Update: 2017-06-24 05:16 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p076C.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{k~ta.} : hanging consonant
{k~ya.}/ - non-rhotic disyllabic: Ya'pin {ya.pn.} 'lifted by {ya.}'

{k~ra.}/ - rhotic disyllable: Ra'ric {ra.ric} 'rounded by {ra.}'
   See my note on Slightly/Highly rhotic syllables
  {k~ra.ka.}/ 
  {k~ra.ta.}/
  {k~ra.pa.}/
  {k~ra.ma.}/
  p076c2
  {k~ra.ya.}/
  {k~ra.wa.}/
  {k~ra.sha.}/
  p076c3
  {k~ra.Sa.}/
{k~ra}/  

{k~ri.}/ क्रि : don't get mixed up with {kRi.} कृ : rely on the length of the hood
{k~ri}/ क्री : don't get mixed up with {kRi} कॄ : rely on the length of the hood
{k~ru.}/

Look for La'hsw {la.hsw:} 'hanging {la.}',
Wa'hsw {wa.hsw:} 'hanging {wa.}',
and Hisser-sa'hsw {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging hisser {Sa.}' - on  p077.htm
Note: Palatal {sa.}/ {c} and Dental {Sa.}/ {S} are clearly differentiated in Romabama.

UKT notes :
Approximants as Medial formers
Hanging consonants of Mon-Myan

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{k~ta.} : hanging-consonant

UKT 140411, 170623: Formerly I had thought Skt-Dev, just like Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, would have monosyllabic medials. I am now finding that it has only disyllabic conjuncts, and so what I had thought to be {kya.} must be written as {k~ya.} with {ya.} hanging below. No wonder my Indian friends in Canada could not properly pronounce my Burmese name KYAW. These disyllabic conjuncts are also found in Mon-Myan as Hanging consonants {hsw:by:}. See Hanging consonants in Basic Mon-Myanmar Language by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007, p047. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries -
- NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170623)
In Mon-Myan, there are 11 hanging consonants : hanging r1c5 , hanging r2c5 , ...

p076c1-b05

क्त [ k-ta ]
= क ् त  --> {k~ta.} pronounced as disyllable
- suffix ta of the pp. (gr.).

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{k~na.} / Mon-Myan representation:
 

UKT 140412: There are many English words with <kn> such as <knee> /niː/ & <know> /nəʊ/ (US) /noʊ/. And, you know what the modern English speakers had done.

They "cheated" and simply dubbed <k> to be silent. And because of their cheating, the poor Celtic Gnome who is rich in gold has become a "Nome". I was really surprised to find many silent letters in English, which we will not allow in Bur-Myan. When the western phoneticians insisted that we must not pronounce as it is spelled, it only shows their ignorance of the Akshara languages which are based on sound phonemic principles.

p076c1-b06

क्नथ [ knath-a ]
- the root knath (gr.).

 

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{k~ya.}/ - the disyllabic, not monosyllabic

CAUTION: Bur-Myan and its counter-part Skt-Dev consonantal pairs have looks-alike: 
{hta.}   (U0925)  &  {ya.}    (U092F).

UKT 120127, 140412, 170410: Over two years my position has changed, and please note that as my understanding of BEPS languages increased, my opinions will change further. For the present, I hold that monosyllabic medials such as {kya.} & {kra.} are not present in Sanskrit. They are present only in Bur-Myan among the BEPS languages. I am still not sure of Pali, however I expect Pal-Myan will be similar to Bur-Myan in most cases. After listening repeatedly the Mon-Myan sounds, I feel that it is similar to Sanskrit, {kya.} & {kra.} are disyllabic. Moreover, of the old Mon dialects, the only dialect remaining is the Mataban dialect of present day Mon-state. However, even this dialect sounds different as one goes from west to east into Thailand and Cambodia. The dialect of Pegu-Mons - that of my great-grandmother Daw MMa - which had been adulterated by Telugu, has completely disappeared.

Bur-Myan (Irrawaddy valley dialect of Mandalay and Rangoon)
  - non-rhotic monosyllabic medials: {kya.}, {kra.}
Bur-Myan (Rakhine dialect, and dialects of outlying areas), & Pal-Myan
  - non-rhotic monosyllabic medial: {kya.}
  - slightly rhotic monosyllabic medial: {kra.}
Skt-Myan (not well known) mostly disyllabic conjunct
 - {k~ya.}, repha  {k~ra.}, highly rhotic {kRi.}
Note: {k~ra.} will no longer represent , and {kRa.} is not known in Skt-Dev.

Formation of medials in Bur-Myan are from approximants {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.} (in Daw dialect), {wa.} and {ha.}. The processes of formation are known as {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:}, and {ha.hto:}. {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:} are "hanging-consonants" and shapes of the hanging-on consonant {la.} and {wa.} remain unchanged: whereas there is change in shape in {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric} and {ha.hto:}. 

p076c1-b07

क्नूय्् [ KNY ]
- only cs. knopaya, P. drench. abhi, wet, moisten.

 

UKT 151201, 170623: Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat do not have the Bur-Myan medials which are monosyllabic. They could pronounce our Bur-Myan medials, {kya.} & {kra.}, only as disyllabic vertical conjuncts such as {k~ya.} & {k~ra.}. The rhoticity of {kra.} is so slight that Bur-Myan of Irrawaddy basin - most of the population of Myanmarpr - pronounce {kya.} & {kra.} the same. They are pronounced differently in the Bur-Myan dialect of Arakan and Pal-Myan. This presents a unique situation in BEPS transcription.

The high rhoticity is found in Skt-Dev close vowel {iRi.} ऋ. When {ka.} क, is modified by this vowel we get {kRi.} कृ . Compared to {kRi.}, {kri.} is almost non-rhotic, and Bur-Myan of Irrawaddy basin pronounce it as {kyi.}.

Bur-Myan has a set of syllables very close in pronunciation to {kyi.} (1 blnk) & {kri.} (1 blnk). It is spelled with Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}, and is perfectly non-rhotic. 

{k.} (1 blnk), {k} (2 blnk), {k:} (2 blnk + emphasis)

In Pali-Myan, Nya'gyi cannot be placed under virama {a.t}: it breaks up into two Nya'l: {~a.}

 

p076c1-b08

क्याकु [ kyku ] --> {k~ya-ku.} / {kya-ku.}
- n. mushroom.

 

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{k~ra.}/ : rhotic disyllable

UKT 151201: {k~ra.} क्र = क ् र , is an important prefix which can be followed by other consonants, {k~ra.ka.}/ .

{k~ra.ka.}/

p076c1-b09

क्रकच [ krakaka ]
- m. n. saw; m. a plant.

 

p076c1-b10

क्रक्ष्् [ kraksh ]
= क ् र क ् ष ् --> {k~rak~S}
- only pr. pt. krkshamna, (V.) raging, roaring.

 

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{k~ra.ta.}/  

p076c1-b11

क्रतु [ kr--tu ]
- m. power, might, efficacy; counsel, intelligence, wisdom; inspiration; plan, purpose, wish, will; sacrifice (sts. personified); N. of the three liturgies forming the prtar anuvka; N. of a son of Brahman (one of the Pragpatis and of the seven Rishis); a star in the Great Bear.

 

p076c1-b12

  क्रतुदेव [ kratu-deva ]
- m. N.; -mat, a. resolute; intelligent, wise; -rg, m. chief sacrifice (Asvamedha and Rgasya); -vikrayin, a. selling the rewards for a sacrifice; -vd, a. powerful, inspiring.

 

p076c1-b13

क्रतूय [ krat-y ]
- den. P. will earnestly.

 

p076c1-b14

क्रथ्् [ krath ]
- only cs. krthaya, P. be extravagant or wild.

 

p076c1-b15

क्रथ [ krath-a ]
- the root krath (gr.).

 

p076c1-b16

क्रथकैशिक [ kratha-kaisika ]
- m. pl. N. of a people (descended from Kratha son of Vidarbha and from Kaisika).

 

p076c1-b17

[krathana-ka]
- m. N. of a camel

 

p076c1-b18

क्ननद् [ krand ] i.
- krnda , neigh, roar; wail; resound, rattle; implore piteously (ac.) ; cs. krandaya, P. cause to neigh d. or = simple vb; intv. knikrant-ti, -te: pt. kni-krat, knikradat, kanikradyimna, = simple vb. akkh, cs. cry to. abhi, roar (at). , call on, invoke; cry piteously; invoke the aid of (ac.); cs. cry out to.

 

p076c1-b19

क्रन्द [ krnd-a ]
- m. neigh; cry: -dhvani, m. cry of pain; -ana, n. crying aloud; lamentation; -as, n. battle-cry: du. the two contending hosts.

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{k~ra.pa.}/

p076c1-b20

क्नप् [ krap ]
Skt: क्नप् [ krap ] - vkrip - Mac076c1
Skt: क्रपते { क्रप् } krapate - v. compassionate, go - SpkSkt

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{k~ra.ma.}/

p076c1-b21

क्नम् [ kram ] , i.
- krma-ti ( -te ), krma-te (-ti), stride, step ; go to (ac. or lc.); take refuge with (lc.); pass through, traverse; tower above; take possession of, occupy, fill; . succeed, take effect: pp. krnta; cs. krm-aya, cause to step; iniv. kaṅkranate, kaṅkramyate, kaṅkramiti, walk about. ati, pass by, go beyond, traverse, cross; overstep, neglect; depart from (ab.); be deprived of (ab.); pass, elapse; exceed, surpass; trespass, transgress; cs. allow to pass by; disregard. abhiati, overcome. viati, overstep; pass by (of time), elapse; neglect. trespass; wrongly surrender oneself to (ac.) sam-ati, vl. anu, follow, go through in order, enumerate; particularize; state in an index.

(p076c1end-p076c2begin)

UKT:  क्रमपद kramapada - n. conjunction of words in the krama reading - SpkSkt

 

apa, go away, depart, retreat from (ab). ava, depart, retreat from (ab.). ava, depart, withdraw; escape. , come up, approach, enter; step on (ac., lc.); press upon (ac.); seize, attack; gain possession of; ocupy, overspread; rise, ascend (.); begin (inf.); pp. see s. v.; cs. cause to enter adhi‿, fall upon; choose, occupy. nir-, issue forth (from, ab.). prati‿, step back. sam-, step upon (ac.); assail, take possession of; occupy. ud, rise; go out; leave (ab.); depart (life); avoid. prati‿ud, depart. vi‿ud, overstep; pass over, neglect. upa, come up, approach (ac., lc.); treat; physic; perform begin (ac., d., or inf.). sam-upa, A. begin (inf.). nis, go out of, leave (ab.); depart; pp. nish-krnta, = exit, exeunt; cs. cause to leave, let out of (ab.); drive out. abhi-nis, go out of (ab.). vi-nis, step out, emerge from (ab.). par, stride forth, be valorous, put forth one's strength, do one's best. pari, walk about (esp. on the stage); traverse, visit; surround; overtake. anu-pari, inspect in turn. sam-pari, walk round (ac.); visit. pra, stride along; go aside; traverse; rise to (ac.); assail courageously; be valorous; fight with (ac.); pp. courageous, valorous, brave. sam, come together, unite; go to; enter; pass from (ab.) to (lc.); pp. transferred from (ab.) to (--); cs. lead to (v ac.); transfer to (lc.) upa-sam, approach.

 

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p076c2

p076c2-b01

क्रम [ krm-a ]
- m. step; gait; course; posture for attack; regular order, succession, gradation; inheritance; method, manner, way; usage, ritual; occasion, reason for (--, g.); a way of reciting the Veda: in., ab., or -tas, in order, in turn; in., ab., --, in due course, regularly, gradually; in. in the course of (--).

 

p076c2-b02

क्रमगत [ krama-gata ]
- pp. coming in the way of (g.).

 

p076c2-b03

क्रमण [ krm-ana ]
- n. step, tread; walking; treading on (--).

 

p076c2-b04

[kramad-svara]
- m. N. of a grammarian

 

p076c2-b05

क्रमपाठ [ krama-ptha ]
- m. krama method of reciting the Veda; -prpta, pp. inherited; -yoga, m. regular order, succession; -rgya, n. N. of a locality; -varta, N. of a country; -vriddhi, f. gradual increase; -sas, ad. in order, in turn; gradually.

 

p076c2-b06

क्रमाक्रान्त [ krama‿krnta ]
- pp. seized at one bound; -‿gata, pp. come by succession, inherited; -‿yta, pp. id., hereditary.

 

p076c2-b07

क्रमिक [ kram-ika ]
- a. inherited, hereditary; successive.

 

p076c2-b08

क्रमुक [ kramu-ka ]
- m. betel-nut tree.

 

p076c2-b09

क्रमेलक [ kramela-ka ]
- m. camel.

 

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{k~ra.ya.}/

p076c2-b10

क्रय [ kray- ]
- m. purchase; price: -krta, pp. bought; -vikraya, m. (sg. and du.) purchase and sale; trade; -vikrayin, a. buying and selling, bargaining.

 

p076c2-b11

क्रयण [ kray-ana ]
- n. purchase; -na-ka, a. marketable; -ika, -in, m. buyer.

 

p076c2-b12

क्रय्य [ kry-ya ]
- fp. purchasable.

 

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{k~ra.wa.}/

p076c2-b13

क्रविष्णु [ kravish-n ]
- a. eager for raw flesh.

 

p076c2-b14

क्रविस्् [ krav-s ]
- n. raw flesh, carrion.

 

p076c2-b15

क्रव्य [ krav-y ]
- n. id.: -bhakshin, -bhug, a. flesh-eating; -mukha, m. N. of a wolf; -vhana, a. carrying away bodies (v. l. for kavya-).

 

p076c2-b16

क्रव्याद्् kravya◡́ad, ˚द [ -da ]
- a. flesh-eating, corpse-consuming; m. beast of prey.

 

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{k~ra.sha.}/

p076c2-b17

क्रशय [ krasa-ya ]
- den. P. emaciate.

 

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p076c3

p073c3-b00

क्रशिमन् [kras-i-man]
Skt: क्रशिमन् [kras-i-man] - m. thinness, slenderness, shallowness. - Mac076c3
Skt: क्रशिमन् kraśiman - m. shallowness, emaciation, leanness - SpkSkt

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{k~ra.Sa.}/

p073c3-b01

क्रष्टव्य [ krash-tavya ]
- fp. to be dragged; to be extracted.

( end of old p076-1.htm )

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{k~ra}/

p073c3-b02

क्राणा [ kr-n ]
- ad. (pr. pt. √kri) willingly; straightway.

 

p073c3-b03

क्रान्त [ krn-t ]
- pp. √kram; n. step; -ti, f. ecliptic.

 

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{k~ri.}/ क्रि: don't get mixed up with {kRi.} कृ .

UKT 151201, 170411, 170623: I was in a dilemma {kri.} would be mistaken for highly rhotic {kRi.} कृ until I differentiate {kri.} & {kRi.} by the length of the hood. In Bur-Myan the non-rhotic language (especially in the Irrawaddy valley dialect), we rarely spell non-rhotic syllables with {kri.} for this phone: we usually use {kr.}. We find only one entry
  - {kri.ti.kran-tan} - adv. 'in a daze' - MLC MED2006-037c2
However, in Pal-Myan the slightly-rhotic language, this orthography may be used, e.g.
  - {k~ri.ya} 'verb' - MLC MED2006-038c1

p073c3-b04

क्रिमि [ krmi ]
- incorrect spelling of krimi.

 

p073c3-b05

क्रिया [ kri-y ]
- f. making, doing; performance; business, transaction; action, act; work; trouble; labour; notion of the verb, verb (gr.); literary work; rite, ceremony; medical treatment, cure; (legal) proof.

 

p073c3-b06

क्रियाकुल [ kriy‿kula ]
- a. busy, overwhelmed with business; -‿tmaka, a. whose nature is activity: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -dveshin, a. evading the evidence; -‿antara, n. interruption of an action; another action; -pada, n. verb; -prabandha, m. continuity of an action; -‿abhyupagama, m. express promise; -yoga, m. connexion with an action or verb; employment of means; the practical Yoga; -yogya, a. fitted for work; -‿artha, a. having an action as an object; -lopa, m. failure of ceremonies; -vat, a. performing actions, active; performing sacred rites; -vidhi, m. specific rule of action; employment of a verb; -viseshana, n. adverb; -sakti, f. capacity of acting: -mat, a. capable of acting.

 

p073c3-b07

क्रिवि [ krvi ]
- m. water-skin: pl. N. of a people (in C.=Pakla).

 

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 {k~ri}/

p073c3-b08

क्री [ kr ] ix. kr-n , -ni 
- n, buy from (ab., g.) for (in.: price): pp. bought, purchased; captivated by (in.). , upa, id. nis, buy off, redeem (from, ab.). pari, buy, barter, for (in.); hire (in. or a. of price). vi, barter or sell for (in.); des. vi-kikri-sha, . wish to exchange for (in.); intend to give up.

 

p073c3-b09

क्रीड् [ krd ] i
-

 

p073c3-b10

क्रीड [ krd- ]
- a. playing, dallying; -ana, n. playing, play: -ka, m. plaything; -anya, n. id.

 

p073c3-b11

क्रीडा [ krd- ]
- f. play, sport, jest, dalliance: -kapi-tva, n. jesting imitation of a monkey; -knana, n. pleasure-grove; -ksra, m. pleasure-pond; -kopa, n. simulated anger; -kautuka, n. wanton curiosity; -kausala, n. art of jesting; -grha, m. n. pleasure-house; -parvata, m. (artificial) pleasure-hill: -ka, m. id.; -mayra, m. pet peacock; -markatapota, m. pet young monkey; -mahdhra, m. pleasure-hill; -rasa, m. enjoyment of sport or fun: -maya, a. consisting in the water of play; -vesman, n. pleasure-house; -sakunta, m. pet bird; -saila, m. pleasure-hill; -saras, n. pleasure-lake.

 

p073c3-b12

क्रीडि [ krd- ]
- a. playing, dallying; -ita, pp. one who has played; n. play; -n, a. playing, dallying; -: -mt, a. id.

 

p073c3-b13

क्रीत [ kr-ta ]
- pp. √kr; n. purchase: -ka, a. (son) acquired by purchase; -‿anusaya, m. repenting of a purchase.

( end of old p076-2.htm )

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{k~ru.} /

p073c3-b14

क्रु [kru]
- be rough or raw

 

p073c3-b15

क्रुञ्च्् krk (nm. kruṅ), क्रुञ्च [ krka ]
- m. curlew.

curlew - n. . Any of several brownish, long-legged shore birds of the genus Numenius, having long, slender, downward-curving bills. - AHTD

 

 

p073c3-b16

क्रुध् [ krudh ] iv. p.
- (.) krdhya , be or grow angry (with, d., g.; at, lc.) : pp. krud-dh , angry, enraged, with (d., g., lc., upari, or prati); cs. krodhya , enrage, abhi , be angry with (ac.) : pp. enraged, prati , return any one's (ac.) anger. sam , be angry: pp. angry.

(end of new p076c3)

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UKT notes

Approximants as Medial formers 

- UKT 170409

In modern Bur-Myan language there are 4 medial formers: {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.}, and {ha.}. They are approximants, and all give monosyllabic medials, e.g. with {ka.} giving {kya.}, {kra.} (non-rhotic pronounced similar to {kya.}, but slightly rhotic in Rakhine dialect), and {kwa.}.

{ha.} will not modify {ka.}, but will form medials with nasals, e.g. with {na.} giving {nha.}.

Based on {a.} being under a virama, similar to {ya.}, I have included it as a approximants. We find {a.} as a hanger-on in Mon-Myan.

However, these medial-formers in Skt-Dev, give rise to disyllabic conjuncts.

In Mon-Myan we find a similarity to Sanskrit however I may have to change my position as my progress in Mon language increases.

Inset def: Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language by J.M. Haswell, Rangoon, American Mission Press, 1874, p031.
- MV1874-indx > con-ka1.htm (link chk 170409)

Because of the formation of disyllables, I will have to call {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.}, as hangers-on, a term from Mon-Myan.

Go back approximant-medial-note-b

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Hanging-consonants

Compare {Sta.}, {Sna}, {Spa.}, {Sma} with the hanging-consonants of Mon-Myan:
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Nai Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries (pix from p048)
- - NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170623)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170406)

According to Nai Mg Toe, {sa.}(of {c}) च ca [NOT the hisser ष ṣa] will allow only the following as "hangers-on": {a.}, {na.}, {ma.}, {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}. This indicates that Mon-Myan hanging-consonants are not lisping-consonants.

Go back to lisp-conson-note-b

 

 

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Slightly rhotic and Highly rhotic syllables :
e.g. {k~ra.}// क्रि  & {kRi.} कृ

There is no possibility of mixed up between {k~ra.}/ (pronounced in Bur-Myan as {kya.}) with rhotic vowel {iRi.}, if we remember that Loan'gyi'tin is the only special case. Moreover, in Mon-Myan means Nga'hsw {nga.hsw:} 'hanging {nga.}-Mon.
Note
: r1c5 velar-nasal Nga in Bur-Myan script is , but in Mon-Myan and is called Ng. Mon-Myan r1c5 velar is not strictly nasal, it has {ga.}-sound, and could be written as {gna.}. Mon-Myan r1c3 is named Kh - not Ga .
Listen to - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 
You may hear r1c3 as G, but remember what you are hearing is the Martaban dialect.
Go back slightly-highly-rhotic-syllables-note-b

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End of TIL file