Update: 2016-01-06 03:59 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{gar~} : repha

UKT: 151230, 160105

#1. The first time we have met Repha is on p063.htm
In Skt-Dev, both short & long vowels may be checked. Thus we find Repha in both {gar~},
and {gaar~} on p084.htm
We do not find Repha in both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan.

#2. One of the differences between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev is the checking of vowels in the syllables. In Bur-Myan (a typical Tib-Bur language), it is only the short vowel can be checked. However, in Skt-Dev (a typical IE language) both short and long vowels may be checked.

#3. Garuda, the mythical top predator of the flying animals signifies swiftness and aggression. Note that these attributes are reflected in the meanings of proper names, e.g. Garuda Vyuha - a battle formation, Garuda-vega - the name of a horse.

#4. The ancient Mahabharata War can be studied not only for the Indian philosophy of Bhagava Gita, but also for ancient Indian military formations such as Garuda (or Heron) Vyuha formation. See my note on Garuda Vyuha.


UKT notes :
Garga Muni
Garudha Vyuha


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• गन्धन [ gandh-ana ]
- m. kind of rice; n. fragrance; sarcasm.



• गन्धर्व [gandhar-vá]
- m. N. of a genius closely connected w. Soma and the sun; sts.pl. (V.) celestial musician inhabiting Indra's heaven (C.),



• गन्धर्वखण्ड [ gandharva-khanda ]
= ग न ् ध र ् व ख ण ् ड
- m. N. of a part of Bhâratavarsha; -tva, n. condition of a Gandharva; -dattâ, f. N. of a Gandharva princess; -nagara, n. city of the Gandharvas; mirage; -pura, n. city of the Gandharvas; -râga, m. king of the Gandharvas.

UKT 151229: Since we are dealing in these entries with the mythical Gandharva गन्धर्व [gandhar-vá], the celestial musicians, the reader is advised to look into facts related to the human musicians in G. N. Devy's Indian Literary Criticism on ¤ On Natya and Rasa : Aesthetics of Dramatic Experience. Follow the navigation:
¤ LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm (link chk 151229)
and proceed to ¤ Bhartṛhari's Syntax, Meaning, Sphoṭa - spho-bartri-matilal.htm (link chk 151229)
and look for Bharatamuni aka Bharata's theory of Rasa connected to the psychology of aesthetic reception.


• गन्धर्वी [ gandharv&isharp; ]
- f. female being akin to Gandharva.



• गन्धवत् [ gandha-vat ]
- a. fragrant; having the quality of smell: -î, f. N. of a river; -vaha, a. wafting fragrance; m. wind; -vâha, m. wind; -sâli, m. fragrant rice; *-sâra, m. sandal-wood.



• गन्धाढ्य [ gandha‿âdhya ]
- a. rich in perfume, fragrant.





• गन्धि [ gandh-i ]
- a. smelling of; having a little of (--°); -i-ka, -in, a. id.




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• गभस्तल [ gabh-as-tala ]
- n. kind of hell.



• गभस्ति [ gábhas-ti ]
- m. arm, hand; ray: -mat, a. radiant; m. sun; -mâlin, m. sun.



• गभीर [ gabh-îra ]
- a. abysmal, unfathomable; deep; dense, impervious; extensive; inexhaustible; secret, inscrutable: -m or °--, ad.


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• गम्  [gam] ¹. gáma and ². gán-ti (v.);










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• गम [ gam-a ]
- a. going, moving (--°); m. departure; way, distance; sexual intercourse with (--°): -ka, a. cogent; evidencing (g.): -tâ, f., -tva, n. cogency.



• गमध्यै [ gáma-dhyai ]
- d. inf. to go.



• गमन [ gam-ana ]
- n. gait; going; betaking oneself to (ad.; ac. ± prati, g., --°); sexual intercourse with (--°); entering upon, undergoing (--°); course; departure; walking; motion: -vat, a. past; -anîya, fp. accessible to, as sailable by (g.); -ayitavya, cs. fp. to be passed (time).



• गमागम [ gama‿âgama ]
- m. going and coming, going to and fro; sg. & pl. negotiation.



• गमिन् [ gam-in ]
- a. about to go (to, ac., --°).



• गमिष्ठ [ gám-ishtha ]
- spv. going gladly to (ac.).



• गमिष्णु [ gam-ishnú ]
- a. going; wishing to traverse (ac.).








• गम्भीरार्थ [ gambhîra‿artha ]
- a. of deep significance; -‿âsaya, a. having a deep thought: -tâm kri, conceive a deep thought.



• गम्य [ gam-ya ]
- fp. to be gone to; accessible to (g., lc., --°); feasible; accessible to or in the right condition for, sexual intercourse (f.); profligate (m.); curable by (g.); conceivable, intelligible, comprehensible; to be guessed; meant; suitable.


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• गय [ gáya ]
- m. house; household; family; N. of a Rishi, a mtn., and (pl.) of a people; -sph&asharp;na, a. conferring prosperity on the household.



• गया [gayâ]
- f. N. of a place of pilgrimage



• गयाकूप [ gayâ-kûpa ]
- m. N. of a well near Gayâ; -siras, n. N. of a mtn.; western horizon.


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• गर [ gar-á ]
- a. swallowing (--°); m. drink, fluid; poison (sts. n.): -gir, a., -gîrná, pp. having swallowed poison; -da, m. poisoner.



• गरल [ gara-la ]
- n. poison.





• गरिमन् [ gar-i-man ]
- m. weight; dignity; power; -ishtha, spv. (of guru) greatly swollen; -îyas, cpv. (of guru) very difficult; better, more important or honourable, of more account than (ab.); rather than (ab.); worse; very important: -tva, n. weight, heaviness; importance.



• गरुड [ garudá ] : alt. spelling गारुड [ gâruda ] on p084.htm
- m. N. of a fabulous bird, son of Vinatâ and elder brother of Aruna, king of the feathered race, vehicle of Vishnu or Krishna; kind of battle-array; -mânikya maya, a. of emerald; -vega, m. N. of a horse.

UKT: 160105
#1. Garuda, the mythical top predator of the flying animals signifies swiftness and aggression. Note that these attributes are reflected in the meanings of proper names, e.g. Garuda Vyuha - a battle formation, Garuda-vega - the name of a horse.

#2. The ancient Mahabharata War can be studied not only for the Indian philosophy of Bhagava Gita, but also for ancient Indian military formations such as Garuda (or Heron) Vyuha formation. See my note on Garuda Vyuha.




• गरुत् [ gar-ut ]
- n. (?) wing: -mat, a. winged; m. Garuda; bird.


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{gar~} : repha

UKT 151230: The first time we have met Repha is on p063.htm (link chk 151230).



• गर्ग [ garga ]
Skt: गर्ग [ garga ] - m. N. of various men; â, î, f. N. - Mac082c3
Pal: {gag~ga.} - UHS PMD03582
  UKT from UHS: m. Rishi Gagga.

See my note on Rishi Garga



• गर्गर [ gár-gar-a ] m. whirlpool; â, î, f. churn.


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UKT notes


- UKT151230:
We are familiar with the title Muni from Sakya Muni, an epithet applied to Gautama Buddha.
See: https://www.google.ca/?gws_rd=ssl#q=Sakya+muni 151230

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garga 151230

Garga muni was one of the greatest sages of Puranic times. He was better known as Garga Muni. He was the son of Rishi Bharadwaja and Susheela. He was the family priest of the family of Nanda (the foster-father of Krishna) [chief of cowherds].

There was another Garga who was the son of Rishi Angiras. This Garga was the chief astrologer of King Prithu. He had obtained astronomical knowledge from Ananta.

He named Krishna after receiving the name by meditation. From the Vishnu Purana and other Puranas, one understands that although basically of Brahmin origin, a branch of Gargas became Kshatriyas and migrated westwards and joined the Yavanas (i.e. Ionians/Greeks). This could be the reason that later day Indians referred to Greek mathematicians and astronomers as Gargacharyas.

Gargi is celebrated female sage Vachaknavi, born in the family of Garga. He is started Garg clan Attributed to Garga is the Garga Samhita, a Sanskrit text on the life of Krishna.

UKT: End of Wiki article.

From: Bina Nair, posted on 140215
http://vipasana-vidushika.blogspot.com/2014/02/sages-from-hindu-scriptures-rishi-garga.html 151230

Garga Muni author of Garga Samhita was born to Rishi Bharadwaja and Suseela. He was a Brahma-Kshatriyas or what we call Warrior Brahmins, who have a Kshatriya charateristic as their mother is one. According to Anuloma marriage though the father is technically a Brahmin the child sort of inherits the kshatriya traits from their mothers. Dronacharya and Devavarnini (Kubera’s mother) are his half brother and half sister. [UKT ¶]

Gargya was the son of Garga [Muni ?], the author of some of the Sukthas of the Atharvana Veda. Gargi Vachaknavi was too a hermit who was named after the sage Garga, in whose lineage she was born; she inherited her last name Vachaknavi from her father Vachaknu. His wife was Gargī.

We unfortunately do not have much information on Garga Muni, all the information is from Garga Samhita. Ashram of Garg Muni was at Dunagiri after whom river Gagas is said to have been named. Garga Rishi is one of the important 18 Saints of astrology.

Of the descendents of Garga some became Brahmins and migrated westwards and joined the Yavanas (Ionians) and possibly why we referred to Greek mathematicians and astronomers as Gargacharyas. Yet another branch of Gargas became Vaishya who are mostly come from Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Delhi and Haryana. (WIKIPEDIA).

Garga and the three Rakshasas

In the Narada purana there is this story about the three rakshasas who lived near the bank of the river Narmada who tried to gobble up Garga Rishi and failed. But then the Muni realised that they were who they were because of a curse they got, so he sprinkled the water of the Ganges on them with a Tulsi leaf, which got them reinstated to their original form. One of these rakshasas was Soudasa who was in actuality King Kalmashapada, who was turned into a Rakshasa by Sage Vaisishtha.

His contribution

In India astrology is considered to be an important aspect of Vedas and Garga [Muni ?] is one of the founders of the subject. His work Garga Samhita is based on the six fractions of the astrological science. His work Garga Purana lays down the rules of astrology in detail. Garga Muni’s major contribution is in the field of Vaastushastra and Ayurveda. He laid the foundation for the future research in these fields. [UKT ¶]

Rishi Garga [Garga Muni] starts the list of twenty seven nakshatra’s starting with Krittika. Choice of Krittika as the first of twenty-seven is very significant as it is in contrast with the Jyothisha saastra we follow that uses Ashwini as the first star.


At the birth of Agrasen, Maharishi Garg predicted that Agrasen will become a great emperor & he will introduce a new Governance system and will be known for it for thousands of years. [UKT ¶]

UKT 151231: From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrasena 151231
"Maharaja Agrasen was a legendary Indian king of Agroha in India, a city of traders, from whom the Agrawal and Agrahari community are descent. [1] He is credited with the establishment of a kingdom of traders in North India named Agroha, and is known for his compassion in refusing to slaughter animals in yajnas."

Even when he was very young prince Agrasen was well-known for his compassion he never discriminated against anyone and the subjects were very pleased with him. Garga [Muni ?] discovered a constellation during the time of Pandavas and Kauravas. The future life of Krishna and Arjuna was predicted by him. Even the Kurukshetra war was foretold by him.


Garga Muni and Lord Krishna [s/o Vasudeva]

UKT151231: Lack of a family name in Myanmarpré, has given rise to the custom of identifying a person by his given name followed by the father's name with the abbreviation s/o (son of) in between. Thus, my name without the customary "U" would be KyawTun s/o TunPe. "KyawTun" is written without a white-space in between in Bur-Myan, but in Eng-Lat it is written as "Kyaw Tun", which has led the Westerners and other foreigners to think that the family name is "Tun". Foreigners used to the Chinese custom of family name first, take the "Kyaw" to be the family name and "Tun" the given name. After many hilarious incidents in America and then in Canada, I adopted the Western custom and adopted my father's "Tun" as the family name. Fortunately, we can explain that "Tun Pe" can literally stand for "Father Pe".

But that's not all that Garga Samhita deals with: it is also a text place where we find accounts of life of Lord Krishna [s/o Vasudeva]. There is a detailed account of Krishna’s character. There is but one variation in the story of Krishna here. Here he is said to have been married to Radha, his childhood friend and one of the gopis.

Vasudeva [f/o (father of) Krishna] approaches Garga Muni after few months of Lord Krishnas birth and beseeches him to go to Nanda [chief of cowherds] to calculate the horoscope of the Lord [Krishna]. [UKT ¶]

UKT 151231: Remember, Nanda is just the chief of the cowherds, and Garga Muni is the astrologer. I am given to understand by this passage that the child Krishna was already in the care of Nanda the chief of the cowherds. Vasudeva f/o Krishna, requests the astrologer to go to see the child-Krishna and examine the child for signs on his body and lines on his palm to give a prediction. The astrologer has no need to cast a horoscope (say on palm leaf) from the exact time and place of birth which could be done without examining the child. This is what I would have done if I had been the astrologer-palmist. I am writing this note on my experience as an astrologer-palmist. I have specialised in Astakavarga - a branch of Hindu astrology.

He [Garga Muni] was the priest for the Yadu dynasty. Nanda [in whose care was the child] received Garga Muni with respect and enquired the reason for his holy presence. Nanda [the cowherd] knew about his [Garga Muni's] astrological knowledge. He requested Garga Muni to bless Krishna [child] and Balrama [child]. [UKT ¶]

Then to Nanda [the cowherd] he [the astrologer] explained the reason for his visit but he did not explicitly tell him that Krishna as Vasudeva’s child although they knew that Balarama was, as Rohini was Vasudevas wife, but then he did not reveal that Balarama was also transferred from Devaki’s womb.

Garga Muni decided to name the child without much pomp as not to arouse any suspicion in the mind of [King] Kamsa [the overlord of Nanda the cowherd]. [UKT ¶]

He [Garga Muni] predicted that Balarama [child] would have a very pleasing personality so he was to be called Rama and in the future he would also acquire a lot of strength for this reason he would be called Balarama/ Baladeva. Garga [Muni] also said that he would also be called Sankarshana as he brings to two families together.

Nanda [the cowherd] is given many hints about the greatness of Krishna [the child]. Garga Muni told him that he was a very extraordinary boy. He [Garga Muni] warned Nanda [the cowherd] about the problems the child will encounter but he will be protected by his grace Lord Vishnu [déva-god]. [UKT ¶]

UKT 151231: After reading the Indian mythologies over many years, I have theorised that the stories of Rama [Sitta-Ram], and Krishna [Radha-Krishna] are about human kings who have been deified by their subjects in the Bronze Age. These stories were adopted by later Rishis of Iron Age who as scribes had placed Rama and Krishna as minor gods under their axiomatic déva-god Vishnu.

He [Garga Muni] predicted that he would be given a name Giridhari because of his past times at Govardhana hills. He told him that Krishna would be very pleasing to all the cowherd men and cows [not necessarily the animals but the human clans], would be the cause of all good fortune, he overcome all kinds of material calamities, despite opposing elements. He warned that there would be various attempts on Krishna life by many demons [Asura who were not demonised in the Rig Veda], so Garga Muni asked him to careful and protect [child] Krishna Him. And he [Garga Muni] named him as "Krishna" after receiving the name while he was in meditation. In various ways he [Garga Muni] described the transcendental qualities of his son. After giving this information, Garga Muni returned.

Go back Garga-note-b

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Garudha Vyuha

- UKT 160104

Reading through the riverine naval battles between the Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan I had come across a military formation known as Garuda Vyuha. The following is on Garuda Vyuha and Chakra Vyuha in Mahabharatta War. See also:
Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abhimanyu 160104
"Abhimanyu was killed on the 13th day of the Kurukshetra War."
He knew how to get to the centre of Chakra, but did not know how to get out. As a result he was killed.

From: Vyuhas in the Bharata - by Mouli, Mysore, India, 2005 - http://vyuhas.blogspot.com/ 160104

Garuda Vyuha (Garuda - The Mighty Bird)

On the second day Bhishma arranged his army in Garuda Vyuha. Bhishma was its beak. Drona and Kritavarna were the eyes. Kripa and Ashvatthama were at the head. The Trigartas the Jayadratha with their armies made the neck. Duryodhana, his brothers, Vinda and Anuvinda made the body. King of Kashala, Brihadbala formed the tail.

Chakra Vyuha 

The thirteenth day of the war came. Drona arranged his army in Chakra Vyuha (wheel) formation. Duryodhana was at the centre and other warriors were in different layers. Jayadratha was there guarding the gate of the Vyuha with his army. In a Chakra Vyuha warriors formed concentric circles (the circles of proportion of the circles of death) and the enemy had to penetrate all the circles to reach the core to defeat his opponent and then come out.

It is said that the Chakra Vyuha had six concentric circles under the six Maharathis (Karna, Drona, Ashvatthama, Dushashana, Shalya, Kripacharya) with Duryodhana at the center and Jayadratha guarding the gate. Abhimanyu had already penetrated the Chakra Vyuha. Meanwhile at the gate of the Vyuha, Bhima, Yudhisthira, Shikhandi, Drupad, Dhristadhymna, Virata, Nakula etc. were making determined effort to break into the vyuha but without any success. Jayadratha had obtained a boon from lord Shiva that enabled him to defy all the Pandavas when Arjuna and Krishna were not there.

Go back Garuda-Vyuha-note-b

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