

गर [ gar- ]
- a. swallowing (--); m. drink, fluid; poison (sts. n.): -gir, a., -grn, pp. having swallowed poison; -da, m. poisoner.
79) गर (p. 62) gar- swallowing (--);

गर gara [ gar- ]
Skt: a. swallowing (--); m. drink, fluid; poison (sts. n.): -- Mac082c3
Pal: {ga.ra.}
- - UHS-PMD0360
  UKT from UHS: m. swallowing, goat. n. poison



गरल [ gara-la ]
- n. poison.
78) गरल (p. 62) gara-la poison.


p082c3-b17/ not online

गरलाय [garal-ya]
- . become poison


p082c3-b18/ p062-077

गरिमन् [ gar-i-man ]
- m. weight; dignity; power; -ishtha, spv. (of guru) greatly swollen; -yas, cpv. (of guru) very difficult; better, more important or honourable, of more account than (ab.); rather than (ab.); worse; very important: -tva, n. weight, heaviness; importance.
77) गरिमन् (p. 62) gar-i-man weight; dignity;


p082c3-b19/ p062-073

गरुड [ garud ] : alt. spelling गारुड [ gruda ] on p084.htm
- m. N. of a fabulous bird, son of Vinat and elder brother of Aruna, king of the feathered race, vehicle of Vishnu or Krishna; kind of battle-array; -mnikya maya, a. of emerald; -vega, m. N. of a horse.
76) गरुड (p. 62) garud battle-array;

गरुड garuda [ garud ]
Skt: m. N. of a fabulous bird, son of Vinat and elder brother of Aruna, king of the feathered race, vehicle of Vishnu or Krishna; kind of battle-array; -- Mac082c3
Pal: {ga.ru.La.} [Bur: {ga.Loan}]
- - UHS-PMD0361
   UKT from UHS: m. {ga.Loan} :

UKT 170514: Note the change from /l/ in Pali to /r/ in Skt. The first example of such as change is in the name of the Buddhist arahat Lāghula {la-Gu.la.} to Rāhula {ra-hu.la.}. See: F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary,  
- BHS-vol01-indx.htm (link chk 170504)
See my note on Garuda
- the mythical bird of prey. {ga.Loan} in Bur-Myan
The huge bird in Sinbad the Sailor tales is Roc.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roc_(mythology) 170503

UKT: 160105: Garuda, the mythical top predator of the flying animals signifies swiftness and aggression. Note that these attributes are reflected in the meanings of proper names, e.g. Garuda Vyuha - the Heron battle formation, and Garuda-vega - the name of a horse.


p082c3-b20/ not online 

. -- become Garuda


p082c3-b21/ p062-075

गरुत् [ gar-ut ]
- n. (?) wing: -mat, a. winged; m. Garuda; bird.
75) गरुत् (p. 62) gar-ut (?) wing:

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{gar~} : repha

UKT 151230: The first time we have met Repha is on p063.htm (link chk 151230).


p082c3-b22/ p062-074

गर्ग [ garga ]
Skt: गर्ग [ garga ] - m. N. of various men; , , f. N. - Mac082c3
  74) गर्ग (p. 62) garga , , f. N.
Pal: {gag~ga.} - UHS PMD03582
  UKT from UHS: m. Rishi Gagga.

See my note on Rishi Garga or Muni?


p082c3-b23/ p062-073

गर्गर gargara [ gr-gar-a ]
Skt: m. whirlpool; , , f. churn. -- Mac082c3
  73) गर्गर (p. 62) gr-gar-a whirlpool;
Pal: {gag~ga.ra.} - UHS-PMD0352
 UKT from UHS: m. sound of break up, whirlpool

UKT120718: I was born in Kungyangon, now incorporated into Greater Yangon. The quarter I was born in was Tawpalw {tau-pu.lw:} separated from the main town by a deep tidal creek (wide and deep enough to be termed a "river" in North America) with a bridge over it. Probably because of the water flowing pass the piles, on a night or two once about four years, those living near the bridge would hear a horrible din at night, and they would say that the creek (we don't easily postulate a goddess or god owning the river) is asking for a victim and children will be forbidden to swim in it. Sure enough somebody would drown soon. 


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p082c3-b24/ not online 

[GARG ] I.P.
-- garga , roar; thunder; growl; hiss; twitter (with ac. of the sound); boast, swagger.  anu , roar after.  abhi , roar at (ac.). pari , scream, scold. prati , answer (ac.) with a roar; resist; vie with (in. or. g.).

गर्ज [garg-a] 
Skt: roar; thunder; growl; hiss; twitter (with ac. of the sound); boast, swagger.
Pal: {giz~za.}
- UHS-PMD0353
  UKT from UHS: m. shout, threat

Skt: roar after -- Mac082c3
Skt: anu-√garj  to shout or roar after -- MonWill


p082c3-b25/ not online

गर्ज [garg-a]
-- m., -na , n. roar, din

( end of old p082.htm )


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UKT notes


-- UKT 140903, 180321

Because of my teen-age interest in Esoteric Sciences such as Palmistry and Mantras I have come across the Pali-derived Bur-Myan word {gn~Da-ri} 'the science of invisibility'. See UTM-PDMD041.

You should watch the movie: Invisible Man : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UxZ5aDsmVWs 140903
based on H.G. Wells' (a respectable chemist turned author) science fiction, 1897, about a scientist who has devoted himself to research into optics and invents a way to change a body's refractive index to that of air so that it absorbs and reflects no light and thus becomes invisible.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Invisible_Man 140903

The dream of Invisibility is very much alive today. It is of interest to the Military: US Stealth bombers are just the entry items. See Wikipedi: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stealth_technology 170502
And downloaded pdf paper Stealth Technology: the fight against radar, by S. Kumar, S.Misra, and S. Gupta, in International Journal of Advances in Electronics and Computer Science, ISSN: 2393-2835, vol 1, issue 2, Dec 2014,
- SKumarEtAl-StealthTech<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180321)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhara 120201

Gandhāra (Skt and Hindi: गन्धार, gandḥārā is the name of an ancient kingdom (Mahajanapada), located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau (see Taxila) and on the Kabul River. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar), literally meaning City of Man [1] and Takshashila (modern Taxila). [2]

The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings. The Hindu term Shahi is used by history writer Al-Biruni [3] to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty [4] that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 CE, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times the area was part of Kabul province.

UKT: A very extensive article - recommended for reading.

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- UKT 140928, 170501

In Exotic Tribes of Ancient India, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 140928
we read: "The classic Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and the Puranas, refer to diverse kinds of beings, describing them as superhuman or subhuman and other worldly extraterrestrials came to inhabit planet Earth. These groups include [UKT: I have removed the English "plural s" for better transcription to Pali-Myan or Bur-Myan]

Gandharva -  {gn~Db~ba.} - UHS-PMD0357
Yaksha - 
Kinnara - 
Rakshasa - 
Naga -  {na-ga.}
Suparna - 
Vanara - 
Vidyadhara - 
Valakilya - 
Pisacha - 
Deva -
   (within them Vasu, Rudra, Marut, Aditya) and
Asura -
   (within them Danava, Daitya, Kalakeya and Nivatakavacha.) "

UKT continues: They were all humans who worshipped the various deities from which they had been named. For example: Naga {na-ga. lu-myo:su.} were humans who worshipped the Naga-deity {na.ga:} which was not a snake {mrw}.

Whether they are the same as our indigenous ethnics is not for me to speculate. I would like to emphasize here that if you were to rely only on the English transcriptions you would get into all sorts of misunderstandings.

Secondly, to identify these entities as humans, as this Wikipedia article has done, makes more sense to me - a material scientist - than what the religionists have done which I must accuse them of doing so to promote their own self-interest to install themselves as various priestly classes which must be supported by the hard working commoners as their various religious duties.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandharva 120131

Gandharva is a name used for distinct mythological beings in Hinduism and Buddhism; it is also a term for skilled singers in Indian classical music.

In Hinduism

In Hinduism, the gandharvas (Skt: गन्धर्व, gandharva, Tamil: கந்தர்வர், Telugu: గంధర్వ) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsaras. Some are part animal, usually a bird or horse. They have superb musical skills. They guarded the Soma [UKT: the health drink - a wine] and made beautiful music for the gods [dva] in their palaces. A gandharva means a singer in the court of Gods.

In Hindu theology, gandharvas act as messengers between the gods and humans. In Hindu law, a Gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual consent and without formal rituals.

Gandharvas are mentioned extensively in the epic Mahabharata as associated with the devas (as dancers and singers) and with the yakshas, as formidable warriors. They are mentioned as spread across various territories.

UKT 120131: A Gandharva marriage is something like the Bur-Myan common law marriage. It is a love-marriage without any ceremony [without Buddhist clergy] where a grown-up man and woman agree to start a family life as husband and wife with the knowledge [not permission] of seven front-door neighbours and seven back-door neighbours. It is recognized by Burmese-Buddhist Common Law, and upheld by all law courts in Myanmar. The following article [edited] is from: http://www.indianetzone.com/12/gandharva_marriage.htm 120130

" Mutual love and consent between the bride and the groom, are the only conditions to bring about such a marriage. It is a voluntary union of a maiden with her lover. Parents and kinsmen have nothing to do in such marriages. KamaSutra regards the marriage as an ideal one. [UKT ]

"Hindu mythology literature abounds in such type of marriages. For example that of
[King] Dushyant and [forest-dwelling] Shakuntala शकुन्तला śakuntalā
     -  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 140906
Daksheya and Prajapati,
Bhima with Hidimbi हिडिंबी [mother of घटोत्कच ghaṭōtkaca 
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidimbi 140906
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghatotkacha 140906
Kamdeva कामदेव Kāmadeva and Rati रति rati  
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamadeva 140906
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rati 140906
Kach कच kaca and Devyani देवयानी devayānī 
    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kacha_sage  140906
    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devayani 140906
The two get married prior to informing anyone.

UKT 140906: If I remember correctly, a Ksetriya क्षत्रिय ksatriya and a woman can also be married in the same way. The phrase "get married prior to informing anyone" - simply means that the two had sexual intercourse before declaring that they are man and wife. 

"Gandharva marriage takes place either in a temple depending on their religion. In this marriage, there is no Yajna and presence of any other person except girl and the boy. Both agree to marry and continue family life."

[Personal note: the legalization in Myanmar is in any place, not necessarily a temple or a law court, in the presence of a ward-elder and two witnesses when the man and women sign a marriage contract. My wife Daw Than Than and I signed our contract at the Rangoon Law Court in front of a judge and two friends as witnesses on Nov 23, 1956. I was an assistant lecturer (a gazetted officer in the Govt. of Burma employ) and she was a demonstrator in the same  Chemistry Dept., Rangoon Univ., in Rangoon.]

In Buddhism

A gandharva (Skt) or gandhabba (Pāli) is one of the lowest-ranking devas in Buddhist cosmology. They are classed among the Cāturmahārājikakāyika devas, and are subject to the Great King Dhṛtarāṣṭra , Guardian of the East. Beings are reborn among the gandharvas as a consequence of having practiced the most basic form of ethics (Janavasabha-sutta, DN.18). It was considered embarrassing for a monk to be born in no better birth than that of a gandharva.

Gandharvas can fly through the air, and are known for their skill as musicians. They are connected with trees and flowers, and are described as dwelling in the scents of bark, sap, and blossom. They are among the beings of the wilderness that might disturb a monk meditating alone.

The terms gandharva and yakṣa are sometimes used for the same person; yakṣa in these cases is the more general term, including a variety of lower deities.

Among the notable gandharvas are mentioned (in DN.20 and DN.32) Panāda, Opamaa, Naḷa, Cittasena, Rājā. Janesabha is probably the same as Janavasabha, a rebirth of King Bimbisāra of Magadha. Mātali the Gandharva is the charioteer for Śakra.

Timbarū was a chieftain of the gandharvas. There is a romantic story told about the love between his daughter Bhaddā Suriyavaccasā (Skt: Bhadrā Sūryavarcasā) and another gandharva, Pacasikha (Skt: Pacaśikha) [UKT ]

Pacasikha, {pi~sa.i-hka.}
   It is very difficult for me to get the Pal-Myan orthography for Pali names: both MLC MED and UHS-PMD do not list them. The above is from the Dictionary of Pali-derived Words by U Tun Myint, -- UKT120720

Pacasikha fell in love with Suriyavaccasā when he saw her dancing before Śakra, but she was then in love with Sikhandī (or Sikhaddi), son of Mātali the charioteer. Pacasikha then went to Timbarū's home and played a melody on his lute of beluva-wood, on which he had great skill, and sang a love-song in which he interwove themes about the Buddha and his arhats.

Later, Śakra prevailed upon Pacasikha to intercede with the Buddha so that Śakra might have an audience with him. As a reward for Pacasikha's services, Śakra was able to get Suriyavaccasā, already pleased with Pacasikha's display of skill and devotion, to agree to marry Pacasikha.

Pacasikha also acts as a messenger for the Four Heavenly Kings, conveying news from them to Mātali, the latter representing Śakra and the Trāyastriṃśa devas.

Gandharva or gandhabba is also used in a completely different sense, referring to a being (or, strictly speaking, part of the causal continuum of consciousness) in a liminal state between death and rebirth.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Garga Muni

- UKT151230, 170501:
We are familiar with the title Muni from Sakya Muni, an epithet applied to Gautama Buddha.
See: https://www.google.ca/?gws_rd=ssl#q=Sakya+muni 151230

See also the list of Ten rhisi (or so) respected by Gautama Buddha, mentioned in the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [14] section: "Atthako, Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho Vsettho**, Kassapo, and Bhagu".

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garga 151230

Garga muni was one of the greatest sages [rishi] of Puranic times. He was better known as Garga Muni. He was the son of Rishi Bharadwaja and Susheela. He was the family priest of the family of Nanda (the foster-father of Krishna) [chief of cowherds].

There was another Garga who was the son of Rishi Angiras. This Garga was the chief astrologer of King Prithu. He had obtained astronomical knowledge from Ananta.

He named Krishna after receiving the name by meditation. From the Vishnu Purana and other Puranas, one understands that although basically of Brahmin origin, a branch of Gargas became Kshatriyas and migrated westwards and joined the Yavanas (i.e. Ionians/Greeks). This could be the reason that later day Indians referred to Greek mathematicians and astronomers as Gargacharyas.

Gargi is celebrated female sage Vachaknavi, born in the family of Garga. He is started Garg clan Attributed to Garga is the Garga Samhita, a Sanskrit text on the life of Krishna.

UKT: End of Wiki article.

From: Bina Nair, posted on 140215
http://vipasana-vidushika.blogspot.com/2014/02/sages-from-hindu-scriptures-rishi-garga.html 151230

Garga Muni author of Garga Samhita was born to Rishi Bharadwaja and Suseela. He was a Brahma-Kshatriyas or what we call Warrior Brahmins, who have a Kshatriya charateristic as their mother is one. According to Anuloma marriage though the father is technically a Brahmin the child sort of inherits the kshatriya traits from their mothers. Dronacharya and Devavarnini (Kuberas mother) are his half brother and half sister. [UKT ]

Gargya was the son of Garga [Muni ?], the author of some of the Sukthas of the Atharvana Veda. Gargi Vachaknavi was too a hermit who was named after the sage Garga, in whose lineage she was born; she inherited her last name Vachaknavi from her father Vachaknu. His wife was Gargī.

We unfortunately do not have much information on Garga Muni, all the information is from Garga Samhita. Ashram of Garg Muni was at Dunagiri after whom river Gagas is said to have been named. Garga Rishi is one of the important 18 Saints of astrology.

UKT 170503: Whenever we mention Astrology, we have to make sure of its source: the northern or southern school. The Tamil or southern school has 18 Saints - those who have the power of Siddhi are known as Siddhar . There are 18 of them: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddhar 170503
"Typically Siddhars were saints, doctors, alchemists and mystics all in one."

Of the descendents of Garga some became Brahmins and migrated westwards and joined the Yavanas (Ionians) and possibly why we referred to Greek mathematicians and astronomers as Gargacharyas. Yet another branch of Gargas became Vaishya who are mostly come from Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Delhi and Haryana. (WIKIPEDIA).

Garga and the three Rakshasas

In the Narada purana there is this story about the three rakshasas who lived near the bank of the river Narmada who tried to gobble up Garga Rishi and failed. But then the Muni realised that they were who they were because of a curse they got, so he sprinkled the water of the Ganges on them with a Tulsi leaf, which got them reinstated to their original form. One of these rakshasas was Soudasa who was in actuality King Kalmashapada, who was turned into a Rakshasa by Sage Vaisishtha.

His contribution

In India astrology is considered to be an important aspect of Vedas and Garga [Muni ?] is one of the founders of the subject. His work Garga Samhita is based on the six fractions of the astrological science. His work Garga Purana lays down the rules of astrology in detail. Garga Munis major contribution is in the field of Vaastushastra and Ayurveda. He laid the foundation for the future research in these fields. [UKT ]

Rishi Garga [Garga Muni] starts the list of twenty seven nakshatras starting with Krittika. Choice of Krittika as the first of twenty-seven is very significant as it is in contrast with the Jyothisha saastra we follow that uses Ashwini as the first star.


At the birth of Agrasen, Maharishi Garg predicted that Agrasen will become a great emperor & he will introduce a new Governance system and will be known for it for thousands of years. [UKT ]

UKT 151231: From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrasena 151231
"Maharaja Agrasen was a legendary Indian king of Agroha in India, a city of traders, from whom the Agrawal and Agrahari community are descent. [1] He is credited with the establishment of a kingdom of traders in North India named Agroha, and is known for his compassion in refusing to slaughter animals in yajnas."

Even when he was very young prince Agrasen was well-known for his compassion he never discriminated against anyone and the subjects were very pleased with him. Garga [Muni ?] discovered a constellation during the time of Pandavas and Kauravas. The future life of Krishna and Arjuna was predicted by him. Even the Kurukshetra war was foretold by him.


Garga Muni and Lord Krishna [s/o Vasudeva]

UKT151231: Lack of a family name in Myanmarpr, has given rise to the custom of identifying a person by his given name followed by the father's name with the abbreviation s/o (son of) in between. Thus, my name without the customary "U" would be KyawTun s/o TunPe. "KyawTun" is written without a white-space in between in Bur-Myan, but in Eng-Lat it is written as "Kyaw Tun", which has led the Westerners and other foreigners to think that the family name is "Tun". Foreigners used to the Chinese custom of family name first, take the "Kyaw" to be the family name and "Tun" the given name. After many hilarious incidents in America and then in Canada, I adopted the Western custom and adopted my father's "Tun" as the family name. Fortunately, we can explain that "Tun Pe" can literally stand for "Father Pe".

But that's not all that Garga Samhita deals with: it is also a text place where we find accounts of life of Lord Krishna [s/o Vasudeva]. There is a detailed account of Krishnas character. There is but one variation in the story of Krishna here. Here he is said to have been married to Radha, his childhood friend and one of the gopis.

Vasudeva [f/o (father of) Krishna] approaches Garga Muni after few months of Lord Krishnas birth and beseeches him to go to Nanda [chief of cowherds] to calculate the horoscope of the Lord [Krishna]. [UKT ]

UKT 151231: Remember, Nanda is just the chief of the cowherds, and Garga Muni is the astrologer. I am given to understand by this passage that the child Krishna was already in the care of Nanda the chief of the cowherds. Vasudeva f/o Krishna, requests the astrologer to go to see the child-Krishna and examine the child for signs on his body and lines on his palm to give a prediction. The astrologer has no need to cast a horoscope (say on palm leaf) from the exact time and place of birth which could be done without examining the child. This is what I would have done if I had been the astrologer-palmist. I am writing this note on my experience as an astrologer-palmist. I have specialised in Astakavarga - a branch of Hindu astrology.

He [Garga Muni] was the priest for the Yadu dynasty. Nanda [in whose care was the child] received Garga Muni with respect and enquired the reason for his holy presence. Nanda [the cowherd] knew about his [Garga Muni's] astrological knowledge. He requested Garga Muni to bless Krishna [child] and Balrama [child]. [UKT ]

Then to Nanda [the cowherd] he [the astrologer] explained the reason for his visit but he did not explicitly tell him that Krishna as Vasudevas child although they knew that Balarama was, as Rohini was Vasudevas wife, but then he did not reveal that Balarama was also transferred from Devakis womb.

Garga Muni decided to name the child without much pomp as not to arouse any suspicion in the mind of [King] Kamsa [the overlord of Nanda the cowherd]. [UKT ]

He [Garga Muni] predicted that Balarama [child] would have a very pleasing personality so he was to be called Rama and in the future he would also acquire a lot of strength for this reason he would be called Balarama/ Baladeva. Garga [Muni] also said that he would also be called Sankarshana as he brings to two families together.

Nanda [the cowherd] is given many hints about the greatness of Krishna [the child]. Garga Muni told him that he was a very extraordinary boy. He [Garga Muni] warned Nanda [the cowherd] about the problems the child will encounter but he will be protected by his grace Lord Vishnu [dva-god]. [UKT ]

UKT 151231: After reading the Indian mythologies over many years, I have theorised that the stories of Rama [Sitta-Ram], and Krishna [Radha-Krishna] are about human kings who have been deified by their subjects in the Bronze Age. These stories were adopted by later Rishis of Iron Age who as scribes had placed Rama and Krishna as minor gods under their axiomatic dva-god Vishnu.

He [Garga Muni] predicted that he would be given a name Giridhari because of his past times at Govardhana hills. He told him that Krishna would be very pleasing to all the cowherd men and cows [not necessarily the animals but the human clans], would be the cause of all good fortune, he overcome all kinds of material calamities, despite opposing elements. He warned that there would be various attempts on Krishna life by many demons [Asura who were not demonised in the Rig Veda], so Garga Muni asked him to careful and protect [child] Krishna Him. And he [Garga Muni] named him as "Krishna" after receiving the name while he was in meditation. In various ways he [Garga Muni] described the transcendental qualities of his son. After giving this information, Garga Muni returned.

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Garga rishi

-- UKT 140905: I still have to find {gag~ga.ra..} in Buddhist sources.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garga 120720

One of the greatest sages of the Puranic times. [UKT ]

UKT 120720: I consider some of the Puranas to be as ancient as the Vedas, but less reliable because they are being updated throughout the written period up to very recent times. They are subject not only to the idiosyncrasies of the original author, but also to those who continue to modify them. The following is an excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puranic 120720
   "The Puranas ( पुराण purāṇa, "of ancient times") are a genre of important Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. [1]
   ... ... ...
   "Vyasa [a non-historical person], the narrator of the Mahabharata, is traditionally considered the compiler of the Puranas. [2] However, the earliest written versions date from the time of the Gupta Empire (third-fifth century CE) and much material may be dated, through historical references and other means, to this period and the succeeding centuries. The texts were probably written all over India.
   "The date of the production of the written texts does not define the date of origin of the Puranas. [3] On one hand, they existed in some oral form before being written [3] while at the same time, they have been incrementally modified well into the 16th century [3] [4] and perhaps down to the present day. "

UKT 120720, 141025: Some of the Puranas may be fabrications supposedly revealed to a later author by unseen sources such as coming in during a trance or a light sleep. I consider the comparatively recent Book of Mormon to be an example from the U.S. I must add out of my respect to the Mormons, in particular to Henry Eyring the famous scientist who I met in person in 1958, that I do not take the Book of Mormon to be a fake created out of greed or commercial gain.

   "An early reference is found in the Chandogya Upanishad (7.1.2). (circa 500 BCE). The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad refers to purana as the "fifth Veda", [5] itihāsapurāṇaṃ pacamaṃ vedānāṃ, reflecting the early religious importance of these myths, presumably then in purely oral form. Importantly, the most famous form of itihāsapurāṇaṃ is the Mahabharata. The term also appears in the Atharvaveda 11.7.24. [6] [7]"

Garga was the son of Rishi Bharadwaja and Susheela. He was better known as Garga Muni. He was the family priest of the family of Nanda (the foster-father of Krishna). He named Krishna as "Krishna" after receiving the name by meditation. [UKT ]

UKT 141025: Would you accept a piece of "information" that has been received during "meditation" or "a dream" or "told by an apparition" as factual? I am finding that some "facts" in the Christian Bible are of this nature. For example the message of God on "Immaculate Conception". Please be reminded that I do not regard these "facts" as non-sense out of my respect to real persons who I came to know in person such as Prof. Eyring who believed in them. I regard these "facts" with an open mind: neither true nor false until proven further.

From the Vishnu Purana and other Puranas, one understands that although basically of Kshatriya origin, a branch of Gargas became Brahmins and migrated westwards and joined the Yavanas (Ionians). This could be the possible reason that later day Indians referred to Greek mathematicians and astronomers as Gargacharyas while they also maintained that a Vridha-Garga (Earlier or Older Garga) was the pioneer in astronomy. Another branch of Gargas became Vaishya. Gargs Vaishya are mostly from Uttar Pradesh and other parts of northern India like Rajasthan, Punjab, Delhi and Haryana. They are one of the 18 gotras under Agarwal.

Gargi is celebrated female sage Vachaknavi, born in the family of Garga.

Garga the sage is the writer of Garga Samhita.

UKT: End of Wiki article

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- UKT 140905

Large birds of prey are not mythical creatures. They have been on this earth since the time of dinosaurs. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterosaur 140905
"Quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of 1011 metres (3336 ft), and was among the largest flying animals ever. [70] It lived during the late Cretaceous period. "

The account of Garuda would not be complete without mentioning the mythical bird Roc of the Sinbad the Sailor story: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roc_mythology 140905.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda 120101

The Garuda (Skt: गरुड garuḍa , "eagle"; Pal: garuḷa ; Bur-Myan: {ga.Loan}) is a large mythical bird or bird-like creature that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology.

From an Indian perspective, Garuda is the Hindu name for the constellation Aquila and the Brahminy kite is considered to be the contemporary representation of Garuda. [1] [UKT ]

Indonesia adopts a more stylistic approach to the Garuda's depiction as its national symbol, where it depicts an eagle (being much larger than a kite). [2]

... ... ...

[Garuda's] stature in Hindu religion can be gauged by the fact that an independent Upanishad, the Garudopanishad, and a Purana, the Garuda Purana, is devoted to him. Various names have been attributed to Garuda - Chirada, Gaganeshvara, Kamayusha, Kashyapi, Khageshvara, Nagantaka, Sitanana, Sudhahara, Suparna, Tarkshya, Vainateya, Vishnuratha and others. The Vedas provide the earliest reference of Garuda, though by the name of Śyena, where this mighty bird is said to have brought nectar to earth from heaven. [UKT ]

UKT: The spellings of the word {ga.Loan} (Bur-Myan),  {ga.ru.La.} (Pal-Myan in UHS-PMD0361), and {ga.ru.a.} (Skt-Myan derived from Skt-Dev: गरुड garuḍa), shows the laterality vs. rhoticity, and nasality in the three languages. The lateral in Burmese has become the rhotic in Sanskrit with Pali in between, and that Burmese is the most nasal of all three. 

The Puranas, which came into existence much later, mention Garuda as doing the same thing, which indicates that Śyena (Sanskrit for Eagle) and Garuda are the same. One of the faces of Śrī Pacamukha Hanuman is Mahavira Garuda. This face points towards the west. Worship of Garuda is believed to remove the effects of poisons from one's body. In Tamil Vaishnavism Garuda and Hanuman are known as "Periya Thiruvadi" and "Siriya Thiruvadi" respectively.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

UKT 120717, 140905: Drawing conclusions on religions based on iconography is a dangerous approach to ancient religions. Looking at the artists' imaginations of a bird of prey armed with a human-made sword is the most ridiculous in Hindu religious iconography.

In the daily life of ordinary people of Myanmarpr who believe in Burmese Astrology, {ga.Loan} appears as the mount of Sunday-planet. You will see it on the planet-post of every pagoda in Myanmar in the north-eastern corner. All other mounts are land-animals. Burmese Buddhists do not attach any importance the bird, but only to the god of the Sunday planet which though a malefic signifies success.

To the Theravada Buddhists, the Naga - the traditional enemy of the {ga.Loan} - is more important. According to tradition, the Naga of Mucilinda Lake had sheltered the Buddha with its hood from a storm.

The largest flying bird known to science was the extinct Argentavis magnificens (literally "magnificent Argentine bird") with an estimated of wingspan of 23 ft and body weight 154-171.6 lb. It lived in the late Miocene (6 million years before present) in central and northwestern Argentina, -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentavis 120717

Compared to the feathered birds, the flying dinosaurs were larger. Quetzalcoatlus was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Maastrichtian stage, about 6865.5 million years ago), and one of the largest known flying animals of all time. It had an estimated wingspan of 33-36ft. Estimates of mass (since 2000s) is the range of 440-550lb. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quetzalcoatlus 120717

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Garudha Vyuha

- UKT 160104, 170501 

Reading through the riverine naval battles between the Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan I had come across a military formation known as Garuda Vyuha. The following is on Garuda Vyuha and Chakra Vyuha in Mahabharatta War. See also:
Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhimanyu 160104
"Abhimanyu was killed on the 13th day of the Kurukshetra War."
He knew how to get to the centre of Chakra, but did not know how to get out. As a result he was killed.

From: Vyuhas in the Bharata - by Mouli, Mysore, India, 2005 - http://vyuhas.blogspot.com/ 160104

Garuda Vyuha (Garuda - The Mighty Bird)

On the second day Bhishma arranged his army in Garuda Vyuha. Bhishma was its beak. Drona and Kritavarna were the eyes. Kripa and Ashvatthama were at the head. The Trigartas the Jayadratha with their armies made the neck. Duryodhana, his brothers, Vinda and Anuvinda made the body. King of Kashala, Brihadbala formed the tail.

Chakra Vyuha 

The thirteenth day of the war came. Drona arranged his army in Chakra Vyuha (wheel) formation. Duryodhana was at the centre and other warriors were in different layers. Jayadratha was there guarding the gate of the Vyuha with his army. In a Chakra Vyuha warriors formed concentric circles (the circles of proportion of the circles of death) and the enemy had to penetrate all the circles to reach the core to defeat his opponent and then come out.

It is said that the Chakra Vyuha had six concentric circles under the six Maharathis (Karna, Drona, Ashvatthama, Dushashana, Shalya, Kripacharya) with Duryodhana at the center and Jayadratha guarding the gate. Abhimanyu had already penetrated the Chakra Vyuha. Meanwhile at the gate of the Vyuha, Bhima, Yudhisthira, Shikhandi, Drupad, Dhristadhymna, Virata, Nakula etc. were making determined effort to break into the vyuha but without any success. Jayadratha had obtained a boon from lord Shiva that enabled him to defy all the Pandavas when Arjuna and Krishna were not there.

UKT 170501: Now that we know something of the battle-field formations, we should know something of the Warfare in Ancient India. A book on the subject, War in Ancient India by V.R.R.Dikshitar, 1944 is worth reading. Downloaded paper is in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- VRRDikshitar-WarInciIndia<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170501)
In the Foreword we find: "It is refreshing to note how in ancient times at least, the laws of war were designed to bring out the best and not the worst of human traits. Chivalry, individual heroism, qualities of mercy and nobility of outlook even in the grimmest of struggles were not unknown to the soldiers of ancient India. ...."

Speaking of Mercy, it reminds me Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice which I learned in my college days in early 1950's: "The quality of mercy is not strained; / It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest; / It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:"

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