Update: 2017-04-18 03:28 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR: http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{k:} : cont
{kau:sa.} : with palatal plosive-stop

{kau-k~Sa.} : Pseudo-Kha

UKT notes :
Chanakya aka Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta 
Doggie's Problem: paucity of nasals in English
Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path

"Maa" is {m tau} and is not necessarily dvi-goddesses. I view them as local Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Age indigenous Tib-Bur speaking peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr, an example being Nan'ka'reign MDaw of southern Myanmarpr.

Note #1 * UKT 151112: Though we, Bur-Myan, usually pronounce the vowels and nasals in three registers:

{k.} (1 blnk); {k} (2 blnk); {k:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
{k.} (1 blnk); {k} (2 blnk); {k:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blnk); {ko} (2 blnk): {ko:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
{kau.} (1 blnk); {kau} (2 blnk}; {kau:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
{kan.} (1 blnk); {kan} (2 blnk); {kan:} (2 blnk + emphasis)

From the word {kauk} 'paddy' - MLC MED014, we can say that {kau:} can be followed by a coda. It means that the syllable-vowel of {kau:} can be killed. From it we can say that {kau:} should not be treated as an emphatic and that its duration is 1 blk.

Note #2 UKT 151129: After looking into the dictionary meanings of कैशव keśava and {k-a.wa.}, I consider the possibility of Krishna {ka.Nha.} with dark-skin & profuse head-hair being an ancient human king of the mythical Dvārakā city-state who had been revered by a group of Tib-Bur speaking peoples to the point of deification. After the defeat of the the bronze-age Tib-Bur by the iron-age IE speakers, the conquerors identify {ka.Nha.} with their Axiomatic dva-god Vishnu to make their dominance physically and spiritually complete. The same trick has been attempted in our time by the European colonialists on the militarily conquered peoples of the Indian subcontinent, Myanmarpr, SEAsia.

Note #3 UKT 151129: Compare words with prefixes {kau:} & {k}, and place the words in the vowel diagram. In meanings {kau:} implies lower portions like the genitals whilst {k} the higher portions like head and head hair. In the vowel diagram {kau:} is in mid-back position whilst {k} is mid-front. It is an example of contrasting vowel sounds giving opposing meanings.

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{k:} : cont



कैवल्य [ kaival-ya ]
- n. absolute oneness; absolute bliss.



कैशव [ kaisava ]
Skt: कैशव [ kaisava ] - a. belonging to Kesava (Krishna or Vishnu). - Mac075c1
Pal: {k-a.wa.} - UHS PMD0335
  UKT from UHS: mfn. profuse head-hair, long head-hair, Vishnu dva



- m. pl. N. of a people

( end of old p074-3.htm )

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को˚ [ ko- ]
- prn. prefix [=nm. kas], what? how? = strange, indifferent, somewhat, easily (cp. ka, kava, k, kim, ku).

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कोक [ kka ]
Skt: कोक [koka] - m. wolf; cuckoo; ruddy goose (kakravka): f. . - Mac075c1
Pal: {kau:ka.} - UHS PMD0336c1
  UKT from UHS: m. {ic-kroat} ?, wolf, {sak~ka.waak} ?



कोकनद [ koka-nada ]
Skt: कोकनद [ koka-nada ] - n. red lotus (flower); -nadin, f. red lotus (plant). - Mac075c1
Pal: {kau:ka.na.da.} - UHS PMD0336c1
  UKT from UHS: n. red lotus



कोकिल [ kok-ila ]
Skt: कोकिल [ kok-ila ] - m., , f. Indian cuckoo. - Mac075c1
Pal: {kau:ki.la.} - UHS PMD0336c1
  UKT from UHS: m. cuckoo

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See my note on Doggie's Problem in going from
   {kau:} to {kan} using {kn:si:} : {kan~}.
The problem is mainly due to English having only two nasals to Bur-Myan five.



कोङ्कण koṅkaṇa [koṅkana]
--> {kan~ka.Na.}
Skt: कोङ्कण [koṅkana] - m. pl. N. of a people -- Mac075c1
Skt: कोङ्कण koṅkaṇa - n. kind of weapon -- SpkSkt

See my note on Konkana



कोङ्काण [ koṅkna ]
--> {kan~ka-Na.}
- a. () coming from Koṅkana (horse).



कोङ्कार [ koṅ-kra ]
- m. the sound kom.

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{kau:sa.} : Palatal plosive-stop


कोच [ kok-a ]
- m. shrinking, shrivelling.

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कोट [ kota ]
- m. fortress, stronghold (cp. kotta).



कोटर [ kotara ]
- n. hollow of a tree; cavity: -vat, a. having caves.



कोटाद्रि [ kota‿adri ]
- m. N. of a mountain (fortress-hill).



कोटि [ koti (also ) ]
- f. curved tip (of a bow, talons, etc.); point; extremity, height, highest degree; ten millions; -ka, m. kind of frog; -k, f. extreme point: --,=outcast, scum of; -mat, a. pointed; -vedhin, a. hitting the extreme=accomplishing a most difficult task; -sas, ad. to the number of ten millions.



कोटीश्वर [ koti‿svara ]
- m. (lord of ten millions), N. of a millionaire.



कोट््ट [ kotta ]
- m. [ko-(a)tta], stronghold; -pla, m. commandant of a fortress.



कोट््टवी [ kottav ]
- f. naked woman.



कोण [ kona ]
- m. corner, angle; intermediate point of the compass (N. E. etc.).



कोथ [ koth-a ]
- m. putrefaction.



कोदण्ड [ ko-danda ]
- n. [kind of rod], bow.



कोद्रव [ ko-drava ]
- m. kind of inferior grain eaten by the poor people.


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कोप [ kop-a ]
- m. morbid excitement (esp. of the bodily humours); fury (of battle, etc.); wrath, anger (at, g., lc., prati, upari, or --): -m kri, be angry: -ka, a. irascible; -ksham vismaya-harsha-vat, a. angry, compassionate, astonished, and glad; -ganman, a. produced by anger.



कोपन [ kop-ana ]
- a. passionate, wrathful, angry; n. excitement; provocation; -in, a. angry, wrathful.



कोमल [ ko-mala ]
- a. [easily fading], tender; soft (fig.); -‿aṅga, a. () of tender frame.

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कोयष्टि ko-yashti, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. [stilt-like], kind of bird.

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कोर [ kora ]
- m. flexible joint (of the body).



कोरक [ kora-ka ]
- m. n. (?) bud: , f. id.

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कोल [ kola ]
- m. boar, hog: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



कोलक [ kola-ka ]
- n. kind of perfume.



कोलाहल [ kol-hal-a ]
- m. n. clamour, outcry, uproar; yelling: -in, a. filled with din (--).


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कोविद [ ko-vida ]
- a. [knowing well], knowing, skilled in (g., lc., --): -tva, n. skill.



कोविदार ko-vidara
- m. [splitting well], kind of ebony.


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कोश [ ks-a ]
- m. butt, tub, pail, coop (esp. of clouds); box, chest; sheath; case; shell; abode; store-room; treasury, treasure; vocabulary, dictionary; treasury of poetry, collection of stanzas; bud, calix (esp. of the lotus); cocoon; cup of peace; sacred draught used in ordeals; oath: -kraka, m. silk-worm; -griha, n. treasury; -gta, n. treasure, wealth; -danda, m. du. treasury and army; -dsa, m. N.; -pthin, a. draining or having drained any one's treasury; -petaka, m. n. casket; *-phala, n. kind of perfume; -rakshin, m. guardian of the treasury.



कोशल [ kosala ]
- v.  kosala.



कोशवत्् [ kosa-vat ]
- a. wealthy; -vri, n. ordeal water; -vesman, n. treasury; -‿agra, m. n. id.: -‿adhikrin, m. treasurer; -‿adhyaksha, m. treasurer.



कोष [kosha]
- v. कोस kosa 



कोष्ठ [ koshtha ]
- m. entrails, stomach, abdomen; n. store-room; encircling wall; -‿agra, n. store-house, granary; -‿agni, m. fire of the stomach, i.e. of digestion.



कोष्ण [ k‿ushna ]
- a. lukewarm, tepid.



कोसल [ kosala ]
- m. N. of a country: pl. its people; , f. capital of Kosala, i.e. Ayodhy; -g, f. born in Kosala, ep. of Rma's mother; -videh, m. pl. the Kosalas and the Videhas.

( end of old p075-1.htm )

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{kau} : Pal-Myan does not have this sound. It has only {kau:} 

{kau-k~Sa.} : Pseudo-Kha


कौक्षेय [ kauksh-eya ]
- m. (belonging to a sheath), sword: -ka, m. id.; knife.



कौङ्कुम [ kauṅkuma ]
--> {kan~ku.ma.}
Skt: कौङ्कुम [ kauṅkuma ] - a. () consisting of saffron; coloured with saffron. - Mac075c2
Pal: {kon~ku.ma.} (with {kn:si:} - UHS PMD0323c1
  UKT from UHS: n. {ma-la-kyi.kyu},
  {kon-ku.mn} (obviously from {kon-ku.ma.} with {::tn}) Saffron Crocus sativus .

UKT 170405: See my note on Saffron-crocus


कौञ्जर [ kaugara ]
Skt: कौञ्जर [ kaugara ] - a. () belonging to an elephant. - Mac075c2
Pal: {koa~za.ra.} - UHS PMD0324c2
  UKT from UHS: m. elephant


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कौट [ kauta ]
- a. fraudulent, false; -skshin, m. false-witness; -skshya, n. false evidence.



कौटस्थ्य [ kautasth-ya ]
- n. immutability.



कौटिल्य [ kautil-ya ]
- n. crookedness; crispness, waviness; deceitfulness; m. ep. of Knakya; -sstra, n. science of Kautilya, diplomacy.

UKT 151128, 170405: See my note on Chanakya aka Kautilya or Vishnu Gupta. He is known in Bur-Myan as {za-nak~ka. poaN~Na:} - the 'evil' advisor to the king - epitome [pronounce: e-pit-o-me] of Poonas in classical Bur-Myan drama. He is also referred to as the Machiavelli of Ancient India.



कौटुम्ब [ kautumb-a ]
- a. requisite for the household; n. affinity; -ika, a. belonging to or constituting a family; m. father of a family.



कौट््टन्य [ kauttan-ya ]
- n. pimping.

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- m. N. of a Brahman 



कौणप [ kaunapa ]
- a. proceeding from corpses; m. Rkshasa.



[kaunadin-ya ]
- m. pat. fr. Kundina


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कौतुक [ kautuka ]
- n. curiosity, interest, eagerness (w. lc. or --); curious, strange or interesting spectacle; entertaining story; festival; wedding investiture with the nuptial cord; nuptial cord; happiness, bliss; -kriy, f. wedding festival; -griha, n. wedding-house; -pura, n. N. of a city; -bhrit, a. wearing the nuptial cord; -maṅgala, n. solemn ceremony, festival; -maya, a. interesting; charming; -‿gra, m. n. wedding chamber.



कौतुकित [ kautuk-ita ]
- pp. interested in (lc.), by (in.); -in, n. interested, curious.



कौतूहल [ kauthala ]
Skt: कौतूहल [ kauthala ] - n. curiosity, interest, eagerness (with lc., prati, or inf.); festival. - Mac075c2
Pal: {kau:tu-ha.la.} - UHS-PMD0337
  UKT from UHS - n. public excitement because of festivities or instigation by rumours



कौत्स [ katsa ]
- a. relating to Kutsa; m., , f. pat.; n. hymn composed by Kutsa.

UKT 151129: See Vedic Mythology by A. A. Macdonell, 1898, pdf pp216
- https://archive.org/details/vedicmythology00macduoft - 151129
See downloaded pdf in TIL SD-Library - MacdonellVedicMyth<> (link chk 151129)
p146, pdf 158/216
para 58. A: Kutsa . This warlike hero belonging to the Indra myth is mentioned nearly forty times in the RV. The name occurs only once in the plural as designation of a family of singers who address a hymn to Indra. Kutsa is four times called by patronymic Ārjuneya, son of Arjuna. Mention is made of a son of his, whom Indra aided in fight against a Dasyu. Kutsa is young and brilliant. He is a seer, who called upon Indra for aid when plunged in a pit. Kutsa rides on the same car with Indra, who wafts him or takes him as his charioteer.


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कौनख्य [ kaunakh-ya ]
- n. disease of the nails.



कौन्तेय [ kaunt-eya ]
- m. son of Kunt, met. of Yudhishthira, Bhmasena, and Arguna.


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कौन्द [ kaunda ]
- a. () belonging to or made of jasmine.


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कौप [ kaupa ]
Skt: कौप [ kaupa ] - a. () coming from a well. - Mac075c3
Skt: कौप kaupa - adj. coming from a well or cistern. n. well-water - SpkSkt 
Pal: {kau:pa.} - UHS-PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: m. anger, destruction 


कौपीन [ kaupna ]
- n. pudenda ; loin cloth; infamous deed: -vat, a. wearing only a loin cloth. 

कौपीन [ kaupna ]
Skt: कौपीन [ kaupna ] - n. pudenda [. human external genitalia, esp. of a woman - AHTD]; infamous deed - Mac075c3
Pal: {kau:pi-na.} - UHS PMD0338
  UKT from UHS: n. {hka:wut} 'a person's lower garment like a longyi' (loincloth are not worn by men in Myanmarpr), genitalia, doing what is not proper.



कौबेर [ kaubera ]
- a. () relating to Kubera.



कौमार [ kaumra ]
- a. () relating to a youth or virgin; youthful; relating to Kumra (god of war); n. childhood, youth; innocence of youth, virginity; -krin, a. practising chastity; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -krin, a. practising a vow of chastity.

UKT 170405: Hindu god of war has several names, and I venture to say that they be different persons - not one.
"The several names of Murugan of origin would include the following, Aaiyyan, Cheyon, Senthil, Vēlaṇ, Kumāran ("prince, child, young one"), Svaminatha ("ruler of the gods", from -natha king), Saravanan ("born amongst the reeds"), Arumugam or Shanmuga ("six-faced"), [3] Dandapani ("wielder of the mace", from -pani hand), Guhan or Guruguha ("cave-dweller"), Subrahmanya, Kadhirvelan, Kandhan, Kartikeya ("son of the Krittikas") and Skanda ("attacker"). [4] [5] He was also known as Mahasena and the Kadamba dynasty worshiped him by this name. [6] And the most famous name Kartikeya means son of krittikas, where the Sanskrit word krittika means creativity [7]"
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartikeya 170405


कौमारी [ kaumr ]
- f. female energy of the god of war; (sc. kshth or dis) the north.



कौमुद [ kaumud-a ]
- m. pat. descendant of Kumuda; the month Krttika (October--November); , f. moonlight: --, common in titles of works; -ik, f. N. of a maid; -vateya, m. met. fr. Kumudvat.



कौमोदकी [ kaumodak ]
- f. N. of Vishnu's or Krishna's club.


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कौरव [ kaurav-a ]
- a. () belonging to the Kurus; m. pat. descendant of Kuru; -eya, m. pl. descendants of Kuru; -y (+karav ya), m. pl. id.= Pndavas; N. of a people.



कौर्म [ kaurma ]

- a. peculiar to the tortoise.

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कौल [ kaula ]
- a. () relating to a family; hereditary, inherited; m. worshipper of Sakti according to the Left-hand ritual.

UKT 170405: See my note on Vāmācāra the Left-hand path.


कौलिक [ kaul-ika ]
- m. weaver; worshipper of Sakti according to the Left-hand ritual: -kra, a. behaving like a weaver.

UKT 151129: See my note on Maa Sakti or Left-Hand Path


- a. the demon Samhara



कौलीन [ kaul-na ]
- a. peculiar to high birth; n. rumour; slander; disgraceful deed; -nya, n. noble birth; nobleness.



कौलूत [ kaulta ]
- m. pl. N. of a people: sg. king of Kaulta.



कौलेय [ kaul-eya ]
- m. dog: -ka, m. id., esp. sporting dog; -kutumbin, f. bitch.



कौल्य [ kaul-ya ]
- a. sprung from a noble race; n. noble descent.

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कौवेर [kauvera]
- v. कौबेर kaubera

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कौश [ kausa ]
- a. . silken (coming from the cocoon: kosa); . , () made of Kusa grass.



कौशल [ kausal-a ]
- n. welfare, prosperity; skill, cleverness, experience (in, lc. or --); -ya, n. id.; -ik, f. gift, present.



- f. N. (Pr.).



कौशाम्बी [ kausmb ]
- f. N. of a city: -ya, a. belonging to Kausmb.



- i. a. relating to Kusika; m. pat., esp. of Visvāmitra; (a), m. owl; , f. ep. of Durg; N. of a Buddhist mendicant nun; 2. a. sheathed; n. silk cloth or garment.



कौशीलव [ kauslav-a ]
- n. profession of a bard or actor; -ya, n. id.



कौशेय [ kaus-eya ]
- a. silken; n. silk, silk garment.

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कौषारव [ kaushrava ]
- m. pat. from Kushru.



कौषीतक kaushtaka, ˚कि [ -ki ]
- m. pat. from Kushtaka: (ki)-brhmana, n. Brhmana of the Kaushtakins (also called Sṅkhyana Brhmana); (ki)-‿upanishad, f. Kaushtaki upanishad.



कौष्ठ [ kaushth- ]
- a. being in the body; being in the store-room; -ya, a. being in the abdomen.

( end of new p075.htm )

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UKT notes


-- UKT 140411, 151128: (I still need to check my facts.)

In traditional Burmese drama, such as the Vesali - a play, the villain is always a scheming Brahmana-Poonna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} based on the character of Vassakara - the chief minister of King Ajatasattu - the expansionist ruler of Magadha.

King Ajatasattu could not defeat the Vesali kingdom, and Vassakara went to the Buddha to get an explanation. Instead of giving an answer to the Poona, Buddha preached a sermon on unity being the root of invincibility. Vassakara got the message, and asked Ajatasattu to banish him after inflicting bodily punishment. The crafty Brahmin went over to Vesali, and asked for refuge from the rulers of Vesali who were easily duped. They employed the clever Vassakara as a trusted advisor not knowing his true intension. Using diplomacy (upalapana), Vassakara brought disunion (mithubheda). And when Ajatasattu attacked them again, they were easily defeated, because the princes of Vesali no longer trusted each other, and one would not come to the aid of other.
See http://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/vassakara/index.html 140411.

And then earlier there was Chanakya {za.Na.ka. poaN~Na:} - the king-maker of Magadha, who was instrumental in making Chandragupta king, the grandfather of King Asoka. The two Poonas were well hated by the Bur-Myan audience for their duplicity.

UKT 151128: The Poannar {poaN~Na:} Kautilya aka Chanakya cāṇakya (350 275 BCE) was the author of Arthashastra  arthaśāstra is known as the Machiavelli of the East. Both the Indian Kautilya and the Italian Niccol Machiavelli (1469-1527 CE) author of The Prince are masters of diplomacy & statecraft with hidden secrets, and economics, indifferent to moral considerations. Such people should never be trusted.
See An Introduction to the Machiavelli of the East ,
- http://www.returnofkings.com/67718/an-introduction-to-the-machiavelli-of-the-east 151128

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanakya 120127

Chānakya (Skt: चाणक्य Cāṇakya = च ा ण क ् य ) (c. 370283 BCE) was a teacher to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta (c. 340293 BCE) - the first emperor in the archaeologically recorded history to rule the complete Indian Subcontinent. [UKT ]

UKT: Akshara-to-akshara change from Dev to Myan:
   चाणक्य Cāṇakya = च ा ण क ् य --> {sa-Nak~ya.} --> {sa-Na.kya.}

Chanakya is generally considered to be the architect of Chandragupta's rise to power at a young age. Traditionally, he is also identified by the names Kautilya and Vishnu Gupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise called Arthaśāstra. [1][UKT ]

Chanakya is considered as the pioneer of the field of economics and political science and his work is thought of as an important precursor to Classical Economics. [2] [3] [4] [5] In the Western world, he has been referred to as The Hindu Machiavelli, although Chanakya's works predate Machiavelli's by about 1,800 years. [UKT ]

Chanakya was a teacher in Takṣaśila, an ancient centre of learning, and was responsible for the creation of Mauryan empire, the first of its kind on the Indian subcontinent. His works were lost near the end of the Gupta dynasty and not rediscovered until 1915. [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Chanakya-note-b

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Doggie's Problem

in going from {kau:} to {kan} using {kn:si:} : {kan~}

UKT 151129, 170404:

{kau:} is derived from Pal-Myan vowel {AU.} . Remember it is NOT {a.ra.ric}. There is no {a.}. A similar case is the well known {I.} which has no {ka.}.

Pal-Myan has only {kau:} को, but no {kau} कौ, whereas Skt-Dev has both. Also note that from the vow-signs, को seems to last only 1 blnk - it is definitely not emphatic, and I should have given the transcription as {kau.}, i.e. {kau.} को - 1 blnk: {kau} कौ - 2 blnk . However in view of Bur-Myan phonology, I've given it as emphatic {kau:} को .


The nuclear vowel in {kau:} को, can be killed by killed consonants. We have an added problem when the killed consonants are nasals: /ŋ/, /ɲ/, /ɳ/ - TIL mascot Doggie's problem, because of paucity of nasals in English. The problem is accentuated with /ŋ/ because the only ASCII representation is the diagraph {ng.}. My solution is to change the representation of the nuclear vowel as shown in the inset.

Go back Doggies-problem-note-b

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-- UKT 140410, 170404

My interest in this kingdom and its people is in the spelling of the word which in Bur-Myan would be written as a {nga.t}. For Skt-Myan I have to use a {kn:si:} . Reading through the following I have come upon another interesting word Kasyapa which is a name of: 

a Theravada Buddha, an eon before Gautama Buddha
  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassapa_Buddha 140410
  Kasapa Buddha (Ajanta Caves)
  - http://ignca.nic.in/jatak102.htm 170404
a Hindu-rishi Kaśyapa - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 140410 
a Buddhist Arahat Mahākāśyapa.
  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81k%C4%81%C5%9Byapa 140410
a hidden cave west of Monywa across the Chindwin river which is revered by many in Myanmarpr as the grave site of {ma.ha ka~a.hpa.} - the Arahat praised by the Buddha 

The names are very confusing especially when not correctly spelled.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkana_Kingdom 140410

Konkana was a southern kingdom populated by Brahmins during and after the period of Puranas. This kingdom is identified to be the Konkan region (coastal region) of Maharashtra. Other such Brahmin populated kingdoms includes Dravida, Andhra and Karnata. They have migrated in the later periods to the south as far as Kerala.

The name Konkana probably have originated from the older name Kanwa-gana (meaning the clan of Kanwa) a clan of Bhrahmins. Kanwas were a sub-clan of the Kasyapa-clan of Brahmins. They arrived at the western shores of Indian peninsula, which were the stronghold of the Bhargava clan of Bhrahmins. This history is hidden in the myth of Vamana who arrived at the sacrifice of king Mahabali, conducted in the land of the Bhrigus (Bhrigu-kaksha (Brauch in Gujarat), on the banks of river Narmada. This sacrifice was officiated by king Mahabali's priest named Sukra, who belonged to the Bhagava clan. In spite of the protest of priest Sukra, king Mahabali gave some land for Vamana. Starting with Vamana, many Kasyapas, in large numbers, settled in the kingdom of Mahabali. Their settlements outumbered those of Bhargavas and of the ruling clan of Asuras. Thus Mahabali lost his kingdom and was forgotten into the underworld of memories. (See also Keralas).

Konkana is not mentioned in Mahabharata. Thus it is obviously a later-period province. However, the epic mentions Kanwa, the founder (or a member ?) of the Kanwa clan. Sage Kanwa of the race of Kasyapa is mentioned at (1,70). He was the foster-father of Sakuntala the wife of the famous Puru king Dushyanta (Dushmanta). Kanwa raised Sakuntala as her own daughter in his asylum.

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UKT 140411, 170405: "Saffron is a key seasoning, fragrance, dye, and medicine in use for over three millennia. [1] One of the world's most expensive spices by weight, [2] saffron consists of stigmas [of flowers - commonly called " threads"] plucked from the vegetatively propagated and sterile Crocus sativus, known popularly as the saffron crocus." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_and_use_of_saffron 170405

The colour of saffron is yellow. In powder form it is adulterated with inexpensive turmeric, Curcuma longa powder. My last research in chemistry, as the associate professor and head of the department of chemistry, at Taunggyi Degree College (now University) is on the oil of Curcuma longa steam distilled from fresh rhizomes.

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Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path

- UKT 151130:

"Maa" {m tau} is not necessarily a dvi-goddess. I view them as local Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Age indigenous Tib-Bur speaking peoples of the Indian subcontinent extending into Myanmarpr, an example being Nan'ka'reign MDaw of southern Myanmarpr.

It is probable that Mother-goddess {m tau} worship in Myanmarpr had nothing to do with its later-day association with Tantric Buddhism practiced by some Arigyi monks of northern Myanmarpr which King Anawrahta ruthlessly suppressed.
See Chapter 09. Ari Monks and the Introduction of Buddhism in Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch09-ari.htm (link chk 170404).
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashupati_seal 170405
"Writing in 2002, Gregory L. Possehl concluded that while it would be appropriate to recognize the figure as a deity, its association with the water buffalo, and its posture as one of ritual discipline, regarding it as a proto-Shiva would "go too far." [18]

From Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vamachara 151129

Vāmācāra वामाचार vāmācāra {wa-ma sa-ra.} is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with "Left-Hand Path" or "Left-path" Vāmamārga  {wa-ma. mar~ga.} [1] [2] [3]. It is used to describe a particular mode of worship or sadhana (spiritual practice) that is not only "heterodox" nāstika to standard Vedic injunction, but extreme in comparison to the status quo.

These practices are often generally considered to be Tantric in orientation. The converse term is dakṣiṇācāra "Right-Hand Path", which is used to refer not only to "orthodox" (Āstika) sects but to modes of spirituality that engage in spiritual practices that not only accord with Vedic injunction but are generally agreeable to the status quo.

Left-handed and right-handed modes of practice may be evident in both orthodox and heterodox schools of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism [does not include Theravada] and is a matter of taste, culture, proclivity, initiation, sadhana and dharmic "lineage" (parampara).

... ... ...

Vamachara {wa-ma sa-ra.} 'Left Hand Practice', is particularly associated with the pancha-makara or the "Five Ms" {ma. nga:lon}, also known as the pancha-tattva. In literal terms they are: Madya (wine), Mamsa (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudra (cereal), and Maithuna (sexual intercourse) [7]. Mudra usually means ritual gestures, but as part of the Five Ms it is parched cereal [8].

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Vāmācāra the Left-Hand Path

- UKT 140310:

The Swastika is depicted in two versions: as the Left-Hand (left-turning) or the Right-Hand (right-turning). The Nazi-swastika is supposed to be Left-hand. However, it is not exactly so, because it is standing on a "corner", whereas the religious swastikas stands on a "side".

The Left-Hand in Bur-Myan esoteric Buddhism is known as the Lower-Path {auk-lm:}, and the Right-Hand is the Higher-Path {a.htak-lm:}.

Pal: {wa-ma.}
- UHS-PMD0864
  UKT from UHS: . mfn. beautiful. {wa-ma} - f. woman . left-hand, opposition
UKT 170405: I venture to identify the Left-Hand Bur-Myan esoteric Buddhism with the Mother-goddess religion - looked down upon by Male-god worshippers, who prided their religion as the Right-Hand Aryan religion. Both being based on childish fairy tales not based on reason and logic, and not supported by scientific facts are rejected by Gautama Buddha.

Bur-Myan, including those of faiths other than Theravada Buddhist, believe in esoteric practices in one form or the other. Contrary to what they may say openly, they have faith and fear in such practices and practitioners. According to the common belief, the Right-Hand acts slowly but eventually it wins over the Left-Hand practices. Personally, on my own and through my maternal family, I came to know practitioners of both paths. I remember one Saya Ni of Thoangwa village a few miles from Kungyangon where I was born. Saya Ni was a well respected {auk-lm:}-master. He made sure that those who had come to him, must not be bent to harm his or her adversary. He would just try to set the situation right and would do no more. I remember, one of my aunts coming to my mother in the second half of 1930s with her very young son. Her complaint: her husband had been forced into a second marriage by his father to punish her - my aunt. My mother took my aunt to Saya Ni, and after taking certain "esoteric" actions, the second wife's mother came to realize that her daughter had become the instrument of punishment. She took her daughter back and the second marriage was annulled. My aunt then became very fast friends with the ex-second wife and her mother to their dying days.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vamachara 120128

Vāmācāra is a Sanskrit term meaning "left-handed attainment" and is synonymous with "Left-Hand Path". It is used to describe a particular mode of worship or sadhana (spiritual practice) that is not only "heterodox" (Sanskrit: nāstika) to standard Vedic injunction, but extreme in comparison to the status quo.

These practices are often generally considered to be Tantric in orientation. The converse term is dakṣiṇācāra "Right-Hand Path", which is used to refer not only to "orthodox" (Āstika) sects but to modes of spirituality that engage in spiritual practices that not only accord with Vedic injunction but are generally agreeable to the status quo.

Left-handed and right-handed modes of practice may be evident in both orthodox and heterodox schools of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism and is a matter of taste, culture, proclivity, initiation, sadhana and dharmic "lineage" (parampara).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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