Update: 2017-07-01 05:25 AM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p081.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{ga.}
  p081c1
{ga.ga.}
{ga.nga.} : {nga.} in the coda as Kin'si
{ga.sa.}
{ga.za.}
  {ga.za}
{gi~za.}
{ga.a.}
{ga.Na.}
  {ga.Na}
  {ga.Ni.}
  {ga.N}
  {gN~a.}
  p081c2
{ga.ta.}
  p081c3
  {ga.ti.}
{ga.da.}
  {ga.da}
{ga.Da.}
{ga.na.}
  {gn~ta.}
  {gn~Da.}

 

UKT notes :
Agada : a branch of Ayurveda medicine, the twin of which is Gada 
Ashwins : the Divine Twins, healers of gods : do not confuse them with Gemini Twins
Himavat : father of Ganges which had been personified as goddess
History of the Later Harappans and Silpakara Movement : by Viyogi, Naval & M Anawar Ansari in two volumes, 2010, in which we read of the uprooting Buddhism (monks, nuns, and literature) from Nepal by Shaivite Hindu Poanna Shankracharya (788-820 AD)
Lisping consonants in English and Sanskrit
Musth" : {moan r} the exudates from holes in the head of the elephant
Nine pearls : Nava moti
Pleasure garden :
The problem of : {kn:si:} and {::tn} : and the ruling of Shin Kicsi {rhn kic~s:}.
Theravada view of reincarnation : may be - a big may be - explained by latest scientific discoveries in Physics.

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{ga.} ग / Mon-Myan: {k}*

UKT 170701: In Mon-Myan, an Aus-Asi language, r1c3 is pronounced differently: {k). This has led me to suggest that it might be Ka'le - the counter-part of Ka'gyi {ka.}. Listen to Mon-Myan velar consonants: the first two has /a/, and the second three has /e/ as inherent vowels.

- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<))  : {ka.} ; {hka.} ; {k}* ; {hk} ; {gn}

*What you hear in the above is perhaps, {g}: but what I stand by is the assertion of foreign-observers is that in Peguan dialect of Mon-Myan /g/ is absent.
For, a variation in Mon-Myan phonology, see {hk} - p088-2.htm

p081c1

p081c1-b00

ग [ ga ]
- a. (--) going or moving in or on; consorting with; resorting to; reaching to; being in; referring to.
Skt: - m. N. of Gaṇśa L. -- MonWilli

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{ga.ga.}

p081c1-b01

गगण gagana, गगन [ gagana ]
- m. sky.

 

p081c1-b02

गगनगति [ gagana-gati ]
- m. dweller in the sky; -kara, m. sky-goer, bird; -krin, a. coming from the sky (voice); -tala, n. vault of heaven; -nagara, n. mirage; -pratishtha, a. being in the air; -lih, a. reaching to the sky; -vihrin, a. moving in the sky; -sad, m. denizen of the sky; -sindhu, f. celestial Ganges; -sparsana, m. N. of one of the Maruts; -spris, a. touching = dwelling in, the sky; reaching to the sky.

 

p081c1-b03

गगनापगा [ gagana‿apag ]
- f. celestial Ganges; -‿aravinda, n. sky-lotus = chimera.

chimera also chimaera n. Genetics . An organism consisting of two or more tissues of different genetic composition, produced as a result of mutation, grafting, or the mixture of cell populations from different zygotes. . An organism produced by genetic engineering, in which DNA from distinct parent species is combined to produce an individual with a double chromosome complement. -- AHTD

 

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{ga.nga.} : {nga.} in the coda as Kin'si , an example of which may be written as {n~}

See my note on the problem of {kn:si:} or {::tn} , { n } --> { n }

UKT 140924, 170420: The change {kn:si:}  --> {::tn}  is allowable according to Shin Kicsi {rhn kic~s:} whose name has been mis-spelled as Kaccayano on account of misunderstanding of Bur-Myan Nyagyi {a.}. This phoneme, found only in Bur-Myan language is an approximant adjacent to {ya.} both of which can be "killed" as {} (palatal-fricative) & {y} {velar-fricative}.

The phoneme {a.} & {} is quite common in the Bur-Myan language, e.g., Nay-pyi-taw {n-pr-tau} "the Capital" or "the Seat of the Government". Based on this note I claim that  Shin Kicsi {rhing kic~s:} was a native Bur-Myan from Tagaung who became a noted grammarian praised by Gautama Buddha himself. 

p081c1-b04

गङ्गा gangā [ gṅ-g ]
= ग ङ ् ग ा --> {gn~ga}
Skt: - f. [fr. intv. of √gam: the swift Goer], the Ganges, daughter of the Himavat . -- Mac081-c1
Skt: - gṅgā f. (√gamUṇ.) 'swift-goer', the river Ganges  personified and considered
- as the eldest daughter of  Himavat and Menā R. i, 36, 15
- as the wife of [King] Śāntanu and mother of Bhīshma MBh. i, 3800 Hariv. 2967 ff , or
- as one of the wives of Dharma PadmaP. -- MonWilli
Pal: {gn~ga}
- - UHS-PMD0352
  UKT from UHS: f. Ganges river, river

See my note on Himavat
- the personified-deified Himalaya mountain range that extends west to east, north of the Indian sub-continent extending into Myanmarpr.

 

p081c1-b05

गङ्गाधर [ gaṅg-dhara ]
- m. N. of various men; -prapta, m. descent of the Ganges; -lahar, f. N. of a mare; -saras, n. N. of a Trtha .

Tirtha तीर्थ tirtha 'ford or crossing place'
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirtha_(Hinduism) 170420

 

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{ga.sa.}

UKT 151227, 170419: The Lisps are the most important observations that TIL has made. They are so important that, I will have to present them in pix format, and will be quoted in many places. Keep track of the updates. The inset was prepared in my notes, and turned into pix format. See Lisps .

p081c1-b06

गच्छ [ gakkha ]
- pr. base of √gam.
Skt: - m. N. of Gaṇśa L. -- MonWilli

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{ga.za.}

p081c1-b07

गज [ gaga ]
- m. elephant; , f. female elephant.
Skt: gaja m. an elephant ṢaḍvBr. v, 3 Mn. &c. (ifc. f. ā R. ii, 57, 7) -- MonWilli

 

p081c1-b08

गजच्छाया [ gaga-kkhy ]
- f. (elephant's shadow), a certain constellation; -t, f., -tva, n. condition of an elephant.
Skt: - ○cchāyā f. 'an elephant's shadow', a particular constellation Yāj. i, 218 PSarv. (cf. Mn. iii, 274.) -- MonWilli

UKT 170420: I could not find what this constellation is on the Internet. In the light of this, I will cite a tara (a division of the celestial equator into 27 parts) from Bur-Myan map of the sky from MLC MED2006. In it you'll find the Elephant Tara, comprising of 3 nakshatras, Saggitarius rasi: 19. Mūla  {mu-la.}, 20. Pūrva Ashādhā {proab~ba aaL}, 21. Uttara Ashādhā {Oat~ta.ra aaL}

 

p081c1-b09

गजदन्त [ gaga-danta ]
- m. ivory; -nimlita, n. elephant's wink = connivance; -pati, m. lordly elephant; -pumgava, m. lordly elephant; -pura, n. N. of a city = Hastinpura; -mada, m. elephant's temple-juice; -mukt, f. pearl said to be sometimes found in an elephant's forehead; -mauktika, n. id.; -ytha, m. herd of elephants; -rga-mukt, f. = gaga-mukt; -vat, a. provided with elephants; -vadana, m. Elephant-face, ep. of Ganesa.
Skt: ○danta m. an elephant's tusk, ivory VarBṛS. lxxix, 19 -- MonWilli

गजमद  gajamada [not found in SpkSkt]
Skt: -mada, m. elephant's temple-juice -- Mac081c1

See my notes on
- musth - the secretion from bull-elephant's temples during mating periods
- the Nine Pearls with reference to Gaja Mani -- Elephant-head pearl

 

 

p081c1-b10

गजसाह्वय [ gaga-shvaya ]
- n. (elephant-named) = gaga-pura; -sthna, n. elephant's stall.

 

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{ga.za}

p081c1-b11

गजाध्यक्ष [ gaga‿adhyaksha ]
- m. keeper of an elephant; -‿anka, m. N.
Skt: - gajdhyakṣa m. the master of the elephants VarBṛS. lxxxvi, 34 Pacat. iii, 67/68 - MonWill 

 

p081c1-b12

गजाह्वय [ gaga‿hvaya ]
- n. (elephant-named) = gaga-pura.

 

p081c1-b13

[gag-bh]
-- become an elephant

 

p081c1-b14

गजेन्द्र [ gaga‿indra ]
- m. lordly elephant.

 

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{gi~za.}

p081c1-b15

गञ्ज [ gaga ]
- m. or n. (?) treasury: -na, a. surpassing (--); -vara, m. treasurer.
Skt: - gaja m. n. = ? a treasury, jewel room, place where plate &c. is preserved Rājat. iv f. vii Kathās. xliii, 30 -- MonWilli

 

p081c1-b16

गञ्जा [ gag ]
= ग ञ ् ज ा
- f. tavern; hemp.

Read an extensive article on Cannabis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_(drug) 170422
"Hemp is called ganja गञ्जा gajā in Sanskrit and other modern Indo-Aryan languages. [175] Some scholars suggest that the ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas, was cannabis, although this theory is disputed. [176]

 

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{ga.a.}

गड gaḍa
--> {ga.a.}
Skt: गड gaḍa - m. screen, kind of gold-fish, sentence, covering, ditch, fence, impediment -- SpkSkt
Skt: gaḍa m. a kind of gold-fish (the young of the Ophiocephalus lata or another species, Cyprinus Garra ) L. -- MonWilli
Pal: {ka.a.ka.} - UHS-PMD0353
  UKT from UHS: {nga:mhw-hto:}-fish.
  MLC MED093 gives this fish from its Bur-Myan name as: kind of spiny eel 
  Mastacembelus armatus 
Bur: {ka.toak} - n. breastwork - MLC MED2006-003

UKT 120711: See An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches - by Francis Hamilton-Buchanan , two vols., Edinburgh, and London, 1822. 
See also Fishes of the Ganges-1822
- FHamilton-FishesGanges<> / bkp<> (link chk 170422)

UKT 140902: I have looked into two pdf books and have downloaded one with the above name from and date 1822 from Google Books and is in the TIL library. Unfortunately the version that I have is without illustrations. So far I have not found "a kind of gold-fish" mentioned by MonWilli.
However, I have found a video on the Internet on  Mastacembelus armatus  :
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wWnhEQ3yKU 140903.

p081c1-b17

गडि [ gadi ]
- m. young bull. 

 

p081c1-b18

गडु [ gadu ]
- m. (?) excrescence on the body, hump.
Skt: - gaḍi  m. = gali (a young steer) Kpr. -- MonWilli

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{ga.Na.}

p081c1-b19

गण [ gan- ]
- m. host, multitude; class; troop, retinue; inferior deities appearing in troops (esp. Siva's retinue, under the special rule of Ganesa); member of Siva's following; community, association, corporation; metrical foot; group of roots or words to which a grammatical rule applies. -- Mac081c1
Skt: gaṇ m. a flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, class (of animate or inanimate beings), body of followers or attendants RV. AV. &c -- MonWilli

 

p081c1-b20

गणक [ gna-ka ]
- m. reckoner; astrologer.

 

p081c1-b21

गणचक्र [ gana-kakra ]
- n. kind of magic circle; -kkhandas, n. metre measured by feet; -tva, n. office of an attendant on Siva; -dsa, m. N. of a dancing master.
Skt: ○cakra n. N. of a magical circle Hit. -- MonWilli

UKT 120130: The word चक्र (= च क ् र) cakra may mean a 'geometrical circle' originally. However, it may mean "the sphere of influence" of an 'instrument' such as a magic square. I have come to this conclusion after preliminary study of Bur-Myan Inn { n:}.

[ganadsa ]
- m. N. of a dancing master - Mac081c1

UKT 170426: Ganadasa is the name of a dance-master in Kalidasa's minor dramas. From:
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sha/sha13.htm 170426
(p.106, p107, p.109) "Malavika and Agnimitra is the earliest of Kalidasa's three dramas, and probably his earliest work. ... (p.111) ... ACT I.--After the usual prologue, the maid Bakulavalika appears with another maid. From their conversation we learn that King Agnimitra has seen in the palace picture-gallery a new painting of Queen Dharini with her attendants. So beautiful is one of these, Malavika, that the king is smitten with love, but is prevented by the jealous queen from viewing the original. At this point the dancing-master Ganadasa enters. From him Bakulavalika learns that Malavika is a wonderfully proficient pupil, while he learns from her that Malavika had been sent as a present to Queen Dharini by a general commanding a border fortress, the queen's brother." ...

 

p081c1-b22

गणदीक्षिन् [ gana-dkshin ]
- a. officiating for a community (priest); -dravya, n. property of a corporation.

 

p081c1-b23

गणन [ gan-ana ] n. counting, calculation; , f. id.; annumeration (--); consideration; regard to (g.).

 

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p081c2

p081c2-b01

गणनाथ [ gana-ntha ]
--> {ga.Na.na-hta.}
- m. Ganesa; -nyaka, m. id.; -pa, m. id.; head of a corporation; ()-pati, m. lord of hosts, Ganesa; -ptha, m. list of ganas (gr.); -pradtri, m. benefactor of a corporation; -bhartri, m. ep. of Siva. -- Mac081c2
 Skt: ○nātha m. 'lord of various classes of subordinate gods', Śiva L. -- MonWilli343

गणनाथ [ gana-ntha ]
--> {ga.Na.na-hta.}
Skt: गणनाथ [ gana-ntha ] - m. Ganesa; - Mac081c2
Bur: {ma.ha-pain~n} - n. the Hindu deity Ganesa - MED2006-336

UKT 170426: In the Bur-Myan worship of the Nine-Buddhas Gods (headed by Gautama Buddha, followed by 8 arahats), the worship of Five Great Gods {nt-kri: nga:pa:} and that of Nine Planet-Guardians {groh} are included. Though Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, the author of the Folk Elements in Buddhism contends that this puja is derived from Hinduism, I dissented. I claimed it to be a religious ceremony of Tibeto-Burman from the pre-Buddhist periods. I base my conjecture on the fact that the Five Great Gods are headed by 3 females, with 2 males ( {ma.ha-pain~n} 'Ganesa' and Peikthano {bai~a.No:} 'Vishnu' or Gawra-manta {Gau:ra.mn~ta.}) as attendants. See: Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm

 

p081c2-b02

गणय [ gana-ya ]
- den. P. (.) count, enumerate, calculate; reckon among (lc.); consider, account (2 ac.); impute to (lc.); regard, esteem; excogitate: with na, disregard; think nothing of: with bahu,
have great regard for: pp. ganita. ava, disregard, pay no attention to. pari, count over, calculate; consider: pp. limited in number. vi, count (ps. amount to); consider, ponder; account (2 ac.); regard; disregard.

 

p081c2-b03

गणवृत्त [ gana-vritta ]
- n. metre measured by feet.

 

p081c2-b04

गणशस् [ gana-ss ]
- ad. by or in troops.

 

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{ga.Na}

p081c2-b05

  गणाधिपति [ gana‿adhipati ]
- m. ep. of Siva; Ganesa; -‿adhsa, m. Ganesa; -‿adhyaksha, m. id.; -‿anna, n. food coming from a corporation; -‿abhyantara, m. member of a corporation.

 

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{ga.Ni.}

p081c2-b06

गणिका [ gan-ik ]
- f. harlot; -ita, pp.; n. calculation; -n, a. having troops of (--); accompanied by (in.).

 

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{ga.N}

p081c2-b07

गणेश [ gana‿sa ]
- m. chief of Siva's attendants, Ganesa, god of wisdom, remover of obstacles, son of Siva and Prvat; also ep. of Siva.

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{gN~a.}

p081c2-b08

गण्ड [ ganda ]
- m. (--, a. , ) cheek, side of the face, side; -karata, m. elephant's temples; -ksha, m. rubbing of the cheek; -k, f. N. of a river; -bhitti, f. cheek-bone; -mlin, a. having scrofulous swellings of the glands of the neck; -lekh, f. region of the cheek; -saila, m. large boulder; cheek-bone; N. of the pleasure-garden of the Apsaras; -syma mada-kyuti, a. from whose cheeks brown juice trickles down; -sthala, n.: , f. cheek (--, a. , ).

See my note on the pleasure-garden of the Apsaras . Of course no earthy human beings would have seen a mythical garden - but still the kings would try to create one out of imagination.

 

p081c2-b09

[gand-u]
-- pillow

 

p081c2-b10

[gand-pada]
-- m. kind of worm

 

p081c2-b11

गण्डूष [ gandsha ]
- m. n. mouthful (of water, etc.); sip; tip of elephant's trunk.

 

p081c2-b12

गण्डोपधान [ ganda‿upadhna ]
- n. pillow: -ya, n. id.; -‿upala, m. large boulder.
 

p081c2-b13

गण्य [ gan-ya ]
- fp. to be counted, calculated, or regarded; a. consisting of rows.

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{ga.ta.}

p081c2-b14

गत [ ga-t ]
- pp. (√gam) gone (evam gate, such being the case); gone or come to, fallen into, being at, on or in, contained or resting in (ac., lc., --); directed or referring to (prati or --); departed, gone away (to, d. or inf.); deceased; passed, elapsed; disappeared, lost: very often -- = deprived or devoid of, free from, without, -less; produced from (ab., --); spread abroad in (lc.); known; trodden, frequented; reached, obtained (--); n. gait; disappearance; manner.

गत [ ga-t ]
Skt: गत [ ga-t ] - pp. (√gam) gone - Mac081c2
Skt: गत gata - ppp. gone. adj. connected with, spread abroad, having the meaning of, disappeared, ...  - SpkSkt

 

p081c2-b15

गतजीव [ gata-gva ]
- a. dead; -gvita, a. id.; -pra, a. having attained his object; -prva, a. trodden before; -pratygata, pp. gone and returned; -prna, a. inanimate, dead; -prya, a. almost past or perished; -mati, a. stupid, senseless; -manas-ka, a. thinking of (lc.); -mtra, a. only just gone away; -yauvana, a. whose youth is past; -roga, a. convalescent; -vayas, a. whose youth is past; ()-sr, a. being in the height of prosperity; -sra, a. worthless; -spriha, a. having no more desire or pleasure (in, g. or lc.); disinterested; merciless.

गतरोग gataroga
Skt: [ -roga ] - a. convalescent - Mac081c2
Skt: गतरोग gataroga - adj. recovered, freed from disease - SpkSkt

 

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p081c3

p081c3-b01

गतागत [ gata‿gata ]
- pp. n. sg. & pl. going and coming, going hither and thither; flying to and fro: -ni kri, negotiate; -‿gati, f. going and coming = death and rebirth; -‿dhi, a. free from care; -‿adhvan, a. who has completed his journey; thoroughly conversant with (lc.); -‿anugati-ka, a. following precedents; -‿anta, a. whose end has come; -‿yus, a. whose life is past; moribund; dead; a‿asu, a. lifeless, dead.

गतागत gatāgata [ gata‿gata ]
Skt: गतागत [ gata‿gata ] - pp. n. sg. & pl. going and coming, going hither and thither; flying to and fro: - Macp081c3
Skt: gatgata mfn. (g. akṣadyūtdi) going and coming - BhP. xi, 28, 26 -- MonWill

 

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{ga.ti.}

p081c3-b02

गति [ g-ti ]
- f. gait, course, motion, flight; going away, departure; progress; success; attainment (of, g., lc., --); way, path; egress, outlet; source, basis; expedient, means, feasibleness; stratagem; refuge; state, condition, nature; transmigration, human lot; manner; preposition or adverb combined with a verb.
Skt: gti f. going, moving, gait, deportment, motion in general   RV. v, 64, 3 VS. TS. &c -- MonWilli
Pal: {ga.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0355 f

UKT from UHS: f. going, transit, place of transfer, becoming, process of becoming, place, dictate of the mind .
See my note on Theravada view of Reincarnation .

 

p081c3-b03

गतिभङ्ग [ gati-bhaṅga ]
- m. impeded or unsteady gait; -bheda, m. id.; -mat, a. moving.
Skt: ○ bhaṅga m. impediment to progress, stoppage Śak. iv, 13/14 -- MonWilli

 

p081c3-b04

गत्वर [ ga-tvara ]
- a. () going to (--); preparing for (d.); transitory.

 

p081c3-b05

गत्यर्थ [ gati‿artha ]
- a. having the sense of motion (gr.).

 

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{ga.da.}

p081c3-b06

[GAD] I. P. ()
-- gada , recite, utter, speak, say; address (2 ac.); name. ni , id.; ps. be called; be accounted

 

p081c3-b07

गद [ gad-a ]
Skt: गद [ gad-a ] - m. . speech, spell; . disease. - Mac081c3
Skt: gada m. a sentence MBh. i, 1787 -- MonWill
Skt antonym: अगद [ a-gada ] - m. health; - Mac002c3
Pal: {a.ga.da.} - UHS-PMD0007
  UKT from UHS: mfn. free from disease. m. medicine

UKT 120130: The words गद gada and अगद agada taken together refers to
गदागद gadāgada - m. two azvins - SpkSkt
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvins 160403
See note below:

 

p081c3-b08

गदन [ gad-ana ]
- n. reciting.

 

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{ga.da}

p081c3-b09

गदा [ gad ]
- f. . club; . speech, spell.

गदागद gadāgada
- gadgada m. du. 'Gada and Agada', the two Aśvins (physicians of heaven) L. (cf. gadntaka.) -- MonWilli

See my notes on:
- Agada - the Ayurveda medicine meaning
- Aśvins - the divine Twins

 

p081c3-b10

गदाधर [ . gad-dhara ]
- a. bearing a club, ep. of Krishna.

 

p081c3-b11

गदाधर [ . gada‿adhara ]
- a. having a sore lip.
Skt: gaddhara mfn. having a sick lip Vcar. -- MonWilli 

 

p081c3-b12

गदाभृत् [ gad-bhrit ]
- a. bearing a club; m. ep. of Krishna.

 

p081c3-b13

गदिन् [ gad-in ]
--> {ga.dain} 
- a. bearing a club.

 

p081c3-b14

गद्गद [ gad-gad-a ]
= ग द ् ग द --> {gd~ga.da.}
- a. faltering; n. stammer: -gala, a. stammering, faltering; -t, f., -tva, n. stammer; -svara, m. faltering tone; a. faltering.

 

p081c3-b15

गद्गदिका [ gadgad-ik ]
- f. stammer.

 

p081c3-b16

गद्य [ gad-ya ]
- fp. to be said; n. spoken speech, prose.
Skt: gadya mfn. (cf. Pāṇ. 3-1, 100) to be spoken or uttered Bhaṭṭ. vi, 47 - MonWilli

 

p081c3-b17

[gadyna]
-- -ka , m. a certain weight

 

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{ga.Da.}

p081c3-b18

गध् [ GADH ]
= ग ध ् --> {gD} 
- fp. gdh-ya, to be held fast, to be captured: pp. gadhita. , pp. clung to. pari, pp. clasped.

 

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{ga.na.}

p081c3-b19

गन्तवे gn-tave, गन्तवै [ gn-tava ]
= (ग न ् त) (व े) --> {gn~ta.w}
- d. inf. √gam.
Skt: gntave gntava, fr. √gam, q.v -- MonWilli

 

p081c3-b20

गन्तव्य [ gan-tavya ]
- fp. n. to be gone (with in. of subject); to be traversed; to be sought, approached, or visited; intelligible.

 

p081c3-b21

गन्तुकाम [ gantu-kma ]
- a. desirous of going.

 

p081c3-b22

[gn-tri]
-- m. one who goes, comes, or reaches (ac., d., lc.); sts. used as fut. of √gam ; -tr , f. used as 3rd sg. future.

 

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{gn~Da.}

p081c3-b23

गन्ध [ gandh- ]
- m. (n.) [that which clings], smell, fragrance, odour; perfume (gnly. pl.); tinge or trace of, similarity with (--); pride.

 

p081c3-b24

गन्धक [ gandha-ka ]
- a. (ik) smelling or smacking of (--); -gaga, m. = gandha-dvipa; -grhin, a. perfumed; -dvipa, -dvirada, m. elephant in rut; -pshna-vat, a. sulphurous; -mdana, m. N. of a mountain-range with fragrant forests; -mlin, m. N. of a Nga; -mlya, n. du. and pl. perfumes and garlands; -rasa, m. perfumes and spices.

गन्धकीय gandhakīya
-- adj. relating to sulphur -- SpkSkt

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UKT notes

Agada : Exploits of Shankracharya (788-820 AD)

-- UKT 140902, 170419:

Whenever I see the word "tantra" I am apprehensive because the word has been associated with Tantric Buddhism and its clerics the Arigyis whose religion was uprooted from Myanmarpr in the 11th century by King Anawratha, because a branch of Tantra - the worship of Tara Devi {ta-ra nt.a.mi:} - holds that Sexual intercourse can be systematized into Buddhist Vipassana {a.ma.hta. wi.p~a.na}-practice.

See also: http://www.religionfacts.com/tara 170419,
http://reli350.vassar.edu/knowland/tara.html 170419 . Inset pix.
and http://vajranatha.com/teaching/Kurukulla.htm 170419
"Kurukulla [the Red Tantra] appears to have become popular originally, and she remains so ... because of her association with the magical function of enchantment (dbang gi phrin-las) or the bewitching of people in order to bring them under ones power (dbang du bsdud). ... in the Buddhist pantheon, Kurukulla becomes the Buddhist goddess of love and sex, ... She is depicted as a voluptuous and seductive nude sixteen year old girl. ... It may appear strange and ironic to us that Buddhism, originally the religion of celibate monks, should give birth to this attractive and seductive sex goddess. Buddhism ... is ultimately concerned with enlightenment ... But not all Buddhist practitioners are celibate monks ... Like everyone else, Buddhists must deal with ... life and society. ... "

At this stage of my study of Eastern culture in connection with the Skt-Dev, I am holding the view that because of the inner meanings associated with the word "tantra", it should be translated as "methodology" governed by rules which have to learnt by heart known as "mantra", and the resulting product as the instrument or "yantra".

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agada 120131, 170429

Agada is one of the eight branches into which ayurveda medicine is traditionally divided. Literally, gada means a disease and agada means any agent which makes the body free from disease; however the term agada is used specifically for the branch dealing with toxicology, the description of the different types of poisons, and their antidotes. [1]

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayurveda 170429
1. Kāyacikitsā: general medicine, medicine of the body
2. Kaumāra-bhṛtya: the treatment of children, paediatrics
3. Śalyatantra: surgical techniques and the extraction of foreign objects
4. Śālākyatantra: treatment of ailments affecting ears, eyes, nose, mouth, etc. ("ENT")
5. Bhūtavidyā: pacification of possessing spirits, and the people whose minds are affected by such possession
6. Agadatantra: toxicology
7. Rasāyanatantra: rejuvenation and tonics for increasing lifespan, intellect and strength
8. Vājīkaraṇatantra: aphrodisiacs and treatments for increasing the volume and viability of semen and sexual pleasure.

Agada Tantra is defined as a section of toxicology that deals with food poisoning, snakebites, dog bites [UKT: taken as "rabies"], insect bites, etc. [2] [UKT]

The school of toxicology was founded and run by Kashyapa, also known as Vriddhakashyapa, another contemporary of Atreya Punarvasu. He lived in Taksashila in what is now modern-day Pakistan. His text was called the Kashyapa Samhita. This, however, is a different book than the Kashyap Samhita of pediatrics. This text is not available now but the references of this text are found mentioned in different commentaries. Some other texts written by Alambayana, Ushana, Saunaka, and Latyayana were known to exist. However except for references to them, the original texts are no longer available. [3] [4]

The traditional practice of toxicology is still practiced by different families of vishavaidyas (poison doctors) who specialize in toxicology. However, their knowledge is limited compared to the knowledge possessed by the earlier ayurvedic physicians. In ancient times, it was the job of Vishavaidyas to protect members of the royal families from being poisoned, as well to poison enemies of the kings. [5] 

UKT: End of Wiki article

From: http://ayurveda.iloveindia.com/ayurvedic-treatment/agada-tantra.html 140902

Ayurveda आयुर्वेद āyurveda, Bur: {a-yoab~b-da.} (MLC MED2006-605), is oldest medical science known to mankind and mainly aims at healthy living and long life unlike other medical science which simply focus on the treatment of ailments and diseases. [UKT ]

According to Ayurvedic science, there should be proper balance between the inner constituent elements of the body for a healthy existence. Apart from the rules and regulations of healthy existence, also deals with surgery and several complex ailments. Ayurvedic science is so elaborate and vast that it is divided into eight branches of Ayurveda and each branch is specialized in a particular treatment. One of these branches is the Agada Tantra. [UKT ]

Agada tantra or toxicology is a branch of Ashtang Ayurveda, which includes the science of poisons. The tradition of Agada tantra practice is very ancient. It originated from the school of toxicology, which was founded and run by Kashyapa, also known as Vriddhakashyapa, the great saint and medical practioner. [UKT ]

UKT: The name {ka~a.pa.} or कश्यप kaśyapa is familiar to Bur-Myan. It refers to three or four personages some of who were historical. See U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha :
- PED-MK-indx.htm > kum.htm (link chk 170419)
1. Name of one of the five Buddhas ... in this world, --- PED-MK029
2. Name of a Mahāthera ... (of) the First Great Council ...} - 029-5
3. Name of a monk of Pinya period {pn:ya. hkt} who died during a trip to India
4. Name of Kashyapa Rishi, mentioned above, is not well known to most Bur-Myan.

Ref to #3: "Mahakassapa and His Tradition," by Dr. Than Tun (in Burmese), JBRS, XLII, ii, Dec. 1959. Downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
Bur-Myan: ThanTun-MahaKathapa<> / bkp<> (link chk 170419)
Eng-Lat: ThanTun-MahaKassapa<> / bkp<> (link chk 170419)

The tomb in Alaungdaw Kathapha National Park, is the tomb of this monk, but by popular acclaim to be that of Maha Kathapa of the First Great Buddhist Council. Read about this site in 
http://www.myanmartours.us/destinations/monywa/mwa-attractions/alaungdaw-kathapa/ 140902

Ref to #4: An interesting source could be:
History of the Later Harappans and Silpakara Movement, by Viyogi, Naval & M Anawar Ansari in two volumes, 2010
- http://books.google.ca/books?...  140902
" It is most interesting to learn that originally the Kashmir was a Naga country, where ..."
On p345, we read " The Religious Crusade of Shankracharya in Uttarakhand and Nepal". ... [I have taken the facts only]: Shankracharya was born in 788 AD in the village of Kaloti in Karala state. ... Died in 820 AD in Kedarnath. He killed or forcibly convert men ... forced the nuns to marry ... destroyed 84,000 works on the Buddhist religion ... introduced the Saiva religion.

The students of the Kashyapa School of toxicology later became royal vaidyas वैद्य vaidya = व ै द ् य (doctors) in various kingdoms and were meant to protect the members of the royal families from being poisoned. They were at times also used to administer poison to their kings enemies. Even now the traditional practice of toxicology is done by different families of Vishavaidyas (poison doctors) who claim to be specialists in toxicology in various parts of Indian subcontinent.

Damstra or Visha chikitsa, as the Aganda Tantra is popularly known, deals with various methods of cleaning the poisons out of the body as well as recommends antidotes for particular poisons. It deals with a wide range of natural toxins originating from wild lives like animals, birds, insects etc., plants including herbs (belladonna, aconite etc.), vegetables, minerals (leads, mercury, arsenal etc.) and artificial poisons prepared from poisonous drugs. This branch also deals with air and water pollution, which are basically the causes of various dangerous epidemics.

There are two types of poisons that have been described in the Agada tantra - the Natural poisons and the Artificial poisons. The natural poisons are classified as inanimate (Sthaavara) and animate (Jangama). [UKT ]

Inanimate poisons or the Staavara comprise of poisons that have plant origin and toxic minerals, metals or metal ores that are found inside the earth. Animate poisons or Jangama consist of the venoms of animals like snakes, scorpions, worms, insects etc. [UKT ]

Artificial poisons are the invented poisons which are prepared by combining different kinds of animate and inanimate poisons.

Apart from the above mentioned poisons, the three samhitas described about this branch of toxicology, also include the description and disadvantages of food of opposite qualities, drugs and food causing chronic poisoning symptoms. There are also descriptions of certain poisons that are used as medicines after proper processing and quantification, precious stones like diamond, ruby and poisonous minerals like lead and mercury are few of them. This branch of Ayurveda also has information regarding fatal doses of various poisons.

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Ashvins - the Divine Twins

-- UKT 140925
When 2 stars in the Zodiacal Sign of Gemini, are shown together, we really do not know how to interpret the combination: are they twin males, or a male & female in copulation. The Bur-Myan name for this combination is {m-htoan} मिथुन (MLC PMD2006-344) supposedly derived from Pal-Myan {m-htu.na.} meaning 'mating'. This combination is also known as "Twins" ♊ (U+264A). Though {a.a.wa.ni} अश्विनी (अ श ् व ि न ी) (MLC PMD2006-597) is also called "Twins" they are not the same as the Zodiacal Sign Twins" ♊ (U+264A).

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashvins 120131 

The Ashvins (Skt: अश्विन aśvin-, dual aśvinau), in Hindu mythology, are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya (daughter of vishwakarma [the "Principal Universal Architect",  ]), a goddess of the clouds and wife of Surya in his form as Vivasvat. The Ashvins are Vedic gods symbolising the shining of sunrise and sunset, appearing in the sky before the dawn in a golden chariot, bringing treasures to men and averting misfortune and sickness. [UKT ]

They can be compared with the Dioscuri (the twins Castor and Pollux) of Greek and Roman mythology, and especially to the divine twins Avieniai of the ancient Baltic religion.

UKT 140904: The names of the first three Asterisms (Nakshatra) in Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev :
(Skt-Dev names from: Spk-Skt & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nakshatra 140904 )
1. {a.a.wa.ni} अश्विनी (अ श ् व ि न ी) - MLC PMD2006-597 
2. {Ba.ra.Ni} भरणी - MLC PMD2006-319
3. {krt~ti.ka} कृत्तिका - MLC PMD2006-044 

The names of the first three Zodiacal signs (Rasi)
(Skt-Dev names from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_astrology 140904)
1. {mai~a.} मेष - MLC PMD2006-359
2. {prai~a.} वृषभ - MLC PMD2006-293
3. {m-htoan} मिथुन - MLC PMD2006-344

The first Nakshatra (Celestial circle divided into 27 divisions) is related to Ashvin . It is the third Zodiacal sign (Celestial circle divided into 12 divisions) that depicts the Twins which is  {m-htoan} in Bur-Myan derived from Pal-Myan {m-htu.na.} meaning 'mating'. It is understood to be two humans presumably a male and a female engaged in sexual intercourse or coitus.

They are the doctors of gods and are dvas of Ayurvedic medicine. They are called Nasatya (dual nāsatyau "kind, helpful") in the Rigveda; later, Nasatya is the name of one twin, while the other is called Dasra ("enlightened giving"). By popular etymology, the name nāsatya  was analysed as na+asatya "not untrue"="true".

In the epic Mahabharata, King Pandu's wife Madri is granted a son by each Ashvin God and bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva who, along with the sons of Kunti, are known as the Pandavas.

To each one of them is assigned the number 7 and to the pair the number 14.

Ashvini is the name of an asterism in Indian astronomy, later identified with the mother of the Ashvins. This asterism forms the first of the 27 asterisms that form the zodiac in Indian astronomy. This star is identified as Hamal, the brightest star in the constellation of Aries (Alpha Arietis)

The Ashvins are mentioned 376 times in the Rigveda, with 57 hymns specifically dedicated to them: 1.3, 1.22, 1.34, 1.46-47, 1.112, 1.116-120 (c.f. Vishpala), 1.157-158, 1.180-184, 2.20, 3.58, 4.43-45, 5.73-78, 6.62-63, 7.67-74, 8.5, 8.8-10, 8.22, 8.26, 8.35, 8.57, 8.73, 8.85-87, 10.24, 10.39-41, 10.143.

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Himavat

UKT, 120711, 140923, 170420

The following will show why I am considering to claim that Bur-Myan is actually a very ancient language in being
   #1 a language of the foot-hills of Himalayas,
   #2 the presence of glottal {ha.} (for which I used to term the "deep-h"), and
   #3 inclusion of {a.} in the table of consonants. -- UKT120711

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Himavat 120711

Himavat (himavant-) is the Hindu God of snow, a personification of the Himalayan mountains, which are also known as Himavat Mountains. He is the ruler of Himalaya Kingdom of Ancient India, which finds mention the epic Mahabharata. [UKT ]

Himavat fathered the more prominent Parvati, Saraswati and Ganga, wife of Shiva and river goddess respectively. His wife and queen consort is vedic Mena the daughter of Mount Meru or Menaka, the god Brahma's daughter. [1]

UKT 120711, 140923, 170420: As a skeptical scientist I must remark: except for Parvati (aka Uma) (from पार्वती parvata 'mountain', or from the Sanskrit name of flax plant. Or, is it a personification-deification of "Earth" or terra-firma {pa.hta.wi})? Both Sarawati and Ganga are rivers having sources in the Himalayas. As for Shiva, he is {d-wau:} - the "bogeyman" of children in the Irrawaddy delta where I was born in the 1930's. He is just a personification-deification of a monsoon-storm during which many a country boat and crew are lost.

Skt: उमा umā - f. flax - SpkSkt
See also: http://www.ayurveda-florida.com/Ayurvedic_Materia_Medica_Articles/Table2.htm 170420
entry on "atasi syn.= atasi, uma, picchila, devi, medagandha, madotkata, kshuma, hemavati, rudranila, masruna, suvalkala // flax plant, linseed // Linum usitatissimum Linn. Linaceae "

The sacred text of Devi Gita, which is found last nine chapters (31-40) of the seventh skandha of Devi Bhagawatam, is a dialogue between Parvati and her father Himavat. It deals with the universal form of the Devi, meditations on the major texts of Upanishads, ashtanga-yoga, the yogas of jnana, karma and bhakti, locations of the temples dedicated to the Devi and the rituals pertaining to her worship.

His story also find mention in Brahmanda Purana and Kena Upanishad. [2]

Etymology

Sanskrit himavant-  translates to "having much snow". Sanskrit him  "frost, snow" is cognate to Latin hiems "winter" from PIE [Proto-Indo-European language] ghyem- .

UKT: PIE is noted for Glottal consonants aka laryngeal consonants.
The following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glottal_consonant 120711

Glottal consonants, also called laryngeal consonants, are consonants articulated with the glottis. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the so-called fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have; in fact, some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. [UKT ]

For example, in Literary Arabic, most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/. The glottal consonants /h/ and /ʔ/ can occupy any of the three root consonant slots, just like "normal" consonants such as /k/ or /n/.

UKT 120711: I am considering the possibility of Bur-Myan {ha.} being a a glottal consonant. We have actually three registers:

creak {ha.} (1 blnk): modal {ha} (2 blnk); emphatic {ha:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
- where blnk = duration of vowel ending measured in eye-blinks

Though the glottal consonants and laryngeal consonants are generally considered to be synonymous, yet there is a difference. The following is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laryngeal_theory 120711

The laryngeal theory is a generally accepted theory of historical linguistics which proposes the existence of one or more consonants, termed "laryngeals", in the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). These sounds have disappeared in all present-day Indo-European languages, but some laryngeals are believed to have existed in Hittite and other Anatolian languages. The laryngeals are so called because they were once hypothesized (by Mller and Cuny) to have had a pharyngeal, epiglottal, or glottal POA (place of articulation) involving a constriction near the larynx.

The evidence for their existence is mostly indirect, as will be shown below. But the theory serves as an elegant explanation for a number of properties of the Proto-Indo-European vowel system that, prior to the postulation of laryngeals, were unanalyzable, such as "independent" schwas (as in *pəter- 'father'); and the hypothesis that PIE schwa *əwas actually a consonant, not a vowel, provides an elegant explanation for some apparent exceptions to Brugmann's law in Indic.

UKT: The hypothesis that "PIE schwa *ə was actually a consonant, not a vowel" provides an explanation of {a.} being included in the table of Bur-Myanmar consonants.

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History of the Later Harappans and Silpakara Movement

-- UKT 141424

The flourishing Harappan civilization, a bronze age civilization, has disappeared in the early days of history of India. I am interested in this civilization because of the possible connection to the Pyus and Nagas of Myanmarpr, and also with the Swastika of the Esoteric Buddhism still practiced in Myanmarpr. A civilization might have disappeared, but the question remains what had happened to the people. And therefore I come across a book on the Internet by the title History of the Later Harappans and Silpakara Movement - by Viyogi, Naval & M Anawar Ansari in two volumes, 2010
- http://books.google.ca/books?...  140902
I had to look into it. In it I came across an interesting passage:

" It is most interesting to learn that originally the Kashmir was a Naga country, where ..."
On p345, we read " The Religious Crusade of Shankracharya in Uttarakhand and Nepal". ... [I have taken the facts only]: Shankracharya was born in 788 AD in the village of Kaloti in Karala state. ... Died in 820 AD in Kedarnath. He killed or forcibly convert men ... forced the nuns to marry ... destroyed 84,000 works on the Buddhist religion ... introduced the Saiva religion ."

UKT 141024: There is a world of difference between Traditional Hinduism with its Trinity (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva), and the later worship of Shiva as Creator. The former, the Vaishnavite Hinduism, seems to be more tolerant towards Buddhism than the later Shaivite Hinduism. It is said that the present day India is mostly Shaivism . It is also interesting to note that if we go by the number of hymns in the Rig Veda, the Hindu Trinity is of minor importance than Indra, Agni and Soma, and that Shiva was just a storm-god by the name Rudra. Because of it I am of the opinion that the original Vedic religion was neither Vaishavite and Shaivite, but just the worship of nature gods something similar to the Esoteric or Bodaw religion of Myanmarpr.

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The Lisps

The inset, dated Update: 151228, was in editable format. It has been turned into PIX format, and is now in bk-cndl indx PIX folder

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Musth

- UKT 140924: A thick liquid known as {moan r} issues from the temples of male elephants especially during the mating period. See MLC MED2006-357

 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musth 120130

Musth or must is a periodic condition in bull elephants, characterized by highly aggressive behavior, accompanied by a large rise in reproductive hormones - testosterone levels in an elephant in musth can be as much as 60 times greater than in the same elephant at other times. However, whether this hormonal surge is the sole cause of musth, or merely a contributing factor, is unknown; scientific investigation of musth is problematic because during musth even elephants that are otherwise placid may try to kill humans.

UKT: More in Wiki article

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Nine pearls - Nava Moti

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nine_Pearls 120130

The Nine Pearls, sometimes known as the Nava Moti, are a group of sacred gemstones described in the Vedic text known as the Garuda Purana.

The nine are enumerated as the Oyster Pearl, Conch Pearl, Cobra Pearl, Boar Pearl, Elephant Pearl, Bamboo Pearl, Whale Pearl, Fish Pearl, and Cloud Pearl. These gems were later documented in the treatise Brihat-Samhita ("The Great Compilation") of Varahamihira, the Indian mathematician.

UKT: The following is from: http://www.agt-gems.com/NavaMoti.html 120130

Nava Moti - The 9 Pearls
1. Chandra Mani - Natural Oyster pearl
2. Naga Mani - Snake Head pearl
3. Gaja Mani - Elephant Head pearl
4. Matsya Mani - Fish Head pearl
5. Varaha Mani - Wild-boar Head pearl
6. Vriksha Mani - Tree-trunk pearl
7. Akash Mani - Sky pearl
8. Shanka Mani - Coch-shell pearl
9. Venu Mani - Bamboo-stem pearl

The first documented contact with these artifacts by the Western world is described in the sole volume of 18th Century scientist Albertus Seba, entitled Cabinet of Natural Curiosities. In the volume, a large collection of Bezoar stones and non-oyster pearls were hand-sketched, and the collection of these items were on display in a forum which was the precursor of the modern day museum.

All of these pearls presented on various websites are fake. Many people have fallen prey to such fake claims, and have sold their house, property and gone bankrupt. In fact, on many of these websites the nine pearls as well as other supposedly natural pearl-like artifacts are all made from the same sort of material. Geographically, the pearls are most likely to be found in Indonesia, whether fake or real, where fake pearls are used in much the same way as Christmas decorations. Considered cultural objects that are only meant to mimic the real objects, Indonesians pay very little for the fake pearls, but there are a number of online companies that sell these fake pearls for large sums of money. When it comes to the Cloud Pearl, for example, there are probably less than forty existing worldwide but the high volume sold online suggests there is a seemingly endless supply. The Cloud Pearl and the other eight pearls are truly amazing and beautiful cultural objects that may become unavailable in the very near future based on the disappearance in the environment, except those that are in the possession of museums and collectors.

Today, the original 446-plate volume, part of the greater work Locupletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Accurata Descriptio, is on permanent exhibition at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague, Netherlands.

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Pleasure garden

-- UKT120130

My interest in the period before the birth of the Gautama Buddha, and a few centuries after his death stems from the question of what the northern Indians had brought into Tagaung in northern Burma. Glass Palace Chronical records two instances:
- King Abhiraza and his followers before the birth of the Buddha, and
- the fugitives fleeing  the wrath of {wi-da-tu-pa.} (?) during the life-time of the Buddha.
Unable to get to the real question of their speech, I have to be content to know the material life of these people for a period lasting a few centuries. -

From: Material life of northern India in 3rd-1st cent. BC., based on archaeology , by Asha Vishnu, 1993, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7099-410-1 : - Google book preview 120130
Downloaded in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
- AVishnu-MatLifeNorthIndia<> / Bkp<> (chk link 170430)

INTRODUCTION: The historical account of the period of our study is more or less based on literary and epigraphic material. Although the art and numismatic evidences have been taken into account earlier, the study has been confined only to their appreciation and technicalities. But such a study now needs a thorough revision and restructuring in all aspects, except political history, in the light of the rich archeological material brought to light through various excavations in different parts of the country [India]. The excavations provide ample evidence of the actual material life of the people of the period. Literary accounts often fail to provide a true picture of the day to day life as sometimes they are based on either fancy of their authors or in some cases they are exaggerated or speculative and thus the total picture remains incomplete or blurred. Moreover, the literary records do not touch all aspects of society as they are written with a particular motive.

It is surprising that historians have not taken pains to rewrite the history of the people in real perspective in view of these findings which have been accumulating for long, particularly after Independence. The excavations at Hastinapur, Kausambi, Atranjikhera, Raghat, Sravasti, Sonkh, Ahichchhartra, Ayodhya, Rajgir, Ujjain, Besnagar, Puana Qila, Noh, etc. have brought to light objects of immense value which were actually handled and used by the contemporary people. Remains of structures and defences provide a full glimpse of the layout of their towns and habitations. Their armaments and objects of entertainment provide different facets of life from warfield to pleasure moments. Mode of transport, dress and ornaments are not only depicted in the sculptures or in terracottas but sometimes actual remains of these items have been picked up by the archaeologists.

Arthasastra provides an account of the defences of the period but the picture remains hazy in the mind of the reader. However, if it is read in the light of the actual remains as found at Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Sravasti and other places, the actual layout becomes quite evident. Thus, if an attempt is made to study the archeological remains in the light of literary ... ... ...

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The problem of {kn:si:} or {::ting}

-- UKT 120129, 140902, 140922, 170421 

In the word गङ्गा gangā [ gṅ-g ] = ग ङ ् ग ा --> {gn~ga}, notice the viram after ङ Dev-{nga.} in Macdonell written as ङ्. This is explicitly the {nga.}-killed which agrees with the Pal-Myan {gn~ga.}.

This has allowed me to use the {kn:si:} with confidence. My previous conclusion that Skt-Dev does not have {kn:si:} is modified: it has conjunct. The {ga. ::tn} is also extensively used giving the spelling {gn-ga}.

The Skt-Dev speakers, because of the absence of the phoneme /ŋ/ in their language could never pronounce the {kn:si:} correctly. However this phoneme is quite prevalent in Tib-Bur languages such as Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. It seems that Shin Kicsi {rhn kic~s:} , the noted Buddhist grammarian had to make a "practical ruling" in which he uses the {::tn} for the nasals of column #5. (I am saying this after reading his Grammar (in Burmese). I still have to look into
A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {kic~s:} in by Rev. F. Mason, 1868
- PEG-indx.htm (link chk 170421)
: downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries .
- FMason-KissiPalGram<> / bkp<> (link chk 170421)
- FMasonMazard-KissiPalGram<> / bkp<> (link chk 170421)
Rev. Mason quotes Gautama Buddha, "Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

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Theravada view of Reincarnation

UKT - 120712, 170430

I have been asked many times in Australia, Canada, and in the U.S. on my view and the Theravada-Buddhist view on reincarnation. Since, I don't pay much attention to such scientifically unanswerable questions, my best answer as a material scientist is a straight "I don't know, and it doesn't matter much to me". The following is an excerpt from the answer by:

Sayadaw U Kelasa, Dhammacariya, B.A. (Philo), M.A. (Buddhism), 2012 Mar 01
-- http://www.burmeseclassic.com/EngVersion/dhamma_QA.php 120712

" Buddhism denies all eternal things ... . It teaches that every thing is changeable and not eternal and there is no no immortality inside or outside this world.

" What we call a being is mind and body or five aggregates - namely; materiality, feeling, perception, and mental formations. All kinds of consciousness and mental states are called mind. One mind-moment consists of three sub-moments: arising, presence and dissolution. What we called body is a compound of twenty-eight types of matter. [UKT ]

UKT: Sayadaw's mention of "twenty-eight types of matter" shows that his idea and the material science idea of Matter (that occupies space and has mass) are not the same. Einstein's equation, E = mc , has been left out.

The duration of matter consists of seventeen such mind-moments. Immediately after one moment of mind or matter there occurs another arising of the subsequent one. So, mind and body or aggregates are constantly changing.

" It is like the flame of a lamp or the stream of a river that is a succession of sparks that follow upon one another with such rapidity that we cannot perceive them separately. The arising of one moment means the passing away of another moment and vice versa. No eternal entity between these rapid moments of mind and material phenomena.

" Think about how you were last seven years ago. We cannot say that I am the same person as I was the last moment. Every moment there is birth, every moment there is death. In the course of one life-time there is momentary death and rebirth without a soul. Life is just process.

Rebirth

" As the process of one life-span is possible without a permanent entity passing from one moment to another, so a series of life-processes is possible without anything to transmigrate form one existence to another. To produce a new being it is the force of tanhᾱ - the attachment to live - under the guidance of Kamma energy.

" Re-birth is the arising of new aggregates (khandhᾱnam pᾱtubhᾱvo) caused by the last generative thought of a dying person. The last thought-moment of this life perishes conditioning another thought-moment in a subsequent life. With this mind and body one does a deed and by reason of this deed another mind and body is reborn into next existence. In one sense it is a new being, in another it is not (na ca so na ca ao), like reflection in a mirror.

UKT: If the "dying thought" and the "coming-into-being thought" are taking place in the physical brain of same person, there is the physical connection - the brain itself.

However, when the "dying thought" is taking place in the brain of one person, and the "coming-into-being thought" is to take place in the womb of the female where her ovum is being penetrated by a male sperm -- the moment of conception -- when the single cell resulting from the ovum and sperm is going to divide into 2 cells and then into 4, etc., there is no physical connection.

Sayadaw's explanation is no explanation for me.

Maybe, and a big "maybe", lies in quantum entanglement -- a very current topic in modern physics. But then, I am too old to comprehend, and my knowledge of quantum mechanics is simply out of date. I can understand what's it's all about because of my knowledge of polarization of light, which I had once used in my study of sugars. Why don't you try to understand it? See Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement 120713
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement 170430
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_(waves) 170430

It may be that the thought of dying person and that of the person being born are entangled .

No reincarnation

" This doctrine of rebirth is different from the idea of reincarnation which implies the transmigration of a soul and its invariable material rebirth. "

UKT: The idea of rebirth, and what happens when the "dying thought" leaves the body of the dying person, are explained by the idea of "Bardo concept" in Tibetan Buddhism.
See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardo 120713

The Bardo concept is to be found in the Burmese layman's belief in {laip-pra} literally a 'butterfly' which is supposed to leave the body of the dying person, but which hovers near the dead body before it can find a living body being formed. If the {laip-pra} could not find a living person being formed at the time of destruction of the corpse -- by cremation, burial, or natural decay process -- the {laip pra} becomes a 'ghost' residing generally in a tree. See for a dictionary explanation in MED2006-455.

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