Update: 2019-02-10 05:03 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kau-Sa.} transformed from {kau-a.}

UKT 171120, 190209: Pal-Myan dental fricative {a.} /θ/ becomes three phonemes in Sanskrit. Unless I show the killed-consonant as well, everything got mixed up:

--- Skt-Myan ------- Skt-Dev
{sha.}/ {sh} ---- श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/
{Sa.}/ {S} ----- ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/
{a.}/ {} ----- स s [s] /s/

Moreover, what Pal-Myan has is palatal plosive-stop, and not dental fricative {Sa.}/ {S}  ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/

  Pal-Myan ---------- Skt-Myan/Dev
{sa.}/ {c}  --- {Sa.}/ {S} ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/

I've to take all above into consideration, or, I ran into trouble in comparing Pali to Sanskrit, and have trouble in words like:
कौस्तुभ [ kaustubha ] = (क ौ) (स ् त ु) (भ) --> {kau-~tu.Ba.} = {kau-Stu.Ba.}


UKT notes :
Lisping consonants of English and Sanskrit
Pronouncing the lisping-consonants in English speech
  - practice on new aksharas in BEPS basic consonants


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{kau-Sa.} transformed from {kau-a.}


p076c1-b00/ p058-017

कौसल्य [ kasal-ya ]
- a. belonging to the Kosalas; m. king of the Kosalas; , f. queen of Kosala (mother of Rma).
17) कौसल्य (p. 58) kasal-ya


p076c1-b01/ p058-016

कौसीद [ kausda ]
- a. () proceeding from a loan.
16) कौसीद (p. 58) kausda


p076c1-b02/ p058-015

कौसुम [ kausuma ]
- a. coming from or made of flowers; -‿yudha, a. relating to Kma {ka-ma.} 'sex'
15) कौसुम (p. 58) kausuma

UKT 171121: Do not think that all flowers are sweet-smelling. The largest individual flower is Rafflesia arnoldii - a species of flowering plant in the parasitic genus Rafflesia. It is noted for producing the largest individual flower on earth. [the largest on record is 3.4 ft.] It has a very strong and horrible odour of decaying flesh, earning it the nickname "corpse flower". It is endemic to the rainforests of Sumatra and possibly Borneo. [1] -- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafflesia_arnoldii 171121

p076c1-b03/ p058-014

कौसुम्भ [ kausumbha ]
- a. () coming from, coloured with or like safflower; n. substance coloured with safflower.
14) कौसुम्भ (p. 58) kausumbha

" Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safflower 170405


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p076c1-b04/ p058-013 

कौस्तुभ [ kaustubha ] = (क ौ) (स ् त ु) (भ) --> {kau-~tu.Ba.} = {kau-Stu.Ba.}
- m. n. jewel produced at the churning of the [Cosmic] ocean, an ornament of Vishnu; -bhrit, m. ep. of Vishnu.
13) कौस्तुभ (p. 58) kaustubha 

UKT 170408, 171121: Compare the Lisping consonants {Sta.},  {Sna}, {Spa.}, {Sma}, and {Stu} , with the hanging consonants of Mon-Myan. See:
Basic Mon-Myanmar (Martaban) Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe
- NaiMgToe-MonBur<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech
- spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 190210)
The following entry : क्त [ k-ta ] = क ् त  is an example of hanging consonant: {k~ta.}

UKT: p076c1-b05, ... on hanging consonants moved to p076C.htm

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UKT notes

Lisping consonants

- UKT 170408 , 190210:

Lisp - n. . A speech defect or mannerism characterized by mispronunciation of the sounds (s) and (z) as (th) and ( th ). . A sound of or like a lisp: The carpenter ['s] . . . plane whistles its wild ascending lisp Walt Whitman
- v. lisped lisping lisps
- v. intr. . To speak with a lisp. . To speak imperfectly, as a child does.
- v. tr. . To pronounce with a lisp. -- AHTD

UKT 170406, 171121:

One of insurmountable difficulties in transcription between English and Burmese is the hissing and hushing sounds of IE languages. Finally, I was forced to introduce new aksharas into the basic consonants. Because, of strong objections to name the coined setup as traditional Myanmar akshara, I will have to name it the Basic consonants of BEPS shown on the right.

One of the important observations I have to make is that in order to incorporate IE phonemes into Bur-Myan - the Tib-Bur speech - I have to recognize the presence of the low tongue-tip /s/ in English. See TIL PDF libraries:

1. On the Production of Low Tongue tip /s/: a case report, by G. J. Borden and T. Gay , in J. of Communication Disorders, 11 (1978), 425-431
- GBorden-LowTongueTipS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180409)

2. Optimality Theory in Linguistics , by Kie Zuraw,
- KZuraw-OptimalThLinguis<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210)

3. Temporal Aspects of Articulatory Movements for /s/-Stop Clusters , by G. J. Borden and T. Gay, in Phonetica 36 : 21-31 (1979)
- GBorden-TempAspectSStopCluster<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210)
"Abstract: ... The data reveal an economy of effort in tongue movement, and support the concept of the tongue as a multiple articulator. In addition, the shorter fricative duration of /s/ before /p/ {Spa.} is seen to be a result of early lip closure relative to the occlusions for /st/ {Sta.} and /sk/ {Ska}, which are delayed due to tongue involvement with the /s/."

4. Articulatory Timing of English Consonant Clusters in the Coda Positions: A Study of Chinese-English Interlanguage, by Yanan Fan, MA Thesis, 2011,
- YFan-ArticulatTimingEngCoda<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210)

5. Variation and Opacity in Singapore English (Singlish) Consonant Clusters, by Arto Anttila
- AAnttila-SingEngConsonClusters<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210

UKT 180409: As a chemist, I view the economy of effort as a lowering of energy required when a cluster (conjunct) is formed. I am comparing this to the Molecular Orbital Theory.

I have observed that an untrained Bur-Myan speaker always pronounces the English <sp>, <st> and <sk> as disyllabic combinations: <s><p>, <s><t>, and <s><k>.

To train such a person I ask him to pronounce the <s><p> first.  I would pronounce <sp>, and ask him to repeat after me. Then he is asked to pronounce it faster until he can properly it as a monosyllabic medial. Then, I would proceed to <st>, and only then to train him to pronounce the <sk>. Based on this observation I've to include {Spa.}, {Sta.} and {Ska} into BEPS basic consonants. Then, I will give them concrete examples:

{Spa.}   {Sta.} , {Ska.}
{Spn:} <spin> , {Stn} <stingy>,  {Skn:} <skin>
{Spt} <sputter>, {Stt} <stutter>, {Skt} <scuttle>

Pronunciation of c- , s- , z- in Tiddim-Chin (Tib-Bur speakers) was observed by E. J. A. Henderson, in 1965. The author noted both the tongue-tip up and down in the speeches of two informants, HG & VZT. See the whole paper in TIL PDF libraries:
- EJAHenderson-TiddimChin<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180409)

Unless a Bur-Myan speaker has been trained to speak English correctly very few among the population of Myanmarpr, are able to pronounce {Ska}, {Sta.}, {Spa.} as tenuis plosive-stops; {Sna.}, {Sma.} as nasals; and {Sla.}, {Swa.} as fricatives.

UKT 190209: Orthographically {Swa.} and {swa.} are different. I expect them to be different in pronunciation.

I train my students starting from {Spa.} to {Ska} as in English: <spin>, <stand>, <skin>.
They can use other vowel-trios and proceed to vowel-pentos.

Though the need to speak or articulate some words of English, is important, we must not forget the correct use of the Bur-Myan language. We must remember that the Myanmar akshara is the unifying force of the country. It is not only the Burmah speakers that use the Myanmar akshara, almost all indigenous ethnics of the Myanmarpr use the Myanmar akshara.

We, as children, had to learn Bur-Myan according to rules of Thin'boan'gyi {n-poan:kri:} - the native system of writing. It is based on phonetic system, and has been in use for hundreds if not thousands of years. We could still find Myanmar script r4c1 {ta.} /t/ in use in the country of Georgia as: თ (U10D7 Tan). Though the Georgian letter has come to belong to Alphabet-Letter system, and თ (U10D7 Tan) has become mute, when supplied with the vowel-letter, it gives the same sound as  {ta.}.

Those were the by-gone days, before our native language has been destroyed bit by bit by Myanmar Language Commission of the British-Burma, headed by colonialists such as John Jardine (following Lord Macaulay (1800-1859) in British-India), and who have been derogatorily called Macaulay's children by Indian nationalists.
See: Myanmarpr before the British incursion in The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833, and Introduction by John Jardine
Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
Downded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- Sangermano-BurEmp3ed<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170406)
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macaulayism 170406
"We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population, " Macaulay declared. [2]

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