Update: 2019-03-25 09:03 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{k~ta.} : Hswei'byi {hsw:by:} 'hanging consonant'
{k~na.} /  

UKT 171122, 190211: Hswei'byi {hsw:by:} 'hanging consonants' are present in Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev. Most of the c5 consonants and approximants can become hanging consonants, the two most prominent in Mon-Myan are Hanging Na : Bur = Mon and Hanging Ma : Bur = Mon . See and listen to hanging consonants on p087C.htm .
I'm also surprised to find 2 dialects in Sanskrit: the Southern dialect of Telugu & Tamil speakers, and the Northern dialect of Hindi speakers. Hanging consonants are generally disyllabic. They are comparable to Bur-Myan medials which are monosyllabic.
See my note on Slightly/Highly rhotic syllables

{kya.} - non-rhotic monosyllabic formed with Ya'pin {ya.pn.} 'lifted by {ya.}' vs. {k~ya.} (disyllabic) when {ya.} is a hanging consonant. Westerners and Indians always pronounce KYAW in my name as {k~ya.}.
  It is worthwhile to note that Mon-Myan pronounces {kya.} as a monosyllabic medial.

{kRa.} - rhotic disyllable:




  {kRi.} क्रि : don't get mixed up with {kRRi.} कृ
  {kRi} क्री : don't get mixed up with {k-Ri} कॄ

UKT 180316: In next file, you'll come across La'hsw and Wa'hsw
which are present in both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan

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UKT notes :
Hanging consonants of Mon-Myan
Rhoticity Scale
  Bur-Myan dialect of Irrawaddy valley is non-rhotic, whereas Pali-Myan and Bur-Myan dialect of Rakhine State is slightly rhotic. Romabama has to satisfy all their needs with slightly varying glyphs.

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{k~ta.} : hanging-consonant present in Mon-Myan & Skt-Dev

See my note on Hanging consonants

p076c1-b05/ p058-012 

क्त [ k-ta ] = क ् त  --> {k~ta.} pronounced as disyllable
- suffix ta of the pp. (gr.).
12) क्त (p. 58) k-ta ta of the pp. (gr.).

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{k~na.} /

UKT 140412, 190211, 190324: Small Na as a hanging consonant is written 2 styles:
(Bur-Myan), and (Mon-Myan)

There are many English words with <kn> such as <knee> /niː/ & <know> /nəʊ/ (US) /noʊ/. And, you know what the modern English speakers had done. They "cheated" and simply dubbed <k> to be silent. And because of their cheating, the poor Celtic Gnome who is rich in gold has become a "Nome". I was really surprised to find many silent letters in English, which we will not allow in Bur-Myan. When the Western phoneticians insisted that we must not pronounce as it is spelled, it only shows their ignorance of the Akshara languages which are based on sound phonemic principles.

Now listen to Mon-Myan unusual conjuncts and medials in
Mon SpkAll lesson32-61txt<))
I've given in my notes 6 panels giving hanging consonants and medials /n/ {na.}, /m/ {ma.}, /j/ {ya.}, /r/ {ra.}, /l/ {la.}, /v/ {wa.}.

See Mon-Myan 2-syllable words involving hanging consonants in p087C.htm .

p076c1-b06/ p058-011  

क्नथ [ knath-a ]
- the root knath (gr.).
11) क्नथ (p. 58) knath-a

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{kya.} (monosyllabic) vs.
{k~ya.} (disyllabic)

On transforming Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur, non-rhotic) to Skt-Dev (IE, highly rhotic), different degrees of rhoticity are met. Because of which I have to propose a rhoticity scale which also depends on the closeness of the vowel. See my note on Rhoticity Scale.


√knū, 'wet'. - Whit024


p076c1-b07/ p058-010

क्नूय्् [ KNY ]
- only cs. knopaya, P. drench. abhi, wet, moisten.
10) क्नूय्् (p. 58) KNY knopaya,

UKT 151201, 170623, 171121:
Bur-Myan has a set of syllables very close in pronunciation to {kyi.} (1 blnk) & {kri.} (1 blnk). It is spelled with Nya-major aka Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}, and is perfectly non-rhotic. Though traditionally assigned to r2c5 cell in Bur-Myan, because of its ability to be under the viram sign, it has been moved to the Palatal-approximant position, the neighbour of Velar-approximant {ya.}/ {}.

{kr.} (1 blnk), {kr} (2 blnk), {kr:} (emphatic 2 blnk)

In Pali-Myan, Nya'gyi cannot be placed under virama {a.t}: it breaks up into two Nya'l: {~a.}


p076c1-b08/ p058-009

क्याकु [ kyku ] --> {k~ya-ku.} --> {kya-ku.}
- n. mushroom.
9) क्याकु (p. 58) kyku mushroom.

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{kRa.} : rhotic disyllable

UKT 151201, 180114: The conjunct क्र = क ् र cannot be written with a hanging {ra.}, because it would be confusing in Mon-Myan. It is written as {kRa.}. It is rhotic, and is an important prefix in Sanskrit which can be followed by other consonants, {kRa.ka.}. Note a special case in Sanskrit : for the sound /i/, there is a highly rhotic consonant {kRRi.} more common than {kRi.}.

{kRRi.} is more rhotic than {kRi.}


p076c1-b09/ p058-008

क्रकच [ krakaka ]
Skt: क्रकच [ krakaka ] - m.n. saw; m. a plant. - Mac076c1
8) क्रकच (p. 58) krakaka
Skt: क्रकच - m.n. a saw. m. kind of musical instrument, Ardea virgo, plant Capparis aphylla , name of a hell
- MWilliams: SktDict

The demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) [syn. Ardea virgo] is a species of crane found 28 central Eurasia, ranging from the Black Sea to Mongolia and North Eastern China. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demoiselle_crane 171122
Capparis decidua [syn. Capparis aphylla ] is commonly known as karira, [2] is a useful plant in its marginal habitat. Its spicy fruits are used for preparing vegetables, curry and fine pickles and can attract helpful insectivores; the plant also is used in folk medicine and herbalism." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capparis_decidua 171122


√krakṣ, 'crash'. - Whit024


p076c1-b10/ p058-007

क्रक्ष्् [ kraksh ] = क ् र क ् ष ् --> {krak~S}
- only pr. pt. krkshamna, (V.) raging, roaring.
7) क्रक्ष्् (p. 58) KRAKSH

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p076c1-b11/ p058-006

क्रतु [ kr--tu ]
- m. power, might, efficacy; counsel, intelligence, wisdom; inspiration; plan, purpose, wish, will; sacrifice (sts. personified); N. of the three liturgies forming the prtar anuvka; N. of a son of Brahman (one of the Pragpatis and of the seven Rishis); a star in the Great Bear.
6) क्रतु (p. 58) kr--tu


p076c1-b12/ p058-005

  क्रतुदेव [ kratu-deva ]
- m. N.; -mat, a. resolute; intelligent, wise; -rg, m. chief sacrifice (Asvamedha and Rgasya); -vikrayin, a. selling the rewards for a sacrifice; -vd, a. powerful, inspiring.
5) क्रतुदेव (p. 58) kratu-deva


p076c1-b13/ p058-004

क्रतूय [ krat-y ]
- den. P. will earnestly.
4) क्रतूय (p. 58) krat-y


√krath, 'be jubilant'. - Whit024


p076c1-b14/ p058-003

क्रथ्् [ krath ]
- only cs. krthaya, P. be extravagant or wild.
3) क्रथ्् (p. 58) KRATH


p076c1-b15/ p058-002

क्रथ [ krath-a ]
- the root krath (gr.).
2) क्रथ (p. 58) krath-a


p076c1-b16/ p058-001

क्रथकैशिक [ kratha-kaisika ]
- m. pl. N. of a people (descended from Kratha son of Vidarbha and from Kaisika).
1) क्रथकैशिक (p. 58) kratha-kaisika 

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Romapada 171122
"Romapada or Chitraratha was the youngest son King Vidarbha of Yadava and an adopted son of King Dharmaratha of Anga."


p076c1-b17/ not online

- m. N. of a camel


p076c1-b18/ not online

क्ननद् [ krand ] i.
- krnda , neigh, roar; wail; resound, rattle; implore piteously (ac.) ; cs. krandaya, P. cause to neigh d. or = simple vb; intv. knikrant-ti, -te: pt. kni-krat, knikradat, kanikradyimna, = simple vb. akkh, cs. cry to. abhi, roar (at). , call on, invoke; cry piteously; invoke the aid of (ac.); cs. cry out to.


√krand, kland, 'cry out'. - Whit024


p076c1-b19/ p058-032

क्रन्द [ krnd-a ]
- m. neigh; cry: -dhvani, m. cry of pain; -ana, n. crying aloud; lamentation; -as, n. battle-cry: du. the two contending hosts.
32) क्रन्द (p. 58) krnd-a

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p076c1-b20/ not online

क्नप् [ krap ]
Skt: क्नप् [ krap ] - vkrip - Mac076c1
Skt: क्रपते { क्रप् } krapate - v. compassionate, go - SpkSkt

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√kram, 'stride'. - Whit025


p076c1-b21/ not online

क्नम् [ kram ] {kRm}, i.
- krma-ti ( -te ), krma-te (-ti), stride, step ; go to (ac. or lc.); take refuge with (lc.); pass through, traverse; tower above; take possession of, occupy, fill; . succeed, take effect: pp. krnta; cs. krm-aya, cause to step; iniv. kaṅkranate, kaṅkramyate, kaṅkramiti, walk about. ati, pass by, go beyond, traverse, cross; overstep, neglect; depart from (ab.); be deprived of (ab.); pass, elapse; exceed, surpass; trespass, transgress; cs. allow to pass by; disregard. abhiati, overcome. viati, overstep; pass by (of time), elapse; neglect. trespass; wrongly surrender oneself to (ac.) sam-ati, vl. anu, follow, go through in order, enumerate; particularize; state in an index. apa, go away, depart, retreat from (ab). ava, depart, retreat from (ab.). ava, depart, withdraw; escape. , come up, approach, enter; step on (ac., lc.); press upon (ac.); seize, attack; gain possession of; ocupy, overspread; rise, ascend (.); begin (inf.); pp. see s. v.; cs. cause to enter adhi‿, fall upon; choose, occupy. nir-, issue forth (from, ab.). prati‿, step back. sam-, step upon (ac.); assail, take possession of; occupy. ud, rise; go out; leave (ab.); depart (life); avoid. prati‿ud, depart. vi‿ud, overstep; pass over, neglect. upa, come up, approach (ac., lc.); treat; physic; perform begin (ac., d., or inf.). sam-upa, A. begin (inf.). nis, go out of, leave (ab.); depart; pp. nish-krnta, = exit, exeunt; cs. cause to leave, let out of (ab.); drive out. abhi-nis, go out of (ab.). vi-nis, step out, emerge from (ab.). par, stride forth, be valorous, put forth one's strength, do one's best. pari, walk about (esp. on the stage); traverse, visit; surround; overtake. anu-pari, inspect in turn. sam-pari, walk round (ac.); visit. pra, stride along; go aside; traverse; rise to (ac.); assail courageously; be valorous; fight with (ac.); pp. courageous, valorous, brave. sam, come together, unite; go to; enter; pass from (ab.) to (lc.); pp. transferred from (ab.) to (--); cs. lead to (v ac.); transfer to (lc.) upa-sam, approach.

क्रमपद kramapada - n. conjunction of words in the krama reading - SpkSkt

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p076c2-b01/ p058-031

क्रम [ krm-a ]
- m. step; gait; course; posture for attack; regular order, succession, gradation; inheritance; method, manner, way; usage, ritual; occasion, reason for (--, g.); a way of reciting the Veda: in., ab., or -tas, in order, in turn; in., ab., --, in due course, regularly, gradually; in. in the course of (--).
31) क्रम (p. 58) krm-a


p076c2-b02/ p058-030

क्रमगत [ krama-gata ]
- pp. coming in the way of (g.).
30) क्रमगत (p. 58) krama-gata


p076c2-b03/ p058-029

क्रमण [ krm-ana ]
- n. step, tread; walking; treading on (--).
29) क्रमण (p. 58) krm-ana


p076c2-b04/ not online

- m. N. of a grammarian


p076c2-b05/ p058-028

क्रमपाठ [ krama-ptha ]
- m. krama method of reciting the Veda; -prpta, pp. inherited; -yoga, m. regular order, succession; -rgya, n. N. of a locality; -varta, N. of a country; -vriddhi, f. gradual increase; -sas, ad. in order, in turn; gradually.
28) क्रमपाठ (p. 58) krama-ptha


p076c2-b06/ p058-027

क्रमाक्रान्त [ krama‿krnta ]
- pp. seized at one bound; -‿gata, pp. come by succession, inherited; -‿yta, pp. id., hereditary.
27) क्रमाक्रान्त (p. 58) krama̮krnta


p076c2-b07/ p058-044

क्रमिक [ kram-ika ]
- a. inherited, hereditary; successive.
44) क्रमिक (p. 58) kram-ika


p076c2-b08/ p058-045

क्रमुक [ kramu-ka ]
- m. betel-nut tree.
45) क्रमुक (p. 58) kramu-ka


p076c2-b09/ p058-046

क्रमेलक [ kramela-ka ]
- m. camel.
46) क्रमेलक (p. 58) kramela-ka


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p076c2-b10/ p058-026

क्रय [ kray- ]
- m. purchase; price: -krta, pp. bought; -vikraya, m. (sg. and du.) purchase and sale; trade; -vikrayin, a. buying and selling, bargaining.
26) क्रय (p. 58) kray-


p076c2-b11/ p058-025

क्रयण [ kray-ana ]
- n. purchase; -na-ka, a. marketable; -ika, -in, m. buyer.
25) क्रयण (p. 58) kray-ana


p076c2-b12/ p058-024

क्रय्य [ kry-ya ]
- fp. purchasable.
24) क्रय्य (p. 58) kry-ya

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p076c2-b13/ p058-023

क्रविष्णु [ kravish-n ]
- a. eager for raw flesh.
23) क्रविष्णु (p. 58) kravish-n eager for raw flesh.


p076c2-b14/ p058-022

क्रविस्् [ krav-s ]
- n. raw flesh, carrion.
22) क्रविस्् (p. 58) krav-s


p076c2-b15/ p058-021

क्रव्य [ krav-y ]
- n. id.: -bhakshin, -bhug, a. flesh-eating; -mukha, m. N. of a wolf; -vhana, a. carrying away bodies (v. l. for kavya-).
21) क्रव्य (p. 58) krav-y 


p076c2-b16/ p058-020

क्रव्याद्् kravya◡́ad, ˚द [ -da ]
- a. flesh-eating, corpse-consuming; m. beast of prey.
20) क्रव्याद्् (p. 58) -da

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p076c2-b17/ p058-019

क्रशय [ krasa-ya ]
- den. P. emaciate.
19) क्रशय (p. 58) krasa-ya

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p073c3-b00/ not online

क्रशिमन् [kras-i-man]
Skt: क्रशिमन् [kras-i-man] - m. thinness, slenderness, shallowness. - Mac076c3
Skt: क्रशिमन् kraśiman - m. shallowness, emaciation, leanness - SpkSkt

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p073c3-b01/ p058-018

क्रष्टव्य [ krash-tavya ]
- fp. to be dragged; to be extracted.
18) क्रष्टव्य (p. 58) krash-tavya 

( end of old p076-1.htm )

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p073c3-b02/ p058-043

क्राणा [ kr-n ]
- ad. (pr. pt. √kri) willingly; straightway.
43) क्राणा (p. 58) kr-naN


p073c3-b03/ p058-043

क्रान्त [ krn-t ]
- pp. √kram; n. step; -ti, f. ecliptic.
42) क्रान्त (p. 58) krn-t

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{kRi.} क्रि: don't get mixed up with {kRRi.} कृ .

Wrapped around by the foot of {ra.} - {ra.ric} 

UKT 151201, 170411, 170623, 180114:
I was in a dilemma: {kri.} would be mistaken for highly rhotic {kRRi.} कृ until I differentiate non-rhotic {kri.} from rhotic {kRRi.} by the length of the hood and the literal "wrapped around by the foot of {ra.}" - {ra.ric}.

In Bur-Myan the non-rhotic language (especially in the Irrawaddy valley dialect), we rarely spell non-rhotic syllables with {kri.} for this phoneme: we usually use {kr.}. My MLC friend U (Dr.} Tun Tint told me that there is one, and I found only one entry
  - {kri.ti.kran-tan} - adv. 'in a daze' - MLC MED2006-037c2
However, in Pal-Myan the slightly-rhotic language, this orthography may be used, e.g.
  - {kRi.ya} 'verb' - MLC MED2006-038c1

p073c3-b04/ p058-041

क्रिमि [ krmi ]
- incorrect spelling of krimi.
41) क्रिमि (p. 58) krmi


p073c3-b05/ p058-040

क्रिया [ kri-y ]
- f. making, doing; performance; business, transaction; action, act; work; trouble; labour; notion of the verb, verb (gr.); literary work; rite, ceremony; medical treatment, cure; (legal) proof.
40) क्रिया (p. 58) kri-y


p073c3-b06/ p058-039

क्रियाकुल [ kriy‿kula ]
- a. busy, overwhelmed with business; -‿tmaka, a. whose nature is activity: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -dveshin, a. evading the evidence; -‿antara, n. interruption of an action; another action; -pada, n. verb; -prabandha, m. continuity of an action; -‿abhyupagama, m. express promise; -yoga, m. connexion with an action or verb; employment of means; the practical Yoga; -yogya, a. fitted for work; -‿artha, a. having an action as an object; -lopa, m. failure of ceremonies; -vat, a. performing actions, active; performing sacred rites; -vidhi, m. specific rule of action; employment of a verb; -viseshana, n. adverb; -sakti, f. capacity of acting: -mat, a. capable of acting.
39) क्रियाकुल (p. 58) kriy̮kula


p073c3-b07/ p058-038

क्रिवि [ krvi ]
- m. water-skin: pl. N. of a people (in C.= Pakla).
38) क्रिवि (p. 58) krvi

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 {kRi} :

UKT 190325: CAUTION : Don't get mixed up with {kRRi} कॄ , OR with Bur-Myan {kri}.
Yet, there probably was a mixed up between Light-rhotic Pali {kRi} and Non-rhotic Myan {kri}. And, I opine that because of this possibility, we usually use an alternative series as shown below:
   Light-rhotic Pali :  {kRi.}, {kRi},  {kRi:}
   Use or Not in Myan: {kri.}, {kri}, {kri:} 'big'
   Non-rhotic Myan: {kr.} 'look', {kr} 'clear', {kr:} 'infantry'

√krī, 'buy'. - Whit025


p073c3-b08/ not online

क्री [ kr ] ix. kr-n , -ni 
- n, buy from (ab., g.) for (in.: price): pp. bought, purchased; captivated by (in.). , upa, id. nis, buy off, redeem (from, ab.). pari, buy, barter, for (in.); hire (in. or a. of price). vi, barter or sell for (in.); des. vi-kikri-sha, . wish to exchange for (in.); intend to give up.


√kriḍ, 'play'. - Whit025


p073c3-b09/ not online

क्रीड् [ krd ] i
Skt: क्रीड् 1. P. (क्रीडति, क्रीडित) 1 To play, amuse oneself; ... - Apte:SktDic


p073c3-b10/ p058-037

क्रीड [ krd- ]
- a. playing, dallying; -ana, n. playing, play: -ka, m. plaything; -anya, n. id.
37) क्रीड (p. 58) krd-


p073c3-b11/ p058-036

क्रीडा [ krd- ]
- f. play, sport, jest, dalliance: -kapi-tva, n. jesting imitation of a monkey; -knana, n. pleasure-grove; -ksra, m. pleasure-pond; -kopa, n. simulated anger; -kautuka, n. wanton curiosity; -kausala, n. art of jesting; -grha, m. n. pleasure-house; -parvata, m. (artificial) pleasure-hill: -ka, m. id.; -mayra, m. pet peacock; -markatapota, m. pet young monkey; -mahdhra, m. pleasure-hill; -rasa, m. enjoyment of sport or fun: -maya, a. consisting in the water of play; -vesman, n. pleasure-house; -sakunta, m. pet bird; -saila, m. pleasure-hill; -saras, n. pleasure-lake.
36) क्रीडा (p. 58) krd-aN


p073c3-b12/ p058-035

क्रीडि [ krd- ]
- a. playing, dallying; -ita, pp. one who has played; n. play; -n, a. playing, dallying; -: -mt, a. id.
35) क्रीडि (p. 58) krd-


p073c3-b13/ p058-034

क्रीत [ kr-ta ]
- pp. √kr; n. purchase: -ka, a. (son) acquired by purchase; -‿anusaya, m. repenting of a purchase.
34) क्रीत (p. 58) kr-ta

( end of old p076-2.htm )

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√kru, 'be rough or raw' - Whit026


p073c3-b14/ not online 

क्रु [kru]
- be rough or raw


p073c3-b15/ p058-033

क्रुञ्च्् [krka] (nm. kruṅ), क्रुञ्च [ krka ]
- m. curlew.
33) क्रुञ्च्् (p. 58) krka

curlew - n. . Any of several brownish, long-legged shore birds of the genus Numenius, having long, slender, downward-curving bills. - AHTD


√krudh, 'be angry'. - Whit026


p073c3-b16/ not online

क्रुध् [ krudh ] iv. p.
- (.) krdhya , be or grow angry (with, d., g.; at, lc.) : pp. krud-dh , angry, enraged, with (d., g., lc., upari, or prati); cs. krodhya , enrage, abhi , be angry with (ac.) : pp. enraged, prati , return any one's (ac.) anger. sam , be angry: pp. angry.

Skt: [krudh] - be angry, IV. P. krdhyati; red. ao. inj. cukrudhāma, ii. 33, 4. -- Mac:SktDict
Skt: krudh क्रुध् 4 P. (क्रुध्यति, क्रुद्ध) To be angry (with the dat. of the person who is the object of anger); ... -- Apte:SktDict

(end of new p076c3)

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UKT notes

Hanging-consonants: nasals and approximants 

- UKT: 140411, 170409, 170623, 180306, 190212

I'had only known the medial formers in Bur-Myan. In modern Bur-Myan language there are 4 medial formers: {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.}, and {ha.}. They are approximants, and all give monosyllabic medials, e.g. with {ka.} giving {kya.} and {kra.}. However, in the Old Pagan dialect and modern Dawei dialect there is an additional medial former: {la.}. Altogether there are 5.

See Hanging consonants in Basic Mon-Myanmar Language by Nai Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007, p047. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries -
- NaiMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190211)
In Mon-Myan, there are 11 hanging consonants : hanging r1c5 (pronounced as "Gn", hanging r2c5 (pronounced as "), ...

Now, when I venture into Mon-Myan, I'm finding that these fall under the class of hanging consonants {hsw:by:}, with the exception of Ha'hto {ha.hto:}.

The Ra'ric medial {kra.} - though it has the British English r with IPA transcription /ɹ/, is non-rhotic. It is pronounced similar to {kya.} in Irrawaddy dialect (used in Yangon and Mandalay). It is however, slightly rhotic in Rakhine dialect and probably more rhotic in Pal-Myan.

{ha.} cannot be used with {ka.} because {ha.} is Glottal. However, it will form medials with all the five nasals, {gna.}/ {ng}, {a.}*, {Na.}, {na.} and {ma.}. For example, with True-nasals {na.} and {ma.} to give {nha.} and {mha.}.

* Note: Nya-major {a.} was in nasal position in both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan. I have reclassified it as an Approximant because of its ability to withstand being under Virama {a.t}. We must also not forget that {a.} is a hanger-on in Mon-Myan.

Monosyllables and disyllables

You need to know how the Mon-Myan hanging consonants are pronounced. Refer to:
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 190325)

Formerly I had thought Skt-Dev, just like Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, would have monosyllabic medials. I am now finding that Skt-Dev has only disyllabic conjuncts, and so what I had thought to be {kya.} should be written as {k~ya.} with {ya.} hanging below. Yet, because of non-existence of KY sound in English, Hindi and Sanskrit, it is immaterial whether you write it as {kya.} or {k~ya.}. 

No wonder my Indian friends in Canada, and my class-mates in US, could not properly pronounce my Burmese name KYAW.

Now, after listening to Mon-Myan pronunciations, I've concluded that Mon-Myan {ra.ric.} is quite rhotic, and should, therefore be written full-hooded as in Pal-Myan as {kRa.}.

Super-SS - lisping consonants

Compare with Super-SS : {Ska.}, {STa.}, {Sta.}, {SNa.}, {Sna}, {Spa.}, {Sma.}, {Sla.}, {Swa.}, and a few more, with the hanging-consonants of Mon-Myan.

According to Nai Mg Toe, {sa.}/ {c}) च ca [NOT the hisser ष ṣa] will allow only the following as "hangers-on": {a.}, {na.}, {ma.}, {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}. This indicates that Mon-Myan hanging-consonants are not lisping-consonants.

My comment on what Nai Maung Toe has said is, it is of the same genre as Weikcha and Maukcha arbitrary rule. Such rules need to be eliminated from Burmese and Mon speeches for new comers to learn the languages.

By "new comers", I mean not only the foreigners, but children born of full-blooded Mons living in Southern Burma. Though both parents speak Mon-Myan, many of their children refuse to learn their ancestral tongue. I first came to notice that among those in Yangon city. Mon is an endangered language.

Now listen to Mon-Myan unusual conjuncts and medials
Mon SpkAll lesson32-61txt<))
The 6 panels giving hanging consonants and medials /n/ {na.}, /m/ {ma.}, /j/ {ya.}, /r/ {ra.}, /l/ {la.}, /v/ {wa.} are given below:

Look for La'hsw {la.hsw:} 'hanging {la.}': it can be pronounced either as: {kla.} (monophthong) or {k~la.)(diphthong). But once you have been exposed to English sounds such as <class> and <slow>, you can pronounce it as monophthong.

Wa'hsw {wa.hsw:} 'hanging {wa.}', and Hisser-sa'hsw {Sa.hsw:} 'hanging hisser {Sa.}' - on  p077.htm < br> Note: Palatal {sa.}/ {c} and Dental {Sa.}/ {S} are clearly differentiated in Romabama.

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Rhoticity Scale

UKT 120127, 140412, 170410, 180113, 180316, 190211:
: Bur-Myan and its counter-part Skt-Dev consonantal pairs have looks-alike: 

{hta.}   (U0925)  &   {ya.}    (U092F). 

And also note that the transcription of   (U0925) is THA . This necessitates the use of Old English "thorn" for Bur-Myan {a.}

Consider the case of the highly rhotic Skt-Dev क्रि = {kRi.} vs. Skt-Dev कृ  = {kRRi.}. In Bur-Myan, in which there is no rhoticity, there is no of mix up between {kra.} & {kya.}, or {kri.} & {kyi.} even though both are pronounced the same in Irrawaddy dialect. This dialect takes further precaution by using {kr.} instead of {kri.}.

However, they are pronounced differently in the Ra'khine dialect of the western coast of Myanmarpr which is just across the Bay of Bengal in the southern part, and across the Kaladan River {ku.la:tn mric}, and the Naf River {nt mric} in the northern part from India and Bangladesh. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaladan_River 190211
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naf_River 190211
I opine that the Ra'khine dialect has become somewhat rhotic due to the geographical proximity between the rhotic languages of India and Bangladesh, and non-rhotic Myanmar languages. When we learn Pal-Myan, we are advised to follow the Rakhine dialect in pronouncing the Ra'ric {ra.ric.}-sounds. This led me to conclude that Pal-Myan {kRa.} is more rhotic than Bur-Myan {kra.}.

Faced with the problem of pronunciation, I had to split up the original p076.htm to concentrate on the difference in rhoticity between Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan involving the Ra'ric {ra.ric} sound. I also have to take note of the highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ (1 blnk)/ ॠ (2 blnk), and also the fact that the International Pali does not have the "emphatic 2 blnk" sound. The result is I've come up with the scheme (using the length of the hood to represent the degree of rhoticity:

Over years my position has changed, and please note that as my understanding of BEPS languages increased, my opinions will change further. For the present, I hold that monosyllabic medials such as {kya.} & {kra.} are not present in Sanskrit. They are present only in Bur-Myan among the BEPS languages. Pali-Myan, is presumed to be similar to Bur-Myan in most cases. However, it is slightly rhotic, and should be represented with a different glyph as {kRa.} with the "roof" of {ra.ric} extended. Sanskrit is the most rhotic especially in close-vowel. The has led me to define a rhoticity scale.

After listening repeatedly the Mon-Myan sounds, I feel that it is similar to Sanskrit because the medials, {kya.} & {kra.}, are pronounced as disyllabic. Moreover, of the old Mon dialects, the only dialect remaining is the Mataban dialect of present day Mon-state. Mon dialect sounds different as one goes from west to east into Thailand and Cambodia. The dialect of Pegu-Mons - that of my great-grandmother Daw MMa - which had been adulterated by Telugu, has completely disappeared.

Bur-Myan medials are from approximants {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.} (in Daw dialect), {wa.} and {ha.}. The processes of formation are known as {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:}, and {ha.hto:}. {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:} are "hanging-consonants" and shapes of the hanging-on consonant {la.} and {wa.} remain unchanged: whereas there is change in shape in {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric} and {ha.hto:}. 

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