Update: 2016-03-07 01:49 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p077.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{k~ru.} contd
  p077c1
{k~r}
{k~rau:}
{k~rau}
{k~la.}
  p077c2
{k~wa.}
{k~Sa.}/{kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha*
{kSa.Na.} : Pal: {hka.Na.}
  p077c3
{kSa.ta.}
{kSa.da.}
{kSa.na.}
{kSa.pa.}
{kSa.ma.}

 

UKT notes :
Pseudo-Kha and True-Kha

 

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{k~ru.} contd

p077c1

p077c1-b00

क्रुध्् [ krudh ]
- f. anger: in. in anger: -a, the root krudh (gr.); -mn, a. irritable.

 

p077c1-b01

 

p077c1-b02

क्रुमुक [ krumu-k ]
- m. splint to catch the flame from the tinder.

 

p077c1-b03

 

p077c1-b04

 

 

p077c1-b05

क्रूर [ kr-r ]
- a. wounded; sore; cruel; formidable, terrible; ferocious; rough, hard; n. sore, wound; roughness, cruelty: -karma krit, a. *doing cruel deeds; m. beast of prey; -karman, n. horrible deed; hard task; a. doing cruel deeds; -keshtita, (pp.) a. acting cruelly; -t, f. cruelty.

 

p077c1-b06

क्रूराक्ष [ krra‿aksha ]
- m. N. of an owl; -‿k ra, a. of cruel conduct: -vihra-vat, a. ferocious in conduct and delighting in cruelty; -‿saya, a. containing terrible monsters; cruel-hearted.

 

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{k~r}

p077c1-b07

क्रेङ्कार [ kreṅ-kra ]
- m
. the sound kreṅ.

 

p077c1-b08

 

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{k~rau:}

p077c1-b09

 

p077c1-b10

क्रोध [ krdh-a ]
- m. anger: -kakshus, n. angry eye; -ga, a. springing from wrath; -mukha, a. () angry-faced; -vasa, m. power of anger.

 

क्रोध [ krdh-a ]
Skt: क्रोध [ krdh-a ] - m. anger: - Mac077c2
Skt: क्रोध krodha - m. passion, anger, wrath - SpkSkt
Pak: {kau:Da.} - UHS PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: m. becoming angry, {a.myak dau:a.} 'fault of anger'
  ("Anger" is associated with {dau:a.} 'fault'. See:UHS PMD0488)

 

p077c1-b11

क्रोधन [ krodh-ana ]
- a. passionate, angry with (lc.); n. anger.

 

p077c1-b12

क्रोधालु [ krodh-lu ]
- a. passionate.

 

p077c1-b13

क्रोधिन्् [ krodh-in ]
- a. angry, passionate.

 

p077c1-b14

क्रोश [ krs-a ]
- m. cry, shout; ear-shot (measure of distance).

 

p077c1-b15

 

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{k~rau}

p077c1-b16

क्रौञ्च [ krauka ]
- m. () curlew; N. of a mountain cleft by Krttikeya; -ripu, -satru, m. ep. of Krttikeya.

 

p077c1-b17

क्रौड [ krauda ]
- a. () belonging to the boar.

 

p077c1-b18

क्रौर्य [ kraur-ya ]
- n. cruelty, hardheartedness.

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{k~la.}

p077c1-b19

 

p077c1-b20

 

 

p077c1-b21

 

 

p077c1-b22

क्लम [ klam-a ]
- m. fatigue, exhaustion, languor: -‿apaha, a. dispelling fatigue.

 

p077c1-b23

क्लव्् [ KLAV ]
- only pp. klavita, faltering.

 

p077c1-b24

क्लान्ति [ kln-ti ]
- f. fatigue, languor, exhaustion.

 

p077c1-b25

 

p077c1-b26

 

 

 

 

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p077c2

p077c2-b01

क्लिष्टवृत्ति [ klishta-vritti ]
- a. leading a wretched life.

 

p077c2-b02

क्लीब [ klb ]
- a. emasculated, impotent; unmanly, timorous, cowardly; waterless (cloud); m. eunuch; weakling, coward; n. neuter (gender): -t, f. impotency; weakness.

 

p077c2-b03

क्लेद [ kled-a ]
- m. moisture, humidity; -ana, n. moistening.

 

p077c2-b04

क्लेश [ kles-a ]
- m. torment, pain, suffering, af fliction, distress; -in, a. painful, distressing; hurting.

 

p077c2-b05

क्लैब्य [ klab-ya ]
- n. impotence; timidness, faintheartedness; cowardice; weakness.

 

p077c2-b06

क्लोमन्् [ kl-man ]
- m. (V.), n. right lung.

 

p077c2-b07

क्लोमहृदय [ kloma-hriday ]
- n. sg. right lung and heart.

 

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{k~wa.}

p077c2-b08

क्व [ kv ]
- ad.=lc. of ka; where? whither? often emphasized with the pcls. ha, d, iva, nu, nu khalu, and svid: kva svid also= somewhere; with bh and as=what has be come of --?=it is all over with; kva tadga tam, how about that? without verb=it is out of the question; kva--kva, expressing incongruity=how great is the difference between --and--, there is nothing in common between -and --; with api and kid=kasmin+api or kid; somewhere, in a certain place; some time, once; sometimes, ever; kvakit kva- kid, here and there, now and then; kvakid kvakid, here--there; now--now; kva‿api, kva kit, kvaka, kvakana, with na, nowhere, in no case, never, with preceding yatra, wherever, whenever, in whatever case.

 

p077c2-b09

 

p077c2-b10

 

 

p077c2-b11

क्वथ [ kvath-a ]
- m. decoction, extract; -ana, n. boiling.

 

p077c2-b12

क्वसु [ k-vas-u ]
- the suffix vas (gr.).

 

p077c2-b13

क्वस्थ [ kva-stha ]
- a. where situated or to be found?

 

p077c2-b14

क्वाचित्क [ kvkit-ka ]
- a. () occurring only here and there, occasional.

 

p077c2-b15

क्वाण [ kvna ]
- m. sound.

 

p077c2-b16

क्वाथ [ kvtha ]
- m. boiling; decoction.

 

p077c2-b17

क्विप्् [ k-v-ip ]
- fictitious suffix v added to the simple root used nominally (gr.).

 

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{k~Sa.}/{kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha

UKT 151203, 160306: You'll note that in क ् ष --> क्ष  {kSa.} /kə.sa/, we are running into an unusual conjunct. This conjunct is used in Skt-Dev for क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ] the equivalent of Pal-Myan: {hkt~ti.ya.} 'belonging to ruling class'. Many {hka.}-words in Pal-Myan are found as {k~Sa.}-words in Skt-Dev, which has led me to call  {k~Sa.} as Pseudo-Kha. Because {k~Sa.}, though a conjunct, is commonly used in Skt-Dev like a basic consonant, it is deemed appropriate to drop the ~ sign, resulting in {kSa.}. The second unusual conjunct, the Pseudo-Za is in जज्ञि [ g-g-i ] = ज ज ् ञ ि 'a. germinating' which you'll meet on p098.htm .
See my note in that file on Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za .

p077c2-b18

 

 

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{kSa.Na.} : Pal: {hka.Na.}

p077c2-b19

क्षण [ kshan-a ]
= क ् ष ण
- m. (n1.) moment; opportunity; leisure; joyful moment, festival: -m, for or in a moment; --, in., ab. in a moment, immediately; lc. every moment; kshant--ksha- nt, at one moment -at another; kshanamkri, wait a moment; give any one (g.) an opportunity (also d); -m labh, find an opportunity.

क्षण [ kshan-a ]
Skt: क्षण [ kshan-a ] - m. (n1.) moment; opportunity; leisure; joyful moment, festival: - Mac077c2
Pal: {hka.Na.} - UHS PMD0342
  UKT from UHS: . time-duration lasting a click of thumb, moment, opportunity

 

p077c2-b20

क्षणदा [ kshana-d ]
- f. night: -kara, -krit, m. moon, -kara, m. night-walker, Rkshasa; -drishta-nashta, pp. appearing and disappearing in a moment.

 

p077c2-b21

क्षणन [ kshan-ana ]
- n. hurting, wounding.

 

p077c2-b22

क्षणमात्र [ kshana-mtra ]
- n. only a moment: -m, for a moment only, in. in a moment; -vidhvamsin, a. collapsing in a moment; -hna, pp. joyless.

 

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p077c3

p077c3-b00

क्षणान्तर [ kshana‿antara ]
- n. space of a moment, little while: lc. after a while, thereupon.

 

p077c3-b01

क्षणिक [ kshan-ika ]
- a. () momentary: -t, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -in, a. being at leisure.

 

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{kSa.ta.}

p077c3-b02

क्षत [ ksha-ta ]
- pp. √kshan: , f. violated girl; n. hurt, wound: -ga, n. blood.

 

p077c3-b03

क्षति [ ksha-ti ]
- f. injury, loss, harm, damage, destruction: -mat, a. wounded.

 

p077c3-b04

 

p077c3-b05

क्षत्र [ ksha-tr ]
- n. sg. & pl. dominion, power; powers that be; military (second) caste; man of the second caste.

 

p077c3-b06

क्षत्रधर्म [ kshatra-dharma ]
- m. duty of the warrior caste; -dharman, a. fulfilling the duties of the warrior caste; -bandhu, m. member of the second caste; -vidy, f. science of the warrior caste; -vriddhi, f. increase of military power.

 

p077c3-b07

क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ]
= (क ् ष) (त ् र ि) (य) --> {kSa.} {t~ri.} {ya.}
- a. ruling; m. ruler; man, , f. woman, of the military caste; n. sovereign power, dominion: -‿anta-kara, m. ep. of Parasurma.

क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ]
Skt: क्षत्रिय [ kshatr-ya ] - a. ruling; m. ruler; man - Mac077c3
Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.} - UHS PMD0343
  UKT from UHS: mfn. ruler of land & water, belonging to ruling class, m. one who becomes king

 

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{kSa.da.}

p077c3-b08

 

 

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{kSa.na.}

p077c3-b09

 

 

p077c3-b10

 

 

p077c3-b11

क्षन्तव्य [ kshan-tavya ]
- fp. to be forgiven: -m, one should forgive some one (g.), for (ab.).

 

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{kSa.pa.}

p077c3-b12

 

 

p077c3-b13

क्षप्् [ kshp ]
- f. night.

 

p077c3-b14

 

 

p077c3-b15

क्षपणक [ kshapana-ka ]
- m. mendicant (esp. naked Buddhist or Jain).

 

p077c3-b16

क्षपणिक [ kshapan-ika ]
- m. boatman; a. destructive.

 

p077c3-b17

क्षपा [ kshap-&asharp; ]
- f. night: ()-kara, -krit, m. moon; -kara, m. night-walker, Rkshasa; nocturnal beast or bird; -gala, m. night dew; -‿atyaya, m. end of night, day-break; -‿apa ha, m. sun; -ramana, m. moon: -sekhara, m. ep. of Siva; -‿ardha, n. (?) midnight; -‿ava sna, n. end of night: lc. on the morrow; -‿aha, m. (?) day and night.

 

p077c3-b18

क्षपितव्य [ kshap-i-tavya ]
- fp. to be spent (time).

 

p077c3-b19

क्षपेश [ kshap‿sa ]
- m. moon.

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{kSa.ma.}

p077c3-b20

 

 

p077c3-b21

क्षम्् [ kshm ]
- strong base ksh&asharp;m, weakest kshm, earth.

 

p077c3-b22

क्षम [ ksham- ]
- a. patient; enduring (--); capable of, able to, equal to (in., lc., or --); endurable; suitable, useful, favourable (for, d., g., lc., inf., or --; inf. or -- after verbal n. having a passive sense): -t, f., -tva, n. capacity for, ability to (lc. or --).

 

p077c3-b23

क्षमा [ksham-]
- f. patience, forbearance, indulgence (towards, lc. or prati); tameness; earth: -pati, m. king; -bhrit, m. mountain; king; -mandala, n. orbis terrarum, whole earth; - liṅga‿tma-pd-vat, a. in which proof of forbearance and loss on one's own part is adduced (leg.); -vat, -sla, a. patient, indulgent, forbearing; compassionate.

 

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UKT notes

Pseudo-Kha and True-Kha

UKT 151206:

There are at least very troublesome Skt-Dev conjuncts in BEPS. They are what I am calling Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za.

* In Skt-Dev, Pseudo-Kha {kSa.}, like the True-Kha {hka.} can be under virama, i.e. can be "killed" resulting in {kS~} & {hk~}.

This is not allowed in Pal-Myan, showing that IE languages like Sanskrit & English are difficult to pronounce. English (Eng-Lat) when it became an Alphabet, solved this problem by making some consonants mute. For example in the English words <knee> and <plumber>, the k & b became silent.

In fact, it is said that Magadhi, the Tib-Bur language, is so easy to pronounce that even animals can speak it. The male-oriented Indo-Europeans considering their females to be almost equal to animals, would have their females and horses (and other animals like birds) speak the Prakrit Magadhi.

It is said that Sanskrit dramatists like Kālidāsa {ka-li.da-a.} uses this concept: male Poannars and nobility speak Sanskrit whilst females & animals speak Prakrit. I still have to learn enough Skt-Dev to read Sanskrit dramas before I can confirm this notion. An example of such a drama is the Cloud Messanger  मेघदूत meghadūta:
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meghad%C5%ABta 151206
or watch a cartoon clip in TIL SD-Library from Meghaduta मेघदूत meghadūta 'Cloud Messenger' by Kālidāsa 
- Meghaduta-cartoon<>  bkp<>

Go back Pseudo-True-Kha-note-b

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End of TIL file