Update: 2019-03-29 07:38 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{hka.} - True-Kha
{hka.ka.} : Though not listed in Sanskrit, it is listed in Npali
  {hka.a.} / {hka.a.} - I'll have to look into this possibility for Bur-Myan

For comparing two languages, such as Burmese (3 tones), and Npali (2 tones), I need infor on Visarga and {::tn}
Glossary of Sanskrit Terms ||संस्कृत शब्दार्थ || from https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html
Downloaded document is in TIL non-PDF folder:
- GlossaryOfSktTerms<> (link chk 180222)

UKT notes :
Khandava Forest  खाण्डव वन khāndəvə vənə
Missing Kha in IPA : Sanskrit vowels and consonants
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis - a theoretical basis of BEPS
Toddy Palm industry

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{hka.} - True-Kha

UKT 151206, 170417: Many words spelled with True-Kha {hka.}/ {K} in Pal-Myan are spelled with Pseudo-Kha {kSa.}/ {kS~} in Skt-Dev. Being a basic consonant, can be under a viram, whereas {kSa.} being a conjunct, it should have broken down. I still have to resolve this problem:

{hka.} + viram --> {K}

UKT 170416: See my note on the Missing Kha {hka.} ख kha in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) originally designed for European languages of the Indo-European linguistic group.


p079-2c1-b00/ p060-061

ख [kh]
Skt: ख [kh] - n. cavity, hole, aperture (esp. in the human body); wound; axle-hole (in the nave of a wheel); ether; air; sky. - Mac079c1
  61) (p. 60) kh cavity, hole; aperture 
Skt: ख kha - sky, aakaasha -- Glos
IPal: {kha} - n. the air, sky, zero. -- UPMTPED080

Cavity of the loin:
Bur-Myan: {hka.} (1 blnk); {hka} (2 blnk): {hka:} (2 blnk with emphasis)

खं khaM
Skt:खं khaM - ether -- Glos

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p079-2c1-b01/ p060-058

खग [kha-ga]
Skt: खग [kha-ga] - a. moving in the air, flying; m. bird; -pati , lord of the birds, ep. of Garuda - Mac079c1
  58) खग (p. 60) kha-ga moving in the air, flying;
Skt: खग khaga = one traversing in the sky, a name of Sun, also birds - Glos
Skt: खगः khagaH = bird (literally the sky-goer, 'khah' meaning sky - Glos
IPal: {khaga} - m. a bird, arrow, sun, wind. - UPMTPED080

UKT 180222: I hate the idea of dubbing Garuda as the lord of birds, when the Garuda preys on smaller birds. The duty of a lord or king is to protect his subjects - not preying on them.


खगः (khagaH)
Skt: खगः (khagaH) - bird (literally the sky-goer), 'khah' meaning sky - Glos


p079-2c1-b02/ p060-057

खगम [ kha-gama ]
- m. bird; N. of a Brhman.
57) खगम (p. 60) kha-gama bird;

UKT 140706: Khagama is the Brahmin who cursed another Brahmin turning him into a snake. - Mahabharata Vol. 1, Book 1, The Book of the Beginning,
- https://books.google.ca/books?...Khagama+the+Brahmin... 170417
The downloade txt is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- PCRoy-MahabharataVol01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180222)
"The Dundubha then said, 'In former times I had a friend Khagama by name. He was impetuous in his speech and possessed of spiritual power by virtue of his austerities. And one day when he was engaged in the Agni-hotra (Fire-sacrifice), I made a mock snake of blades of grass, and in a frolic attempted to frighten him with it. And anon he fell into a swoon. On recovering his senses, that truth-telling and vow-observing ascetic, burning with wrath, exclaimed, 'Since thou hast made a powerless mock snake to frighten me, thou shalt be turned even into a venomless serpent thyself by my curse"


p079-2c1-b03/ not online

- a certain part of a wheel 


p079-2c1-b04/ p060-060

खगाधिप [ khaga‿adhipa ]
- m. ep. of Garuda; -‿indra, m. id.
60) खगाधिप (p. 60) khaga̮adhipa Garuda;


खगोलशास्त्रम् (khagolashaastram.h)
- astronomy - Glos

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p079-2c1-b05/ not online

खङ्ख  [khaṅkha]
Skt: खङ्ख  [khaṅkha] - m. N. - Mac079c1
Skt: खङ्ख - m. Name of a minister of king bālāditya- -- MWilliams:SktDict


खङ्गः (kha.ngaH)
Skt: खङ्गः (kha.ngaH) - m. sword - Glos
IPal: {khagga} - m. a sword, rhinoceros. - UPMTPED080


खङ्गमृगः (kha.ngamRigaH)
- m. rhinoceros - Glos


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p079-2c1-b06/ not online

[khak ] i. p.
- khaka , shine; pp. khakita , sparkling; brilliant or studded with (in., -). ud, pp. interwoven with (in., -)


p079-2c1-b07/ p060-045

खचर [ kha-kara ]
- a. flying; m. bird; fairy; -kitra, n. picture in the air = chimera.
45) खचर (p. 60) kha-kara flying; m. bird;


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p079-2c1-b08/ p060-044

खज [ khg-a ]
- m. stirring, churning; tumult of battle.
44) खज (p. 60) khg-a stirring, churning;


p079-2c1-b09/ p060-043

खजल [ kha-gala ]
- n. mist.
43) खजल (p. 60) kha-gala mist.


p079-2c1-b10/ p060-042

खजा [ khag- ]
- f. churning-stick.
42) खजा (p. 60) khag- churning-stick.

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{hka.a.} / {hka.a.}

UKT 180222: Don't get confused with Pseudo Za ज ् ञ = ज्ञ
UKT 190215: These entries could very well be {hka.a.}, which Sanskritists would know nothing about.
I'll have to look into this possibility when I start incorporating examples, such as {hkn.a:} from Bur-Myan.

p079-2c1-b11/ not online

[khag ] i. p.
- khaga , limp


p079-2c1-b12/ p060-041

खञ्ज [ khag-a ]
Skt: खञ्ज [ khag-a ] - a. lame: -t, f., -tva, n. -ness.
  41) खञ्ज (p. 60) khag-a lame:
Skt: खञ्जः (khaJNjaH) = m. a handicapped person, lame - Glos


p079-2c1-b13/ p060-040

खञ्जन [ khag-ana ]
- m. wagtail: -‿aksh, f. girl with restless eyes.
40) खञ्जन (p. 60) khag-ana wagtail:


p079-2c1-b14/ p060-039

खञ्जरीट [ khaga-rta ]
- m. wagtail: -ka, m. id.
39) खञ्जरीट (p. 60) khaga-rta wagtail:


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p079-2c1-b15/ not online

[khata-khata-ya] .
- crackle, hiss 


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p079-2c2-b00/ p060-038

खटिका [khat-ikâ], खटिनी [ khat-in ]
- f. chalk.
38) खटिका (p. 60) khat-in chalk.


p079-2c2-b01/ p060-037

खट्वय [ khatva-ya ]
- den. P. turn into a bedstead.
37) खट्वय (p. 60) khatva-ya P. turn into a bedstead.


p079-2c2-b02/ p060-036

  खट्वा [ khatv ]
- f. bedstead; bed of sickness.
36) खट्वा (p. 60) khatv bedstead;


p079-2c2-b03/ p060-035

खट्वाङ्ग [ khatv‿aṅga ]
- m. n. club shaped like the foot of a bedstead (esp. as a weapon of Siva): -dhara, -dhra, -bhrit, a. bearing a khatvṅga, ep. of Siva.
35) खट्वाङ्ग (p. 60) khatv̮aṅga foot of a bedstead


p079-2c2-b04/ not online

- a. id.


p079-2c2-b05/ p060-034

खट्वातल [ khatv-tala ]
- n. space under a bed: lc. under the bed.
34) खट्वातल (p. 60) khatv-tala space under a bed:


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p079-2c2-b06/ not online

[khad ]
- [khand ] , break, cleave



p079-2c2-b07/ p060-033

खड [ khad-a ]
- m. kind of sour drink made of buttermilk, etc.
33) खड (p. 60) khad-a sour drink


p079-2c2-b08/ p060-032

खड्ग [ khad-g ]
Skt: खड्ग [ khad-g ] - m. sword, dagger; rhinoceros; N. of a merchant's son.
  32) खड्ग (p. 60) khad-g sword, dagger; rhinoceros; N. of a merchant's son. |
Skt: खड्ग (khaDga) -  sword - Glos
Pal: {hkag~ga.} - UHS PMD0341
  UKT from UHS: double-edged dagger, rhinoceros


p079-2c2-b09/ p060-054

खड्ग्राहिन् [ khadga-grhin ]
- m. sword-bearer; -dhara, a. wearing a sword; m. N.; -dhr, f. sword-blade: -vrata, n. = asidhr-vrata; -dhenu, f. knife; -pni, a. having a sword in one's hand; -pta, m. sword-cut; -prahra, m. sword-stroke; -maya, a. consisting of swords; -vat, a. armed with a sword; -vri, n. blood dripping from a sword; -vidy, f. art of fencing; -sakha, a. armed with a sword; -sena, m. N.; -hasta, a. having a sword in the hand.
54) खड्ग्राहिन् (p. 60) khadga-grhin sword-bearer; 


p079-2c2-b10/ p060-053

खङ्गामिष [ khadga‿amisha ]
- n. rhinoceros flesh.
53) खङ्गामिष (p. 60) khadga̮amisha rhinoceros flesh.


खड्गी (khaDgii)
- with sword - Glos


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p079-2c3-b00/ p060-052

खड्गिधेनुका [ khadgi-dhenuk ]
- f. female rhinoceros.
52) खड्गिधेनुका (p. 60) khadgi-dhenuk female rhinoceros.


p079-2c3-b01/ p060-051

खड्गिन्् [ khadg-in ]
- a. armed with a sword; m. rhinoceros.
51) खड्गिन्् (p. 60) khadg-in armed with a sword; 

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p079-2c3-b02/ p060-050

खणखणाय [ khana-khan-ya ]
- den. . clatter, crack: pp. -yita, clashing, etc.
50) खणखणाय (p. 60) khana-khan-ya . clatter, crack:


p079-2c3-b03/ p060-049

खण्ड [ khand-a ]
- a. incomplete, deficient, not full (moon); m. n. piece, part; section (of a work); number, quantity, multitude, group; powdered sugar: -ka, m. part, piece, section; kind of dance(?); -kplika, m. a partial Kplika (sectary); -devakula, n. ruined temple; -dhr, f. kind of musical performance or dance.
49) खण्ड (p. 60) khand-a incomplete, deficient, not full (moon);

खण्ड [ khand-a ]
Skt: खण्ड [ khand-a ] - a. incomplete, deficient, not full (moon); m. n. piece, part; section (of a work); number, quantity, multitude, group; powdered sugar: - Mac079c3
Skt: खण्ड (khaNDa) - m. n. piece
Pal: {hkN~a.}
 - -- UHS-PMD0342
  UKT from UHS: mfn. broken [into pieces, sections, etc.]. m.n. a part, a section, breaking up, torn pieces, sugar-block, sugar-cane-jaggary

See my note on Toddy Palm jaggery and Toddy Palm industry


p079-2c3-b04/ p060-048

खण्डन [ khand-ana ]
- a. breaking up, destroying, dispelling; n. crushing; hurting, wounding (esp. with the teeth); curtailing, destroying; baffling; refuting; deceiving; -anya, fp. to be broken or cut in pieces.
48) खण्डन (p. 60) khand-ana breaking up, destroying, dispelling;


खण्डन [ khand-ana ]
Skt: खण्डन [ khand-ana ] - a. breaking up, destroying, dispelling; n. crushing; hurting, wounding (esp. with the teeth); curtailing, destroying; baffling; refuting; deceiving; - Mac079c3
Skt: खण्डन (khaNDana) - to pound, cut into pieces, injuring, hurting - Glos


खण्डपिटासन (khaNDapiTaasana)
- the ankle-twist posture - Glos

UKT 170419: The ankle-twist posture is a Yoga Asana to cure a sprained ankle.


p079-2c3-b05/ p060-047

खण्डमोदक [ khanda-modaka ]
- m. manna-sugar (Pr.).
47) खण्डमोदक (p. 60) khanda-modaka manna-sugar (Pr.).


p079-2c3-b06/ p060-046

खण्डय [ khanda-ya ]
- den. P. break or cut in pieces; injure; bite; interrupt, disturb; destroy, dispel; cause to cease, satisfy; neglect; refute; deceive. ava, break in pieces. ud, tear off. vi, cut in pieces, lacerate.
46) खण्डय (p. 60) khanda-ya P. break or cut in pieces;


खण्डयति (khaNDayati)
- to grate (as in grating a coconut) - Glos


p079-2c3-b07/ not online

[khanda-vataka ]
- m. n. N. of village or town


खाण्डव वन khāṇḍva vana
= ख ा ण ् ड व + व न
- n. N. ancient forest mentioned in the epic Mahabharata - Wikipedia.

UKT 170418: See my note on Khandava Forest


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UKT notes

Khandava Forest

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khandava_Forest 120226, 170418

Khandava Forest (Skt: खाण्डव वन = ख ा ण ् ड व + व न , khāndəvə vənə) was an ancient forest mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. [1] It lay to the west of Yamuna river, in modern day Delhi territory. [UKT ]

Pandavas cleared this forest to construct their capital city called Indraprastha. This forest was earlier inhabited by Naga tribes led by a king named Takshaka. [2] Arjuna and Vasudeva Krishna [UKT: son of Yadava chief Vasudeva and his wife Devaki and therefore a human just like Arjuna] cleared this forest by setting up a fire. The inhabitants of this forest were displaced. This was the root cause of the enmity of the Naga Takshaka towards the Kuru kings who ruled from Indraprastha and Hastinapura. [2]

The Mahabharata states that Indra was the protecting deity (Deva) of Khandava forest, which is why the region was known as Indraprastha. [3] When the forest was being burned, Indra attacked Arjun with his bolt (vajra) {wa.ra.zain}, injuring him. [4]

UKT 120226, 190215: Indra is the god of thunder and thus of rain also. It is understandable that the Rain-god who has poured down his rain on a forest of trees would be protecting that forest. During a forest fire many animals including the snakes [Naga {na.ga:}, and human-forest dwellers who worship {na.ga:}] would be killed. Also during a huge forest fire, up-going drafts of hot air could bring on thunder and lighting which could be interpreted by the ancients as the vajra of the Rain-god.

Do not think that Naga-worshippers were only forest-dwellers. Pre-Theravada Upper-Burmans, like Taung'thu'gyi Min {tan-u-kri: mn:}, who was deposed by Anawrahta's father, were Naga-worshippers. They were Tib-Bur speakers, whereas Arjun and Krishna were IE speakers.

A little known story is that at the time of the great war when Arjun and Karan come face to face with each other, the Naga King Aswasena desirous of avenging the death of his mother from Arjuna, in that battle quietly slips into the quiver of Karna in the guise of an Arrow. It is this Arrow that had almost killed Arjuna had it not been for Krishna who by pressing his feet on the chariot sank it one cubit deep into the earth hence the arrow missing its aim.

UKT: End of article

Go back Khandava-note-b

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Missing Kha in IPA

UKT 140415, 170416 :

When the Europeans arrived in India, they were baffled by the sounds of c2 and c4 consonants such as {hka.} and {Ga.}. The early European Indologists were prisoners of their own phonological restraints and were deaf to the sounds of our languages. I base my statements on my understanding of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - the most important theoretical background of my work on BEPS languages. See the most recent update in Wikipedia:
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf_hypothesis 140415

The r1c2 {hka.} ख kha and r1c4 {Ga.} are missing in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) which was originally designed for European languages of the Indo-European linguistic group. In fact all the c2 and c4 of all other Akshara rows are missing in the IPA. Romabama {ro:ma. ba.ma} based on Bur-Myan phonology, has been designed to remedy the defects of IPA. Because of its late invention in the 20th century - after the invention of the computers - I am able to make it ASCII-compatible. It can be used to transcribe Bur-Myan into Eng-Lat with a one-to-one Speech to Script mapping - a true phonetic language.

These innovations have resulted in what I am calling BEPS consonants and vowels:

Based on the Westerners' misunderstanding ख has been transliterated as kha in IAST, which is not suitable in Bur-Myan. I have therefore put the "h" in front of "k" as {hka.}, and have taken it altogether out of घ gha writing {Ga.}.

One hurdle I am facing is my ignorance of Skt-Dev pronunciations. I'm being helped by an online website of spoken grammar lessons from: Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature 
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAbHLSL4kFs&list=PLZ83joYJYmWSFgcg-r0nOwnWPEqmvoaN4 151120
I've downloaded 11 videos, and they are in TIL HD-VEDIO libraries: Skt-Dev<> / bkp<> (link chk 171416)
Now listen to Sanskrit vowels and consonants:
04. Varieties of vowels in Sanskrit - Lesson04<>
06. Consonants in Sanskrit - Lesson06<>
In Lesson 04, you'll hear that there: three varieties of vowels differentiated by Swara or 'accent' - the time taken to utter the vowel sound measure by eye-blinks - important in Vdic language: sounds similar to Bur-Myan? 
"Short vowel / ह्रस्व hrasva = ह ् र स ् व swara - needs 1 maatraakala to pronounce
"Long vowel / दीर्घ deergha = द ी र ् घ swara - needs 2 maatrakalas to pronounce
"Protracted vowel/ प्लुत pluta = प ् ल ु त swara - needs 3 maatrakalas to pronounce
   " A मात्राकाल Maatraakaala is the time taken to wink once
"Not all vowels have all the three varieties"

After listening both to vowels and consonants, you will notice that because of one-to-one Speech to Script mapping, we can easily relate Skt-Dev to Bur-Myan, but not exactly to Mon-Myan.

UKT 140415, 140706, 170417 : My primary source of Skt-Dev spellings is from Univ. Chicago with many mixed-up pages. To remedy the situation, I am relying on:
Spk-Skt online 
Sanskrit Documents downloaded html file in TIL library:
- MC-indx.htm > glossary.htm (link chk 170415)

Go back Missing-Kha-note-b

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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

- UKT 140415, 170417 

When the Europeans arrived in India, they were baffled by the sounds of c2 and c4 consonants such as {hka.} and {Ga.}. The early European Indologists were prisoners of their own phonological restraints and were deaf to the sounds of our languages.

Our languages were considered to be inferior to theirs because of our military weakness. The conquerors could hear c2 & c4 only as "aspirate" sounds. I base my statements on my understanding of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis - the most important theoretical background of my work on BEPS languages. See the recent update in Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf_hypothesis 140415

How it is produced and heard:
- indx-HV.htm (link chk 180223)
- snd-hear.htm (link chk 180223)

The Indologists could understand Sanskrit and other Indic sounds to some extent, because the commonality with Greek and Latin, and also with English, French and German. These languages all belong to the same linguistic group - the Indo-European. However, the Europeans were and still are baffled by the sounds of Burmese of the Tibeto-Burman linguistic group. Burmese is considered it to be just an adaptation of the Mon, which itself was derived from a south India script. The colonialist-historians simply looked down on our language and summarily wrote off our historical record of Tagaung (which had contacts with northern India many centuries before the birth of Gautama Buddha) as nothing but a fairy tale.

The eminent colonialist-jurist John Jardine, wrote in 1893 in his Introduction , p.18,  to Sangermano's The Burmese Empire a Hundred Years Ago : "Tagaung {ta.kan:p} (possibly the Tugma metropoils of Ptolemy), are to be treated as mere fable". See Introduction , p.18
- sang-j-indx.htm > intro.htm (link chk 190212)

The two sounds in Bur-Myan which they cannot understand to this day are the sounds of {gna.}/ {ng} (with coloring of {ga.} /g/), and {a.}/ {}. These two phonemes are not strictly nasals - the first is a plosive-stop, but the second is an approximant similar to {ya.}/ {y} /j/.

Based on their misunderstand ख has been transliterated as kha in IAST, which is not suitable in Bur-Myan. I have therefore put the "h" in front of "k" as {hka.}, and have taken out the h from घ gha writing {Ga.}.

The following is what I have written many years ago in Human Voice based on the then Wikipedia article. My understanding of the SWH remains the same. The following is from an old Wikipedia article.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf_hypothesis

In linguistics, the SapirWhorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. Although it has come to be known as the SapirWhorf hypothesis, it rather was an axiom underlying the work of linguist and anthropologist Edward Sapir and his colleague and student Benjamin Whorf. (UKT: Whorf was a chemical engineer by training.)

UKT: This is in accordance with the Buddhist search for Truth and Final Liberation: {a.sw:a:lon: mha. kn:lwt hkyn:}. Gautama Buddha, before he became a Buddha (not "god", but an "enlightened commoner" {ma.ha a-ma.na.a.}), struggled for six long years to find the "Truth", by following the doctrines of various faiths. Realizing the futility of the tenets of all these doctrines, he set them (such as the idea of a Creator or God) aside, and started to find an unfailing natural law. He discovered that "no sentient being is free from suffering" which became the First Noble Truth of Buddhism. Starting from that universal law, he arrived at three more, and then at the Principle of Anatta (or the futility of finding a permanent unchanging entity commonly known as Atta.). He then realized that he had become a Buddha -- {zi.na.}. Any sane and logical human being can be liberated from "Suffering" if she or he could be free from all "ideas" which could not be proven -- {a.sw:a:lon: mha. kn:lwt hkyn:}. However, all those who has achieved that goal following the teachings of the Buddha are known as Arahant {ra.hn~ta} -- not {zi.na.} 'originator'.

Go back Whorf-note-b

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Toddy Palm industry

UKT120130, 141117:

Inset shows making jaggery near Mount Popa in central Myanmar near the capital city NayPyitaw. The Popa area is where a lot of toddy palms are cultivated. The jaggery is palm-jaggery and NOT sugar-cane jaggery. Palm-jaggery is sweeter than cane-jaggery because of its high fructose content. It is considered to be a health product.

Toddy-palm industry is one of the most important industry of Myingyan-Magw area, the ancestral home of my great-grand father, U Yan Shin aka Bo Yan Shin - an ancestral Burmese tribal chieftain, Kalan {ka.ln}.

According to my grandmother Daw Choak, U Yan Shin's eldest daughter, her father had owned large tracks of toddy-palm plantations.

According to my uncle, U Aung Myin, U Yan Shin's grandson, villagers armed with their long swords would heed the call of U Yan Shin who was also known in the area as Bo Yan Shin. Because of his followers he was reported by the Mayor of Sal to the King in Mandalay that Nga (derogatory suffix attached to a name of rebel) Yan Shin was preparing a rebellion. U Yan Shin had no recourse but to seek protection under the British in southern Myanmarpr. The Mayor of Sal had to pay with his life at the hands of U Yan Shin (my great grandfather) and his followers.

Go back Toddy-Palm-Industry-note-b

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End of TIL file