Update: 2019-03-22 07:04 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 190207, 190322: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} के and {k:} कै .
Similarly we cannot differentiate {kau:} को from {kao} कौ .
I've only the diacritics on Skt-Dev to rely on to differentiate the four of them.
See p086E.htm on {g} गे and {g:} गै .
I may have to change my views as my knowledge advances. See







UKT notes :
Bur-Myan as a dialect of Magadhi
Kena Upanishad
Kubera : {ku.w.ra.} is not a dva. He is an ogre-king ruling ogres.
Malabar : compare to Arakan coast
Queen Maya - mother of Prince Siddhartha who later became Gautama Buddha


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{k} के

UKT 151111, 190205: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate the front mid-vowels {k} and {k:}. Bur-Myan does not have back mid-vowel {kou} which Mon-Myan has. It is a monophthong. Eng-Lat has a sound-alike <cow> which is a diphthong with a glide. We all with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words. Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.


p074c2-b04/ p056-073

केकय [ kekaya ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of --, , f. princess of Kekaya
73) केकय (p. 56) kekaya king of --

UKT 170402: Macdonell gives Princess Kekayi , who became queen {k-ka.yi mi.hpu.ra:} केकयी . Wikipedia, on the other hand gives https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikeyi 170402 
gives {k:k-yi} कैकेयी as the name of Rama's stepmother.


p074c2-b05/ p056-072

केकर [ kekara ]
- a. squinting; -ka, a. id.; -lokana, a. id.
72) केकर (p. 56) kekara squinting


p074c2-b06/ p056-071

केका [ kek ]
- f. cry of the peacock; -rava, m. id.
71) केका (p. 56) kek cry of the peacock


p074c2-b07/ p056-070

केकाय [ kek-ya ]
- den. . cry (as a peacock).
70) केकाय (p. 56) kek-ya . cry


p074c2-b08/ p056-069

केकिन्् [ kek-in ]
- m. peacock.
69) केकिन्् (p. 56) kek-in peacock.

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p074c2-b09/ p056-068

केत [ kt-a ] --> {k-ta.}
- m. will, intention; desire.
68) केत (p. 56) kt-a will


p074c2-b10/ not online

- m., -ki , -k , f. a tree


p074c2-b11/ p056-067

केतन [ ket-ana ]
- n. invitation; shelter; place; body; sign, token, banner; business.
67) केतन (p. 56) ket-ana invitation


p074c2-b12/ p056-066

केतय [ keta-ya ]
- den. P. summon, invite.
66) केतय (p. 56) keta-ya P. summon


p074c2-b13/ p056-065

केतु [ ket- ]
- m. light (pl. rays); shape, form; token of recognition, banner; leader, chief; meteor, comet: -mt, a. bright, light; clear (sound); N. of a Dnava; -yashti, f. flag staff.
65) केतु (p. 56) ket- light (pl. rays)

केतु [ ket- ]
- m. light (pl. rays); shape, form; token of recognition, banner; leader, chief; meteor, comet: - Mac074c2

UKT 170402: Daw Hla Than, one of my best friends, has referred me to the little book on Mahaboat written by one of her ex-students. In the Mahaboat system {k-tu.} केतु is the King of the Planets. She, Ma Hla Than, has now passed away. We have shared many interests together including astrology: gone but never will be forgotten.
See: http://www.jupitersweb.com/mahabote-part-one.html 170402 . See also
Daw Khin Myo Chit's essay "Facets of Life at the Shwedagon Pagoda" in Colourful Burma.


p074c2-b14/ p056-083

केदार [ kedra ]
- m. irrigated field; N. of a mountainous country; -khanda, n. breach in the dyke enclosing a field; -ntha, m. N. of a form of Siva worshipped in Kedra; -bhatta, m. N. of an author.
83) केदार (p. 56) kedra irrigated field

Panch Kedar पंचकेदार {pi~sa. k-da-ra.} refers to five Hindu temples or holy places of the Shaivite sect dedicated to god Shiva {i-wa.nt}. They are located in the Garhwal Himalayan region in Uttarakhand, India.
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panch_Kedar 151112


p074c2-b15/ p056-082

केन [ kna ]
- in. of ka, by whom? whereby? wherewith? whence?
82) केन (p. 56) kna ka, by whom?


p074c2-b16/ p056-064

केनेषितोपनिषद्् [ kena‿ishita‿upanishad ]
- f. T. of an Upanishad; kena‿upanishad, f. id. (so named from the initial words "kena‿ishi tam").
64) केनेषितोपनिषद्् (p. 56) kena̮ishita̮upanishad Upanishad

See my note on Kena Upanishad

p074c2-b17/ p056-066

केन्द्र [ kendra ]
- m. centre of a circle.
63) केन्द्र (p. 56) kendra centre

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p074c2-b18/ p056-062

केपि [ kp-i ]
- a. trembling, quivering.
62) केपि (p. 56) kp-i trembling

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p074c2-b19/ p056-061

केयूर [ keyr-a ]
- m. n. bracelet (worn on upper arm by both sexes); -in, a. wearing a bracelet on the upper arm.
61) केयूर (p. 56) keyr-a bracelet

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p074c2-b20/ p056-060

केरल [ kerala ]
- m. pl. N. of a people in Malabar; , f. woman of Kerala.
60) केरल (p. 56) kerala , f.

See my note on Malabar : geological, geographical and historical aspects


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p074c2-b21/ p056-090

केलि [ kel-i ]
- m. f. (also , f.) diversion, sport, dalliance: -griha, n. pleasure-house; -ta, n. sport, jest; -vana, n. pleasure-grove; -sayana, n. couch; -sadana, n. pleasure-house; -sthal, f. play-ground; ()-sla-bhagik, f. statuette.
90) केलि (p. 56) kel-i , f.) diversion

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p074c2-b22/ p056-089

केवट [ kvata ]
- m. pit, hole.
89) केवट (p. 56) kvata pit


p074c2-b23/ p056-088

केवर्त [ kevrta ]
- m. fisherman.
88) केवर्त (p. 56) kevrta fisherman.


p074c2-b24/ p056-087

केवल [ kvala ]
- a. (; C. ) exclusively proper to (d., g.); alone, only, nothing but, mere, pure; whole, complete; every, all: -m, ad. only; entirely; but, only; na kevalam -api, not only -but; -tas, ad. only; -sas, ad. entirely; -vyatirekin, a. relating to separation only.
87) केवल (p. 56) kvala (; C. ) exclusively proper to (d., g.)


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p074c3-b00/ p056-086

केवलाघ [ kvala‿agha ]
- a. alone guilty; -‿tman, a. whose nature is absolute unity; -‿dn, a. eating alone; -‿anvayin, a. relating to connexion only.
86) केवलाघ (p. 56) kvala̮agha alone guilty


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p074c3-b01/ p056-085

केश [ . ksa ]
- m. (a., --, f. , ) hair; mane; tail.
85) केश (p. 56) . ksa , ) hair


p074c3-b02/ p056-084

केश [ . ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i.e. Pragpati).
84) केश (p. 56) . ka̮sa Rohin

See my note on Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture' - the giver of letters.
And also on Ka-Prajapati in Hindu Gods and Goddesses, by W. J. Wilkins (1843-1902)

p074c3-b03/ p056-081

केशकर्षण [ kesa-karshana ]
- n. pulling by the hair; -kalpa, m. tuft of hair; -kta, m. louse; -graha, m. seizing by the hair: -na, n. id.; -ta, m. N.; -dhvalya, n. white hair; -psa, m. tuft or mass of hair; -bandha, m. hair-band; -rakan, f. dressing of the hair; -lukana, n. tearing out the hair.
81) केशकर्षण (p. 56) kesa-karshana pulling by the hair


p074c3-b04/ p056-080

केशव [ kesa-v ]
- a. long-haired; m. ep. of Vishnu and Krishna: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -vapana, n. shaving the hair; -vyaparopana, n. tearing out of the hair; -samskra-dhpa, m. incense smoke for perfuming the hair; -hasta, m. tuft or mass of hair; hair as a hand.
80) केशव (p. 56) kesa-v long-haired


p074c3-b05/ p056-079

केशाकेशि [ kes-kesi ]
- ad. hair to hair = tte -tte.
79) केशाकेशि (p. 56) kes-kesi hair to hair


p074c3-b06/ p056-059

केशाग्र [ kesa‿agra ]
- n. tip of the hair; -‿anta, m. edge of the hair; tuft or mass of hair; ceremony of clipping the hair; -‿antika, a. reaching to the edge of the hair.
59) केशाग्र (p. 56) kesa̮agra tip of the hair


p074c3-b07/ p056-107

केशिन्् [ kes-n ]
- a. long-haired; maned; m. N. of an Asura and of several men: -, f. N.
107) केशिन्् (p. 56) kes-n long-haired


p074c3-b08/ p056-106

केशिनिषूदन [ kesi-nishdana ]
- m. ep. of Krishna; -mathana, -sdana, -han, -hantri, m. id.
106) केशिनिषूदन (p. 56) kesi-nishdana Krishna

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p074c3-b09/ p056-105

केसर [ ksa-ra ]
- n. hair (of the brows); mane (also ); stamina (esp. of the lotus); m. a plant: -pura, n. N. of a city.
105) केसर (p. 56) ksa-ra hair (of the brows)


p074c3-b10/ p056-104

केसराग्र [ kesara‿agra ]
- n. tips of the mane.
104) केसराग्र (p. 56) kesara̮agra tips of the mane.


p074c3-b11/ p056-103

केसरिन्् [ kesar-in ]
- a. maned; m. lion: (n)-, f. lioness.
103) केसरिन्् (p. 56) kesar-in maned

( end of old p074-2.htm )

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UKT 190205: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}. Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has. Another set of vowels we surely need is {o} & {on}. We all, with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words.

Here we are faced with the problem of killing the vowel of {k:} whenever the need arise. Eng-Lat rendering of {:} is <ai> or <ei> involving vowel-digraphs. We note that <ai> is more open than <ei>  in spite of the fact that the official spelling of the name for the the town of Dawei .

Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide. They are all words formed from mid-vowels, the Ugly-pairs {a.a.wN}.



p074c3-b12/ p056-102

कैकेय kaikeya
--> {k:k-ya.}
- m. king of Kekaya; , f. princess of Kekaya: N. of a wife of [King] Dasaratha [father of Rama].
102) कैकेय (p. 56) kakeya king of Kekaya 

UKT 140410: Most of the Theravada Bur-Myan Buddhist would know the epic story of Rama and Sita. You can read about the Hindu version in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramayana 140410 .

There is also the Bur-Myan version and the traditional dances are based on it. Queen Kkyi {k-ka.yi mi.hpu.ra:} केकयी was the cause of Prince Rama being exiled so that her son Bharata, younger than Rama, would rule the kingdom after King Dasaratha's death. But Bharata refused the kingship, and ruled only as regent in the name of Rama until the period of exile was over.


p074c3-b13/ p056-101

कैंकिरात [ kaiṅkirta ]
- a. coming from the Asoka tree.
101) कैंकिरात (p. 56) kaiṅkirta coming

UKT 180123: See my note on Queen Māyā, mother of Prince Siddhartha who later became the Gautama Buddha.
My question: was she a Kirata princess?


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p074c3-b14/ p056-100

कैटभ [ kaita-bha ]
- m. N. of an Asura: -git, -dvish, -bhid, -‿ari, m. ep. of Vishnu.
100) कैटभ (p. 56) kaita-bha Vishnu.

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p074c3-b15/ p056-099

कैतक [ kaitaka ]
- a. produced from the Ketaka tree.
99) कैतक (p. 56) kaitaka produced from


p074c3-b16/ p056-098

कैतव [ kaitava ]
- a. () false, deceitful; n., , f. fraud, lie, deceit; n. stake (in gambling).
98) कैतव (p. 56) kaitava () false

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p074c3-b17/ p056-097

कैदारिक [ kaidr-ika ]
- n. number of fields.
97) कैदारिक (p. 56) kaidr-ika number


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p074c3-b18/ p056-096

कैमर्थ्य [ kaimarth-ya ]
- n. enquiry as to the 'why'
96) कैमर्थ्य (p. 56) kaimarth-ya enquiry


p074c3-b19/ p056-095

कैमुतिक [ kaimut-ika ]
- a. based on the 'how much more or less'; -ya, n. relation of 'how much more or less'.
95) कैमुतिक (p. 56) kaimut-ika based on


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p074c3-b20/ not online

कैयट [kaiyata ] , कैय्यट [kaiyyata ]
- m. N. of a commentator on the Mahbhshya


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p074c3-b21/ p056-094

कैरव [ kairava ]
- n. white (night) lotus.
94) कैरव (p.56) kairava white


p074c3-b22/ p056-093

कैरविणी [ kairav-in ]
- f. white lotus (plant).
93) कैरविणी (p. 56) kairav-in white


p074c3-b23/ p056-092

कैरात [ kairta ]
- a. relating to the Kirtas; m. prince of the Kirtas.
92) कैरात (p. 56) kairta relating to


p074c3-b24/ p056-109

कैरिशि [ kairis-i ]
- m. descendant of Kirisa, pat. of Sutvan.
109) कैरिशि (p. 56) kairis-i descendant

UKT: Was Mt. Kailasa [a namesake is in Myanmar] the abode of Kubera - non-Deva who was later declared to be a Deva by the Poannars?
See my note on Kubera and his original home.


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p074c3-b25/ p056-108

कैलास [ kailsa ]
- m. N. of a mountain, seat of Kubera & of Siva; -ntha, m. ep. of Kubera.
108) कैलास (p. 56) kailsa Siva

कैलास [ kailsa ]
Skt: कैलास [ kailsa ] - m. N. of a mountain, seat of Kubera & of Siva; - Mac074c3
Pal: {k-la-a.} - UHS PMD0335
  - m. name of a mountain in southern Myanmarpr: {k-la-a. tan} (namesake, Mount Kailash, in India the mountain is placed in the Himalayas). From -ntha, m. ep. of Kubera, we get {k-la-a. nt} Mount Kailash


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p074c3-b26/ p056-091

कैवर्त [ kaivarta ]
- m. fisherman (a mixed caste); , f.; a-ka, m. id.; -ya, a. relating to a fisher man.
91) कैवर्त (p. 56) kaivarta fisherman

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UKT notes

Bur-Myan as a dialect of Magadhi-Asokan language

UKT 140209, 140409, 170401:

The first direct evidence is the script. According to Rev. F. Mason, in his
A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {shn kic~s:} - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867 - PEG-indx.htm - (link chk 180110) 
  See downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180110)
  - FMason-KicsiPaliGrammGerman<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180110)
  - FMasonMazard-KissiPali<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180110)
Kicsi Pali Grammar from Burmese point of view, 1872.
  - FMason-PaliLangBurView<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180110)
If the scripts, Asokan and Myanmar are so related, we should expect the spoken languages (speech) to be related.

The second evidence is from Nwari, the speech Buddha's relatives. It is my belief that the Old Magadhi, heavily under the influence of Sanskrit, still survives in Nepal and is spoken by the Nwars the blood relatives of the Buddha. So my interest has turned to Nwari (Tib-Bur language group), which is different from Npali (IE language group). Since, Nwari had been written in Asokan Brahmi it was probably the same as "Pali" now current in Myanmarpr. The Buddhist faith as well as the language, Nwari (Tib-Bur), were almost wiped out by the Shaivite-Hindus in Nepal.

Caveat: There is confusion between Nwari (Tib-Bur) and Npali (IE), because Nwari (Tib-Bur) was aka Nepali-Bhasa (नेपाल भाष {n-pa-la. Ba-a.}).
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 160119
My sources on Nepali Language aka Nwari - the Tib-Bur:
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
Downloaded files TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- RLTurner-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180110)
On downloaded Turner-Nepali-Lang-Dictionary, p159, there are a few words beginning with {nga.}
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary (Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- SBhuju-NewarDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180110)
Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Newa-Dev have words beginning with {gna.} ङ,
e.g. for <fish> Nwari: न्या ; ङा {gna}; Burmese: {gna:}

Burmese, Pali (in Buddhism), Sanskrit (in Astrology) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other two.

Pali is an artificial language invented to serve the Theravada Buddhists who had taken a firm foothold in Ceylon now known as Sri Lanka or simply Lanka. It is derived from Old Magadhi (the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha spoken in Magadha Mahajanapada now split up into India and Nepal) and Lankan speech.

It is my conjecture that Old Magadhi was known in northern Myanmarpr being brought in thousands of years ago by King Abhiraza probably a participant (and loser) in the Battle of Ten Kings दाशराज्ञ युद्ध - a war mentioned in the Rig Vda. The second time the language was in was by Buddha's own relatives fleeing the wrath of Prince Vidudabha of Kosala kingdom who dethroned his father King Pasenadi. The second flush of immigrants occurred in the life time of Gautama Buddha.

Pali now spoken in Myanmarpr (Pal-Myan) is the Old Magadhi heavily influenced by Lankan Pali (Pal-Lanka) - the artificial language. Since the so-called International Pali is derived from Lankan Pali written in Latin script or to be exact in IAST (International Alphabet for Sanskrit Transcription), I am calling it Pal-Lat.

The third evidence is the presence of lingual (L-sounds of {la.}) in Bur-Myan which are found in Vedic, less so in Panini's Sanskrit, and absent in Hindi-Dev. It is one of the grounds for assertion that Magadhi-Vedic was an language (with lingual vowels ऌ (short) ॡ (long)). The Brahmin-Poannar {braah~ma.Na poaN~Na:} of IE linguistic group, who are used to rhotic R-sounds, had tried to assimilate the L-sounds, just like the European-colonialists, when they came into the Indian sub-continent, but had failed. The result is that this vowel has disappeared in Hindi (derived from Sanskrit). I therefore claim that Bur-Myan with highly lateral sounds as {la.}, {lha.}, {lhwa.}, etc. is one of the Magadha dialects or Magadha-Asokan itself.

Go back Bur-Myan-dialect-Magadhi-note-b

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Chitragupta - the giver of letters

UKT 151111, 160918, 170401:

Skt-Dev Ka क, same as {ka.} of Bur-Myan. It is a velar plosive-stop and occupies the cell r1c1 in the Bur-Myan matrix. In the oldest inscriptions found in the Indian subcontinent, the inscription of King Asoka (of Magadha-Mahajanapada, the Buddhist king), this cell is occupied by the akshara {ka.}.

See TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- ACunningham-InscriptAsoka<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

The script of the Magadhi-language can be rightfully called Magadhi-Asokan. Note Asokan is now being wrongfully dubbed Brahmi, misleading the people in Myanmarpr (especially those from learned circles such as Myanmar Language Commission (MLC) to think that it is the script of Brahmin-Poannar the followers of Hinduism - a heretical religion to the Myanmar-Buddhists and their teacher Buddha-Gautama . See Language problem of primitive Buddhism, by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 1911 2009) in LANGUAGE AND RELIGION
- lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm (link chk 170403) 

  For comparison read Wikipedia on the Hindu god Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture' . - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitragupta 151111, 170403

I venture to say that Chitragupta's records are confidential, and therefore he is called 'rich in secrets' aka 'hidden picture'.

In the Garuda Purana, Chitragupta is hailed as the first man to give the script: Chitragupta namastubhyam vedaksaradatre (Obeisance to Chitragupta, the giver of letters) ... Chitragupta is the Athi Devathai for Ketu {k-tu} [according to Mahaboat, the king of 8 Planets with his place in the center] , one of the Navagrahas ['nine Planets'], and those who worship Chitragupta, would be bestowed with prosperity. Also the evil effects of Ketu during its transit period would be mitigated. [UKT 170403: based on my study of astrology and esotericism: "evil" for people of mundane affairs; but "beneficial" for ascetics or those engaged in esotericism.]

Go back Chitragupta-note-b


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- UKT 170619

Poannars - Vaishnavite {braah-ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, and Shaivite {i-wa. poaN~Na:} - those who are highly literate - are good story-tellers. They would pick on an old book and added what they pretended to have heard - not on sound waves but something else - from their axiomatic gods and goddesses, and call what they written as Purans the 'old texts'.

The inset an excerpt from Hindu Gods and Goddesses, by W. J. Wilkins (1843-1902), p.480, tells how they invented an Unknown God from the akshara Mag-Asokan ka, - the same as Skt-Dev क ka the same as Bur-Myan {ka.}. Being the first akshara of the consonant-matrix, they call him the Prajapati, the father of all human-beings - the same as the Christian Adam.

Go back Ka-Prajapati-note-b

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Kena Upanishad

- UKT 140409

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kena_Upanishad 140409

The Kena Upanishad , केन उपनिषत् kena upaniṣat, or the Kenopanishad , केनोपनिषत् kenopaniṣat is one of the earlier, "primary" Upanishads, a genre of Hindu scriptures, commented upon by Shankara and Madhvacharya. It is associated with the Samaveda where it is found inserted into the last section of the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana. It figures as number 2 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads.

Go back Kena-Upa-note-b

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UKT 110906, 180108:

Kubera aka Kuwera {ku.w.ra.} is not a dva. He is a 'devil', an ogre-king who rules over ogres of both kinds: those who do not eat humans, and those who do. His seat is on the northern side of Mount Mru and protects the human-world because of which he is worshipped. Because he bestows wealth - especially money - he is worshipped by the Hindus seeking wealth. The Burmese-Buddhists call on him not for wealth , but for protection from ogres aka bilus {Bi-lu:}, and witches aka soans {soan:}, and their underlings such as ghosts. Because he is a protector he is affectionately called Kuwera Nat-mn {ku.w.ra. nt-mn:}.

People have been fascinated by numbers from ancient times. Mathematically, the Kuwera Yantra is a magic square whose columns and rows added up to 72. If you start from the centre 24, and move down to 28, and move clock-wise you get: 24, 28, 23, 22, 27, 20, 25, 26, 21 - the way the Hindus construct the Yantra. However, I remember it by two series:
series #1: 20, ...., 22, ..., 24, ...., 26, ...., 28
series #2: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuberakolam 180108
"To construct the Kubera kolam, the lines are drawn first. The numbers are then written in the following order: start from 24 and then the numbers 28, 23, 22, 27, 20, 25, 26, 21 in that order. A coin and a flower are usually placed in each cell. In this magic square, the numbers in each row, and in each column, and the numbers in the forward and backward main diagonals, all add up to the same number, namely, 72."

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubera 110906

Kubera (Skt: कुबेर, Pali/later Sanskrit: Kuvera, Tamil/Thai: Kuperan), also spelt Kuber, is the Lord of wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology. He is regarded as the regent of the North (Dik-pala), and a protector of the world (Lokapala) His many epithets extol him as the overlord of numerous semi-divine species and the owner of the treasures of the world. Kubera is often depicted as a fat man, adorned with jewels and carrying a money-pot or money-bag, and a club.

Originally described as the chief of evil spirits in Vedic-era texts, Kubera acquired the status of a Deva (god) only in the Puranas and the Hindu epics. The scriptures describe that Kubera once ruled Lanka, but was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, later settling in the city of Alaka in the Himalayas. Descriptions of the "glory" and "splendours" of Kubera's city are found in many scriptures.

Kubera has also been assimilated into the Buddhist and Jain pantheons. In Buddhism, he is known as Vaisravana, the patronymic used of the Hindu Kubera and is also equated with Pacika, while in Jainism, he is known as Sarvanubhuti.


Kubera is often depicted as a dwarf, with fair complexion and a big belly. He is described as having three legs, only eight teeth, one eye, and being adorned with jewels. He is sometimes depicted riding a man. [1] [2] The description of deformities like the broken teeth, three legs, three heads and four arms appear only in the later Puranic texts. [3] Kubera holds a mace, a pomegranate or a money bag in his hand. [1] He may also carry a sheaf of jewels or a mongoose with him. In Tibet, the mongoose is considered a symbol of Kubera's victory over Nāgas the guardians of treasures. [4] Kubera is usually depicted with a mongoose in Buddhist iconography. [2]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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- UKT 120127, 170403:

The following is a collection of many articles stretching for many years. It need to be rewritten.

Geographically Malabar coastal region would be similar to Arakan aka Rakhine coastal region in Myanmar. And so, would they share a similar history from prehistory to the modern days?

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malabar_Coast 120127

The Malabar Coast is a long and narrow coastline on the south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats  [compare with Western Yoma in Myanmar] intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain slopes. [UKT ]

The term "Malabar Coast" is also sometimes used in reference to the entire Indian coast from the western coast of Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Cape Comorin.

UKT: We should remember that the Indian Ocean has been noted for its trade winds that blow from the south-west for half a year and from the north-east for the following half. These winds are very regular and we should expect to see similarities between the fauna and flora of the east African coast, Malabar coast and the Arakan coast. We should expect to see similarities in the peoples of these regions which includes the islanders, their diets & ways of life which would depend on fishing and the coconut palms.

The trade winds or monsoon has been in existence long before civilizations around the Indian ocean had come into being.

The following is an except from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsoon 120127

"Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia [UKT: which had included the areas of present day Myanmar] around 50 million years ago. [9] [UKT ]

UKT: the land of present-day Myanmar was part of Asia, and the Shan Plateau and the Eastern Yoma were formed first. Then came another push and the Western Yoma was formed. It was probably during this period that the pre-humans of the Pondaung-Ponnya range appeared. -- I am writing from memory and facts need to be checked. See
Geography -- geog-indx.htm (link chk 180226)
Geology -- geol-indx.htm (link chk 170402)
Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm (link chk 170402)
A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, will be added later.

Many geologists believe the monsoon first became strong around 8 million years ago based on records from the Arabian Sea and the record of wind-blown dust in the Loess Plateau of China. More recently, plant fossils in China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a timing of the monsoon starting 15-20 million years ago and linked to early Tibetan uplift. [10] Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. [11] The monsoon has varied significantly in strength since this time, largely linked to global climate change, especially the cycle of the Pleistocene ice ages. [12] Timing of the monsoon strengthening of the Indian Monsoon of around 5 million years ago was suggested due to an interval of closing of the Indonesian Seaway to cold thermocline waters passage from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean which is believed to have resulted in an increased sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean, which increased gyral circulation and then caused an increased intensity of the monsoon. [13]"

The trade winds had been an agent of integration of the cultures around the Indian ocean from prehistory to the present.

Excerpt from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Ocean 120127

"The Indian Ocean is far calmer, and was thus opened to trade earlier than the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans. The powerful monsoons also meant ships could easily sail west early in the season, then wait a few months and return eastwards. This allowed Indonesian peoples to cross the Indian Ocean to settle in Madagascar.

"In the 2nd or 1st century BC, Eudoxus of Cyzicus was the first Greek to cross the Indian Ocean. Hippalus is said to have discovered the direct route from Arabia to India around this time. During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD intensive trade relations developed between Roman Egypt and the Tamil kingdoms of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas in Southern India. Like the Indonesian peoples above, the western sailors used the monsoon to cross the ocean. The unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes this route and the ports and trade goods along the coasts of Africa and India around AD 70."

UKT120127: We usually think of the Arabic influence on these regions because of the European Christians who had held a high opinion of the Arabs and their cousins the Jews, but when we think in terms of the trade winds and their effects on the peoples of the region we might forget the Arabs, the mainland Indians and the mainland Myanmars. I suspect these peoples of the coastal regions would share a common linguistic origin - probably Dravidian - and a common history which goes back into antiquity to days before the Egyptian pyramids. -- 



The Malabar Coast, in historical contexts, refers to India's southwestern coast, lying on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka and Kerala states between the Western Ghats range and the Arabian Sea [compare with Bay of Bengal]. The coast runs from south of Goa to Cape Comorin on India's southern tip. India's southeastern coast, by comparison, is called the Coromandel Coast.

The Malabar Coast is also sometimes used as an all encompassing term for the entire Indian coast from Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Cape Comorin. It is over 845 km (525 mi) long. It spans from the coast of southwestern Maharashtra and goes along the region of Goa, through the entire western coast of Karnataka and Kerala and reaches to Kanyakumari. It is flanked by the Arabian Sea on the west and the Western Ghats on the east. The southern part of this narrow coast is referred to as the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests.

Recorded history

The Malabar Coast, throughout recorded history, right from 3000 BC, had been a major trading center in commercial intercourse with Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Jerusalem, and the Arabs. It has old and still functional port cities, notably Kozhikode (Calicut) and Kannur (Cannanore), Oddeway Torre settlement (both part of Danish India), which have served as centers of the Indian Ocean trade, for centuries.

UKT 170403: Few would know about the Danes and Norwegians as traders-colonialists in India. After, the European ships succeeded in rounding the Cape of Good Hope (1488), Europeans descended on India and China, as packs of wolves on an old cow and a dying python, thinking to divide these up as their own colonies and rob the ancient lands. Little did they know that these countries would eventually wake up and would become a threat to their little countries. As an example, Danish India: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danish_India 170403
"Danish India was the name given to the colonies of Denmark (DenmarkNorway before 1813) in India, forming part of the Danish colonial empire. Denmark-Norway held colonial possessions in India for more than 200 years, including the town of Tharangambadi in present-day Tamil Nadu state, Serampore in present-day West Bengal, and the Nicobar Islands, currently part of India's union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands."

Because of their orientation to the sea and to maritime commerce, the Malabar coast cities feel very cosmopolitan, and hosted some of the first groups of Syrian Christians, Jews and Muslims in India.

The "Malabar front" was a location mentioned in [India-born] George Orwell's 1984 [who had worked in the Police dept. in Burma] where men of the fictional country of Oceania fought.

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Queen Māyā

- mother of Prince Siddhartha aka Gautama Buddha

The word कैंकिरात [ kaiṅkirta ] = क ै ं क ि र ा त , on splitting up into कैं [kaiṅ] and किरात [kirta ] is interesting. The meaning given by Macdonell "coming from the Asoka [also spelled Ashoka] tree makes it more interesting. First what is Ashoka tree? See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraca_asoca 180123
"Saraca asoca (the ashoka tree; lit., "sorrow-less") is a plant belonging to the Caesalpinioideae subfamily of the legume family. It is an important tree in the cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent [extending into Myanmarpr] and adjacent areas. It is sometimes incorrectly known as Saraca indica. [2]"

UKT 180123: The tree under which Prince Siddhartha was born, according to Bur-Myan tradition is
{ n-krn:} in Bur-Myan - MLC MED2006-622c1
- n. . indigenous hardwood tree bearing sprays of fragrant red flowers in early summer. Pentacme suavis . . sal tree, Shorea robusta .
However, Wikipedia gives the tree as Saraca asoca .

Now, who are the किरात [kirta ]? See p068.htm
and notes Kikata - the non-Aryans, Kirata : Himalayan race


The Kirata are the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmarpr. See a downloaded video from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHrUwOvJ_9Q 171221
- Kiratas<> (link chk 171221)
Inset map from the above video. The legend in the map:
"The karatas were ... in Ramayana and Mahabharata, and in many Puranas. ..."
The map shows their area extending into the Arakan Yoma area - the are of Chins of Myanmarpr.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirata 140320

The Kirāta , किरात {ki.ra-ta.} is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India [UKT: Assam, Manipur, Tripura] and who are postulated to have been Mongoloid in origin. [1] [2] It has been theorized that the word Kirata- or Kirati- means people with lion nature. [3] It is derived from two words Kira (meaning Lion) and Ti (meaning people). [3] The reference of lion as well as them staying in the Himalayan Mountains may suggest their possible relation to the mythical lion-headed tribe called Kimpurusha.

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