Update: 2015-11-29 07:57 PM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p074.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{kRiS~} / {kRiS} : Dental-{Sa.} simulating Kin'si  - cont
  p074c1
{kRi.a.}
{kRi}
{kLi.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ
  p074c2
{k} : Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:} - See The Problem of BEPS mid-vowels
{k-ka.}
{k-ta.}
{k-pa.}
{k-ya.}
{k-ra.}
{k-la.}
{k-wa.}
  p074c3
{k-sha.}
{k-a.}
{k:}

UKT notes :
Problem of mid-vowels in BEPS

 

Contents of this page

{kRiS~} / {kRiS} : Dental-{Sa.} simulating Kin'si  - cont

p074c1

p074c1-b01

कृष्णगति [ krishna-gati ]
- m. (black-pathed), fire; -katurdas, f. 14th day of the dark half= new moon; -ganma‿ashtam, f. a certain eighth day which is Krishna's birthday; -t, f., -tva, n. blackness; -nayana, -netra, a. black-eyed; -paksha, m. dark fortnight (full moon to new moon); -bhma, m. black soil; -bhogin, m. kind of black snake; -mukha, a. () black-mouthed; -mriga, m. black antelope; -yagurveda, m. Black Yagur-veda.

 

p074c1-b02

कृष्णल [ krishn-la ]
- (m.) n. kind of black berry (used as weight and coin).

 

p074c1-b03

कष्णवर्ण [ krishna-varna ]
- a. black-coloured; -vartman, m. fire (black-tracked); ()-vla, a. black-tailed; -sakti, m. N.; -sarpa, m. kind of black snake; -sra, a. chiefly black, spotted black and white; m. spotted antelope; ()-sraṅga, a.; m. f.; id.

 

p074c1-b04

कृष्णागुरु [ krishna‿aguru ]
- n. kind of aloe; -‿agin, n. skin of the black antelope.

 

p074c1-b05

कृष्णाय [ krishn-ya ]
- den. P. behave like Krishna; . blacken.

 

p074c1-b06

कष्णायस्् krishna̮ayas, ˚स [ -sa ]
- n. iron; -‿ahi, m. black serpent.

 

p074c1-b07

कृष्णिका [ krishn-ik ]
- f. blackness; -i-man, m. id.

 

p074c1-b08

कृष्णी [ krishn&isharp; ]
- f. night (the black one).

 

p074c1-b09

कृष्य [ krish-ya ]
- fp. to be ploughed.

Contents of this page

{kRi.a.}

p074c1-b10

  कृसर [ krisara ]
- m. n., , f. dish of rice and sesamum.

 

Contents of this page

{kRi}

p074c1-b11

कॄ [ KR ]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents of this page

{kLi.} : words made up of highly Lateral vowel ऌ

p074c1-b12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents of this page

p074c2

p074c2-b01

क्लृपि [ klip-i ]
= क ् ल ृ प ि
- the root klip (gr.).

 

p074c2-b02

क्लृप्तकेशनखश्मश्रु [ klipta-kesa-nakha-sma- sru ]
- a. having his hair, nails, and beard trimmed.

 

p074c2-b03

क्लृप्ति [ klp-ti (also-t) ]
- f. coming about, success.

 

Contents of this page

{k}

UKT 151111: Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}.
Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has.
We all with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words.
Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.

{k-ka.}

p074c2-b04

केकय [ kekaya ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of --, , f. princess of Kekaya.

 

p074c2-b05

केकर [ kekara ]
- a. squinting; -ka, a. id.; -lokana, a. id.

 

p074c2-b06

केका [ kek ]
- f. cry of the peacock; -rava, m. id.

 

p074c2-b07

केकाय [ kek-ya ]
- den. . cry (as a peacock).

 

p074c2-b08

केकिन्् [ kek-in ]
- m. peacock.

Contents of this page

{k-ta.}

p074c2-b09

केत [ kt-a ]
- m. will, intention; desire.

 

p074c2-b10

 

p074c2-b11

केतन [ ket-ana ]
- n. invitation; shelter; place; body; sign, token, banner; business.

 

p074c2-b12

केतय [ keta-ya ]
- den. P. summon, invite.

 

p074c2-b13

केतु [ ket- ]
- m. light (pl. rays); shape, form; token of recognition, banner; leader, chief; meteor, comet: -mt, a. bright, light; clear (sound); N. of a Dnava; -yashti, f. flag staff.

 

p074c2-b14

केदार [ kedra ]
- m. irrigated field; N. of a mountainous country; -khanda, n. breach in the dyke enclosing a field; -ntha, m. N. of a form of Siva worshipped in Kedra; -bhatta, m. N. of an author.

Panch Kedar पंचकेदार {pi~sa. k-da-ra.} refers to five Hindu temples or holy places of the Shaivite sect dedicated to god Shiva {i-wa.nt}. They are located in the Garhwal Himalayan region in Uttarakhand, India.
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panch_Kedar 151112

 

p074c2-b15

केन [ kna ]
- in. of ka, by whom? whereby? wherewith? whence?

 

p074c2-b16

केनेषितोपनिषद्् [ kena‿ishita‿upanishad ]
- f. T. of an Upanishad; kena‿upanishad, f. id. (so named from the initial words "kena‿ishi tam").

 

p074c2-b17

केन्द्र [ kendra ]
- m. centre of a circle.

Contents of this page

{k-pa.}

p074c2-b18

केपि [ kp-i ]
- a. trembling, quivering.

Contents of this page

{k-ya.}

p074c2-b19

केयूर [ keyr-a ]
- m. n. bracelet (worn on upper arm by both sexes); -in, a. wearing a bracelet on the upper arm.

Contents of this page

{k-ra.}

p074c2-b20

केरल [ kerala ]
- m. pl. N. of a people in Malabar; , f. woman of Kerala.

Contents of this page

{k-la.}

p074c2-b21

केलि [ kel-i ]
- m. f. (also , f.) diversion, sport, dalliance: -griha, n. pleasure-house; -ta, n. sport, jest; -vana, n. pleasure-grove; -sayana, n. couch; -sadana, n. pleasure-house; -sthal, f. play-ground; ()-sla-bhagik, f. statuette.

Contents of this page

{k-wa.}

p074c2-b22

केवट [ kvata ]
- m. pit, hole.

 

p074c2-b23

केवर्त [ kevrta ]
- m. fisherman.

 

p074c2-b24

केवल [ kvala ]
- a. (; C. ) exclusively proper to (d., g.); alone, only, nothing but, mere, pure; whole, complete; every, all: -m, ad. only; entirely; but, only; na kevalam -api, not only -but; -tas, ad. only; -sas, ad. entirely; -vyatirekin, a. relating to separation only.

 

Contents of this page

p074c3

p074c3-b00

केवलाघ [ kvala‿agha ]
- a. alone guilty; -‿tman, a. whose nature is absolute unity; -‿dn, a. eating alone; -‿anvayin, a. relating to connexion only.

Contents of this page

{k-sha.}

p074c3-b01

केश [ 1. ksa ]
- m. (a., --, f. , ) hair; mane; tail.

 

p074c3-b02

केश [ 2. ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i. e. Pragpati).

UKT 151111: Skt-Dev Ka क, same as {ka.} of Bur-Myan. It is a velar plosive-stop and occupies the cell r1c1 in the Bur-Myan matrix. In the oldest inscriptions found in the Indian subcontinent, the inscription of King Asoka, the Buddhist king, this cell is occupied by the akshara {ka.}.
- Asokan vowel-letters and vowel-signs with {ka.}.
For comparison read Wikipedia on the Hindu god Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture'
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitragupta 151111

 

p074c3-b03

केशकर्षण [ kesa-karshana ]
- n. pulling by the hair; -kalpa, m. tuft of hair; -kta, m. louse; -graha, m. seizing by the hair: -na, n. id.; -ta, m. N.; - dhvalya, n. white hair; -psa, m. tuft or mass of hair; -bandha, m. hair-band; -rakan, f. dressing of the hair; -lukana, n. tearing out the hair.

 

p074c3-b04

केशव [ kesa-v ]
- a. long-haired; m. ep. of Vishnu and Krishna: -tva, n. abst. n.; -vapana, n. shaving the hair; -vyaparopana, n. tearing out of the hair; -samskra-dhpa, m. incense smoke for perfuming the hair; -hasta, m. tuft or mass of hair; hair as a hand.

 

p074c3-b05

केशाकेशि [ kes-kesi ]
- ad. hair to hair=tte -tte.

 

p074c3-b06

केशाग्र [ kesa‿agra ]
- n. tip of the hair; -‿anta, m. edge of the hair; tuft or mass of hair; ceremony of clipping the hair; -‿antika, a. reaching to the edge of the hair.

 

p074c3-b07

केशिन्् [ kes-n ]
- a. long-haired; maned; m. N. of an Asura and of several men: -, f. N.

 

p074c3-b08

केशिनिषूदन [ kesi-nishdana ]
- m. ep. of Krishna; - mathana, -sdana, -han, -hantri, m. id.

Contents of this page

{k-a.}

p074c3-b09

केसर [ ksa-ra ]
- n. hair (of the brows); mane (also ); stamina (esp. of the lotus); m. a plant: -pura, n. N. of a city.

 

p074c3-b10

केसराग्र [ kesara‿agra ]
- n. tips of the mane.

 

p074c3-b11

केसरिन्् [ kesar-in ]
- a. maned; m. lion: (n)-, f. lioness.

Contents of this page

{k:}

Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}.
Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has.
We all, with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words.
Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.

 

p074c3-b12

कैकेय [ kakeya ]
- m. king of Kekaya; , f. princess of Kekaya: N. of a wife of Dasaratha.

 

p074c3-b13

कैंकिरात [ kaiṅkirta ]
- a. coming from the Asoka tree.

 

p074c3-b14

कैटभ [ kaita-bha ]
- m. N. of an Asura: -git, -dvish, -bhid, -‿ari, m. ep. of Vishnu.

 

p074c3-b15

कैतक [ kaitaka ]
- a. produced from the Ketaka tree.

 

p074c3-b16

कैतव [ kaitava ]
- a. () false, deceitful; n., , f. fraud, lie, deceit; n. stake (in gambling).

 

p074c3-b17

कैदारिक [ kaidr-ika ]
- n. number of fields.

 

p074c3-b18

कैमर्थ्य [ kaimarth-ya ]
- n. enquiry as to the 'why'

 

p074c3-b19

कैमुतिक [ kaimut-ika ]
- a. based on the 'how much more or less'; -ya, n. relation of 'how much more or less'.

 

p074c3-b20

 

p074c3-b21

कैरव [ kairava ]
- n. white (night) lotus.

 

p074c3-b22

कैरविणी [ kairav-in ]
- f. white lotus (plant).

 

p074c3-b23

कैरात [ kairta ]
- a. relating to the Kirtas; m. prince of the Kirtas.

 

p074c3-b24

कैरिशि [ kairis-i ]
- m. descendant of Kirisa, pat. of Sutvan.

 

p074c3-b25

कैलास [ kailsa ]
- m. N. of a mountain, seat of Kubera & of Siva; -ntha, m. ep. of Kubera.

कैलास [ kailsa ]
Skt: कैलास [ kailsa ] - m. N. of a mountain, seat of Kubera & of Siva; - Mac074c3
Pal: {k-la-a.} - UHS PMD0335
  - m. name of a mountain in southern Myanmarpr (in India the mountain is placed in the Himalayas)
  From -ntha, m. ep. of Kubera, we get {k-la-a. nt}

 

p074c3-b26

कैवर्त [ kaivarta ]
- m. fisherman (a mixed caste); , f.; a-ka, m. id.; -ya, a. relating to a fisher man.

 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Problem of BEPS mid-vowels

- UKT 151112:

Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {k} and {k:}. Bur-Myan does not have {kou} which Mon-Myan has. We all, with different L1s have difficulties pronouncing these words. Just listen to the native speakers and let your ear be your guide.

There are at least two sets of words in Bur-Myan with which I am having difficulty which I suspect is due to our misunderstanding of the Myanmar akshara vowel system:

Bur-Myan
{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{k.} (1 blk); {k} (2 blk); {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{ko.} (1 blk); {ko} (2 blk): {ko:} (2 blk + emphasis)
{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk); (2 blk + emphasis)

Mon-Myan - {a.a.wuN} 'dissimilar' pair
{k} (2 blk) vs. {k} (2 blk)
{kau} (2 blk) vs. {ou} (2 blk)
  - The vowel {ou} is absent in Bur-Myan. If a Bur-Myan were to pronounce this vowel he would surely pronounced it as emphatic: for which I have not come up with a glyph. I still have to learn more Mon-Myan.

I first ran into this problem in 1989 soon after my wife Daw Than Than and I settled in Canada. I was writing a teaching program with the help of my wife. The ver01 came out in 1991. I was writing Burmese for Foreign Friends, now included in Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script - BurMyan-indx.htm (link chk 151112),
and, navigate to Burmese for Foreign Friends - B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 151112)
I have tried to train myself in various disciplines related to Linguistics and Phonology resulting in my establishing the Tun Institute of Learning website.

Here are my answers (as of today 151115) to the above problem.

Problem #1: We, Bur-Myan, pronounce:

{kau.} (1 blk); {kau} (2 blk); (2 blk + emphasis)

However, from the word {kauk} 'paddy' - MLC MED014, we can say that {kau:} can be followed by a coda. It means that the syllable-vowel of {kau:} can be killed. From it we can say that {kau:} should not be treated as an emphatic and that its duration is 1 blk.

Problem #2: Next comes the problem of killed-Nya'gyi {} in words such as {.}.

{} (1 blk) --> {.} (1/2 blk); (2 blk)
ref. {.} - guest - MED2010-625

In Pal-Myan, we are told that Nya'gyi {a.} cannot be killed. It is a horizontal conjunct, and placing it under {a.t} to kill it breaks up the conjunct:

Pal-Myan: {a.} + viram -->  {~a.} (mute)
giving us the pronunciation of words liked {pi~a} 'education' which must be pronounced as //.
Please note that this is a case where IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet} fails me. I have to rely on Romabama.

The solution to this problem is to assign Nya'l {a.} as the sole occupier of cell r2c5 of Myanmar akshara matrix, and moving down Nya'gyi {a.} down the Approximant row under as Palatal-group, and moving {ya.} under Velar-group.

UKT 151129: Compare words with prefixes {kau:} & {k}, and place the words in the vowel diagram. In meanings {kau:} implies lower portions like the genitals whilst {k} the higher portions like head and head hair. In the vowel diagram {kau:} is in mid-back position whilst {k} is mid-front. It is an example of contrasting vowel sounds giving opposing meanings.

 

Go back BEPS-mid-vowel-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file