Update: 2019-06-24 11:14 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top


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  {gn~Da.} continues

UKT notes :

UKT: 151230, 160105, 170501, 190227
   #1. One of the differences between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev is the checking of vowels in the syllables. In Bur-Myan (a typical Tib-Bur language), only the short vowel can be checked. However, in Skt-Dev (a typical IE language) both short and long vowels may be checked.

Gandhāra: the kingdom
Gandhava : different from dvas {gn~Db~ba.}

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p082c1-b01/ p062-040

गन्धन [ gandh-ana ]
- m. kind of rice; n. fragrance; sarcasm.
40) गन्धन (p. 62) gandh-ana rice; n. fragrance; sarcasm.


p082c1-b02/ not online

गन्धर्व [gandhar-v]
- m. N. of a genius closely connected w. Soma and the sun; sts. pl. (V.) celestial musician inhabiting Indra's heaven (C.),
Skt: gandharv  m. a Gandharva [though in later times the Gandharvas are regarded as a class, yet in RV. rarely more than one is mentioned -- MonWilli346

UKT120131: See my note on Gandharva - a kind of celestial beings not necessarily the servants of devas, some of who (both & female) serve as musicians and dancers at the court of Indra the king of the devas.
From their marriage custom, it seems that the Gandharvas are the most free - especially the females: something approaching the modern idea of freedom. The custom is just the opposite of the Ponnar {poaN~Na:}, in which the female has a subservient role to the males. I wonder whether they were the mythicised ancient Tib-Bur speakers, similar to Pyus of Myanmarpr, of the Indian subcontinent before the Ponnar {poaN~Na:} with kings, male-gods, and the idea of male supremacy intruded into the subcontinent. Though they called themselves Aryans - the perfect race - they did not deserve the term.

According to Gaudama Buddha, perfection - being an AriAya - is by virtue of conduct, not by virtue of birth. See Arya Dharma, by Anagarika Dhamapala, 1917, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:,
- ADhamapala-AryaDharma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180321)
UKT 190221: The author or this works, alt. caption: Ethics of Self Discipline, Ven. A. Dharmapala (1864-1933 ), is the Brahmachari of the Bodhisatva Path, and the founder of the Maha Bhodhi Soc. On p.43, he writes:
"The greatness of man consists in his indomitable will to do good, and the power to realize Truth by his own self-sacrificing efforts. Rob man of this great virtue and he degenerates into a savage with the instincts of the tiger and the hyena."


p082c1-b03/ not online

गन्धर्वखण्ड [ gandharva-khanda ]
= ग न ् ध र ् व ख ण ् ड
- m. N. of a part of Bhratavarsha; -tva, n. condition of a Gandharva; -datt, f. N. of a Gandharva princess; -nagara, n. city of the Gandharvas; mirage; -pura, n. city of the Gandharvas; -rga, m. king of the Gandharvas.
72) गन्धर्वखण्ड (p. 62) gandharva-khanda part of Bhratavarsha;

UKT 151229: Since we are dealing in these entries with the mythical Gandharva गन्धर्व [gandhar-v], the celestial musicians, the reader is advised to look into facts related to the human musicians in G. N. Devy's Indian Literary Criticism on On Natya and Rasa : Aesthetics of Dramatic Experience. Follow the navigation:
and proceed to Bhartṛhari's Syntax, Meaning, Sphoṭa
and look for Bharatamuni aka Bharata's theory of Rasa connected to the psychology of aesthetic reception.
- lang-thot-indx.htm > spho-bartri-matilal.htm (link chk 170501)
and proceed to On Natya and Rasa : Aesthetics of Dramatic Experience

p082c1-b04/ p062-071

गन्धर्वी [ gandharv&isharp; ]
- f. female being akin to Gandharva.
71) गन्धर्वी (p. 62) gandharv female being akin to Gandharva.


p082c1-b05/ p062-068 

गन्धवत् [ gandha-vat ]
- a. fragrant; having the quality of smell: -, f. N. of a river; -vaha, a. wafting fragrance; m. wind; -vha, m. wind; -sli, m. fragrant rice; *-sra, m. sandal-wood.
68) गन्धवत् (p. 62) gandha-vat fragrant; having the quality of smell:


गन्धसार gandhasāra
Skt: *-sra - m. sandal-wood - Mac082c1
Skt: ○vat mfn. endowed with the quality of smell Tarkas.   -- MonWilli
Skt: गन्धसार gandhasāra - m. kind of jasmine, sandle-wood -- SpkSkt


p082c1-b06/ p062-067

गन्धाढ्य [ gandha‿dhya ]
- a. rich in perfume, fragrant.
67) गन्धाढ्य (p. 62) gandha̮dhya rich in perfume,


p082c1-b07/ not online

गन्धार gandḥārā [gandhra]
-- m. pl. N. of a people in the N.W.; i , m. pl. id.

See my note on the dream of Invisibility and Gandhāra


p082c1-b08/ p062-066

गन्धि [ gandh-i ]
- a. smelling of; having a little of (--); -i-ka, -in, a. id.
66) गन्धि (p. 62) gandh-i smelling of;


p082c1-b09/ not online

-- m. = gandha-dvipa


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गब्भ gabbha :
=  ग ब ् भ --> {gb~Ba.} :
   since ब ba & भ bha are pronounced almost the same, a repha results Skt-Dev.
BPal: {gb~Ba.} - UHS-PMD0358
  UKT from UHS: m. mother's womb, fetus, pregnancy, brick-chamber
Skt: गर्भ garbha - m. embryo - SpkSkt


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p082c1-b10/ not online

गभ् [gabh] , [gambh]
- be cleft, yawn


p082c1-b11/ not online

गभ gabha [gabh-]
Skt: - m. vulva. - Mac082-c1
Skt: gabh m. (√gabh = gambh = jambh) 'slit', the vulva  VS. xxiii ŚBr. xiii, 2, 9, 6 -- MonWilli

UKT: The Latin word <vulva> means the external human-female sex apparatus.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulva 140904


p082c1-b12// p062-065

गभस्तल gabhastala [ gabh-as-tala ]  
= ग भ (स ् त) ल -->  {ga.Ba.Sta.la.} <-- {ga.Ba~ta.la.}
   [note the /s/ sound is due to स and not ष]
Skt: - n. kind of hell. -- Mac082c1
65) गभस्तल (p. 62) gabh-as-tala hell.

UKT 180322, 190221: The word {ga.Ba~ta.la.} गभस्तल = ग भ (स ् त) ल , |has the dental fricative akshara {a.}/ {} (the thibilant) which the Skt-Dev speakers could not pronounce. They had to pronounce it as dental fricative {Sa.}/ {S} ष (hisser} - not as palatal plosive-stop {sa.}/ {c} च . So, the Myanmar to Devanagari trans-pronunciation-transcription is {ga.Ba.Sta.la.}. I have to develop Romabama script before I can come up with an explanation. Using IPA and Hindhi-Dev transcriptions has been dead-end for me.


UKT 140904: There are eight levels of purgatory according to Buddhist lore and none corresponds to {ga.Ba.Sta.la.} / {ga.Ba~ta.la.} .
The following names are from Wikipedia:
1. Sajīva - the "reviving" Naraka 
2. Kālasūtra - the "black thread" Naraka
3. Saṃghāta - the "crushing" Naraka
4. Raurava - the "screaming" Naraka
5. Mahāraurava - the "great screaming" Naraka
6. Tapana - the "heating" Naraka
7. Pratāpana - the "great heating" Naraka
8. Avīci - the "uninterrupted" Naraka
See MLC PMD2006-090 for Bur-Myan spellings.


p082c1-b13/ p062-064

गभस्ति [ gbhas-ti ]
- m. arm, hand; ray: -mat, a. radiant; m. sun; -mlin, m. sun.
64) गभस्ति (p. 62) gbhas-ti arm, hand;


p082c1-b14/ p062-063

गभीर [ gabh-ra ]
- a. abysmal, unfathomable; deep; dense, impervious; extensive; inexhaustible; secret, inscrutable: -m or --, ad.
63) गभीर (p. 62) gabh-ra abysmal, unfathomable;


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p082c1-b15/ not online

UKT 180322: Entry p082c1-b15, spans across two columns c1 & c2. Such huge entries are found all over the txt-on-paper books. I've cut them into manageable sections: 0 (not shown), 1, 2, 3. My plan is to look up some sub-entries in online dictionaries such as SpkSkt.

गम्  [gam] . gma and . gn-ti (v.);
- I. gkkha, go, move, walk; depart; die; pass, elapse; traverse; betake oneself to, reach, obtain (ac., d., lc.); fall or recoil on (ac.); have sexual intercourse with (ac.); perceive, recognise (ps. be understood or meant); attain, undergo, suffer: very often with ac. of an abst. N., when it may variously be translated by the passive, an intransitive verb or the verb to become with the corresponding noun or adjective: vismayam gam, be amazed; nsam -, perish; sdratvam -, become a Sdra; krodham -, grow angry;

गम [ . gma ]
- adj. going, riding on. m. similar reading in two texts, game played with dice and men, march, superficality, removal, course, going away from, decampment, hasty perusal, road, flightiness, intercourse with a woman - from SpkSkt
UKT 180322: See entry p082c3-b01 गम [ gam-a ] below.

1. [ pratpam
- resist (g.); doshena or doshato -, accuse (ac.); manas -, betake oneself in thought to (ac.): pp. gat, g.v.; cs. gamya, cause to go, bring, send, conduct (to, ac., d., lc.); cause to undergo; pass (time); explain; produce the meaning of (ac.); designate; *induce any one (ac.) to walk by means of any one (in.); des. gigamisha or gigmsa, P. wish or be about to go; intv. ganiganti, visit, frequent. akkh, go to. ati, elapse; pass over. adhi, go to, approach, reach (pp. surrounded by; in.); have sexual intercourse with (ac.); take in hand; begin; obtain, acquire; expouse, marry; come upon, find; find out; accomplish; learn, study, read; des. wish to recover; . wish to study.

2. [ sam-adhi
- approach; acquire, obtain; learn, study. anu, follow, accompany, pursue; visit; cover from behind; take possession of; conform to, be guided by; imitate; be contained in (lc.); perform; pp. amenable, complaisant; --, conformable to, according to; imitated; dominated by; traversing; cs. aaccompany. sam-anu, follow, antar, exclude from (ab.); pp. antargata, q.v. apa, go away disappear (fr., ab.) ; pp. gone away, vanished; devisting from (ab. or--). vi‿ap, depart: pp. departed; awerving from (ab.). api, enter into; be absorbed in (ac.). abhi, advance, approach; go to, visit (ac.); return home; follow; have sexual intercourse with (ac.); find, meet with, obtain; devote oneself to (ac.)

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3. [ sam-abhi ]
unite sexually. aram, present oneself to (d.), ava, come down to (ac. or lc.); come to, enter into (ac.); obtain; hit upon, guess, infer; learn from (ab.); perceive, understand; be convinced, be of opinion, believe to be meant, know (pr. pt. wittingly; pp. with act. and ps. meaning); regard as, consider to be (2 ac.); cs. procure; cause to experience, let know. , aproach, come (to, ac.); come forth; meet with (saha); return (gnly. with punar); come or fall upon; obtain, take, undergo, incur (with abstract nouns); pp. arrived, come (to, ac., lc., or --); come into the world, born; returned (gnly. with punar); coming from (ab.); come to pass in regard to (ac.); having happened or supervened (sts. --); fallen into (ac.); cs. cause to approach; learn (ac.) from (ab.); dcs. be about to come. adhi‿, follow: pp. with act. and ps. mg. abhi‿, approach, come to, visit: pp. arrived, come: kramd - inherited. sam-abhi‿, arrive; come back (with punar).

4. [ upa‿
- approach, come to (ac., lc. ); fall into, incur, undergo (with abst. nouns); appear; fall to one's share: with dyt = inherit: pp. arrived. abhi‿upa‿, come to (ac.). sam-upa‿, id.; befall. prati‿, return from (ab.) to (ac.); come to oneself, recover. sam-, come together, meet, unite (with, in saha or srdham); approach, come to (ac. lc.); return (from, ab.); come upon, find (ac.): pp. united, assembled in conjunction with (in.): cs. unite any one (ac.) with (in. or lc.). ud, rise; go forth, appear; spread: pp. proceeding from (ab. or --); having appreared: widespread; cs. cause to come forth, such (milk). abhi‿ud, rise (moon); go forth to meet (ac.); consent to (ac.). pra‿ud, rise up, project. prati‿ud, advance to meet (pp. with act. and ps. mg.): come forth or appear again; set out for (ac. or lc.) sam-ud, come forth, appear. upa, approach, go to, visit; reach, befall (g.); come across, find; have sexual intercourse with (ac.); fall into. obtain, incur (with abst. nouns): pp. having betaken oneself to any one's protection; accompanied by (--); granted, recognised; cs. cause to approach. abhi‿upa, approach, go to (ac.); admit, grant, assent to (ac.); cs. persuade any one (ac.) to assent.

5. [ sam-upa
- approach; undergo. ni, appear; arrive at, obtain; enter; have intercourse with; cs. put in. nis, go out, depart (from, ab.), come froth, appear; go away, disappear; fall into, undergo: pp. freed from (ab. or --). vi-nis, go out, come forth, depart; free one self from (ab.); be beside oneself: pp. gone out: coming froth, issuing; free from (ab.).

6 [ par ]
-  go away, depart: pp. arrived; filled or covered with (--). pari, go or walk round; wander over, traverse; surround, encompass; spread around; depart, die; attain, undergo: pp. surrounded by (--): extending or diffused on all sides; dead; possessed by, filed with (in. or --); experienced; learned from (ab.); known; cs. pass (time). pra, depart; go to (ac.). prati, advance towards (ac.); return to (ac.). vi, disperse; depart, vanish, pass away: pp. deceased, dead; --, disappeared, gone = -less; cs. pass (time). sam. . (P.) come together, assemble; meet (as friend or foe), unite with (in. saba or srdham); have sexual intercourse with; assemble at (lc.); accord, suti: pp. suitable; according with (--); cs. bring together; unite (ac.) with (in.); lead any one to (2 ac.); transfer to (ic.). upa-sam, come together to (ac.); approach, join (ac.)


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p082c3-b01/ p062-062

गम [ gam-a ]
- a. going, moving (--); m. departure; way, distance; sexual intercourse with (--): -ka, a. cogent; evidencing (g.): -t, f., -tva, n. cogency.
62) गम (p. 62) gam-a going, moving (--);

cogent - adj. . Appealing to the intellect or powers of reasoning; convincing: a cogent argument. See note at valid. -- AHTD


p082c3-b02/ p062-061

गमध्यै [ gma-dhyai ]
- d. inf. to go.
61) गमध्यै (p. 62) gma-dhyai to go.



गमन [ gam-ana ]
- n. gait; going; betaking oneself to (ad.; ac. prati, g., --); sexual intercourse with (--); entering upon, undergoing (--); course; departure; walking; motion: -vat, a. past; -anya, fp. accessible to, as sailable by (g.); -ayitavya, cs. fp. to be passed (time).
60) गमन (p. 62) gam-ana gait;


p082c3-b04/ p062-059

गमागम [ gama‿gama ]
- m. going and coming, going to and fro; sg. & pl. negotiation.
59) गमागम (p. 62) gama̮gama going and coming,


p082c3-b05/ p062-058

गमिन् [ gam-in ]
- a. about to go (to, ac., --).
58) गमिन् (p. 62) gam-in about to go



गमिष्ठ [ gm-ishtha ]
- spv. going gladly to (ac.).
57) गमिष्ठ (p. 62) gm-ishtha going gladly to


p082c3-b07/ p062-056

गमिष्णु [ gam-ishn ]
- a. going; wishing to traverse (ac.).
56) गमिष्णु (p. 62) gam-ishn going;

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p082c3-b08/ not online

[gmbh-an ]
-- depth


p082c3-b09/ not online

-- = gabhira : , f. N. of a river; ()-samsa , a. ruling in the depths.


p082c3-b10/ p062-055

गम्भीरार्थ [ gambhra‿artha ]
- a. of deep significance; -‿saya, a. having a deep thought: -tm kri, conceive a deep thought.
55) गम्भीरार्थ (p. 62) gambhra̮artha of deep significance;


p082c3-b11/ p062-083

गम्य [ gam-ya ]
- fp. to be gone to; accessible to (g., lc., --); feasible; accessible to or in the right condition for, sexual intercourse (f.); profligate (m.); curable by (g.); conceivable, intelligible, comprehensible; to be guessed; meant; suitable.
83) गम्य (p. 62) gam-ya to be gone to;


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UKT notes


-- UKT 140903, 180321

Because of my teen-age interest in Esoteric Sciences such as Palmistry and Mantras I have come across the Pali-derived Bur-Myan word {gn~Da-ri} 'the science of invisibility'. See UTM-PDMD041.

You should watch the movie: Invisible Man : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UxZ5aDsmVWs 140903
based on H.G. Wells' (a respectable chemist turned author) science fiction, 1897, about a scientist who has devoted himself to research into optics and invents a way to change a body's refractive index to that of air so that it absorbs and reflects no light and thus becomes invisible.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Invisible_Man 140903

The dream of Invisibility is very much alive today. It is of interest to the Military: US Stealth bombers are just the entry items. See Wikipedi: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stealth_technology 170502
And downloaded pdf paper Stealth Technology: the fight against radar, by S. Kumar, S.Misra, and S. Gupta, in International Journal of Advances in Electronics and Computer Science, ISSN: 2393-2835, vol 1, issue 2, Dec 2014,
- SKumarEtAl-StealthTech<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180321)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhara 120201

Gandhāra (Skt and Hindi: गन्धार, gandḥārā is the name of an ancient kingdom (Mahajanapada), located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau (see Taxila) and on the Kabul River. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar), literally meaning City of Man [1] and Takshashila (modern Taxila). [2]

The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings. The Hindu term Shahi is used by history writer Al-Biruni [3] to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty [4] that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the 10th and 11th centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 CE, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times the area was part of Kabul province.

UKT: A very extensive article - recommended for reading.

Go back Gandhara-note-b

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- UKT 140928, 170501

In Exotic Tribes of Ancient India, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 140928
we read: "The classic Indian epics, such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and the Puranas, refer to diverse kinds of beings, describing them as superhuman or subhuman and other worldly extraterrestrials came to inhabit planet Earth. These groups include [UKT: I have removed the English "plural s" for better transcription to Pali-Myan or Bur-Myan]

Gandharva -  {gn~Db~ba.} - UHS-PMD0357
Yaksha - 
Kinnara - 
Rakshasa - 
Naga -  {na-ga.}
Suparna - 
Vanara - 
Vidyadhara - 
Valakilya - 
Pisacha - 
Deva -
   (within them Vasu, Rudra, Marut, Aditya) and
Asura -
   (within them Danava, Daitya, Kalakeya and Nivatakavacha.) "

UKT continues: They were all humans who worshipped the various deities from which they had been named. For example: Naga {na-ga. lu-myo:su.} were humans who worshipped the Naga-deity {na.ga:} which was not a snake {mrw}.

Whether they are the same as our indigenous ethnics is not for me to speculate. I would like to emphasize here that if you were to rely only on the English transcriptions you would get into all sorts of misunderstandings.

Secondly, to identify these entities as humans, as this Wikipedia article has done, makes more sense to me - a material scientist - than what the religionists have done which I must accuse them of doing so to promote their own self-interest to install themselves as various priestly classes which must be supported by the hard working commoners as their various religious duties.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandharva 120131

Gandharva is a name used for distinct mythological beings in Hinduism and Buddhism; it is also a term for skilled singers in Indian classical music.

In Hinduism

In Hinduism, the gandharvas (Skt: गन्धर्व, gandharva, Tamil: கந்தர்வர், Telugu: గంధర్వ) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsaras. Some are part animal, usually a bird or horse. They have superb musical skills. They guarded the Soma [UKT: the health drink - a wine] and made beautiful music for the gods [dva] in their palaces. A gandharva means a singer in the court of Gods.

In Hindu theology, gandharvas act as messengers between the gods and humans. In Hindu law, a Gandharva marriage is one contracted by mutual consent and without formal rituals.

Gandharvas are mentioned extensively in the epic Mahabharata as associated with the devas (as dancers and singers) and with the yakshas, as formidable warriors. They are mentioned as spread across various territories.

UKT 120131: A Gandharva marriage is something like the Bur-Myan common law marriage. It is a love-marriage without any ceremony [without Buddhist clergy] where a grown-up man and woman agree to start a family life as husband and wife with the knowledge [not permission] of seven front-door neighbours and seven back-door neighbours. It is recognized by Burmese-Buddhist Common Law, and upheld by all law courts in Myanmar. The following article [edited] is from: http://www.indianetzone.com/12/gandharva_marriage.htm 120130

" Mutual love and consent between the bride and the groom, are the only conditions to bring about such a marriage. It is a voluntary union of a maiden with her lover. Parents and kinsmen have nothing to do in such marriages. KamaSutra regards the marriage as an ideal one. [UKT ]

"Hindu mythology literature abounds in such type of marriages. For example that of
[King] Dushyant and [forest-dwelling] Shakuntala शकुन्तला śakuntalā
     -  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 140906
Daksheya and Prajapati,
Bhima with Hidimbi हिडिंबी [mother of घटोत्कच ghaṭōtkaca 
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidimbi 140906
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghatotkacha 140906
Kamdeva कामदेव Kāmadeva and Rati रति rati  
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamadeva 140906
     - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rati 140906
Kach कच kaca and Devyani देवयानी devayānī 
    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kacha_sage  140906
    - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devayani 140906
The two get married prior to informing anyone.

UKT 140906: If I remember correctly, a Ksetriya क्षत्रिय ksatriya and a woman can also be married in the same way. The phrase "get married prior to informing anyone" - simply means that the two had sexual intercourse before declaring that they are man and wife. 

"Gandharva marriage takes place either in a temple depending on their religion. In this marriage, there is no Yajna and presence of any other person except girl and the boy. Both agree to marry and continue family life."

[Personal note: the legalization in Myanmar is in any place, not necessarily a temple or a law court, in the presence of a ward-elder and two witnesses when the man and women sign a marriage contract. My wife Daw Than Than and I signed our contract at the Rangoon Law Court in front of a judge and two friends as witnesses on Nov 23, 1956. I was an assistant lecturer (a gazetted officer in the Govt. of Burma employ) and she was a demonstrator in the same  Chemistry Dept., Rangoon Univ., in Rangoon.]

In Buddhism

A gandharva (Skt) or gandhabba (Pāli) is one of the lowest-ranking devas in Buddhist cosmology. They are classed among the Cāturmahārājikakāyika devas, and are subject to the Great King Dhṛtarāṣṭra , Guardian of the East. Beings are reborn among the gandharvas as a consequence of having practiced the most basic form of ethics (Janavasabha-sutta, DN.18). It was considered embarrassing for a monk to be born in no better birth than that of a gandharva.

Gandharvas can fly through the air, and are known for their skill as musicians. They are connected with trees and flowers, and are described as dwelling in the scents of bark, sap, and blossom. They are among the beings of the wilderness that might disturb a monk meditating alone.

The terms gandharva and yakṣa are sometimes used for the same person; yakṣa in these cases is the more general term, including a variety of lower deities.

Among the notable gandharvas are mentioned (in DN.20 and DN.32) Panāda, Opamaa, Naḷa, Cittasena, Rājā. Janesabha is probably the same as Janavasabha, a rebirth of King Bimbisāra of Magadha. Mātali the Gandharva is the charioteer for Śakra.

Timbarū was a chieftain of the gandharvas. There is a romantic story told about the love between his daughter Bhaddā Suriyavaccasā (Skt: Bhadrā Sūryavarcasā) and another gandharva, Pacasikha (Skt: Pacaśikha) [UKT ]

Pacasikha, {pi~sa.i-hka.}
   It is very difficult for me to get the Pal-Myan orthography for Pali names: both MLC MED and UHS-PMD do not list them. The above is from the Dictionary of Pali-derived Words by U Tun Myint, -- UKT120720

Pacasikha fell in love with Suriyavaccasā when he saw her dancing before Śakra, but she was then in love with Sikhandī (or Sikhaddi), son of Mātali the charioteer. Pacasikha then went to Timbarū's home and played a melody on his lute of beluva-wood, on which he had great skill, and sang a love-song in which he interwove themes about the Buddha and his arahats.

Later, Śakra prevailed upon Pacasikha to intercede with the Buddha so that Śakra might have an audience with him. As a reward for Pacasikha's services, Śakra was able to get Suriyavaccasā, already pleased with Pacasikha's display of skill and devotion, to agree to marry Pacasikha.

Pacasikha also acts as a messenger for the Four Heavenly Kings, conveying news from them to Mātali, the latter representing Śakra and the Trāyastriṃśa devas.

Gandharva or gandhabba is also used in a completely different sense, referring to a being (or, strictly speaking, part of the causal continuum of consciousness) in a liminal state between death and rebirth.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Gandharva-note-b

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