Update: 2017-06-17 07:12 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kRi.} : formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  For the next entry of this category {gRi.} see - p085.htm


Downloaded Roots
from W. D. Whitney, 1885


UKT notes :
Krita Yuga
Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans
  - Open highly rhotic vowel of BEPS
  - Soan and Bilu : misrepresented ethnic tribes of humans
  This note on Soan and Bilu is an expansive article and will be
  moved Folk Elements in Buddhism
  -- flk-ele-indx.htm >
ch05-magus.htm (link chk 170616).


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{kRi.} :

UKT 170605: See my note on the Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans.
See my note on Rhotic vowel : short ऋ ृ and long ॠ ॄ in p056-2.htm(link chk 170605)
See also कृत्यका kṛtyakā on  p073.htm
  Skt: -k, f. wicked fairy, witch {soan:} - Mac073c2
  Skt: कृत्यका kṛtyakā - f. enchantress, witch - SpkSkt
and about {soan:} and {Bi-lu:} peoples living among the Kachins.
See also Rhotic-open-vowel and Soans and Bilus
UKT: I need to rewrite this note.


कृ [. kri ] (skri after upa, pari, sam), VIII.
- [kro] strong, [kuru] weak; V.+ I. kra, II. kr, V. krin; make, do; fashion, build; perform, fulfil; produce; execute; effect; conclude (friendship), display, show, exercise; prepare, cook; compose; cultivate; make anything out of (in. ab.); do anything to or for (g., lc.); make any one anything (2 ac.); do violence to (ac.); perform the usual action with (ac.); used thus with great latitude, e.g.

कृ [. kri ] (skri after upa, pari, sam), VIII.
- [kro] strong, [kuru] weak; V.+ I. kra, II. kr, V. krin; make, do; fashion, build; perform, fulfil;
See: √ 1 kṛ (skṛ), 'make'. - Whit0021 

UKT 170604:
kṛ, kir, 'scatter' - Whit0022

01. udakam kri, offer the usual oblation of water (allied with this is the use of kri in the periphr. pf. with an abst. ɴ. in ); utter, pronounce, use; describe; fix, determine; pass (time); await (a moment); procure for (g., lc.); assume (shape, voice: .); place on or in, direct to (in. lc.), turn the mind or thoughts, give the

02. heart (manas, buddhim, matim, bhvam) to, resolve on (d., lc., inf. or oratio recta with iti); appoint to (lc.); commission; act, fare; sacrifice; do anything with, make use of (in. and kim?); avail, be of use (with kim?); with

oratio recta  [ōrātio 'speech' + rēctus 'straight, direct, honest']
- http://www.yourdictionary.com/oratio-recta 170304

03. adverbs in (e.g. atithi-), (e.g. mrid-), make, turn into ; with -st, reduce to, turn into; vase kri, subdue; hridi-, take to heart, remember; hridayena-, love; evam kritav, for this reason; tath-, yath‿uktam-, do so, consent; cs. kraya, cause to make (2 ac.),

04. cause to be made by (in.); cause to be prepared; cause to be made (2 ac.); cause to be placed in (lc.); cause to be performed; cause to be cultivated; -to be put or buried; order to make, -to prepare, -to practise: often = simple verb; des. kikirsha, wish to do, -perform,

05. -establish; intend; strive after. ati, transgress. adhi, place at the head of, appoint to (lc.); put forward, make a subject of discussion: pp. entrusted with, appointed to (lc., -); concerned in (lc.). anu, imitate (ac.); equal, rival (ac., g.), equal (ac.) in (in.) apa, take away, remove; injure (ac. g., lc.); cs. id. prati‿apa, take vengeance on (g.) abhi, do, make;

06. des. wish to do, undertake. aram, prepare; serve, satisfy (d.). alam, prepare, produce; adorn (. adorn oneself); do violence to (g.). abhi‿-, upa‿-, adorn, sam-alam, id.; violate. ava, direct downwards. , bring hither; produce; appropriate (g.); cs. call; ask for (2 ac.); des. intend to perform. apa‿, remove, drive away, dispel, counteract, repel;

07. give up, desist from; pay. upa‿, bring near, fetch, deliver; grant; prepare for a sacred rite; consecrate. ni‿, keep back. nir-, set apart; put away, remove; drive away; reject, repel; deny. vi‿, separate, distinguish; explain. sam-, unite, keep together. upa, confer; offer, present; serve, do a service to,

08. oblige (g., lc.); . cherish. upa-skri, prepare, compose; equip, adorn; care for (ac.): pp. furnished with (in.) prati‿upa, repay; do a service in return. ni, bring done, humble, overcome: pp. humbled; dejected; mortified. vi-ni, mortify; injure; defraud. nis, remove; prepare; seek out; cure; expiate.

09. pari-shiri, prepare; adorn, deck, furnish with (in.). puras, place in front; show, display; appoint to (lc.); choose, prefer; honour; gd. -kritya, regarding, about, on account of (ac.); pp. accompanied with (-). pra, do; fashion, make; perform; show, cause; make into (2 ac.);

10. marry (a wife, a girl); violate, pollute (a gril); appoint to (lc.); put forward; make the subject of discussion; buddhim or manas -, apply one's heart to, make up one's mind to (d., lc.), resolve; pp. begun; accomplished; mentioned, under discussion; in question; cs. cause to prepare. vi-pra, injure; harass; obstruct. prati, make (ac.) out of (ac.) in

11. opposition; repay (good and evil) with ac. of thing and d., g., lc. of person; resist; make good, repair; pay; des. wish to take revenge on (ac., lc.) for (ac.). vi, make different, change, alter; compare; disfigure, destroy, mutilate; develop; be hostile to (g., lc.); become unfaithful to (lc.): ., ps. be changed or modified; become alienated or disloyal;

12. pp. changed, altered, qualified; mutilated, deformed, disfigured; unnatural, repulsive; cs. cause to change one's sentiments. pra-vi (for vi-pra); pp. sinned. sam (generally -skri ), put together, unite; accumulate; prepare; invest (with the sacred thread); hallow (a girl at a wedding* or the dead with sacred fires); adorn, polish, form grammatically: pp. sam-skrita, hallowed, invested; adorned, polished, elaborate, refined, Sanskrit. prati-sam, repair.

* UKT 170608: The Hindu wedding ceremony is called Vivaha samskar ( विवाह vivāha'wedding, marriage'; संस्कार saṃskāra 'sacrament') . - http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hindumarriage.asp 170608 .
Skt-Dv transliteration by SpkSkt.

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कृ [. kri  ]
- pt. kakrt , intv., kar-kri , remember, mention with praise (g.)

( end of old p072-3.htm )

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कृकर [ kri-kara ]
- m. kind of partridge; a vital air causing hunger.



कृकलास kṛkalāsa  
Skt: कृकलास [krikals] - m. lizard; chameleon. -- Mac072c2 (p072c2end)
Skt: कृकलास kṛkalāsa - m. chameleon, lizard -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka.kN~ta.ka.} - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: m. chameleon

UKT 170323: The above {ka.kN~ta.ka.} कृकलास kṛkalāsa is a terrestrial creature. There is also an amphibious kind known as {r poat-n} 'newt'. The amphibians, including frogs are once plentiful in Myanmarpr, but are fast disappearing due to agricultural pesticides. I have seen them while stationed at Taunggyi College (now University) in 1980s. They are considered by the natives of Shan State to have medicinal properties and dried animals were available in the Taunggyi bazaar. Since, the Myanmar species are lake species, I've shown what is available to me from Wikipedia. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newt 170323
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yunnan_lake_newt 170323


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कृकवाकु [ krika-v&asharp;ku ]
- m. cock; peacock.



कृकषा [krikash}
- f. kind of bird



कृकालिक [kriklika]
- f. kind of bird


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कृकिन kṛkin
BHS: kṛkin - Pal: kiki(n) --> {ki.ki.}
- n. of legendary king -- FE-BHS190
Pal: {ki.ki.} - UHS-PMD0316 read with UHS-BEPD0653
  UKT from UHS: blue jay


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कृच्छ्र [ krikkhr ]
= कृ च ् छ ् र
- a. distressing, grievous, dire; severe, dangerous; wretched, miserable: -m, ad. miserably; m. n. difficulty, distress, trouble, misery; danger; penance; kind of minor penance; --, -tas, in., ab. with difficulty, with much ado.



कृच्छ्रकर्मन्् [ krikkhra-karman ]
- n. distress, trouble; -kla, m. time of distress or danger; -gata, pp. distressed, endangered; practising penance; -t, f. dangerousness; -patita, pp. fallen into distress; -prna, a. whose life is in danger; eking out one's existence with difficulty; -sdhya, fp. difficult of accomplishment.



कृच्छ्रातिकृच्छ्र [ krikkhra‿atikrikkhra ]
- m. du. ordinary and extraordinary penance; sg. kind of penance.



कृच्छ्राब्द [ krikkhra‿abda ]
- m. kind of one year's penance.



- the root of kri (gr.).


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कृणोतन [ kri-no-tana ]
- V. 2 pl. impv. of √kri, do.

( end of old p072-4.htm )

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कृत् [kri-t] 
--> {kRait}
Skt: कृत्  [kri-t] - (-) a, making, producing, causing, performing; m.. composer, maker, fashioner; primary norminal suffix (attached to roots); primary noun -- Mac072c3 
Pal: {ka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0318
  UKT from UHS: {ki.ta.} - mfn. doing, dressing

Pal: {ka.rait~hta.}
- UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: {ka.rait~hta.} - (request) do



कृत् [. krit ]
- vi. p. krint ( e. also . and i.p. karta ), cut, cut off, out; up or down; extract; cleave; pp. kritta , cut; cut, torn or hewn off; ...



कृत् [. krit ]
- vii. p. krintti , spin



कृत [ kri-t ]
- pp. made, done, performed; prepared, ready; acquired; well done, all right; --, relating to: -m, done! = it shall be done at once; w. in. away with, enough of; n. deed, work, action; benefit (-m vid, be conscious of benefits received); stake (in play); booty; die or side of a die marked with 4 ; first or golden age.

UKT 170608: See my note on Krita Yuga.


कृतक [ krita-ka ]
- a. artificial, feigned, false; adopted (son): -m, feignedly, -tva, n. quality of being artificially produced; -kartavya, a. having fulfilled his task; -karman, n. an accomplished deed; a. having fulfilled one's duty;

कृतक krta-ka
--> {kRi.ta.ka.}
Skt: कृतक [krita-ka] - a. artificial, feigned, false; adopted (son): - Mac072c3
BHS: kṛtaka - adj. (perhaps essentially identical with Skt. kṛtaka, but with ... -- FE-BHS0190
Pal: {kait~ti.ma.}
- - UHS-PMD0318
  UKT from UHS: mfn. made [meaning not occurring in Nature], son [child] by adoption.
  UKT 140401: Kaittima adoption by Bur-Buddhist customary law and by India-Hindu law are quite different. See: Aurasa {au:ra.a.} child - p060-2.htm  (link chk 140401) 

कृतकर्मन् kṛtakarman
Skt: -karman, n. an accomplished deed; a. having fulfilled one's duty; - Mac072c3
Skt: कृतकर्मन् kṛtakarman - adj. able, clever, one who has done his work or duty. n. act that has been accomplished - SpkSkt 

1. -krin, a. doing a thing; -krya, n. an attained object; a. having accomplished his object; satisfied: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -kla, m. appointed time; -kritya, a. having done his duty; having attained his object, satisfied (as to, lc.):

2. -t, f. satisfaction; -kriya, a. having performed a sacred rite; pious; -kshana, a. having an appointed time, i.e. waiting impatiently for (lc., ac. w. prati, inf., --); -kshobha, a. shaken; -ghna, a. ignoring benefits,

3. ungrateful: -t, f., -tva, n. ingratitude; -kda, a. having received the tonsure; -ganman, a. planted; -ga, a. recognising benefits, grateful: -t, f. gratitude.

कृतज्ञ kṛtaja
Skt: -ga, a. recognising benefits, grateful: - Mac072c3
Skt: कृतज्ञ
kṛtaja - mfn. knowing what is right, correct in conduct, acknowledging past services or benefits , mindful of former aid or favours, grateful -- Monier-Williams
BHS: kṛtaja - n. of a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, hero of Avādāna-kalpalatā  ... -- FE-BHS0190
Pal: katau - adj. grateful; utā, f. gratitude - UPMT-PED064
Pal: {ka.ti~u.ta} - UHS-PMD0284
  UKT from UHS- f. gratitude

UKT 140406: See my note on Avādāna-kalpalatā from Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon University of the West @ 1409 Walnut Grove Ave., Rosemead, CA 91770 . Surfing further I came across: (Skt: kṛtaja; P: katau) in the Google search index on John Ross Carter, 2012, "In the Company of Friends"
See also Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avadana 170323


कृतजन्मन् kṛtajanman
Skt: कृतजन्मन् kṛtajanman - adj. produced, born, generated - SpkSkt




कृततीर्थ [ krita-trtha ]
- a. to which a stair has been made; -tvara, a. hastening; -dra, a. married; -dsa, m. one who offers himself as a slave for a fixed time; -drgha-rosha, m. protracted wrath; -dh, a. clever; resolved on (inf.); -dhvag, a. furnished with banners; -nsaka, a. ungrateful; -nsana, a. id.; -niskaya, a. convinced; firmly resolved on (d., lc., inf., --); resolute; -niskayin, a. resolute.

कृततीर्थ kṛtatīrtha 
Skt: कृततीर्थ [krita-trtha] - a. to which a stair has been made; -- Mac072c3
Skt: कृततीर्थ kṛtatīrtha - adj. rendered accessible or easy, an adviser, who frequents them, furnished with a passage, one fertile in expedients, one who has visited holy places -- SpkSkt

( end of new p072.htm )

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Downloaded roots

UKT 170605:

The Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, by William Dwight Whitney, 1885,
The downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- WDWhtney-RootsVerbForms<>  Bkp<> (link chk 160828)

Remember copying from pdf is unreliable. 

√ kṛ (skṛ), 'make'. - Whit0021
  continues to Whitp0022

Pres. [5.] krnoti krnute etc. v.e.s. [8.] karoti kurute etc.
  b,v3.av.+   [2.] karsi av'., krthas krtha krse rv.
  [1.] karanti etc. kv. kurmi e. krse ^Is.) kv'.
Perf. eakara cakre etc. (cakartha cakrse etc.') v. +
  (cakriyas aeakrat etc. acakriran rv.)
Aor. 1. akaram akar akran etc. akri akrta akrata etc. v.e.s.
  (karati -te etc. V.B.S., kriyama RV., kriyasam -asma v.e.s. ,
  'krdhietc. v.+, krsva  etc. RV., krant krana rv. ; kranta rv. ;
  akat cb.) ; akari v. +   2. akarat etc. av. b.s.
  3. acikarat c. 4. akarsit etc. e. +, akrsi etc. E.G.
Fut. 1. karisyati etc. v. +, -te etc. e.c. (akarisyat etc. b.+)
  2. karta s. +
Verb. krtav. + ; kartumAv. +, -tave v.b., -tavai b.s.,
  -tos v.e.s. ; krtva  AV. +, -tvi V.B., -tvaya e. ; -krtya v. + ;
  -karam b.+
Sec. Conj.: Pass, kriyate etc. v. + Int. karikr- carikr- v.e.
  Desid. eikirsati  etc. av.+, -te etc. s.+ (acikirsis ce.;
  eikirsayati c). Caus. karayati -te etc. b. +
  fkaryate etc. e. + ; cikarayisa- in d.)
Deriv. :
  kara v. +  /--------- karana rv. /------- karana v. +
  karaniyaB.+ /----- -karani? e. /------- karas rv.
  karistha rv. /------ -karisnu s.+ /------ karuna v.b. .
  kartva v. /---------- kartavya b. + /---- kartr rv. /------------ kartr v. + /--------- kartra av. /--------- karman v.+
  karvara v. /-------- -kara v.+ /---------- karaka e. + /------- karin av. + /-------- karya av. + /------ karana s. +
  -karaniya c. /------- karu E. + /-------- karuka b.+ /-------- -kurmi, -in rv. /---- -krt V. + /---------- -krtya n. v. +
  -krtya a. v. + /----- krtya v. + /--------- krti v. + /------------ krtu (-tvas) v. + /-- krtvya rv. /--------- krtnu V.
  krtrima v. + /------- krtvan v. /---------  kftvari av. /--------- -krtha bv. /--------  -kra RV. /----------- kratu V. +
  kriya kcs. e. + /--- cakri ev. /---------- -karikra b. /--------- -cikirs c. /----------- ciklrsa e. + /------- cikirsu e. +
  karayitr b.e. /------ karayitavya e.+ /-- eikarayisu c. /---- -ciskarayisu e. /
The root-form skṛ is found especially after sam and pari; but also the aor. nir askrta rv., and pple upaskrta e. +. In v. occur only samskrta and pariskrta e.v. av., aud pariskrnvanti and -vant bv. (against sam. akrnvan etc. ev.). But from e. on, forms with sk after sam are frequent, almost to the exclusion of those with simple k; even such as sam askurvata, sam caskara, sam skarisyanti, samskarayam asa, samciskarayisu. Of the derivatives, there are found with sam only: skarana s.+, skartavya c, skartr e. +, skaraka e. +, skarya e. +, skrti b. + ; also skriya with sam c. and pari c. ; skara with sam s. +, pari e. +, and upa c. ; and skara with apa c, upa e.+, pari e., and vi (V) e. + -, finally, askra RV., which is doubtful.


kṛ, kir, 'scatter' - Whit0022.
Pres. [6.] kirati etc. v. +, -te etc. v. +
Perf. eakara cakre e. [cakarus.]
Aor. 1. kiryat c. 4. akirsata pb. 5. karisat rv.
Fut. 1. karisyati etc. e. [karisyati. 2. karita.]
Verb, kirna b. + -, -kirya s. +
Sec. Conj. : Pass, kiryate etc. b. + (kiryet e.) [Int. cakar-,
  Desid. cikarisa-. ] Cans, [karayati,] kirayet e.
Deriv. : kara v. ? b. + -kara ? s. + -kira c -kirya c.
  -karaka e. -karaka c. kirana v.+ -kula?E. +
  -karitr b. -kir c. -kiri b.
One or two late forms occur with prefixed s : apaskiramana, praticaskare; others are authorized by the grammarians; in derivatives, viskira s. +


√ kṛ, 'commemorate'. - Whit0022
Pres. cakrant ? rv.
Aor. 4. akarsam av. 5. akarisam akarit rv.
Sec. Conj.: Int. carkarmi carkrdhi e<c. carkirama -ran earkrse (3s.) RV. av'.
Deriv. : kara rv. karu v. kirti v. + earkrti rv.
karin rv. kiri, -in rv. -keru ev. carkrtya v.
Cakrant is anomalous and altogether questionable.

UKT Note: Whitney gives more.


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UKT notes


-- UKT 140406, 170323

To claim that I am a practicing Myanmar Theravada Buddhist and a skeptical scientist at the same time without knowing anything of the Tibetan Buddhism is a shameful thing for me. Of course, I, as a human being can not know everything, yet I must have a broad knowledge.

I have come to know of Avādāna-kalpalatā only recently. You can get a slew of Skt-Dev writings with a Buddhist flavour in Tibetan Buddhism.

See also: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_Buddhist_literature 170323
The following is an excerpt on the history of Sanskrit manuscripts from Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon University of the West @ 1409 Walnut Grove Ave., Rosemead, CA 91770 :

"We have come to know through our understanding of Buddhist history that an enormous amount of Buddhist literature was created in Sanskrit, beginning right after the Buddhas Mahaparinirvana, continuing up to the 12th century AD in India. Out of this vast literature, comprising several thousand texts, only a portion was translated into Tibetan between the 7th and 15th centuries and into Chinese between the 2nd and 11th centuries. Unfortunately, with the passage of time, the great treasure of Buddhist literature in Sanskrit was lost or destroyed due to various developments over the course of history."

From Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avadana 170323

Avadāna, Skt अवदान avadāna, Pali {a.pa.da-na.}, Bur {a.pa.dn}, [1] is the name given to a type of Buddhist literature correlating past lives' virtuous deeds to subsequent lives' events. While including accounts from the Pali language Vinaya Pitaka ("Basket of Discipline"), this literature also includes a large number of Sanskrit collections, of which the chief are the Mahāsaṅghika's Mahāvastu ("Great Book"), and the Sarvāstivāda's Avadānaśataka (Century of Legends) and Divyāvadāna (The Heavenly Legend). These latter collections include accounts relating to Buddha Gautama and the third-century BC "righteous ruler," Ashoka. [2]

अवदान avadāna - n. great or glorious act, achievement, mindfulness, caution, ... - SpkSkt
अवधानं करोति avadhānaṃ karoti - v8. - care - SpkSkt

Amongst the most popular avadānas of Northern Hinayāna Buddhism are:

the story of Sudhana, preserved in the Mahāvastu under the title Kinnarī jātaka, amongst others, who falls in love with a kinnarī and saves her life.

the Vessantara jātaka, the story of the compassionate prince who gives away everything he owns, including his wife and children, thereby displaying the virtue of perfect charity.

the Suvannasankha jātaka [3]

Though of later date than most of the canonical Buddhist books, avadānas are held in veneration by the orthodox, and occupy much the same position with regard to Buddhism that the Puranas do towards Hinduism. They act in a similar way to other texts describing past deeds or past lives held in other traditions in the region, such as the aforementioned Puranas, the Dasam Granth and Janamsakhis of Sikhism, and the Kalpa Sutra of Jainism.

Go back Avādāna-note-b

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Krita Yuga

UKT 170323:

You can make a die of many shapes. The above is obviously a four-sided die in the shape of a tetrahedron - not a regular die which is a cube. Shown in the inset is the tetrahedral-die, the kind that the Hindu God must have played.
The First Epoch of Hinduism is known as Krita Yuga aka  Satya Yuga - the Golden Age.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satya_Yuga 170608
"The Satya Yuga सत्य युग satya yuga, also called Sat Yuga, Krta Yuga and Krita Yuga in Hinduism [UKT: cow worshippers], is the first of the four Yugas, the "Yuga (Age or Era) of Truth", when humanity is governed by justice gods [UKT: Justice in accordance with the teachings of Buddhas - the enlightened beings: dvas & brahmas are still blinded by Ignorance.] and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal and humanity will allow intrinsic goodness to rule supreme. It is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age". The Satya Yuga lasts 1,728,000 years. The goddess Dharma (depicted in the form of cow), which symbolises morality, stood on all four legs during this period. Later on in the Treta Yuga, it would become three, followed by two in the Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg. [1]

From: http://hinduism.enacademic.com/436/Krita_Yuga 170323

All of the YUGAS, or ages, in the Indian tradition, refer to throws in an ancient game of dice. Krita (the one that made it!) is the best throw a 4.

The Krita Yuga, which like all ages has appeared an infinite number of times and will return an infinite number of times, is also called Satya Yuga, or the age of truth. It is 1,728,000 years long. In Krita Yuga the highest virtue is said to be MEDITA-TION. In this age, BRAHMA is god. Eternal DHARMA is said to have all its four feet in this age, while in the others it progressively has three, two, and one. In the Krita age there is no distinction between the best and worst of creatures. Their life, happiness, and attractiveness are all equal. They are also free of sorrow, completely good, and enjoy solitude, rather than crowds. They are devoted to MEDITA-TION, active in spiritual restraints and austerities, and act always without self-interest. They are always joyful and have no permanent homes, but live in the mountains or by the oceans.

From : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuga 170323

Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four age cycle. A complete Yuga starts with the Satya Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga. Our present time is a Kali Yuga, which started at 3102 BCE with the end of the Mahabharata war.

Go back KritaYuga-note-b

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Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans

UKT: 120126, 120303, 140401, 160303, 170328, 170605:

There are highly rhotic words in Skt-Dev derived from the vowel & its vowel-sign {iRi.} ऋ / ृ (1 blk), and {iRi} ॠ /   ॄ (2 blk). This vowel-pair has nothing to do with {ra.}, and its medial {ra.ric} represented by the vowel sign .

These rhotic-vowels are not present in Bur-Myan and possibly in Pali-Myan. However in BEPS, I will have to include them resulting in words such as such as {kRi.}. BEPS has series of non-rhotic to rhotic vowels (with {ka.} as consonant) as follows:

close non-rhotic: {kyi.}, {kri.}, ... ... ... , {kRi.} highly rhotic
open non-rhotic: {kya.}, {kra.}, {kr~}, {kRa.} highly rhotic

Note 170609: Repha {kr~} is included in the above just to show it is rhotic. It is exemplified by कर्क = क र ् क . It is present only in Sanskrit. However, the open highly rhotic {kRa.} is absent.
See my note on Open highly rhotic vowel

In Bur-Myan (particularly in the dialect of the Irrawaddy basin), {kra.} is so non-rhotic that it is pronounced exactly like {kya.}. On the other hand, {kra.} is somewhat rhotic in Pali-Myan, and in the dialect of the Rakhine coastline. To represent this somewhat rhotic sound of Pali as a Hanging-Ra {ra.-hsw:} is impossible, because it would play havoc in Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi), in which the basic consonant r1c5 is represented as {ng} - not {nga.} as in Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur). Just listen to Mon-Myan Ka-row in which the pronunciation is:
{ka.}, {hka.}, {k}/{g}, {hk}, {ng} -- r1c3 is {k} in Pegu-dialect of Mon: {g} in Martaban-dialect.
- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<))

{kRi.} words are listed in Franklin Edgerton, 18851963, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary  , vol. 2 p.190-192. Perhaps the most prominent word with the highly rhotic vowel of Skt-Dev is the name of the Hindu-god Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa. I have transcribed it as {kRaiS~Na.} because of its {iRi.} ऋ, and not {kRiS~Na.}.

I am unable to find the equivalent of Khrisna {kRaiS~Na.} कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa in UHS-PMD which gives only {ki.Nha.) on p0318 as 'black' which may be taken as an epithet of Khrisna.

FE-BHS-191 gives kṛṣṇa '(3) n. of a king, previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, and a hero of a Jātaka (Pali Jāt. 440, Kaṇha-J)". I have downloaded and stored it TIL library.
See my online source: - http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/kn/j/j09/j440_en.html 140402
I quote from text: "... in the womb of this brahmin's wife was conceived the Bodhisatta, and from his black colour they gave him on his nameday the name of Kaṇha-kumāra, young Blackie. ..." On transcription we get {ka.Nha.} .
See also in Jataka vol. 4, ed. by E. B. Cowell, 1901, http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/j4/index.htm 170323
Jataka no. 440, Kaṇha Jātaka . I am still doubtful that the Hindu-god Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa is the Buddhist Kaṇha .

I now have in TIL PDF library "The Buddha-Carita, or The Life of Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa" - ed. and transl. from Sanskrit by Edward B. Cowell, 1894. - EBCowell-BuddhaCarita<> Bkp<> (link chk 170609)

I wonder what the pronunciation of ऋ in days before Panini [time-line 2500yrs ago], when Sanskrit would be Vedic. At present, I suspect, the name Khrisna कृष्ण would be pronounced with different degrees of rhoticity by various speakers from Tamil-speakers in the extreme south, through Gujarati-speakers, to Hindi-speakers in the north just south of the Himalayas.

Contents of this page

Open highly rhotic vowel of BEPS exemplified with {kRa.}

We find in Skt-Dev, the close highly rhotic syllable {kRi.} कृ . However, its counter-part the open highly rhotic {kRa.} is absent. We find only the {kra.} क्र and repha {kr~} - derived from {ra.} र as Ra'ric {ra.ric}. However, in order to make the series complete, I have invented one for it.

close non-rhotic: {kyi.}, {kri.}, ... ... ... , {kRi.} highly rhotic
open non-rhotic: {kya.}, {kra.}, {kr~} , {kRa.} highly rhotic
UKT 170609: Repha is exemplified by कर्क = क र ् क

The close highly rhotic vowel and its vowel-sign ऋ / ृ are found only in Skt-Dev. This rhotic sound is probably the hallmark of Brahmin Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na}, and their brethren the Indo-European (IE-speakers) who came into the then non-rhotic or slightly rhotic Tib-Bur speaking Indian subcontinent. Listen to one of their chants from Bhagavagītā Bg18.2:  bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))

I am using BHS to see how highly rhotic Sanskrit and almost-non rhotic Pali words are related. The very first entry on p190 is a name Kṛkin spelled with cap <k> which I have rewritten as kṛkin because Romabama is case sensitive. From the spelling I am transcribing into Skt-Dev and Pal-Myanmar only giving a gloss for the meaning.

The intruding Brahmin Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na}, and their brethren the Indo-European (IE-speakers) found many wonderful things in ancient Indian subcontinent, which they adopted and to make them their own they rewrite the ancient texts of the Vdas. They found many kinds of people whom they call devils and ogres.

The Brahmin Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na} were the forerunners of the modern colonialists, the Europeans of the 17th to 19th centuries. In order to make those whom they have dominated by strength of arms, loose their self-respect, they applied epithets such as servants and slaves to the conquered people, and call their "priests and priestesses" the Practitioners of Left-Handed Path aka Black Magicians. The "gods and goddesses" are termed "Ogres aka Bilus {Bi-lu:}, and witches aka Soans {soan:}. On the other hand they call their "priests and priestesses" Practitioners of Right-handed Path aka White Magicians .
See my note on Soans and Bilus .

Lately, I have come across a brief description of two kinds of people, the Bilus {Bi-lu:} and the Soans {soan:}, of Myanmarpr. See Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States, in 5 volumes, ed. by J. G. Scott, 1900. The downloaded papers are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JGScott-GazettUpperBurShan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170609)

The affricates {hkya.} (vl.) and {gya.} are a problem in Bur-Myan: what is spelled as "voiceless" is usually pronounced as "voiced", resulting in confusion between {hkyn:} 'Chin'/'ginger' and {gyn:} 'ginger'. However, the ethnic tribe "Chin" though spelled {hkyn:} is pronounced as it is written. Moreover, the absence of /ŋ/ phoneme and tenuis sounds in English makes the problem unsolvable. My invention Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} (Burmese speech in Latin script) is my hope to solve such problems, and mitigate the Curse of the Tower of Babel.

Contents of this page

Sn {soan:} and Bilu {Bi-lu:}

- UKT 170611

Note my use of Mauk'cha-Weik'cha which is different from that used by MLC. Romabama convention is simple: one-circle akshara use Mauk'cha; two-circle akshara use Weik'cha. MLC has no simple rule and they have to recite a Mnemonic to remember their rule: {hkn gu gnau: / dau: pon wa. / mauk hkya. r:pa kra.//}. I am using Romabama convention for {gyein-hpau.}, {gyn:hpau}, and {ain:pau}.

The Chingpaw is usually pronounced as {gyn:hpau}. The problem usually becomes a mess for English speakers who are only used to Palatal affricates, and not to Palatal plosive-stops. Because of possible mis-spellings and mis-pronunciations, I am giving spellings in Romabama: my only hope is that I haven't compounded the mess. Some of the names of peoples and places can be checked with the following books by E. R. Leach:
Language Change in Political Systems of Highland Burma - a study of Kachin social structure, by E. R. Leach, London, 1954, 1964
- ERLeach-PolSysHighlandBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170612)
Some documented cases of Linguistic change - excerpts from the above book
- ERLeach-LangChangeHiglandBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170612)
Note: Putao {pu-ta-o mro.} is the northern-most town in Myanmarpr.
Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Putao 170612
"Hkamti Long (also Khamti Long) is the former name of one of the outlying Shan States. [2] It was a princely state around the city of Putao settled by the Hkamti Shan people. The name means "Great Place of Gold" in the Hkamti Shan language. [3] Nowadays, there are Rawang and Lisu people which are already regarded as Kachin nationalities."

From Putao, you can see the highest snow-capped peak, Hkakabo Razi {hka-ka.bo ra-zi},  in Myanmarpr among the snowy ranges of the eastern Himalayas. It is probably the highest in SEAsia and is 5,881 m. (19,295 ft.) high. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hkakabo_Razi 170612

A fact that is generally overlooked is that northern Myanmarpr had close contacts with north-eastern India, and that there is no need to use the sea-routes. I quote from Political Systems of Highland Burma - a study of Kachin social structure, by E. R. Leach, London, 1954, 1964, p038: "One of the facts that can be taken as established for certain is that the Chinese were familiar with various routes from Yannan to India as early as the first century AD. We cannot be quite certain what these routes were, but, since there are only a very limited number of passes though the main mountain ranges, routes cannot have differed very greatly from those we know of today."

UKT 170609: The following are from J. G. Scott's
I still have to work on The Upper Burma Gazetteer in PDF libraries (link chk on 170617)
Ref1. - JGScott-GazettUpperBurShanPt1v1<> / Bkp<>
Ref2. - JGScott-GazettUpperBurShanPt1v2<> / Bkp<>
Ref3. - JGScott-UpperBurGazett5vol<> / Bkp<>
Ref4. - JGScott-UpperBurGazettChap10<> / Bkp<>

Ref1. Ch07p389-01
(The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p389mid )
Besides these parent and cognate tribes of Chingpaw there are a number of miscellaneous tribes extending beyond latitude 25 north [Ref: Myitkyina 2523'N 9724'E], up to the twenty-eighth parallel, of whom little or nothing is known, but whom the Kachins regard as being indirectly connected with them. These are: -

(1) The Khangs {hken:}, who are said to live on the other side of the Chindwin beyond Bisu, and who, Mr. George thinks, may be perhaps identified with some Chin {hkn:} tribe. They are also found north-east of the Bor Khamti country and originally separated from the Khenungs on the Salween {n-lwn mric} from Khumongs on the west. Mr. Errol Grey says that they have a distinct language and are less feminine in type than the Khumongs, with whom they are much mixed up, though they occupy separate villages. (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p389end-p390begin)

(2) The Kaphawks . - Some of these accompanied the Khangs across the Chindwin {hkn-twn: mric}, while others remained to the east of Hkamti Long. With them are related --

(3) The Kaluns , who are said to differ in some way. These are probably the Kalangs, a naked tribe spoken of by Major Fenton, who calls them wild and uncivilized and says they eat their aged relations to spare them unnecessary misery.

(4) The Tarens or Tarengs are found on the border of the Chinese State of Santa and in Hkamti Long. They wear clothes something after the Chinese style, and are well known in Upper Burma as coolies under the name of Maingthas . They are a distinct tribe, with a language and customs of their own, and are renowned for the excellence of their dhas {Da:}. They appear to be great travellers and itinerant merchants. During the cold weather they desert their villages and scatter over the adjacent countries returning at the beginning of the rains.

The name Maingtha is a simple Burmese perversions of the Shan form Tai Mong Hsa, that is to say, Shans from the two Hsa and La Hsa. [UKT 170329: I would transcribe Maingtha as {mren-a} 'forester'.]. There they call themselves and are called by their Chinese neighbours Ngachang or Achang (see Ethnology Chapter) and appear to be called Paran by the Kachins round about. Their dress, religion, and customs are those of the Chinese-Shans {rhn:ta.roat}. They are Buddhists and their language a curious mixture. Captain H. R. Davies estimates that about 30% of the words appear to be connected with Burmese and 12% with Shan. The latter have probably been borrowed from the surrounding Shans as names for things of which they knew nothing until they encountered the Shans and were converted to Buddhism. [UKT ]

Mr. Errol Grey speaks of meeting Turengs on his way to the country of the Khumongs, above latitude 2715' and about longitude 9730' . The Turengs, he says, are the great blacksmiths of that neighbourhood, just as the Ngachang are for the country round Hotha and Latha. They make all the dhas {Da:} and daggers worn by the Singpho and Hkamti Shans, and these under the name of Hkamti dhas form one of the chief articles of trade between the Hkamti valley and Assam. [UKT ]

The iron is found in the hills forming the boundary between the Turengs and the Khumongs. "It is of excellent quality and the knives are very durable." The dhas are made in four varieties, "the streaked, the indented, the white, "and the black dhas." [UKT ]

Mr. Errol Grey refers to a Tureng Dhu or Chief who visited him and gave a list  of the Singpho tribes, amongst which appeared Marans,  Marips, Laphars (no doubt Ledais ),and Darengs or Tullings, who presumably are the Tarengs themselves. He also says "a range of snows, separating (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p390end-p391begin) the Tisang from the Tamai," which is said to be the eastern limit of the Tureng Singpho country.  The Tamai is the local name for the eastern branch of the Irrawaddy {-ra-wa.ti mric}. This would place the Turengs in about longitude 98 and about latitude 2730'. Prince Henri d'Orleans found that many of the tribesmen, called by their neighbours Kiutzu (from the fact that they inhabited the Kui Kiang valley, a branch of the 'Nmai kha ), styled themselves Turong or Tulong.

UKT 170613: I was intrigued why Prince d'Orleans, a Frenchman, was among the Kachins. I then found out he was leading an expedition to open up a railroad link from Hanoi, then occupied by the French colonialists, to Mandalay still independent under King Mindon. It has been claimed that the British who had gobbled up two thirds of the Burmese Kingdom, made frantic arrangements to annex the whole country. Then in 1886 they did make up a false excuse and annexed the whole country.

(5). The Khenungs, according to Mr. Errol Grey, come from the valley of the Salween {n-lwn mric}, where their country bounds that of the Khunnongs or Khumongs on the east above latitude 27. Their dress is said to be a short pair of trousers reaching to the knee, tied round the waist by several  coils of a plaited cotton string and two or three coats of various lengths, the outermost of which is made of wool and reaches down to the calf of the leg. The plait their hair into a queue after the Chinese fashion and wear hats made of felt, conical in shape, with a broad brim much turned up. Their influence extends from the Salween {n-lwn mric} to the Tamai or N'mai Kha. They exercise authority over several Khunnong villages in the Tisang valley, paying two yearly visits, when they announce their arrival by blowing on a gourd reed, presumably something like the Ken of the La'hu, the A'kha, and the Luang Prabang Tai. "The Khunnongs, immediately on hearing its sound, rush out to meet them, and conducting them into their villages feast them on the best they have." (Report on the Bor-Khampti country). The tribute paid seems to consists chiefly of bees-wax, a common offering among the Wa. also.

(06). The Khunnongs, [UKT: I will refer to them as Khunnong - the metal workers and write a note on the Bawdwin mines of Burmah Corporation from the point of view of a B.Sc. Chemistry Honours graduate of 1955 who was invited to serve the company as chief chemist at Bawdwin.] also called Kumongs or Khumongs, are found above latitude 27 30' between the Nam Kiu, the western branch of the Irrawaddy {-ra-wa.ti mric}, and the Salween {n-lwn mric}, that is to say, east of Hkamti Long [Putao ], called Bor Khampti by Mr. Errol Grey. Their neighbours on the east are the Khenungs and on the south the Kachins called Khakhus by the Kachins within the administrative line. They are mentioned in the Mong Kawn (Mogaung {mo:kan:}) Shan Chronicle as one of the eight races forming the kingdom and Ney Elias identifies them with the Mishmis whom the Assamese divide into Miju and Chullicotta Mishmis.

UKT 170613: The word "Hkamti" is intriguing: other words may be added to it. Example
"Singkaling Hkamti is a large clean village of about sixty houses and capital of the State of the same name. There is a pagoda (temple) and a kyaung (monastery) with many saffron-robed monks. The Sawba, or prince, a pleasant young man who smoked eternal perfumed cigarettes, sent down his chief minister to welcome us. After staying here two days in the forlorn hope of the Government launch coming for us, as previously arranged, we left on the 18th for Homalin, half the party, as before, going in the boats. Camping each night at a Shan village as we progressed down the river we arrived at Homalin on March 25. Homalin is the headquarters of one of the subdivisions of the upper Chindwin district." - excerpt from Royal Geographical J. vol 89, 1937, of an article "From the Brahmaputra to the Chindwin", by E. T. D. Lambert, p309-326
- RoyalGeogJV89AsiaPtS<> / Bkp<>

The late General Woodthorpe speaks of them as Kummungs [alt. sp. for: Khunnong - the metal workers] and describes them as "an extremely gentle, pleasing-looking people, small in stature, rather fair in complexion, with their hair cut short in a fringe on the forehead." He thinks their language somewhat resembles Singpho, "about 5% of the words being identical." They are a timid people and as a consequence (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p391end-p392begin) are oppressed on all sides - by the Khenungs on the east, the Singphos on the south, and the Hkamti Shans on the west, and pay tribute to all of them. Both men and women wear the hair cut in a fringe across the forehead and hanging loose behind as far as the shoulders, but not below. This is exactly the style of coiffure of many of the Tame Wa and as the hair is very coarse and tangled it gives them a particularly wild appearance. Their dress in the hills consists of a loin-cloth only, but those who have come under the influence of the Hkamti Shans have adopted the Tai dress. The woman wear a short petticoat coming to the knees, and in the cold weather a cloth is thrown loosely round the shoulders, but for the greater part of the year they go naked to the waist. Like all the hill tribes they are dirty in their habits, but are more particular than most about their food. Their houses are built on piles and in place of thatch they use bamboo leaves for roofing. Near Hkamti Long some villages have cattle and even a few buffaloes. As with all the hill tribes, they are divided into numerous clans, whose dialects differ according to their distance from one another. Of these the chief mentioned are --

(a) The Pangsu Khunnongs -- These are said to be subject to the Hkamti people of Mungelung (i.e., Langnu and Langdaol), to whom they give the following items of tribute: --
  Korisa, bamboo shoots
  Two dhas
  One chunga (bamboo) of tenga pani
  Twelve seers of tobaco
  Three chityas (mats)
  One seer of ganja hemp for making clothes
  One load of dried fish from the Tisang river

These Khunnongs moreover act as porters for the Hkamti people on their journeys to Sadiya and elsewhere, besides building and repairing their houses and stockades. Finally it is asserted that they supply the Hkamti Shans with temporary wives when required. It is reckoned that this Pangsu clan has altogether about 1,000 houses.

(b) The Pushu Kunnongs , who are said to be subject to the Choja (Chief) of Padao in Hkami Lng. Each head of a household in the Bor Hkamti country, according to Mr. Errol Grey, has so many houses told off to him and the Khunnongs have to render service and furnish supplies. The tribute seems to be identical (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p392end-p393begin ) with that paid by the Pangsu clan. The number of houses among the Pushu is estimated at about eight hundred.

(c) The Nogmun Khunnongs, who are said to be subject to Man Chi in Hkamti Lng country, and pay a similar tribute and render similar services.

Colonel Macgregor says that the Khunnongs used to live nearer to the Chinese towards the east and close to the Lamas (whom the Hkamti peoplle call the Hpangs) on the north, but they were so much oppressed by both, especially by the Lamas, that they placed themselves under the protection of the Tai of Hkamti Lng. They are a hard-working people and, like the Tarengs, have a great reputation as blacksmiths. The dhas are noted; they are shorter and thicker in the blade than those used by the Kachins. Mr. Errol Grey says: --

 "I saw  a blacksmith at work this evening forging these blades. His anvil was a large flat stone and his hammer a round one with a slightly flat head. A splint of bamboo about thirty-six inches in length was bent into the form of a pair of tongs, and the formed and the free ends of the tongs, being lashed well together, served both to keep the stone in its place and also as a handle to the hammer thus made. This hammer weighed about twenty pounds, and was used in the first process of forging only, the finishing touches to be given by a small light iron hammer with a long head. I did not see that any steel was used, but was told that the small pieces of iron that flew off on all sides from the red-hot blade in the process of forging were collected and added to the iron, serving the purposes of steel."

The Khunnongs [- the metal workers] also extract silver, which is found at Nogmun to the east of the Nam Tisang.  Colonel Macgregor says the ore is melted out  in an iron vessel over red hot charcoal; a draught is kept up by "blow-pipes " on opposite sides, and the melted silver is carried away by means of an iron pipe. "The Khunnongs trade with the Burmese to the south." They may have traded with Burma at one time, but of late years their trade does not seem to have extended beyond Hkamti. Mr. Errol Grey also notes that they make their own cloth out of the fibres of the hemp plant [UKT: {pn-ni}]. "In appearance the cloth resembles fine canvas."

UKT 170614: I remember an old Bur-Myan song:

{pin pin-ni hkyau: r n./ yau: hta.Bi.//
pait n~kyi mha l/ krw tw si-lo. //}

It seems that {pn-ni} and {yau:}-indigenus people are always associated. So also are {yau:} area, {soan:} and esoteric knowledge {ka.w p~a}. I have read over 40 years ago about Milarepa (1052-1135) in a book lent to me by U Nyunt Win of Chemistry Dept., Rangoon Univ. Though, I could no longer get the book I had read, I have down-loaded a similar book telling the main facts: "The magic life of Milarepa": - http://www.thranguhk.org/buddhism/en_milarepa.html 170615
The story tells how the Black Magician of
{ka.w p~a}, came to be a Buddhist Bodhisattva - an enlightened one. Milarepa was of Bhutan, the next-door neighbour of north-western Burma, where the {yau:}-indigenus people are presently located. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Bhutan 170615
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa 170615

UKT 170615: Bawdwin mines . I have heard of the Bawdwin mines of Burmah Corporation since I was a child of 4 or 5. My mother Daw Hla May had a childhood friend who was Aunty Eva to me. Aunty Eva's brother-in-law, a one Mr. Thompson had worked at Namtu the principal site of the mines. I have heard of the workers' hair becoming white due to the poisonous air at the smelter. As a side-note I must add: Mr. Thompson, his wife Daw Kyin Yoan and their two young children, a girl of my age known to me as Tiny, and a younger boy, all lost their lives trekking from Namtu through the Hukong valley to escape into the British-held India at the start of WWII. They simply disappeared together with many war-refugees from Burma. Gone but not forgotten.

The poisonous air is due to the chemical elements arsenic and lead in the mineral ores released as fumes during smelting. The name Bawdwing {Bau-twn:} comes from Baw 'pure silver', and Dwin 'hole in the ground'. ( {gnw} is silver alloyed with copper to make it harder.). See an article by J D Hoffmann on Bawdwin Mines in the Mining Magazine, Mar1916, in TIL pdf libraries:
- JDHoffmann-BawdwinMine<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171605)
J D Hoffmann, on p139 wrote: "According to Maclaren (1913 unpublished material), from the 5th to the 13th centuries the vicinity of the mines was probably in the hands of the Shans. Early records mention in detail the finding of gold in the 7th and 8th centuries, but no mention is ever made of silver. This omission would strongly indicate that the Shans, who were never real miners, did not work the Bawdwin mines. Following the Mongol invasions information is lacking as to the country taken and retained by the Chinese, but it is probable that Bawdwin was not occupied by them until the invasion of 1343 A.D. (the last king of Pagan Kingdom, Narathihapate Sithu died on 1 July 1287 - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narathihapate 170616) The Chinese, according to one inscription, started work at Bawdwin during the Ming dynasty in 1412. No doubt the Shan power terminated about this date, and the Chinese invasions of 1582 A.D. deferred their getting another footing. It may be inferred that the mines were worked exclusively by the Chinese from the 15th century on. Recent Chinese records show that the Bawdwin mines were worked from 1796 to 1851. During this period the mines were within what was nominally Shan territory and the Chinese paid a very small royalty to the King of Burma. The mines appear to have been governed by a president (Ta-Yeh) and a vice president (Erh-Yeh) elected by the miners. The first European to mention the mines was Michael Symes in 1795. He stated that they were at Badowem, six days journey from Bamoo (Bhamo)."

The chief metals found at the mines are Lead (highly poisonous), Zinc and Silver in the form of sulphides with small amounts of arsenides, and the air is loaded with Arsenic (highly poisonous) vapours.

Being metal workers, the Khunnongs - the metal workers - would have knowledge of the poisons and their antidotes, and they would be able to bring on sudden sickness and death to their enemies. It would be because of this they are supposed to be Black Magicians the masters of {ka.w p~a} who are able to fly through the air. It is my conjecture that these Khunnongs are related to the present day {yau:}-people who live near Pondaung-Ponnya {pon-tan pon-a}-range west of Pakokku. The story of Black Magicians always bring to mind the story of Milarepa of Bhutan:
- - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa 170615.
Go back Bawdwin-mines-note-b

(7). The Murus exist on the authority of Colonel Macgregor and he saw only one of them on his visit to the valley of the Nam Kiu (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p393end-p394begin ) (the Irrawaddy). They are said to inhabit the hills north of the Hukawng valley and to trade with the Chinese. "The Mooroos are a miserably poor race, and go about almost naked. I was informed that often they are on the point of starvation and are driven to eating all sorts of roots. The specimen of a Mooroo whom I saw at Langnu was certainly a wretched one. Withe the exception of a small loin-cloth and a very large coating of dirt, he possessed no garment. He came and stared at us like a wild animal and then suddenly turned on his heels and fled."

It is possible that these Muru are the Kumans about whom Mr. George learnt details from "the Amber Mines pngyi." The monk said the men wore nothing but a breech clout tied with a string, and the women a scanty kirtle kept in place by a rattan girdle. He added that they crouched round fires to keep themselves warm at night and consequently very often had large blisters on breast, back, and arms. Besides these, according to Kachin information given to Major Fenton, there are --

(8). The Sn {soan:} and Bilu {Bi-lu:} people, who live beyond the Khunnongs. These wizards [ {waiz~za} of Righthand Path, or {ka.w} of Left-hand Path}] and ogres {Bi-lu:} eat dogs, and the Kachins north of the confluence and in Hkamti Long trade with them in that animal. This race would hardly be worth mentioning if it were not for the Bilu city which used to exist near Mohnyin, according to Mong Yang and Mng Kawng history. [UKT ]

UKT 170609: My interest in {Bi-lu:} is because of 3 place-names: {Bi-lu:mro.} 'Ogre city' (in Kachin state), {Bi-lu: hkyan:} 'Ogre creek' (in Kayah state), and {Bi-lu: kywn:} (in Mon state).

Now turning to mythology on Pandavas, Bhima had a son named Ghatotkacha घटोत्कच ghaṭōtkaca by the Rakshasi Hidimbi. His maternal parentage made him half-Rakshasa and gave him many magical powers. He was hair-less, which in Bur-Myan esoteric practise means he was a {ka.ton:Bi-lu:} who would eat raw flesh, human or otherwise. His weapon is a crude cudgel. An adapt Left-Hand Practitioner could by means of an appropriate { n: } could place a {ka.ton:Bi-lu:} in your service. You need only to feed him fresh blood of chicken or any animal, once a week. CAUTION: if you were to fail to do your side of the bargain, he would "eat" you! That is, you die suddenly of unknown cause. You could discharge him from your service any time by disposing the controlling { n: } with the help of the adapt Left-Hand Practitioner. I had the chance to eye-witness such a practise in my younger days.

The Sn, according to the Kachins, are clever workers in iron, which they get in their own country .

These eight tribes seem to have very little resemblance to the Kachins. 

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Highly rhotic open vowel {kRa.}

UKT - 120303 , 140328, 140401, 170322

Can there be a highly rhotic open vowel such as {kRa.}? I had asked myself not having any other to ask. After two years, I can definitely give the answer. No. I have found only {kRi.}, which itself is unknown in Pal-Myan, and definitely not known in Bur-Myan. In many Pal-Myan words, {kRi.} is simply substituted with {ka.} or {ki.}. Though I still need to observe more, I will take it to be tentatively true. This is one indication that Pali or its predecessor Magadhi was a Tib-Bur language similar to Bur-Myan.

We now know that the Skt-Dev ऋ is an extremely fricative front close vowel. However its presumably non-rhotic counterpart ऌ is rarely found in Classical Sanskrit. It is said be common in Vedic. How do I present Skt-Dev ऋ to Bur-Myan speakers, who are not used to highly fricative sounds, but are used to non-rhotic sounds. Bur-Myan speakers are extremely familiar with lateral sounds. And so if there is a need I might be able to present ऌ to them.

Alas, I don't speak Hindi the direct descent from Sanskrit. Therefore my guide is A Practical Sanskrit Introductory, by Charles Wikner which may be downloaded from http://www.danam.co.uk/Sanskrit/Sanskrit%20Introductory/Sanskrit%20Introductory.html 120125, 140328. I thank the author for his excellent presentation.

I always remind myself that my real task is to come up with a reliable two-way transcription between Burmese and English, i.e. improving Romabama, and therefore my foray into Sanskrit was not my real intention. Since it is inconceivable to get the old pronunciation, I have to settle with the Hindi pronunciation and Tamil pronunciation of the rhotic vowel, I had to watch related videos concentrating on the name of Krishna . Sanskit spelling is most likely {kRaiS~Na.} कृष्ण, kṛṣṇa). [My original rendition {KriS~Na.} is most likely wrong pronunciation]. Listen for this sound:
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6J7x3Wdeb10&list=RD6J7x3Wdeb10 140328
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQ8ItLGo2aQ&list=RD6J7x3Wdeb10 140328

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End of TIL file