Update: 2018-01-31 08:15 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kRu.} : contd

{kla.} (monophthong) / {k-la.) (diphthong) : both are {la.hsw:} 'hanging {la.}'
{kla} / {k-la}
{kli.} / {k-li.}

{kli}/ {k-li}
{kl}/ {k-l}
{kl}/ {k-l}
{klau:}/ {k-lau:}

{kwa.} : {wa.hsw:} 'hanging {wa.}'

UKT 180129: What follows are "hanging fricatives" which is very foreign to Bur-Myan speakers. By "fricatives" Skt-Dev includes {sha.}, {Sa.}, and {a.}. Bur-Myan speakers will recognize {a.} as a Thibilant similar to English <th> as in English "thin". Sanskrit and most modern Indic speakers cannot pronounce /θ/, which they pronounce as /s/.

Thus we find the fricatives as:
: Husher श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; Hisser ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; and hissing sibilant स s [s] /s/.
BPal-Myan: Husher {sha.} श /ʃ/; Hisser {Sa.} ष /s/; and non-hissing thibilant {a.} स /θ/ .

UKT notes :
Pseudo-Kha and True-Kha

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{kRu.}/  contd



क्रुध्् [ krudh ]
- f. anger: in. in anger: -a, the root krudh (gr.); -mn, a. irritable.
1) क्रुध्् (p. 59) krudh anger


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क्रुमु [krmu ]
- f. N. of a tributary of the Indus



क्रुमुक [ krumu-k ]
- m. splint to catch the flame from the tinder.
18) क्रुमुक (p. 59) krumu-k splint 


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क्रुश् [ krus ]
- i.p. (.) krsa, cry; lament; invoke (ac.) : pp. ...


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क्रूड् [ krd ]
- x. p. krdaya , thicken



क्रूर [ kr-r ]
- a. wounded; sore; cruel; formidable, terrible; ferocious; rough, hard; n. sore, wound; roughness, cruelty: -karmakrit, a. *doing cruel deeds; m. beast of prey; -karman, n. horrible deed; hard task; a. doing cruel deeds; -keshtita, (pp.) a. acting cruelly; -t, f. cruelty.
17) क्रूर (p. 59) kr-r wounded;

क्रूर [ kr-r ]
Skt: क्रूर [ kr-r ]- a. wounded; sore; cruel; formidable, terrible; ferocious; rough, hard;
   n. sore, wound; roughness, cruelty - Mac077c1
Skt: क्रूर krūra - m. cruelty - SpkSkt



क्रूराक्ष [ krra‿aksha ]
- m. N. of an owl; -‿k ra, a. of cruel conduct: -vihra-vat, a. ferocious in conduct and delighting in cruelty; -‿saya, a. containing terrible monsters; cruel-hearted.
16) क्रूराक्ष (p. 59) krra̮aksha -̮kra, a. of cruel conduct


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क्रेङ्कार [ kreṅ-kra ]
- m
. the sound kreṅ.
15) क्रेङ्कार (p. 59) kreṅ-kra the sound kreṅ.


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क्रेतृ [kre-tri ]
- m. buyer; -tavya , -ya , fp. purchaseable


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क्रोड [krod-]
- m. breast; cavity, interior; boar: (a)-vla, m. hog's bristle.
14) क्रोड (p. 59) krod- breast;



क्रोध [ krdh-a ]
- m. anger: -kakshus, n. angry eye; -ga, a. springing from wrath; -mukha, a. () angry-faced; -vasa, m. power of anger.
13) क्रोध (p. 59) krdh-a anger:

क्रोध [ krdh-a ]
Skt: क्रोध [ krdh-a ] - m. anger: - Mac077c2
Skt: क्रोध krodha - m. passion, anger, wrath - SpkSkt
BPali: {kau:Da.} - UHS PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: m. becoming angry, {a.myak dau:a.} 'fault of anger'
  ("Anger" is associated with {dau:a.} 'fault'. See: UHS PMD0488)



क्रोधन [ krodh-ana ]
- a. passionate, angry with (lc.); n. anger.
12) क्रोधन (p. 59) krodh-ana passionate,



क्रोधालु [ krodh-lu ]
- a. passionate.
98) क्रोधालु (p. 59) krodh-lu passionate.



क्रोधिन्् [ krodh-in ]
- a. angry, passionate.
96) क्रोधिन्् (p. 59) krodh-in angry



क्रोश [ krs-a ]
- m. cry, shout; ear-shot (measure of distance).
11) क्रोश (p. 59) krs-a cry, shout;


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क्रोष्टृ [krosh-tr ]
= क ् र ो ष ् ट ृ
Skt: क्रोष्टृ [krosh-tr ] - a. crying, yelling; lamenting; m. jackal; -tu ; -ka , m. jackal - Mac077c1
Skt: क्रोष्टृ kroṣṭṛ - adj. lamenting, crying. m. jackal, crier - SpkSkt


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क्रौञ्च [ krauka ]
- m. () curlew; N. of a mountain cleft by Krttikeya; -ripu, -satru, m. ep. of Krttikeya.
10) क्रौञ्च (p. 59) krauka () curlew



क्रौड [ krauda ]
- a. () belonging to the boar.
9) क्रौड (p. 59) krauda () belonging



क्रौर्य [ kraur-ya ]
- n. cruelty, hardheartedness.
8) क्रौर्य (p. 59) kraur-ya cruelty,

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{kla.} {k-la.}

Medial signs , ,  

UKT 180126: Following the examples in Bur-Myan, where {ya.pn.}-sign is and {ra.ric}-sign is , {la.hsw:}-sign should have a dedicated shape such as (which I've adopted from Mon-Myan).
Note #1: Literal meanings: {ya.pn.} 'pushed up by {ya.}, {ra.ric} 'wrapped around by {ra.}, {la.hsw:} 'hanged on by {la.}'. {kla.} is monosyllabic - medial
Note #2: {k-la.} is disyllabic - conjunct
Note #3: In Bur-Myan, the monosyllabic is {kwa.}, and the disyllabic {ka.wa.} is neither a medial nor conjunct, and there is no need to adopt the Mon-Myan  as the monosyllabic medial sign.

UKT 170412: In the following entries, Dev orthography in Mac seems to be different from SpkSkt. I still need to check.

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क्लथ् [ klath ]
Skt: क्लथ् [ klath ] - i. p. kltha , turn (int.) - Mac077c1
Skt: क्लथति { क्लथ् } klathati {klath} - v. kill, be formed into clots or lumps, hurt - SpkSkt


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क्लन्द् [ kland ]
Skt: क्लन्द् [ kland ] - i. . klanda , resound - Mac077c1
Skt: क्लन्दते { क्लन्द् } klandate { kland} - v. be confounded or troubled, sound - SpkSkt 
Skt: क्लन्दति { क्लन्द् } klandati { kland} - v. weep, call, lament - SpkSkt


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क्लम् [ klam ] - iv. p.
- klamya , grow tired, be exhausted, flag: gnly. pp. klnta , fatigued, exhausted; withered; slender, thin. pari , feel greatly exhausted: ...

क्लम् [ klam ] - iv. p.
Skt: क्लम् [ klam ] - iv. p. - klamya , grow tired, be exhausted, flag: - Mac077c1
Skt: { क्लम् } { klam } - v1. par  be fatigued - SpkSkt



क्लम [ klam-a ]
- m. fatigue, exhaustion, languor: -‿apaha, a. dispelling fatigue.
7) क्लम (p. 59) klam-a fatigue,



क्लव्् [ KLAV ]
- only pp. klavita, faltering.
6) क्लव्् (p. 59) KLAV klavita, faltering.


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{kla} / {k-la}


क्लान्ति [ kln-ti ]
- f. fatigue, languor, exhaustion.
5) क्लान्ति (p. 59) kln-ti fatigue


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{kli.} / {k-li.}

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क्लिद् [ klid ] iv.
- klidya , p. become wet : pp. ...


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क्लिश् [ klis ] ix
= क ् ल ि श ्
- klisn , iv. klisya , p. torment, plague, annoy, trouble; iv. . (p.) be troubled, ...

... annoyed, afflicted; damaged, worn out; painful, distressing; ...


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क्लिष्टवृत्ति [ klishta-vritti ]
- a. leading a wretched life.
4) क्लिष्टवृत्ति (p. 59) klishta-vritti leading

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{kli}/ {k-li}


क्लीब [ klb ]
= क ् ल ी ब
- a. emasculated, impotent; unmanly, timorous, cowardly; waterless (cloud); m. eunuch; weakling, coward; n. neuter (gender): -t, f. impotency; weakness.
3) क्लीब (p. 59) klb emasculated,

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{kl}/ {k-l}


क्लेद [ kled-a ]
= क ् ल े द
- m. moisture, humidity; -ana, n. moistening.
2) क्लेद (p. 59) kled-a moisture,



क्लेश [ kles-a ]
- m. torment, pain, suffering, affliction, distress; -in, a. painful, distressing; hurting.
32) क्लेश (p. 59) kles-a torment,

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{kl}/ {k-l}


क्लैब्य [ klab-ya ]
= क ् ल ै ब ् य
- n. impotence; timidness, faintheartedness; cowardice; weakness.
31) क्लैब्य (p. 59) klab-ya impotence;


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  {klau:}/ {k-lau:}


क्लोमन्् [ kl-man ]
- m. (V.), n. right lung.
30) क्लोमन्् (p. 59) kl-man right



क्लोमहृदय [ kloma-hriday ]
- n. sg. right lung and heart.
29) क्लोमहृदय (p. 59) kloma-hriday right


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क्व [ kv ]
=  क ् व
- ad. = lc. of ka; where? whither? often emphasized with the pcls. ha, d, iva, nu, nu khalu, and svid: kva svid also = somewhere; with bh and as = what has be come of --? = it is all over with; kva tadgatam, how about that? without verb = it is out of the question; kva--kva, expressing incongruity = how great is the difference between --and--, there is nothing in common between - and --; with api and kid =kasmin+api or kid; somewhere, in a certain place; some time, once; sometimes, ever; kvakit kvakid, here and there, now and then; kvakid kvakid, here--there; now--now; kva‿api, kva kit, kvaka, kvakana, with na, nowhere, in no case, never, with preceding yatra, wherever, whenever, in whatever case.
28) क्व (p. 59) kv ka; where?


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क्वण् [ kvan ]
- i. p. kvana , cry out, croak, buzz; sound; ring, tinkle: pp. -ita , n. sound


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क्वथ् [ kvath ] 
- i. kvatha , boil (tr. and int.). ud , boil over (fig.)



क्वथ [ kvath-a ]
- m. decoction, extract; -ana, n. boiling.
27) क्वथ (p. 59) kvath-a decoction, 



क्वसु [ k-vas-u ]
- the suffix vas (gr.).
26) क्वसु (p. 59) k-vas-u vas (gr.).



क्वस्थ [ kva-stha ]
- a. where situated or to be found?
25) क्वस्थ (p. 59) kva-stha where


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क्वाचित्क [ kvkit-ka ]
- a. () occurring only here and there, occasional.
61) क्वाचित्क (p. 59) kvkit-ka () occurring



क्वाण [ kvna ]
- m. sound.
99) क्वाण (p. 59) kvna sound.



क्वाथ [ kvtha ]
- m. boiling; decoction.
97) क्वाथ (p. 59) kvtha boiling;



क्विप्् [ k-v-ip ]
- fictitious suffix v added to the simple root used nominally (gr.).
24) क्विप्् (p. 59) k-v-ip v added

( end of old p077-1.htm )

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{ksa.} from {k~Sa.} with ~ removed as the first step, and de-capitalization of S in the second step : it is {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging {Sa.}' cf. Hanging consonants in Mon-Myan.

* {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging {Sa.}'

UKT 151203, 160306, 171121: You'll note that in क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/, we are running into an unusual conjunct. This conjunct is used in Skt-Dev for क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ] the equivalent of Pal-Myan: {hkt~ti.ya.} 'belonging to ruling class'. Many {hka.}-words in Pal-Myan are found as {kSa.}-words in Skt-Dev, which has led me to call  {k~Sa.} as Pseudo-Kha. Because {kSa.}, though a conjunct, is commonly used in Skt-Dev like a basic consonant, it is deemed appropriate to drop the ~ sign, resulting in {kSa.}. Caveat: However, it is usual to de-capitalized the S and becomes {ksa.}. It stands for Pali kha in many Sanskrit words.

The second unusual conjunct, the Pseudo-Za is in जज्ञि [ g-g-i ] = ज ज ् ञ ि 'a. germinating' which you'll meet on p098.htm (link chk 170412).
See my note in that file on Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za .



क्षण् [ kshan ]
- v. क्षन् [ ksan ]


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{kSa.Na.} : Pal: {hka.Na.}


क्षण [ kshan-a ]
= क ् ष ण
- m. (n1.) moment; opportunity; leisure; joyful moment, festival: -m, for or in a moment; --, in., ab. in a moment, immediately; lc. every moment; kshant--kshant, at one moment - at another; kshanamkri, wait a moment; give any one (g.) an opportunity (also d); -m labh, find an opportunity.

क्षण [ kshan-a ]
Skt: क्षण [ kshan-a ] - m. (n1.) moment; opportunity; leisure; joyful moment, festival: - Mac077c2
Pal: {hka.Na.} - UHS PMD0342
  UKT from UHS: . time-duration lasting a click of thumb, moment, opportunity. . m. digging 



क्षणदा [ kshana-d ]
- f. night: -kara, -krit, m. moon, -kara, m. night-walker, Rkshasa; -drishta-nashta, pp. appearing and disappearing in a moment.



क्षणन [ kshan-ana ]
- n. hurting, wounding.



क्षणमात्र [ kshana-mtra ]
- n. only a moment: -m, for a moment only, in. in a moment; -vidhvamsin, a. collapsing in a moment; -hna, pp. joyless.


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क्षणान्तर [ kshana‿antara ]
- n. space of a moment, little while: lc. after a while, thereupon.



क्षणिक [ kshan-ika ]
- a. () momentary: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -in, a. being at leisure.


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क्षत [ ksha-ta ]
- pp. √kshan: , f. violated girl; n. hurt, wound: -ga, n. blood.



क्षति [ ksha-ti ]
- f. injury, loss, harm, damage, destruction: -mat, a. wounded.



[kshat-tr ]
- m. carver, distributor (of food); N. of various castes



क्षत्र [ ksha-tr ]
- n. sg. & pl. dominion, power; powers that be; military (second) caste; man of the second caste.



क्षत्रधर्म [ kshatra-dharma ]
- m. duty of the warrior caste; -dharman, a. fulfilling the duties of the warrior caste; -bandhu, m. member of the second caste; -vidy, f. science of the warrior caste; -vriddhi, f. increase of military power.

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UKT 140414: Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.} :
the only way to learn the sound of क्षत्र ksa-tra / {kSa.t~ri.ya.} is to listen to Hindi speakers


क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ]
= (क ् ष) (त ् र ि) (य) --> {ksa.} {t~ri.} {ya.}
- a. ruling; m. ruler; man, , f. woman, of the military caste; n. sovereign power, dominion: -‿anta-kara, m. ep. of Parasurma.

क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ]
Skt: क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ] - a. ruling; m. ruler; man - Mac077c3
Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.} - UHS PMD0343
  UKT from UHS: mfn. ruler of land & water, belonging to ruling class, m. one who becomes king


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क्षद् [ kshad ]
- i. . kshda , carve; slaughter


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क्षन् [ kshan ]
- viii. p. kshan-o , -u , hurt, wound; break; . hurt or wound oneself: pp kshat , hurt, wounded; broken, injured; destroyed; violated.upa , pari , vi , pp. hurt, wounded



क्षन् [kshan]
- 3. pl. aor, √kshan



क्षन्तव्य [ kshan-tavya ]
- fp. to be forgiven: -m, one should forgive some one (g.), for (ab.).

( end of old p077-2.htm )

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क्षप् [ kshap ]
- i. kshapa , practise abstinence or mortification



क्षप्् [ kshp ]
- f. night.



-. m. Buddhist or Jain mendicant; n. fasting, mortification; . a. destroying; m. destroyer; n. destroying; spending (time), waiting.

UKT 140414: Buddhist or Jain monks are not wanton destructionists. What they are destroying is their attachment to Greed, Anger, and Sex in their own body. They are therefore celibate, whereas the Hindus are for the family based on sexual relations. A praiseworthy wife to a Buddhist is one who is faithful to one husband, but to the Hindus, an example of a praiseworthy wife is Draupadi who was married to 5 men at the same time, giving birth a son for each husband.



क्षपणक [ kshapana-ka ]
- m. mendicant (esp. naked Buddhist or Jain).

UKT 140414: Hindu religionists being believers in Atta 'permanance' consider Buddhists and Jains to be their adversaries, because the latter would not believe in a creator. Since this is a Sanskrit dictionary, Macdonell has given the Hindu meanings. Here 'mendicant' means 'begger'. Little did the Hindus know (or care) that the Buddhist and Jain monks do not beg. They do a service to laity to earn merit by providing food. It is up to the laity to thank the monks!

mendicant -  adj. 1. Depending on alms for a living; practicing begging. n. 1. A beggar. 2. A member of an order of friars forbidden to own property in common, who work or 3. beg for their living. - AHTD

UKT 110906 : The English word <mendicant> or <mendicant monk> applied to Buddhist and Jain clergy stems from the days the Westerner first coming into Burma and India. The Westerners had looked down on these holy men because they go on alms-round every morning. The <bowls> used for receiving alms were dubbed <begging bowls>. Little do the Westerner knows that the monks are forbidden to beg. The monks receive the alms so that the laity can earn merit and it is the laity who has to thank the monk.

Another point I have to make is the Buddhist monks must be fully clad, whereas the Jain monks (in their parlance) are 'sky clad' and are not 'naked'.



क्षपणिक [ kshapan-ika ]
- m. boatman; a. destructive.



क्षपा [ kshap-&asharp; ]
- f. night: ()-kara, -krit, m. moon; -kara, m. night-walker, Rkshasa; nocturnal beast or bird; -gala, m. night dew; -‿atyaya, m. end of night, day-break; -‿apaha, m. sun; -ramana, m. moon: -sekhara, m. ep. of Siva; -‿ardha, n. (?) midnight; -‿avasna, n. end of night: lc. on the morrow; -‿aha, m. (?) day and night.



क्षपितव्य [ kshap-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be spent (time).



क्षपेश [ kshap‿sa ]
- m. moon.

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UKT 171121: {ksa.ma.} is spelled with Pseudo-Kha , whereas {kau:stu.Ba.} comes from {Sta.} -> {sta.} - the tenuis consonant.

- 'endure' - Whit028.



[ ksham ]
- i. . (p.) kshma (iv. . kshamya ), have patience; submit to (d.); endure, put up with; pardon (g. or d. of person, ac. of thing); grant anything (ac.) to (g.), allow to (pot.); show indulgence to (ac.); be able to (inf.): pp. kahnta, patient; cs. kahmaya, ask any one's (ac.) pardon or indulgence for (ac.)



क्षम्् [ kshm ]
- strong base ksh&asharp;m, weakest kshm, earth.



क्षम [ ksham- ]
- a. patient; enduring (--); capable of, able to, equal to (in., lc., or --); endurable; suitable, useful, favourable (for, d., g., lc., inf., or --; inf. or -- after verbal ɴ. having a passive sense): -t, f., -tva, n. capacity for, ability to (lc. or --).



क्षमा [ksham-]
- f. patience, forbearance, indulgence (towards, lc. or prati); tameness; earth: -pati, m. king; -bhrit, m. mountain; king; -mandala, n. orbis terrarum, whole earth; -liṅga‿tma-pd-vat, a. in which proof of forbearance and loss on one's own part is adduced (leg.); -vat, -sla, a. patient, indulgent, forbearing; compassionate.


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----- online 180112 : p077.htm - search for क्रुध््


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