Update: 2019-02-04 05:40 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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UKT 180421: Though Gautama Buddha accepts the existence of Axiomatic Entities, such as the Christian God who is actually a Dva, his theory of Suffering, particularly the Mental-Suffering, and Salvation from Suffering, states that Cause of Suffering and Deliverance from it, can be achieved only by You - you need not rely on any Axiomatic Entities such as God (Christian) or {kRRi.SNa.} (Hindu).
See my note on Insearch of Krishna the Hindu god, and read also the Selfless Mind, and An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: both by Peter Harvey is Emeritus Professor of Buddhist Studies at the University of Sunderland, and editor of the Buddhist Studies Review.

{kRRi.ta.} कृत : cont
{kRRi.ta} कृता
{kRRi.ti.} कृति
{kRRi.t} कृते

{kRRi.da.} कृद

{kRRi.pa.} कृप
{kRRi.pa} कृपा
{kRRi.ma.}  कृम

{kRRi.sha.} कृश : √kṛ, 'be lean'. - Whit023
{kRRi.sha}  कृशा
{kRRi.shi} कृशी
{kRRi.shau} कृशो

{kRRi.Sa.}  कृष : Dental hisser {Sa.}/ {S} : √kṛṣ, 'drag, plough'. - Whit023
{kRRiS~} / {kRRiS}: Dental hisser {Sa.}/ {S}  simulating Kin'si - rhyming with "braid"


UKT notes :
BEPS Fricatives
Buddhaksetra {boad~Da.hkt~ta.ra} "Pure Land": {a.mi.ta-Ba. boad~Da.}
Insearch of Krishna : {kRRi.SNa.} the Hindu god
Seven Weeping Sisters : the Pleiades


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{kRRi.ta.} कृत : cont


p073c1-b00/ p056-003

कृतपद [ krita-pada ]
- a. having found a footing; -punya, a. happy; -prva, a. done before: -nsana, n. non-recognition of previous benefits, ingratitude; -prvin, a. having done something (ac.) before; -praga, a. wise; -pratikrita, n. attack and resistance; -prayatna, a. well cared for; -prayogana, a. having attained his object; -buddhi, a. whose mind is matured, discriminating; resolved (to, d. or inf.); -bhmi, f. spot prepared for the purpose; -mati, a. having made up his mind; -manda-pada-nysa, a. stepping slowly and using few words; -mandra, m. N.; -mrga, a. made accessible, pervious; -mla, a. firmly rooted, having gained firm footing; -mauna, a. observing silence: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.
3) कृतपद (p. 56) krita-pada having found a footing


p073c1-b01/ p056-002 

कृतयत्न [ krita-yatna ]
- a. having exerted himself; -yantrana, a. controlling oneself; -yuga, n. golden age; -lakshana, a. marked; branded; -vat, pp. act. having done; -varman, m. N. of various men; -vasati, a. having taken up his abode, dwelling; -vpa, -vpana, a. having the head shaved; -vidya, a. learned; -vetana, a. receiving wages, hired; -vedin, a. grateful; -vaira, a. having shown ill-will.
2) कृतयत्न (p. 56) krita-yatna having exerted himself

कृतयुग [krita-yuga] - n. golden age - Mac073c1
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satya_Yuga 190129
" -the first of the four Yugas, the "Yuga (Age or Era) of Truth", when humanity is governed by Truth gods, and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal and humanity will allow intrinsic goodness to rule supreme. It is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age".


p073c1-b02/ p056-013 

कृतशिल्प [ krita-silpa ]
- a. having acquired an art; -sauka, a. having cleansed or purified himself; -srama, a. having undergone hardships, having occupied oneself zealously with (lc., --); -samskra, a. elaborated, prepared; adorned; consecrated; -samga, a. to whom a sign has been given: pl. with whom signals have been concerted; -samdhna, a. brought near; placed on the bowstring; -smita, pp. smiling; -hasta, a. skilful, dexterous.
13) कृतशिल्प (p. 56) krita-silpa having acquired an art

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{kRRi.ta} कृता

p073c1-b03/ p056-012

कृताकृत [ krita‿akrita ]
- pp. what is done and not done (n. sg. or du.); half done; prepared and not prepared; arbitrary.
12) कृताकृत (p. 56) krita̮akrita what is done and not done 


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कृतागस्् [ krita&halfacute;gas ]
- a. guilty, sinful.
11) कृतागस्् (p. 56) krita◡́gas guilty


BHS: kṛtāgada - n. of a Buddhakṣetra in the east -- FE-BHS190

See my note on Buddhakṣetra 'Pure Land'
My rendition: {boad~Da.hkt~ta.ra} or {Bo-Di.hkt~ta.ra}


p073c1-b05/ p056-010

कृताङ्क [ krita‿aṅka ]
- a. branded; -‿agala, a. having the palms joined in supplication to (d.); -‿tithya, a. having practised hospitality; hospitably entertained; -‿tman, a. whose mind is cultivated or purified; -‿dara, a. treated with due respect; -‿anuvydha, a. filled with (in.); -‿anta, a. making an end, decisive; m. matter, affair, case; fate; Death, Yama; system, doctrine: -nagar, f. city of Yama, -samtrsa, m. N. of a Rkshasa; -‿antara, a. having made one's way to (g.); -‿ann, n. cooked food; -‿apardha, a. having committed an offence against (g.); -‿abhisheka, a. hvg. performed a religious ablution; consecrated; -‿abhysa, a. kept to one's studies (by, --); -‿artha, a. having attained his object; satisfied: -t, f., -tva, n. satisfaction.
10) कृताङ्क (p. 56) krita̮aṅka branded;

कृताङ्क krtanka
= क ृ त ा ङ ् क  --> {kRRi.taan~ka.}
Skt: कृताङ्क [krita‿anka]- a. branded; -- Mac073c1


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कृतार्थय [ kritrtha-ya ]
- den. P. satisfy; fulfil.
9) कृतार्थय (p. 56) kritrtha-ya P. satisfy; fulfil.


p073c1-b07/ p056-008

कृतार्थीकरण [ kritrth-karana ]
- a. satisfactory; -kri, satisfy; -bh, be satisfied.
8) कृतार्थीकरण (p. 56) kritrth-karana satisfactory


p073c1-b08/ p056-007

कृतालय [ krita‿laya ]
- a. having taken up one's abode, dwelling (in, lc., --); feeling at home; -‿avasakthika, a. having put on a loin cloth; -‿avasatha, a. received into one's house; -‿avastha, a. compelled to appear in court; -‿samsa, a. hoping; -‿astra, a. practised in arms or archery; -‿hraka, a. having finished one's meal.
7) कृतालय (p. 56) krita̮laya having taken up one's abode

BHS: kṛtāvin - adj. (= katāvin acc. to PTSD applied to rhats: skilled, skillful ... -- FE-BHS190
BPal: {ka.ta-wi} - UHS-PMD0285
  UKT from UHS: mfn. in possession of a trade, trained in a profession

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{kRRi.ti.} कृति

p073c1-b09/ p056-006

कृति [ . kr-ti ]
- f. making, performance; action; production, literary work; N. of various metres; confirmation, verification (dr.).
6) कृति (p. 56) 1. kr-ti making


p073c1-b10/ p056-005

कृति [ . krit- ]
- m. f. kind of dagger.
5) कृति (p. 56) 2. krit- dagger.


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कृतिन्् [ krit-in ]
- a. active; clever; skilful, experienced (in, lc., --); having attained one's object, satisfied; -i-tva, n. satisfaction.
4) कृतिन्् (p. 56) krit-in active

BHS: kṛttima - adj. (semi-MIndic for Skt. kṛtrima) artificial, unreal ... - FE-BHS190
BPal: {kait~ti.ma.}
- - UHS-PMD0318
  UKT from UHS: mfn. made [meaning not occurring in Nature], son [child] by adoption. See above कृतक krta-ka --> {kRi.ta.ka.}

BHS: kṛtyākṛtya (Pal = kiccākicca; ...) all kinds of duties ... -- FE-BHS190
BPal: {kaic~sa-kaic~sa.} - UHS-PMD0317

  UKT from UHS: n. duties to do and those that must not be done


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{kRRi.t} कृते

p073c1-b12/ p056-001

कृते [ kri-te ]
- (pp. lc.) ad. prp. owing to, on account of, for, instead of (g. or --); abs. for a purpose: -na, in. ad. id.
1) कृते (p. 56) kri-te owing to

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कृतोदक [ krita‿udaka ]
- a. having performed the prescribed ablutions; having made offerings of water to the dead; -‿unmda, a. feigning madness; -‿upakra, a. having rendered a service; benefited.
28) कृतोदक (p. 56) krita̮udaka having performed


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कृत्तावशेष [ kritta‿avasesha ]
- a. broken off except a small remnant.
27) कृत्तावशेष (p. 56) kritta̮avasesha broken off


p073c2-b03/ p056-026

कृत्ति [ krtti ]
- f. hide: -vsas, a. clad in a hide, ep. of Siva, and of his wife Durg.
26) कृत्ति (p. 56) krtti hide 

UKT 170328, 180103: To me Durg is the Mother-goddess of Bengal, and is always fully clothed but not clad in hide. However, it could be Kali, who like Siva is almost nude except for a piece of hide around her bottom


p073c2-b04/ p056-025

कृत्तिका [ krttik ]
= क ृ त ् त ि क ा  --> {kRRait~ti.ka}.
Skt: कृत्तिका [ krttik ] - f. (pl. V., sg. C.) the Pleiades (a lunar mansion [aka nakshatra (Skt: नक्षत्र, nakshatra, 'star']): personified as the six nurses of Skanda [the War-god]. - Mac073c2
25) कृत्तिका (p. 56) krttik the Pleiades 
PBur: {krt~ti.ka} - n. astron.  asterism of 7 stars in the shape of a brood of young chicks,
  the 3rd. lunar mansion, Pliades - MLC MED2006-044. (Also entered in UTM-PDD025)

UKT 170327: The group of 7 stars in Greek mythology and Western astrology is known as the Seven Weeping Sisters. See my note.


p073c2-b05/ p056-024

कृत्नु [ kri-tn ]
- a. active, skilful.
24) कृत्नु (p. 56) kri-tn active


p073c2-b06/ p056-023

कृत्य [ kr-tya ]
- fp. to be done; suitable, right; corruptible: -m, any one (g.) needs or cares for (in.); m. krit suffix of the future pt. ps.: tavya, anya or ya (gr.); , f. act, deed, performance, function (-rgah, ill-treatment); sorcery, charm; wicked fairy; n. activity; function, business, duty; service; purpose: -kara, a. doing one's work; -k, f. wicked fairy, witch; -vat, a. active; occupied; having an object in view; -vid, a. knowing one's duty.
23) कृत्य (p. 56) kr-tya to be done

कृत्यका kṛtyakā
Skt: -k, f. wicked fairy, witch - Mac073c2
Skt: कृत्यका kṛtyakā - f. enchantress, witch - SpkSkt


p073c2-b07/ p056-022

कृत्यारूप [ krity-rpa ]
- a. looking like a ghost; -hata, pp. bewitched, destroyed by magic.
22) कृत्यारूप (p. 56) krityaN-rpa looking like a ghost


p073c2-b08/ p056-021

कृत्रिम [ kri-trma ]
- a. artificial, factitious; spurious; fictitious, feigned; casual, accidental; adopted (son): -t, f. cunning; -dhpaka, m. compound incense; -bhva, m. feigned affection; -mnikya-maya, a. consisting of false rubies; -mitra-t, f. friendship contrary to nature; -‿rti, a. feigning distress.
21) कृत्रिम (p. 56) kri-trma artificial


p073c2-b09/ p056-020

कृत्वन्् [ kr-tvan ]
- a. (r-) making, producing (--); active.
20) कृत्वन्् (p. 56) kr-tvan (r-) making


p073c2-b10/ p056-019

कृत्वस्् [ kr-tv-as ]
- (ac. pl.) ad. [makings], times (C. only--, forming multiplicative numerals).
19) कृत्वस्् (p. 56) kr-tv-as [makings]


p073c2-b11/ p056-018

कृत्वाय kritvaNya, कृत्वी [ kritv&isharp; ]
- V. gd. of √ kri.
18) कृत्वाय (p. 56) kritv √ kri.


p073c2-b12/ p056-017

कृत्व्य [ kr-tvya ]
- a. efficient; laborious.
17) कृत्व्य (p. 56) kr-tvya efficient


p073c2-b13/ p056-016

कृत्स्न [ krit-sn ]
- a. whole, complete: pl. (rare) all: -t, f., -tva, n. wholeness, completeness; -sas, ad. wholly, completely.
16) कृत्स्न (p. 56) krit-sn whole

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{kRRi.da.} कृद

p073c2-b14/ p056-015

कृदन्त [ krid-anta ]
- a. ending in a krit suffix; m. primary noun (formed directly from a vbl. root).
15) कृदन्त (p. 56) krid-anta ending


p073c2-b15/ p056-014

कृन्तत्र [ krint-tra ]
- n. cleft.
14) कृन्तत्र (p. 56) krint-tra cleft.


p073c2-b16/ p056-045

कृन्तन [ krint-ana ]
- n. cutting up or off.
45) कृन्तन (p. 56) krint-ana cutting

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{kRRi.pa.} कृप

kṛp, 'lament'. - Whit023


p073c2-b17/ not online

कृप् [ krip ]
Skt: कृप् [ krip ] - vi. . kripate , (v.) lament (for, ac.); implore,   anu , long for (ac.) - Mac073c2
Skt: कृपणायते { कृपणाय } kṛpaṇāyate { kṛpaṇāya } - v. lament - SpkSkt
Skt: कृपायते { कृपाय } kṛpāyate { kṛpāya } - v. lament - SpkSkt


p073c2-b18/ p056-044

कृप्् [ krp ]
- f. form, appearance; beauty (only in. - .)
44) कृप्् (p. 56) krp form


p073c2-b19/ not online 

कृप [kripa]
Skt: कृप [kripa] - m. N., , f. N.
Skt: कृप kṛpa - m.f. name of the son and daughter of the sage zarasdvat - SpkSkt


p073c2-b20/ p056-044

कृपण [ krip-an ]
- a. doleful; miserable, wretched; avaricious: -m, ad. dolefully, pitifully; m. miser; -na, n. misery, wretchedness; -varna, a. looking wretched.
  43) कृपण (p. 56) krip-an doleful
कृपण kṛpaṇa - adj. miserly, indigent, little-minded, miser, mean, needy, stingy, low, poor, vile, miserable, pitiable, wretched, resulting from tears, feeble, inclined to grieve, dagger. m. sword, poor man, worm, niggard, scraper. n. desire, miserly, wretchedness. v. to long for - SpkSkt

कृपणम् kṛpaṇam
- ind. pitiably, miserably - SpkSkt


कृपणचेतस् kṛpaṇacetas
 - adj. narrow-minded - SpkSkt


p073c2-b21/ p056-042

कृपनीळ [ krip-nla ]
- a. dwelling in lustre.
42) कृपनीळ (p. 56) krip-nla dwelling in lustre.


p073c2-b22/ p056-041

कृपय [ kripa-ya ]
- den. P. mourn, lament (for, ac.).
41) कृपय (p. 56) kripa-ya P. mourn, 

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{kRRi.pa} कृपा

p073c2-b23/ p056-040

कृपा [ krip- ]
- f. pity, compassion (with g. or lc.): -m kri, have pity on (lc.).
  40) कृपा (p. 56) krip- pity
Skt: कृपा kṛpā - f. favour, grace, loving kindness, tenderness, pity, compassion - SpkSkt


कृपाणक kṛpāṇaka
- m. scimitar, sword - SpkSkt


कृपणिन् kṛpaṇin
- adj. being in misery, miserable - SpkSkt


कृपण्यु kṛpaṇyu
- adj. one who praises - SpkSkt


कृपाणी kṛpānī
- f. knife, pair of scissors, dagger - SpkSkt


कृपाणिका kṛpāṇikā
- f. knife, dagger -- SpkSkt


p073c2-b24/ p056-039

कृपाण [ krip-na ]
- m. sword: , f. scissors; dagger, knife; -latik, f. sword-blade.
39) कृपाण (p. 56) krip-na sword


p073c2-b25/ p056-038

कृपाणिका [ kripn-ik ]
- f. knife, dagger.
38) कृपाणिका (p. 56) kripn-ik knife


p073c2-b26/ p056-037

कृपाय [ krip-ya ]
- den. . mourn, lament; pity.
37) कृपाय (p. 56) krip-ya . mourn, lament; pity.


p073c2-b27/ p056-036

कृपालु [ krip-lu ]
- a. having pity for (g.); compassionate (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); -vat, a. id.
36) कृपालु (p. 56) krip-lu having pity for

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{kRRi.ma.} कृम

p073c2-b28/ p056-035

कृमि [ kr-mi ] m. [worker], worm; insect, maggot; silk-worm; -ka, m. little worm; *-kosa-ga, *-kosa‿uttha, a. silken; -ga, a. produced by a worm; n. aloe-wood; -tantu-gla, n. cobweb; -la, a. wormy.
35) कृमि (p. 56) kr-mi [worker]

कृमि kṛmi [kr-mi]
Skt: कृमि [kr-mi] - m. [worker], worm; insect, maggot; silk-worm; -- Mac073c2
Skt: कृमि kṛmi - m. insect, lac, worm, shield-louse, silk-worm, spider, ant -- SpkSkt 
Pal: {ki.mi.}
- - UHS-PMD0319
  UKT from UHS: m. insect, small insect, maggot

UKT 170328: Insects can be both harmful and useful to the humankind. Two beneficial insects are:
1. The silkworm
  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smuggling_of_silkworm_eggs_into_the_Byzantine_Empire 170328
  - http://www.projectbly.com/blog/how-the-secret 170328
From the second: "This was way back in 2700 BCE, and China would fiercely guard the secret of silk for many thousands of years, even issuing an imperial decree condemning to death anyone who tried to spirit silkworms or their eggs out of the Empire. ... the Nestorian monks sent to Central Asia by Byzantine emperor Justinian, who hid their booty [silkworms] in bamboo staffs."
2. Lac insects : - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lac 170328
"Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of lac insects, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca."


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p073c3-b01/ not online

कृमुक kṛmuka [kṛimu-k]
= क ृ म ु क
Skt: - m. a tree -- Mac073-c2
Skt: - kṛmuk m. a kind of tree Kāṭh. xix, 10 ŚBr. vi, 6, 2, 11 Kauś. 28 Mahīdh. on VS. xi, 70 (cf. kārmuka, krumuk, and kramuka.)
  -- Mon-Willi305-c3
Skt: कृमुक kṛmuka - m. kind of tree on -- SpkSkt

UKT 140407: Based on meanings of कृमि kṛmi {ki.mi.}, I suggest it is a tree loved by insects. From it, I further suggest, the tree is a lac tree, cutch tree, or a mulberry tree. Lac and cutch are used as preservative, tanning agent, and as a source of red dye even to this day. Of course, the leaves of the mulberry tree is food for silkworms.

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{kRRi.sha.} कृश

√kṛ, 'be lean'. - Whit023


p073c3-b02/ not online 

कृश् [kris]
- iv. p. krsya , grow thin; cs. karsaya , make thin; diminish; pp. karsita , emaciated


p073c3-b03/ p056-034

कृश [ kris- ]
- a. thin, slender; feeble, sickly; not full (moon); slender, weak, insignificant; poor; m. N.; (a)-ka, a. slender; -gava, a. hvg. thin cows; -t, f., -tva, n. thinness; -dhana, a. of slender means, poor; -buddhi, a. of weak intellect; -bhritya, a. having thin servants.
34) कृश (p. 56) kris- thin, slender

कृश kṛśa [kris-]
Skt: कृश [kris-] - a. thin, slender; feeble, sickly; not full (moon); slender, weak, insignificant; poor; m. N. -- Mac073c3
Skt: कृश kṛśa - adj. thin -- SpkSkt
BPal: {ki.a.}
- - UHS-PMD0321
  UKT from UHS: mfn. thin, insignificant

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{kRRi.sha} कृशा

p073c3-b04/ p056-033

कृशाङ्ग [ krisa‿aṅga ]
- a. () thin, slender; -‿atithi, a. having thin (starving) guests.
33) कृशाङ्ग (p. 56) krisa̮aṅga () thin, slender


p073c3-b05/ p056-032

कृशानु [ kris-nu ]
- a. shooting well; m. bowman; N. of a celestial bowman, guardian of Soma; ep. of Agni; fire.
32) कृशानु (p. 56) kris-nu shooting well



कृशार्थ [ krisa‿artha ]
- a. of slender means, poor; -‿asva, a. having thin (starving) horses.
31) कृशार्थ (p. 56) krisa̮artha of slender means


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{kRRi.shi} कृशी

p073c3-b07/ not online

[kris-kri ]
Skt: [kris-kri ] - make thin or poor; -bh , become thin; dry up. - Mac073c3
Skt: कृशीकृ - to make lean - MWilliams:SktDic
Skt: kṛśībhū - verb class 1 to emaciate - DCS:SktDic


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{kRRi.shau} कृशो

p073c3-b08/ p056-030

कृशोदर [ krisa‿udara ]
- a. () thin-bellied, slender.
30) कृशोदर (p. 56) krisa̮udara () thin-bellied


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{kRRi.Sa.} कृष : Dental-{Sa.} is unknown in Bur-Myan

√kṛṣ, 'drag, plough'. - Whit023


p073c3-b09/ not online

कृष् [. krish ] i. p. ()
- krsha, draw, drag along, pull about, carry away; draw (sword, bow); lead; acquire; plough: pp. ...


p073c3-b10/ not online

कृष् [. krish ]
- vi. krish, plough


p073c3-b11/ p056-029

कृषक [ krish-aka ]
- m. husbandman.
29) कृषक (p. 56) krish-aka husbandman.


p073c3-b12/ p056-058

कृषि [ krish- ]
- f. agriculture; field (also ), arable land; harvest; -ik, f. agriculture; -karman, n. agriculture; -phala, n. success in husbandry; harvest.
58) कृषि (p. 56) krish- agriculture


p073c3-b13/ p056-057

कृषीवल [ krish-val ]
- m. husbandman.
57) कृषीवल (p. 56) krish-val husbandman.

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{kRRiS~} / {kRRiS} : Dental {Sa.}/ {S} simulating Kin'si - rhyming with "braid"

UKT 140408, 180103, 190102: The highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel {iRRi.}/ {iRRi}, rhyming with {i.}/ {i}, is unknown to Bur-Myanmar speakers. Moreover the closeness due to /i/ makes sure that it is the most rhotic. Openness /a/ cannot produce the highest rhoticity: repha seems to be the most rhotic.

The pronunciation of {iRRi.}/ {iRRi} has been confused with Bur-Myan {kri.}/ {kri} which is non-rhotic in the Irrawaddy valley dialect but is only slightly rhotic in the Rakhine dialect. To make sure that what we have in Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, the pair {kri.}/ {kri} is not used in Bur-Myan word-construction, and in its place the pair {kr.}/ {kr} .

Now, when this vowel is followed by the dental hisser fricative {Sa.}/ {S} - another unknown to Bur-Myan - we are totally confused. An example of this sound is found in the name of the Hindu god Krishna. See my note on the search for Krishna {kRRi.SNa.} or BPali: {ka.Nha.} - UHS-PMD0283c1


p073c3-b14/ p056-056

कृष्टज [ krishta-ga ] = क ृ ष ् ट ज
- a. growing on ploughed land, cultivated (land); -phala, n. value of the harvest.
56) कृष्टज (p. 56) krishta-ga growing on ploughed land


p073c3-b15/ not online

-- plough and roll


p073c3-b16/ p056-055

कृष्टि [ krish-t ]
- f. pl. agricultural folk; people; m. sage.
55) कृष्टि (p. 56) krish-t agricultural folk


p073c3-b17/ p056-054

कृष्ण [ krish-n ]
- n. black; dark; w. paksha, dark half of the month (from full to new moon); m. (krshna) black antelope; N. of a god (incarnation of Vishnu): du. Krishna and Arguna; , f. kind of leech; N. of several plants; ep. of Draupad, and of Durg; n. blackness, darkness.
54) कृष्ण (p. 56) krish-n black

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UKT notes

BEPS Fricatives 

UKT 140407, 170331, 180116, 190203:

Fricatives have been troubling me since 140407. Now, I've come to define them as shown above.

In this file we meet the highly rhotic Sanskrit {kRRi.} कृ kṛ, and the three IPA dental-fricatives, /ʃ/ /s/ /θ/ combined as words. Note that these three IPA fricatives are known as the husher, the hisser, and the theta (θήτα) aka thibilant. Romabama dealing with BEPS languages has to include all three in our study: 

husher: श ś /ʃ/ = {sha.}/ {sh}
hisser:  ष ṣ /s/ = {Sa.}/ {S}
theta, स s /θ/ = {a.}/ {}

Though Skt-Dev treats {a.} as a sibilant, in both Eng-Latin and Bur-Myan, स {a.} is a thibilant, e.g. English <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535).

Of the three, the hisser, ष ṣ /s/ = {Sa.}/ {S}, can become a diacritic similar to {kn:si:} giving rise to a whole series of basic consonants which I've called the Lisping consonants, with the {Sa.} becoming part of the whole glyph. The ~ sign may be taken out: 
 - {Ska.}, {STa.}, {Sta.}, {Spa.};
 - {SNa.}, {Sna.}, {Sma.}
 - {Sla.}, {Swa.}

The following are some monosyllabic Eng-Latin words transcribed into Eng-Myan:

<spun> /spʌn/ (DJPD16-503) --> {Spn:}
<stun> /stʌn/ (DJPD16-513) --> {Stn:}
<skin> /skɪn/ (DJPD16-491) --> {Skn:}

However, the ordinary Bur-Myan would be more comfortable to pronounce them as disyllabic.

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{boad~Da.hkt~ta.ra} "Pure Land": {a.mi.ta-Ba. boad~Da.}

-- UKT 140406, 170324, 180118

Buddhaksetra {boad~Da.hkt~ta.ra}, is not to be viewed as a mythical land where previous Buddhas who had gone through Parinirvana Skt: परिनिर्वाण parinirvāṇa, Pali: परिनिब्बान parinibbāna "are existing" at the present.

UKT 180118: Parinirvana of the historical Gautama Buddha is the physical death when the body of flesh and blood dies, and the corpse is cremated. Remember, the historical person was born of a human father, and a human mother. He suffered from various illnesses during his lifetime, and when his dead body was cremated on the funeral pyre, almost nothing of the body made up of mostly water remained. Only, bits of bones, ash from the body and wood of the pyre, remained. "Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composition_of_the_human_body 180118 

The word Nirvana is controversial. I view it only as a mental state, arrived at by a human of flesh and blood, after he or she has become free of Mental suffering. Physical suffering such as suffering from the effects of climate, requirements of solid food and liquid water, need of the body to get rid of excreta, effects of old age, bodily ailments, and lastly, physical death because of bloody diarrhoea (Gautama Buddha), vomiting blood (Shin Sāriputta), and of being beaten to death (Shin Moggalana).

I always view Nirvana coming before Parinirvana. However, followers of Weizza Path (the chief being BoBo Aung) believe that, because of the whole body is made up of material aggregates and mental aggregate, a Weizza could still survive physical death, and can exist in the form of mental body. A Zawgyi - who still needs "sex" can even copulate with "strange fruits".
See Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch05-magus.htm

Buddhaksetra {boad~Da.hkt~ta.ra} is to be viewed as a "land" [axiomatic - not proven by modern science] where Wisdom prevails. See video of the terra firma which you can visit: Seven Wonders of the Buddhist World, a BBC documentary with English subtitles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H7ZIpVKZaI4 140406
See the downloaded video - but don't be surprised not to find anything on Myanmarpr.
Downloaded in HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries on 180103.
- BBC7WondBuddhEngl<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180116)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pure_land 140406

A Pure Land, in Mahayana Buddhism, is the celestial realm or pure abode of a Buddha or Bodhisattva {bau:Di.t~ta.}. The term "pure land" is particular to the Chinese (Ch. 净土, jngtǔ) and related East Asian traditions; in Sanskrit the equivalent concept is called the "Buddha field" (Skt. buddha-kṣetra). The various traditions that focus on Pure Lands have been given the nomenclature Pure Land Buddhism. Pure lands are also evident in the literature and traditions of Taoism and Bn.

The notion of 'pure lands' was inherited from other Dharmic Traditions already evident in the Dharma. The notion of a pure land may have evolved from the Uttarakuru, a divine continent in ancient Dharmic cosmology. [1] The pure realms are all accessible through experiential meditation and trance sadhana.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pure_Land_Buddhism 170324

Pure Land Buddhism (simplified Chinese: 净土宗; traditional Chinese: 淨土宗; Pinyin: Jngtǔzōng; Japanese: 浄土仏教 [1], Jōdo bukkyō; Korean: 정토종, jeongtojong; Vietnamese: Tịnh Độ Tng), also referred to as Amidism [2] [3] in English, is a broad branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia. Pure Land is a tradition of Buddhist teachings that are focused on Amitābha Buddha {a.mi.ta-Ba.} अमिताभ ,  [UKT ]

The three primary texts of the tradition, known as the "Three Pure Land Sutras", are:
- the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra (Infinite Life Sutra),
- the Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra (Amitabha Sutra
   - Amitabha Buddha {a.mi.ta-Ba. boad~Da.}
- the Amitayurdhyana Sutra (Contemplation Sutra)
  "No Sanskrit version of the sutra is known to exist. [4] :10 "
  - Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amitayurdhyana_Sutra 180118

UKT 180117: 
#1. The Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra was translated from Sanskrit into Classical Chinese by Tripiṭaka master Kumārajīva in 402, but may have existed in India as early as the year 100 in a Prakrit. [1] -- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shorter_Sukhāvatīvyūha_Sūtra 180118
[I presume the script to be Asokan-Brahmi the modern form of which is Pali-Myan according to Rev. F. Mason.]

#2. What is the relationship between Bodhisatta Metteyya (Pali) aka Maitreya (Sanskrit), and Amitabha?
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitreya 180117
"[In ] Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita. ... the concept of a bodhisattva differs greatly in Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. In Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who is striving for full enlightenment (Arahantship in Pali), whereas in Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who has already reached a very advanced state of grace or enlightenment but holds back from entering nirvana so that he may help others."

See downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: "The Buddha of Infinite Life (Wu-liang-shou fo) and O-mi-tuo fo are rendered as Amitāyus. Elsewhere this buddha is referred to as Amitābha." (roman 014)
- BET-ThreePureLandSutra<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180117)
See video in TIL HD-VIDEO/Tibet and SD-VIDEO/Tibet on Gug Kingdom (ca. 930 - 1630) in western Tibet which first received the Indian text from where they spread to China.
- GugeKingdom<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180117)
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guge 180117
"The ruins of the former capital of the Guge kingdom are located at Tsaparang in the Sutlej valley, not far from Mount Kailash {k-la-a. tan} [name sake in the Mon State in Myanmarpr] and 1,200 miles (1,900 km) westwards from Lhasa."

In the downloaded txt, on Outlines of the Three Sutras (p.roman 016-17) is explained to whom and where the sutras are delivered by the Śākyamuni Buddha:
1. Larger sutra - to Ānanda at Vulture Peak near Rājagṛha, the capital of Magadha
2. Shorter sutra - to Queen Vaidehī, wife of King Bimbisāra, in prison where their son Ajātaśatru, had imprisoned them
3. Contemplation Sutra -

Note: There are 26 pages numbered in roman numbers, after which on p001 appears: THE SUTRA ON THE BUDDHA OF INFINITE LIFE DELIVERED BY ŚĀKYAMUNI BUDDHA, Translated into Chinese during the Cao-Wei Dynasty [ 386-534/535 AD - https://www.britannica.com/topic/Wei-dynasty 180119] , by Tripiṭaka Master Saṃghavarman of India .

(p001 pdf 28/118) : Part One 
" 1. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying on Vulture Peak in Rājagṛha with a large company of twelve thousand monks. They were all great sages [Rishis ?] who had already attained supernatural powers. Their names included the following [numbered for ease of counting by UKT]:
01. Venerable Ājātakauṇḍinya, 02. Ven. Aśvajit, 03. Ven. Vāṣpa, 04. Ven. Mahānāma, 05. Ven. Bhadrajit, 06. Ven. Vimala, 07. Ven. Yaśodeva, 08. Ven. Subāhu, 09. Ven. Pūrṇaka, 10. Ven. Gavāṃpati [Arahat of the North-west aka Rahu-coner], 11. Ven. Uruvilvākāśyapa, 12. Ven. Gayākāśyapa, 13. Ven. Nadīkāśyapa, 14. Ven. Mahākāśyapa, 15. Ven. Śāriputra, 16. Ven. Mahāmaudgalyāyana [aka (Pali: Moggallāna)], 17. Ven. Kapphiṇa, 18. Ven. Mahākauṣṭhila, 19. Ven. Mahākātyāyana, 20. Ven. Mahācunda, 21. Ven. Pūrṇamaitrāyaṇīputra, 22. Ven. Aniruddha, 23. Ven. Revata [Arahat of the South-east aka Tuesday-corner], 24. Ven. Kimpila, 25. Ven. Amogharāja, 26. Ven. Pārāyaṇika, 27. Ven. Vakkula, 28. Ven. Nanda, 29. Ven. Svāgata, 30. Ven. Rāhula [ Arahat of North-east aka Sunday-corner] and 31. Ven. Ānanda. All of these were elders."

UKT 180118: Because of the word 'elder', I understand them to be "monks with shaven heads" and not "rishis with matted hair". The "monks with shaven heads" mentioned here are Arahats. Remember not all Arahats are equally adapt in magical-powers. There are 6 kinds of magical-powers, and only some possess all the six. Some may not even have any. The corner Planet-gods are malignant riding ferocious animals such the Garuda, the Lion, the Naga-dragon, and Tuskless-elephant. To control these malignant Planet-gods which bring misfortunes to the humans whom they control, Arahats endowed with all the six magic-powers are needed.]

My first question here is where is Venerable Upali [Arahat of the South-west aka Saturday-corner]. Secondly, how many can we identify with those in Worship of the Nine Bura or Gods
See Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (link chk 180117)
I quote from Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, author of the Folk Elements in Buddhism
DHA:  "Of the eight Arahats, six are well known to all Buddhists, but two, Revata and Gavampati, are not so frequently mentioned in the Buddhist [Theravada] scriptures. [UKT ]
Read pdf of Upali Sutta, transl. by Piya Tan, 2008, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- PiyaTan-UpaliSutta<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180118)

UKT 130113: There is a theory that these two Arahats were adapts in esoteric cults, and were made into Buddhist arahants. At present I cannot remember my source for this theory. I need to go further into the Weizza cult in Myanmarpr, one of the centre of which is a place called {m-B.koan:} near Pyinmana.

According to Myanmar Mahaboat Astrology [commonly called "Mahabote" with a silent-e aka magic-e at the end leading to wrong pronunciation], Arahats assigned to the corners are to "control" the malignant Planet-gods, who have uncontrollable animals as their mounts. Mahaboat is pure astrology, whereas Hindu-astrology is Astronomy-cum-Astrology.
See: http://www.jupitersweb.com/mahabote-part-one.html 170402 . See also
Daw Khin Myo Chit's essay "Facets of Life at the Shwedagon Pagoda" in Colourful Burma.

Pure Land oriented practices and concepts are found within basic Mahāyāna Buddhist cosmology, and form an important component of the Mahāyāna Buddhist traditions of China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Tibet. The term "Pure Land Buddhism" is used to describe both the Pure Land soteriology of Mahāyāna Buddhism, which may be better understood as "Pure Land traditions" or "Pure Land teachings," and the separate Pure Land sects that developed in Japan.

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In search of Krishna - the Hindu god

कृष्ण krs-na  = क ृ ष ् ण  {kRRaiS~Na.} or {kRRiS~Na.} : Simply put, is it krate or kris ?

UKT 140408, 170331, 180103:

UKT 170331: Why didn't the very early Theravada Buddhist sermons, such as "Four Noble Truths" , "Signs of Anatta", and "Twenty-four Basis of Human Actions" mention Rama and Krishna? The simple answer is: Buddhism is modern science bordering philosophy. It is not myth, nor history made into myth. The stories of Rama and Krishna maybe historical, but they have become myths and Buddha - the scientist, would have nothing to do with myths.

See what Buddhism is to the modern mind in Selfless Mind , Personality, Consciousness, and Nirvana in Early Buddhism, by Peter Harvey, 1995, in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
 - PHarvey-SelflessMind<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180120)
Note: Author Peter Harvey is Emeritus Professor of Buddhist Studies at the University of Sunderland. He is author of An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues (Cambridge University Press, 2000) and The Selfless Mind: Personality, Consciousness and Nirvāna in Early Buddhism (1995). He is editor of the Buddhist Studies Review. He quotes:

Ye dhammā hetuppabhavā ti tesaṃ hetuṃ tathāgato ahā
Tesa ca yo norodho evaṃvādī mahāsamaṇo ti

Those basic processes which proceed from a cause,
Of these the tathāgata has told the cause,
And that which is their stopping -
The great wandering ascetic has such a teaching

The Sanskrit equivalent of the above quotation is:
ये धर्मा हेतु-प्रभवा हेतुं तेषां तथागतो ह्यवदत्
तेषां च यो निरोध एवं वादी महाश्रमण
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ye_Dharma_Hetu 180104

The rhotic vowel {iRRi.} ऋ [ sign ृ] can be coupled to basic consonant {ka.} क giving rise to {kRRi.} कृ. CAVEAT: This glyph can be pronounced as either IPA /i/ or /u/ depending on the locality [present-day speaker Hindi, Marathi or Kannada] in India. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa 180120

"In Marathi [south-India language] or in Kannada [southern-India language], it [the word] is pronounced as Rucha. In Hindi [northern-India language], it is pronounced as Richa but spelt as ऋचा.

"The pronunciation of the given name 'Richa' varies based on the geography and native language of the speakers. Hindi speaking populace would pronounce the Sanskrit word as "richa" as opposed to Marathi or Kannada speaking populace. Both the 'ru' and 'ri' pronunciations of the given name are correct and are regional variants.

"Richa is a popular given name among Hindu [religion] females."

Because Old Magadhi (now a dead language) which I believe is still extant to a large extent in northern Myanmarpr, I think Richa of /i/ should be present in Pali-Myanmar. However, in words like {U.tu.} 'season or menses' we find the vowel /u/. The reason being Pali-Myan influenced by Pali-Lanka.

{kRRi.} can be checked by {S} in which the viram or {a.t} is clearly shown. However, when we are dealing with conjuncts, the viram is hidden. There can be two possible cases of checking:  {kRRaiS~Na.} or {kRRi.SNa.}. The second case is more likely, because of the use of basic {S~Na.}.

Khishna कृष्ण krs-na  = क ृ ष ् ण  {kRRi.SNa.}
BPali: {ka.Nha.} - UHS-PMD0283c1
  UKT from UHS: mfn. - deep black, black appearance, dirty black, Vishnu-dva. n. black pepper
  Refer to Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna 180104
  "Krishna, कृष्ण kṛṣṇa is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshiped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu ..."

Now who is this Krishna: just a mythical god or a human who had been loved and then deified like Rama? My readings so far has indicated that he was a human king whose capital Dwarka itself had been swallowed up by the sea. Watch a documentary video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CbTyxy1MWo 140408, 170331

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwarka 140408

Dwarka also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka, is a city and a municipality of Devbhoomi Dwarka district in the Gujarat state in India. Dwarka, is one of the foremost Chardham four sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites, and is one of the Sapta Puri, seven most ancient religious cities in the country. Dwarka is often identified with the Dwaraka Kingdom, the ancient kingdom of Krishna and is believed to have been the first capital of Gujarat. The Dwarakadheesh Temple was built in the 6th to 7th century. Dwarka is 444 Km away from Ahmedabad. Prior to the reallocation of the districts, this city was part Jamnagar District.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_archeology_in_the_Gulf_of_Khambhat 170330

Marine archaeology in the Gulf of Khambhat - earlier known as Gulf of Cambay - centers on findings made in December 2000 by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT). NIOT came across palaeo river channels in the sea. These were seen by the scientists involved to be the extension of the present day major rivers of the area. In a similar marine survey, in a Coastal Research Ship during 1999-2000 when Dr S Badrinaryan was the Chief Scientist, several unusual frames of Side Scan Sonar images were encountered. These had square and rectangular features in an arranged geometric fashion which are not expected by the scientist in the marine domain. As per the scientist involved such features are unlikely to be due to natural marine geological processes. This made the scientists suspect that human workmanship must have been involved here. The surveys were followed up in the following years and two palaeo channels of old rivers were discovered in the middle of the Khambhat area under 20-40m water depths, at a distance of about 20 km from the present day coast. [1]

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Seven Weeping Sisters

UKT 170327  
About 6 months after my study of Hindu Predictive Astrology by B V Raman, I was able to caste a horoscope (using Lahari table of ascendants and respective annual Ephemerides by Poannar Brahmins of Mandalay) and do predictions. See downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- BVRaman-HinduPrdAstro<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170327)
Unable to get N C Lahari's Table, I am giving a substitute for those interested:
- ABansalVGarg-AscAstroTab<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170327)

I was able to do the predictions based on my knowledge of Greek-Roman mythology. The astrological aspects based on story of the Seven Weeping Sisters is such a myth.

From: Spiritual Design Astrology
- https://www.spiritualdesignastrology.com/seven-weeping-sisters-their-relationship-in-astrology/ 170327

Alcyone in the Pleiades

When it comes to astrology, we are often so focused on planets and their positions that we forget to look at the stars.

This is a mistake however, as the stars, especially fixed stars are very important when it comes to looking at astrology charts, and if we don't include them then we are often discounting a lot of extra information that can help us.

Fixed stars are stars that are considered not to move, so to the naked eye they stay in the same spot in the sky. In reality, all stars are moving, but so slowly that we can't really detect it, which is why the night sky looks similar year after year. The positions of fixed stars very important however, and where they are your in natal chart can have a big impact on your life. 

The positions of the stars in relation to planets like Mercury, Venus, Jupiter Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto all have an impact on many aspects of your personality as well as major events that you are like to see manifest.

Of all the fixed stars in the night sky, the Pleades, also known as the Seven Weeping Sisters, are perhaps some of the most famous and influential. In Greek mythology the Seven Sisters are the daughters of  Atlas and were chased by Orion who had fallen in love with them. To save them from Orion the Hunter, Jupiter put them in the sky which is where they stayed. We can see the Pleiades in the Taurus constellation as they make up part of the shoulder section of the bull. ...  

UKT: More on the website.

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End of TIL file