Update: 2018-01-26 03:52 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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From {iRi.} vowel

{k-RaiS~} / {k-RaiS} (1 blnk): Dental {Sa.}/ {S} simulating Kin'si - rhyming with "braid" (cont.)
{k-Ri.a.} : note {a.} is not under viram
{k-Ri} (2 blnk)

From {iLi.} vowel

{k-Li.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ (related to /i/) not present in Bur-Myan
English "clip"


What follows on {k} and {k:} have been transferred to a separate folder p074E.htm
Note: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}
See my note on Problem of mid-vowels in BEPS
But, first, if you are on a TIL research computer, watch and listen to the downloaded files in TIL HD-VIDEO library
- SktDevGramLect01-indx.htm (link chk 180123)
- SktDevGramLect02-indx.htm (link chk 180123)
and listen to 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि guṇita akshara 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
  - Lesson109<>- Lesson109<)) (link chk 180123)


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UKT notes :
Problem of mid-vowels in BEPS


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{k-RaiS~} / {k-RaiS} : Dental {Sa.}/ {S} simulating Kin'si - rhyming with "braid"   - cont



p074c1-b01/ p056-053

कृष्णगति [ krishna-gati ]
- m. (black-pathed), fire; -katurdas, f. 14th day of the dark half [of lunar month] = new moon [ {la.kw n.} 'no moon']; -ganma‿ashtam, f. a certain eighth day which is Krishna's birthday; -t, f., -tva, n. blackness; -nayana, -netra, a. black-eyed; -paksha, m. dark fortnight (full moon to new moon); -bhma, m. black soil; -bhogin, m. kind of black snake [ {ln: mrw} ?]; -mukha, a. () black-mouthed; -mriga, m. black antelope; -yag urveda, m. Black Yagur-veda.
53) कृष्णगति (p. 56) krishna-gati (black-pathed), fire

कृष्णगति [ krishna-gati ] --> {k-RaiS~Na. ga.ti.}
- m. (black-pathed), fire; - Mac074c1


p074c1-b02/ p056-052

कृष्णल [ krishn-la ]
- (m.) n. kind of black berry (used as weight and coin).
52) कृष्णल (p. 56) krishn-la black berry


p074c1-b03/ p056-051

कष्णवर्ण [ krishna-varna ] = क ष ् ण व र ् ण --> कृष्णवर्ण
Skt: कष्णवर्ण [ krishna-varna ] - a. black-coloured; -vartman, m. fire (black-tracked); ()-vla, a. black-tailed; -sakti, m. N.; -sarpa, m. kind of black snake; -sra, a. chiefly black, spotted black and white; m. spotted antelope; ()-sraṅga, a.; m. f.; id.
51) कष्णवर्ण (p. 56) krishna-varna black-coloured

UKT 180104: I suspect Macdonell has made a spelling mistake in Devanagari, I had the spelling changed to: कृष्णवर्ण
कृष्णवर्ण - mfn. of a black colour, dark-blue - MWilliams:SktDic


p074c1-b04/ p056-050

कृष्णागुरु [ krishna‿aguru ]
- n. kind of aloe; -‿agin, n. skin of the black antelope.
50) कृष्णागुरु (p. 56) krishna̮aguru aloe


p074c1-b05/ p056-049

कृष्णाय [ krishn-ya ]
- den. P. behave like Krishna; . blacken.
49) कृष्णाय (p. 56) krishn-ya P. behave like Krishna


p074c1-b06/ p056-048

कष्णायस्् [ krishna‿ayas ], ˚स [ -sa ]
- n. iron; -‿ahi, m. black serpent.
48) कष्णायस्् (p. 56) -sa iron


p074c1-b07/ p056-047

कृष्णिका [ krishn-ik ]
- f. blackness; -i-man, m. id.
47) कृष्णिका (p. 56) krishn-ik blackness; -i-man, m. id.


p074c1-b08/ p056-046

कृष्णी [ krishn&isharp; ]
- f. night (the black one).
46) कृष्णी (p. 56) krishn night


p074c1-b09/ p056-078

कृष्य [ krish-ya ]
- fp. to be ploughed.
78) कृष्य (p. 56) krish-ya to be ploughed.

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{k-RRi.a.} : note {a.} is not under viram

p074c1-b10/ p056-077

  कृसर [ krisara ]
- m. n., , f. dish of rice and sesamum.
77) कृसर (p. 56) krisara dish

Sesamum is a genus of approximately 20 species in the flowering plant family Pedaliaceae. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with edible seeds. The best-known member of the genus is sesame, Sesamum indicum (syn. Sesamum orientale), the source of sesame seeds. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesamum (170401)


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p074c1-b11/ not online

कॄ [ kr ]
- vi. p. kir , pour out, scatter, bestrew, dishevelled; covered, filled with; stopped (ears). apa-skira, . scrape (with feet). ava, pour down, scatter; emit semen;  bestrew, cover: pp.  bestrewed, covered; caught  in; having emitted semen; full of, being wholly in the power of (-.) anuava, scatter about.  , strew, bestow abundantly: pp. strewn ; covered, filled, crowded; surrounded by (in.). apa‿, abandon; refuse. vi‿, pp. dishevelled; dim. sam-, cover over, fill up: pp. covered or filled with. carved, engraved; overwhelmed with(-). sam-ud, pp. pierced. vi-ni, shatter; cover; abandon. sam-ni, pp. stretched out. pari  scatter round; swarm round: liver up. pra, scatter: pp dispersed; squandered; dishevelled; confused; various. vi-pra, pp scattered; dishevelled; extended. prati-skira, lacerate: pp. akirna, injured. vi, scatter, disperse; cleave, split; bestrew; heave (sight); dishevel. pra-vi, scatter spread. sam, pourort, bestow abundantly; overwhelm; mix: pp: crowded with, full of; mixed, combined with (-) impure; born of a mixed marriage; in rut (elephant).


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{k-Li.} : words derived from highly Lateral vowel ऌ (related to /i/)

  from {iLi.} vowel. Differentiate from La'hsw {la.hsw:} formed from consonant {la.}.

UKT 180123: In BEPS, we find La'gyi {La.kri:} ळ in the normal plane, ऋ in the rhotic plane, and ऌ in the lateral plane. Both ऋ and ऌ are vowels, and are not present in Bur-Myan. Many words derived from ऋ the rhotic vowel are found in Panini Classical Sanskrit, but only a few derived from ऌ. However it is said many from ऌ are found in Vdic language. Because of this, I presume Vedic to be the language of Tib-Bur speakers of the Bronze Age, whereas Sanskrit to be the language of IE speakers of the Iron Age, who defeated the Bronze Age peoples by their superior weapons of war.


√kḷp, 'be adapted'. - Whit024

UKT 180125: Notice the dot under small l ( L ). It denotes the sign of lateral vowel ॢ (1 blnk) , ॣ (2 blnk). However, in many words below, it is not the sign that is used, but ृ (1 blnk) of highly rhotic vowel ऋ {iRi.}. I wait for input from my peers.

p074c1-b12/ not online

कॢप् [ klip ] , i. .
= क ॢ प ्
- klpa, be fit, capable or use; prosper, succeed; agree with, conform to (in.); appear as (in.), be qualified for (lc.); serve for, conduce to, cause (d.); participate in (d.); fall to the lot of (d. g., lc.); became (nm., d.); pronounce to be, regard as (2 ac.): pp. klipt, arrange, ready, prepared; trimmed, cut (hair, nail, etc.); settled; prescribed; firm (conviction); existing; ...


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UKT 180125: In many words below, the sign that is used is not of lateral ऌ ॢ (1 blnk), but of rhotic vowel ऋ ृ (1 blnk). In the word क्लृपि below, what I have missed to notice was लृ = ल ृ --> {la.} + {iRi.} = {liRi.}. I can hardly pronounce both the lateral and rhotic at the same time., and so I've to drop the rhotic when I pronounce "klip" comparable to the English clip /klɪp/ . See DJPD16-101c3.


The English word "clip"

UKT 180125: The only way I can pronounce clip /klɪp/ is very roughly {kla.} --> {kli.} --> {kli:p} if I were to use Bur-Myan phonology. However, if I were to put my English cap on, I can pronounce the English clip perfectly. Remember both Burmese and English are my first languages, L1s, because both my parents spoke English fluently as L2s, and I must have heard English sounds being spoken even when I was still in my mother's womb.
I wait for input from my peers.


p074c2-b01/ p056-076

क्लृपि [ klip-i ]
= क ् ल ृ प ि = क ् लृ प ि
- the root klip (gr.).
76) क्लृपि (p. 56) klip-i klip (gr.).


p074c2-b02/ p056-075

क्लृप्तकेशनखश्मश्रु [ klipta-kesa-nakha-sma-sru ]
- a. having his hair, nails, and beard trimmed.
75) क्लृप्तकेशनखश्मश्रु (p. 56) klipta-kesa-nakha-sma- sru having his hair


p074c2-b03/ p056-074

क्लृप्ति [ klp-ti (also-t) ]
- f. coming about, success.
74) क्लृप्ति (p. 56) klp-ti (also-t) coming

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UKT notes

Problem of BEPS mid-vowels

- UKT 151112, 180108:

Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}. Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has. We all, with different L1s, have difficulties pronouncing these words. Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide. But, be carful, how you choose the "native speaker", when there are quite a few dialects.

There are at least two sets of words in Bur-Myan with which I am having difficulty which I suspect is due to our misunderstanding of the Myanmar akshara vowel system:

- {k.} (1 blnk); {k} (2 blnk); {k:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
=- {k.} (1 blnk); --------------------; {k:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
{k.} (1 blnk); {k} (2 blnk);
----------------------;--- {ko} (2 blnk); {ko:} (2 blnk + emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blnk); {ko (2 blnk};
{kau.} (1 blnk); {kau} (2 blnk); (2 blnk + emphasis)

Mon-Myan - {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar' pair
{k} (2 blnk) vs. {k} (2 blnk)
{kau} (2 blnk) vs. {ou} (2 blnk)

The vowel {ou} is absent in Bur-Myan. If a Bur-Myan were to pronounce this vowel he would surely pronounced it as emphatic: . I still have to learn more Mon-Myan.

Now that the Approximant Velar Ya {ya.}/ {} has the Approximant Palatal Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} as a neighbour, the problem is getting worse:
Bur-Myan -
-- {t.} (1 blnk); -- {t} (2 blnk);
{t.} (1 blnk); {t} (2 blnk); {t:} (2 blnk + emphasis)

I first ran into this problem in 1989 soon after my wife Daw Than Than and I settled in Canada. I was writing a teaching program with the help of my wife Daw Than Than - Burmese for Foreign Friends, now included in Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script :
- BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 180108)

I have to train myself in disciplines related to Linguistics and Phonology resulting in establishing Tun Institute of Learning website - a distance education university dedicated to BEPS - about 13 years ago. 

I had run into various problems: 


Problem #1: We, Bur-Myan, pronounce:

{kau.} (1 blnk); {kau} (2 blnk); (2 blnk + emphasis)

However, from the word {kauk} 'paddy' - MLC MED014, we can say that {kau:} can be followed by a coda, meaning the syllable-vowel of {kau:} can be killed. From it we can say that {kau:} should not be treated as an emphatic and that its duration is 1 blnk.

Problem #2: Next comes the problem of killed-Nya'gyi {} in words such as {.}.

{} (1 blnk) --> {.} (1/2 blnk); (2 blnk)
ref. {.} - guest - MED2010-625

In Pal-Myan, we are told that Nya'gyi {a.} cannot be killed. It is a horizontal conjunct, and placing it under {a.t} to kill breaks up the conjunct:

Pal-Myan: {a.} + viram -->  {~a.} (mute)
giving us the pronunciation of words liked {pi~a} 'education' which must be pronounced as / /.
Please note that this is a case where IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet} has failed. I have to rely on Romabama.

The solution to this problem is to assign Nya'l {a.} as the sole occupier of cell r2c5 of Myanmar akshara matrix, and moving Nya'gyi {a.} down to the Approximant row under as Palatal-group, and moving {ya.} under Velar-group.

UKT 151129, 180108: Compare words with prefixes {kau:} & {k}, and place the words in the vowel diagram. In meanings {kau:} (with ref. to {lau} and {li:} 'penis') implies lower portions like the genitals whilst {k} the higher portions like head and head hair. In the vowel diagram {kau:} is in mid-back position whilst {k} is mid-front. It is an example of contrasting vowel sounds giving opposing meanings.

Go back BEPS-mid-vowel-note-b

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