Update: 2015-11-29 07:57 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kRiS~} / {kRiS} : Dental-{Sa.} simulating Kin'si  - cont
{kLi.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ
{k} : Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:} - See The Problem of BEPS mid-vowels

UKT notes :
Problem of mid-vowels in BEPS


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{kRiS~} / {kRiS} : Dental-{Sa.} simulating Kin'si  - cont



कृष्णगति [ krishna-gati ]
- m. (black-pathed), fire; -katurdas, f. 14th day of the dark half= new moon; -ganma‿ashtam, f. a certain eighth day which is Krishna's birthday; -t, f., -tva, n. blackness; -nayana, -netra, a. black-eyed; -paksha, m. dark fortnight (full moon to new moon); -bhma, m. black soil; -bhogin, m. kind of black snake; -mukha, a. () black-mouthed; -mriga, m. black antelope; -yagurveda, m. Black Yagur-veda.



कृष्णल [ krishn-la ]
- (m.) n. kind of black berry (used as weight and coin).



कष्णवर्ण [ krishna-varna ]
- a. black-coloured; -vartman, m. fire (black-tracked); ()-vla, a. black-tailed; -sakti, m. N.; -sarpa, m. kind of black snake; -sra, a. chiefly black, spotted black and white; m. spotted antelope; ()-sraṅga, a.; m. f.; id.



कृष्णागुरु [ krishna‿aguru ]
- n. kind of aloe; -‿agin, n. skin of the black antelope.



कृष्णाय [ krishn-ya ]
- den. P. behave like Krishna; . blacken.



कष्णायस्् krishna̮ayas, ˚स [ -sa ]
- n. iron; -‿ahi, m. black serpent.



कृष्णिका [ krishn-ik ]
- f. blackness; -i-man, m. id.



कृष्णी [ krishn&isharp; ]
- f. night (the black one).



कृष्य [ krish-ya ]
- fp. to be ploughed.

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  कृसर [ krisara ]
- m. n., , f. dish of rice and sesamum.


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कॄ [ KR ]









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{kLi.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ













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क्लृपि [ klip-i ]
= क ् ल ृ प ि
- the root klip (gr.).



क्लृप्तकेशनखश्मश्रु [ klipta-kesa-nakha-sma- sru ]
- a. having his hair, nails, and beard trimmed.



क्लृप्ति [ klp-ti (also-t) ]
- f. coming about, success.


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UKT 151111: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}.
Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has.
We all with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words.
Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.



केकय [ kekaya ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of --, , f. princess of Kekaya.



केकर [ kekara ]
- a. squinting; -ka, a. id.; -lokana, a. id.



केका [ kek ]
- f. cry of the peacock; -rava, m. id.



केकाय [ kek-ya ]
- den. . cry (as a peacock).



केकिन्् [ kek-in ]
- m. peacock.

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केत [ kt-a ]
- m. will, intention; desire.





केतन [ ket-ana ]
- n. invitation; shelter; place; body; sign, token, banner; business.



केतय [ keta-ya ]
- den. P. summon, invite.



केतु [ ket- ]
- m. light (pl. rays); shape, form; token of recognition, banner; leader, chief; meteor, comet: -mt, a. bright, light; clear (sound); N. of a Dnava; -yashti, f. flag staff.



केदार [ kedra ]
- m. irrigated field; N. of a mountainous country; -khanda, n. breach in the dyke enclosing a field; -ntha, m. N. of a form of Siva worshipped in Kedra; -bhatta, m. N. of an author.

Panch Kedar पंचकेदार {pi~sa. k-da-ra.} refers to five Hindu temples or holy places of the Shaivite sect dedicated to god Shiva {i-wa.nt}. They are located in the Garhwal Himalayan region in Uttarakhand, India.
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panch_Kedar 151112



केन [ kna ]
- in. of ka, by whom? whereby? wherewith? whence?



केनेषितोपनिषद्् [ kena‿ishita‿upanishad ]
- f. T. of an Upanishad; kena‿upanishad, f. id. (so named from the initial words "kena‿ishi tam").



केन्द्र [ kendra ]
- m. centre of a circle.

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केपि [ kp-i ]
- a. trembling, quivering.

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केयूर [ keyr-a ]
- m. n. bracelet (worn on upper arm by both sexes); -in, a. wearing a bracelet on the upper arm.

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केरल [ kerala ]
- m. pl. N. of a people in Malabar; , f. woman of Kerala.

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केलि [ kel-i ]
- m. f. (also , f.) diversion, sport, dalliance: -griha, n. pleasure-house; -ta, n. sport, jest; -vana, n. pleasure-grove; -sayana, n. couch; -sadana, n. pleasure-house; -sthal, f. play-ground; ()-sla-bhagik, f. statuette.

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केवट [ kvata ]
- m. pit, hole.



केवर्त [ kevrta ]
- m. fisherman.



केवल [ kvala ]
- a. (; C. ) exclusively proper to (d., g.); alone, only, nothing but, mere, pure; whole, complete; every, all: -m, ad. only; entirely; but, only; na kevalam -api, not only -but; -tas, ad. only; -sas, ad. entirely; -vyatirekin, a. relating to separation only.


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केवलाघ [ kvala‿agha ]
- a. alone guilty; -‿tman, a. whose nature is absolute unity; -‿dn, a. eating alone; -‿anvayin, a. relating to connexion only.

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केश [ 1. ksa ]
- m. (a., --, f. , ) hair; mane; tail.



केश [ 2. ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i. e. Pragpati).

UKT 151111: Skt-Dev Ka क, same as {ka.} of Bur-Myan. It is a velar plosive-stop and occupies the cell r1c1 in the Bur-Myan matrix. In the oldest inscriptions found in the Indian subcontinent, the inscription of King Asoka, the Buddhist king, this cell is occupied by the akshara {ka.}.
- Asokan vowel-letters and vowel-signs with {ka.}.
For comparison read Wikipedia on the Hindu god Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture'
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitragupta 151111



केशकर्षण [ kesa-karshana ]
- n. pulling by the hair; -kalpa, m. tuft of hair; -kta, m. louse; -graha, m. seizing by the hair: -na, n. id.; -ta, m. N.; - dhvalya, n. white hair; -psa, m. tuft or mass of hair; -bandha, m. hair-band; -rakan, f. dressing of the hair; -lukana, n. tearing out the hair.



केशव [ kesa-v ]
- a. long-haired; m. ep. of Vishnu and Krishna: -tva, n. abst. n.; -vapana, n. shaving the hair; -vyaparopana, n. tearing out of the hair; -samskra-dhpa, m. incense smoke for perfuming the hair; -hasta, m. tuft or mass of hair; hair as a hand.



केशाकेशि [ kes-kesi ]
- ad. hair to hair=tte -tte.



केशाग्र [ kesa‿agra ]
- n. tip of the hair; -‿anta, m. edge of the hair; tuft or mass of hair; ceremony of clipping the hair; -‿antika, a. reaching to the edge of the hair.



केशिन्् [ kes-n ]
- a. long-haired; maned; m. N. of an Asura and of several men: -, f. N.



केशिनिषूदन [ kesi-nishdana ]
- m. ep. of Krishna; - mathana, -sdana, -han, -hantri, m. id.

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केसर [ ksa-ra ]
- n. hair (of the brows); mane (also ); stamina (esp. of the lotus); m. a plant: -pura, n. N. of a city.



केसराग्र [ kesara‿agra ]
- n. tips of the mane.



केसरिन्् [ kesar-in ]
- a. maned; m. lion: (n)-, f. lioness.

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Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}.
Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has.
We all, with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words.
Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.



कैकेय [ kakeya ]
- m. king of Kekaya; , f. princess of Kekaya: N. of a wife of Dasaratha.



कैंकिरात [ kaiṅkirta ]
- a. coming from the Asoka tree.



कैटभ [ kaita-bha ]
- m. N. of an Asura: -git, -dvish, -bhid, -‿ari, m. ep. of Vishnu.



कैतक [ kaitaka ]
- a. produced from the Ketaka tree.



कैतव [ kaitava ]
- a. () false, deceitful; n., , f. fraud, lie, deceit; n. stake (in gambling).



कैदारिक [ kaidr-ika ]
- n. number of fields.



कैमर्थ्य [ kaimarth-ya ]
- n. enquiry as to the 'why'



कैमुतिक [ kaimut-ika ]
- a. based on the 'how much more or less'; -ya, n. relation of 'how much more or less'.





कैरव [ kairava ]
- n. white (night) lotus.



कैरविणी [ kairav-in ]
- f. white lotus (plant).



कैरात [ kairta ]
- a. relating to the Kirtas; m. prince of the Kirtas.



कैरिशि [ kairis-i ]
- m. descendant of Kirisa, pat. of Sutvan.



कैलास [ kailsa ]
- m. N. of a mountain, seat of Kubera & of Siva; -ntha, m. ep. of Kubera.

कैलास [ kailsa ]
Skt: कैलास [ kailsa ] - m. N. of a mountain, seat of Kubera & of Siva; - Mac074c3
Pal: {k-la-a.} - UHS PMD0335
  - m. name of a mountain in southern Myanmarpr (in India the mountain is placed in the Himalayas)
  From -ntha, m. ep. of Kubera, we get {k-la-a. nt}



कैवर्त [ kaivarta ]
- m. fisherman (a mixed caste); , f.; a-ka, m. id.; -ya, a. relating to a fisher man.


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UKT notes

Problem of BEPS mid-vowels

- UKT 151112:

Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}. Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has. We all, with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words. Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.

There are at least two sets of words in Bur-Myan with which I am having difficulty which I suspect is due to our misunderstanding of the Myanmar akshara vowel system:

{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blk); {ko} (2 blk): {ko:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk); (2 blk + emphasis)

Mon-Myan - {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar' pair
{k} (2 blk) vs. {k} (2 blk)
{kau} (2 blk) vs. {ou} (2 blk)
  - The vowel {ou} is absent in Bur-Myan. If a Bur-Myan were to pronounce this vowel he would surely pronounced it as emphatic: for which I have not come up with a glyph. I still have to learn more Mon-Myan.

I first ran into this problem in 1989 soon after my wife Daw Than Than and I settled in Canada. I was writing a teaching program with the help of my wife. The ver01 came out in 1991. I was writing Burmese for Foreign Friends, now included in Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script - BurMyan-indx.htm (link chk 151112),
and, navigate to Burmese for Foreign Friends - B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 151112)
I have tried to train myself in various disciplines related to Linguistics and Phonology resulting in my establishing the Tun Institute of Learning website.

Here are my answers (as of today 151115) to the above problem.

Problem #1: We, Bur-Myan, pronounce:

{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk); (2 blk + emphasis)

However, from the word {kauk} 'paddy' - MLC MED014, we can say that {kau:} can be followed by a coda. It means that the syllable-vowel of {kau:} can be killed. From it we can say that {kau:} should not be treated as an emphatic and that its duration is 1 blk.

Problem #2: Next comes the problem of killed-Nya'gyi {} in words such as {.}.

{} (1 blk) --> {.} (1/2 blk); (2 blk)
ref. {.} - guest - MED2010-625

In Pal-Myan, we are told that Nya'gyi {a.} cannot be killed. It is a horizontal conjunct, and placing it under {a.t} to kill it breaks up the conjunct:

Pal-Myan: {a.} + viram -->  {~a.} (mute)
giving us the pronunciation of words liked {pi~a} 'education' which must be pronounced as //.
Please note that this is a case where IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet} fails me. I have to rely on Romabama.

The solution to this problem is to assign Nya'l {a.} as the sole occupier of cell r2c5 of Myanmar akshara matrix, and moving down Nya'gyi {a.} down the Approximant row under as Palatal-group, and moving {ya.} under Velar-group.

UKT 151129: Compare words with prefixes {kau:} & {k}, and place the words in the vowel diagram. In meanings {kau:} implies lower portions like the genitals whilst {k} the higher portions like head and head hair. In the vowel diagram {kau:} is in mid-back position whilst {k} is mid-front. It is an example of contrasting vowel sounds giving opposing meanings.


Go back BEPS-mid-vowel-note-b

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