Update: 2015-12-01 03:59 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR: http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{k:} : cont
{kau} * : Pal-Myan does not have this sound. It has only {kau:}
{kau-k~Sa.} : Pseudo-Kha


UKT notes :
Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path
  "Maa" is {m tau} and is not necessarily dvi-goddesses. I view them
  as local Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Age indigenous Tib-Bur
  speaking peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr,
  an example being Nan'ka'reign MDaw of southern Myanmarpr.

Note #1 * UKT 151112: Though we, Bur-Myan, usually pronounce:

{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blk); {ko} (2 blk): {ko:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk}; {kau:} (2 blk + emphasis)

from the word {kauk} 'paddy' - MLC MED014, we can say that {kau:} can be followed by a coda. It means that the syllable-vowel of {kau:} can be killed. From it we can say that {kau:} should not be treated as an emphatic and that its duration is 1 blk.

Note #2 UKT 151129: After looking into the dictionary meanings of कैशव keśava and {k-a.wa.}, I consider the possibility of Krishna {ka.Nha.} with dark-skin & profuse head-hair being an ancient human king of the mythical Dvārakā city-state who had been revered by a group of Tib-Bur speaking peoples to the point of deification. After the defeat of the the bronze-age Tib-Bur by the iron-age IE speakers, the conquerors identify {ka.Nha.} with their Axiomatic dva-god Vishnu to make their dominance physically and spiritually complete. The same trick has been attempted in our time by the European colonialists on the militarily conquered peoples of the Indian subcontinent, Myanmarpr, SEAsia.

Note #3 UKT 151129: Compare words with prefixes {kau:} & {k}, and place the words in the vowel diagram. In meanings {kau:} implies lower portions like the genitals whilst {k} the higher portions like head and head hair. In the vowel diagram {kau:} is in mid-back position whilst {k} is mid-front. It is an example of contrasting vowel sounds giving opposing meanings.

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{k:} : cont



कैवल्य [ kaival-ya ]
- n. absolute oneness; absolute bliss.



कैशव [ kaisava ]
Skt: कैशव [ kaisava ] - a. belonging to Kesava (Krishna or Vishnu). - Mac075c1
Pal: {k-a.wa.} - UHS PMD0335
  UKT from UHS: mfn. profuse head-hair, long head-hair, Vishnu dva




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UKT 151129: Pal-Myan has only {kau:} को, but no {kau} कौ, whereas Skt-Dev has both. Also note that from the vow-signs, को seems to last only 1 blk - it is definitely not emphatic, and I should have given the transcription as {kau.}, i.e. {kau.} को - 1 blk: {kau} कौ - 2 blk


को˚ [ ko- ]
- prn. prefix [=nm. kas], what? how? =strange, indifferent, somewhat, easily (cp. ka, kava, k, kim, ku).



कोक [ kka ]
- m. wolf; cuckoo; ruddy goose (kakravka): f. .



कोकनद [ koka-nada ]
- n. red lotus (flower); -nadin, f. red lotus (plant).



कोकिल [ kok-ila ]
- m., , f. Indian cuckoo.





कोङ्काण [ koṅkna ]
- a. () coming from Koṅkana (horse).



कोङ्कार [ koṅ-kra ]
- m. the sound kom.



कोच [ kok-a ]
- m. shrinking, shrivelling.



कोट [ kota ]
- m. fortress, stronghold (cp. kotta).



कोटर [ kotara ]
- n. hollow of a tree; cavity: -vat, a. having caves.



कोटाद्रि [ kota‿adri ]
- m. N. of a mountain (fortress-hill).



कोटि [ koti (also ) ]
- f. curved tip (of a bow, talons, etc.); point; extremity, height, highest degree; ten millions; -ka, m. kind of frog; -k, f. extreme point: --,=outcast, scum of; -mat, a. pointed; -vedhin, a. hitting the extreme=accomplishing a most difficult task; -sas, ad. to the number of ten millions.



कोटीश्वर [ koti‿svara ]
- m. (lord of ten millions), N. of a millionaire.



कोट््ट [ kotta ]
- m. [ko-(a)tta], stronghold; -pla, m. commandant of a fortress.



कोट््टवी [ kottav ]
- f. naked woman.



कोण [ kona ]
- m. corner, angle; intermediate point of the compass (N. E. etc.).



कोथ [ koth-a ]
- m. putrefaction.



कोदण्ड [ ko-danda ]
- n. [kind of rod], bow.



कोद्रव [ ko-drava ]
- m. kind of inferior grain eaten by the poor people.



कोप [ kop-a ]
- m. morbid excitement (esp. of the bodily humours); fury (of battle, etc.); wrath, anger (at, g., lc., prati, upari, or --): -m kri, be angry: -ka, a. irascible; -ksham vismaya-harsha-vat, a. angry, compassionate, astonished, and glad; -ganman, a. produced by anger.



कोपन [ kop-ana ]
- a. passionate, wrathful, angry; n. excitement; provocation; -in, a. angry, wrathful.



कोमल [ ko-mala ]
- a. [easily fading], tender; soft (fig.); -‿aṅga, a. () of tender frame.



कोयष्टि ko-yashti, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. [stilt-like], kind of bird.



कोर [ kora ]
- m. flexible joint (of the body).



कोरक [ kora-ka ]
- m. n. (?) bud: , f. id.



कोल [ kola ]
- m. boar, hog: -t, f. abst. n.



कोलक [ kola-ka ]
- n. kind of perfume.



कोलाहल [ kol-hal-a ]
- m. n. clamour, outcry, uproar; yelling: -in, a. filled with din (--).




कोविद [ ko-vida ]
- a. [knowing well], knowing, skilled in (g., lc., --): -tva, n. skill.




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कोश [ ks-a ]
- m. butt, tub, pail, coop (esp. of clouds); box, chest; sheath; case; shell; abode; store-room; treasury, treasure; vocabulary, dictionary; treasury of poetry, collection of stanzas; bud, calix (esp. of the lotus); cocoon; cup of peace; sacred draught used in ordeals; oath: -kraka, m. silk-worm; -griha, n. treasury; -gta, n. treasure, wealth; -danda, m. du. treasury and army; -dsa, m. N.; -pthin, a. draining or having drained any one's treasury; -petaka, m. n. casket; *-phala, n. kind of perfume; -rakshin, m. guardian of the treasury.



कोशल [ kosala ]
- v. ���� kosala.



कोशवत्् [ kosa-vat ]
- a. wealthy; -vri, n. or deal water; -vesman, n. treasury; -‿agra, m. n. id.: -‿adhikrin, m. treasurer; -‿adhyaksha, m. treasurer.





कोष्ठ [ koshtha ]
- m. entrails, stomach, abdo men; n. store-room; encircling wall; -‿agra, n. store-house, granary; -‿agni, m. fire of the stomach, i. e. of digestion.



कोष्ण [ k‿ushna ]
- a. lukewarm, tepid.



कोसल [ kosala ]
- m. N. of a country: pl. its people; , f. capital of Kosala, i.e. Ayodhy; -g, f. born in Kosala, ep. of Rma's mother; -videh, m. pl. the Kosalas and the Videhas.


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{kau} : Pal-Myan does not have this sound. It has only {kau:}

{kau-k~Sa.} : Pseudo-Kha


कौक्षेय [ kauksh-eya ]
- m. (belonging to a sheath), sword: -ka, m. id.; knife.



कौङ्कुम [ kauṅkuma ]
- a. () consisting of saffron; coloured with saffron.



कौञ्जर [ kaugara ]
- a. () belonging to an elephant.


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कौट [ kauta ]
- a. fraudulent, false; -skshin, m. false-witness; -skshya, n. false evidence.



कौटस्थ्य [ kautasth-ya ]
- n. immutability.



कौटिल्य [ kautil-ya ]
- n. crookedness; crispness, waviness; deceitfulness; m. ep. of K nakya; - sstra, n. science of Kautilya, diplomacy.

UKT 151128: The Poannar {poaN~Na:} Kautilya aka Chanakya cāṇakya (350 275 BCE) was the author of Arthashastra  arthaśāstra is known as the Machiavelli of the East. Both the Indian Kautilya and the Italian Niccol Machiavelli (1469-1527 CE) author of The Prince are masters of diplomacy & statecraft with hidden secrets, and economics, indifferent to moral considerations. Such people should never be trusted. See An Introduction to the Machiavelli of the East ,
- http://www.returnofkings.com/67718/an-introduction-to-the-machiavelli-of-the-east 151128



कौटुम्ब [ kautumb-a ]
- a. requisite for the household; n. affinity; -ika, a. belonging to or constituting a family; m. father of a family.



कौट््टन्य [ kauttan-ya ]
- n. pimping.





कौणप [ kaunapa ]
- a. proceeding from corpses; m. Rkshasa.




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कौतुक [ kautuka ]
- n. curiosity, interest, eagerness (w. lc. or --); curious, strange or interesting spectacle; entertaining story; festival; wedding investiture with the nuptial cord; nuptial cord; happiness, bliss; -kriy, f. wedding festival; - griha, n. wedding-house; -pura, n. N. of a city; -bhrit, a. wearing the nuptial cord; - maṅgala, n. solemn ceremony, festival; -maya, a. interesting; charming; -‿gra, m. n. wedding chamber.



कौतुकित [ kautuk-ita ]
- pp. interested in (lc.), by (in.); -in, n. interested, curious.



कौतूहल [ kauthala ]
Skt: कौतूहल [ kauthala ] - n. curiosity, interest, eagerness (with lc., prati, or inf.); festival. - Mac075c2
Pal: {kau:tu-ha.la.} - UHS-PMD0337
  UKT from UHS - n. public excitement because of festivities or instigation by rumors



कौत्स [ katsa ]
- a. relating to Kutsa; m., , f. pat.; n. hymn composed by Kutsa.

UKT 151129: See Vedic Mythology by A. A. Macdonell, 1898, pdf pp216
- https://archive.org/details/vedicmythology00macduoft - 151129
See downloaded pdf in TIL SD-Library - MacdonellVedicMyth<> (link chk 151129)
p146, pdf 158/216
para 58. A: Kutsa . This warlike hero belonging to the Indra myth is mentioned nearly forty times in the RV. The name occurs only once in the plural as designation of a family of singers who address a hymn to Indra. Kutsa is four times called by patronymic Ārjuneya, son of Arjuna. Mention is made of a son of his, whom Indra aided in fight against a Dasyu. Kutsa is young and brilliant. He is a seer, who called upon Indra for aid when plunged in a pit. Kutsa rides on the same car with Indra, who wafts him or takes him as his charioteer.


कौनख्य [ kaunakh-ya ]
- n. disease of the nails.



कौन्तेय [ kaunt-eya ]
- m. son of Kunt, met. of Yudhishthira, Bhmasena, and Arguna.


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कौन्द [ kaunda ]
- a. () belonging to or made of jasmine.


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कौप [ kaupa ]
Skt: कौप [ kaupa ] - a. () coming from a well. - Mac075c3
Skt: कौप kaupa - adj. coming from a well or cistern. n. well-water - SpkSkt 
Pal: {kau:pa.} - UHS-PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: m. anger, destruction


कौपीन [ kaupna ]
- n. pudenda ; loin cloth; infamous deed: -vat, a. wearing only a loin cloth. 

कौपीन [ kaupna ]
Skt: कौपीन [ kaupna ] - n. pudenda [. human external genitalia, esp. of a woman - AHTD]; infamous deed - Mac075c3
Pal: {kau:pi-na.} - UHS PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: n. {hka:wut} 'a person's lower garment like a longyi' (loincloth are not worn by men in Myanmarpr), genitalia, doing what is not proper.



कौबेर [ kaubera ]
- a. () relating to Kubera.



कौमार [ kaumra ]
- a. () relating to a youth or virgin; youthful; relating to Kumra (god of war); n.
childhood, youth; innocence of youth, virginity; -krin, a. practising chastity; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -krin, a. practising a vow of chastity.



कौमारी [ kaumr ]
- f. female energy of the god of war; (sc. kshth or dis) the north.



कौमुद [ kaumud-a ]
- m. pat. descendant of Kumuda; the month Krttika (October--November); , f. moonlight: --, common in titles of works; - ik, f. N. of a maid; -vateya, m. met. fr. Kumudvat.



कौमोदकी [ kaumodak ]
- f. N. of Vishnu's or Krishna's club.


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कौरव [ kaurav-a ]
- a. () belonging to the Kurus; m. pat. descendant of Kuru; -eya, m. pl. descendants of Kuru; -y (+karav ya), m. pl. id.=Pndavas; N. of a people.



कौर्म [ kaurma ]

- a. peculiar to the tortoise.

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कौल [ kaula ]
- a. () relating to a family; hereditary, inherited; m. worshipper of Sakti according to the Left-hand ritual.



कौलिक [ kaul-ika ]
- m. weaver; worshipper of Sakti according to the Left-hand ritual: -kra, a. behaving like a weaver.

UKT 151129: See my note on Maa Sakti or Left-Hand Path






कौलीन [ kaul-na ]
- a. peculiar to high birth; n. rumour; slander; disgraceful deed; -nya, n. noble birth; nobleness.



कौलूत [ kaulta ]
- m. pl. N. of a people: sg. king of Kaulta.



कौलेय [ kaul-eya ]
- m. dog: -ka, m. id., esp. sporting dog; -kutumbin, f. bitch.



कौल्य [ kaul-ya ]
- a. sprung from a noble race; n. noble descent.

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कौवेर [kauvera]
- v. कौबेर kaubera

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कौश [ kausa ]
- a. 1. silken (coming from the cocoon: kosa); 2. , () made of Kusa grass.



कौशल [ kausal-a ]
- n. welfare, prosperity; skill, cleverness, experience (in, lc. or --); -ya, n.
id.; -ik, f. gift, present.





कौशाम्बी [ kausmb ]
- f. N. of a city: -ya, a. belonging to Kausmb.





कौशीलव [ kauslav-a ]
- n. profession of a bard or actor; -ya, n. id.



कौशेय [ kaus-eya ]
- a. silken; n. silk, silk garment.

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कौषारव [ kaushrava ]
- m. pat. from Kushru.



कौषीतक kaushtaka, ˚कि [ -ki ]
- m. pat. from Kushtaka: (ki)-brhmana, n. Brhmana of the Kaushtakins (also called Sṅkhyana Brhmana); (ki)-‿upanishad, f. Kaushtaki upanishad.



कौष्ठ [ kaushth- ]
- a. being in the body; being in the store-room; -ya, a. being in the abdomen.


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UKT notes

Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path

- UKT 151130:
"Maa" {m tau} is not necessarily a dvi-goddess. I view them as local Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Age indigenous Tib-Bur speaking peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr, an example being Nan'ka'reign MDaw of southern Myanmarpr.

It is probable that Mother-goddess {m tau} worship in Myanmarpr had nothing to do with its later-day association with Tantric Buddhism practiced by some Arigyi monks of northern Myanmarpr which King Anawrahta ruthlessly suppressed. See Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 151130)
and proceed to Chapter 09. Ari Monks and the Introduction of Buddhism - ch09-ari.htm (link chk 151130).


From Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vamachara 151129

Vāmācāra वामाचार vāmācāra {wa-ma sa-ra.} is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with "Left-Hand Path" or "Left-path" Vāmamārga  {wa-ma. mar~ga.} [1] [2] [3]. It is used to describe a particular mode of worship or sadhana (spiritual practice) that is not only "heterodox" nāstika to standard Vedic injunction, but extreme in comparison to the status quo.

These practices are often generally considered to be Tantric in orientation. The converse term is dakṣiṇācāra "Right-Hand Path", which is used to refer not only to "orthodox" (Āstika) sects but to modes of spirituality that engage in spiritual practices that not only accord with Vedic injunction but are generally agreeable to the status quo.

Left-handed and right-handed modes of practice may be evident in both orthodox and heterodox schools of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism [does not include Theravada] and is a matter of taste, culture, proclivity, initiation, sadhana and dharmic "lineage" ( parampara).

... ... ...

Vamachara {wa-ma sa-ra.} 'Left Hand Practice', is particularly associated with the pancha-makara or the "Five Ms" {ma. nga:lon}, also known as the pancha-tattva. In literal terms they are: Madya (wine), Mamsa (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudra (cereal), and Maithuna (sexual intercourse) [7]. Mudra usually means ritual gestures, but as part of the Five Ms it is parched cereal [8].

Go back Sakti-Left-hand-note-b

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