Update: 2017-04-10 10:59 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{ku-Ta.} : cont


{kRi.} : formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)


UKT notes :
Krita Yuga : the Golden Age
Khrisna : {kRaiS~Na.} कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa
Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans
  Rhotic open vowel {kRa.} : Soans and Bilus
Vagasaneyi-samhita : YazurVda


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{ku-Ta.} : cont



कूटाक्ष [ kta‿aksha ]
- m. loaded die: -‿upadhi-devin, a. playing with false dice or fraud; -‿gra, m. n. room on the house-top; summer-house.



कूड्  [ kd ] X.P.
-- kdaya - singe, scorch 



कूण् [knati]
-- contract (int.): pp. -ita , contracted, closed



कूदी [ kd&isharp; ]
- f. fetter.

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कूप [ k&usharp;pa ]
- m. [ku‿ap-a], pit, hole; well: -ka, m. little well; -kra, m. well-digger; -krma, m. tortoise in a well = unsophisticated person; -khanana, n. digging of a well; -khnaka, m. well-digger; -kakra, n. water wheel; -dardura, m. frog in a well = unsophisticated person; -yantra, n. water-wheel.

कूपकार kūpakāra
Skt: -kra, m. well-digger - Mac072c1
Skt: कूपकार kūpakāra - m. well-digger - SpkSkt



कूपाय [ kp-ya ]
- den. . become a well.



कूपिका [ kp-ik ]
- f. puddle in a dry river-bed.



  कूबर [ k&usharp;bara ]
- m. n., &isharp;, f. (cart) pole (--, a. f. ).

( end of old p072-1.htm )

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कूर kūra
Skt: कूर kūra - adj. fierce, hard hearted. n. boiled rice - SpkSkt
Pal: {ku-ra.}
- - UHS-PMD0334
  UKT from UHS: n. cooked rice for laypersons and monks.


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कूर्च [ krk ]
= क ू र ् च --> {kur~sa.}
- m. n. bunch of grass; n. beard; -ka, m. bunch; brush; beard; -t, f. beardedness; -la, a. bearded.


कूर्च [ krk ]
= क ू र ् च --> {kur~sa.}
Skt: कूर्च [ krk ] - m. n. bunch of grass; n. beard; - Mac072c2
Pal: {ku.a.} - UHS-PMD0331
  UKT from UHS - m. . kusa grass, long and sharp bladed grass, lots {sa-r:tn} drawing straws



कूर्द [ krd ]
- i. krda , leap. ud , leap up. pra , bound



कूर्ट् [krda]
- m., न -na , leaping, bounding



कूर्प [krpa]
- sand



कूर्पर [ krpara ]
- m. elbow; sts. knee.



कूर्पासक [ krpsa-ka ]
- m. jacket, bodice.



कूर्म [ krm ]
- m. (f. ) tortoise; one of the vital airs which causes the eyes to close; -pati, m. king of the tortoises (who supports the earth).

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{ku-la.} / {kuul} / {kuul~}


कूल् [ kl ]
- x. p. klaya , singe (cp. kd )



कूल [ k&usharp;la ]
- n. slope, hill; bank.



कूलंकष [ klam-kasha ]
- a. carrying away the bank.



कूलजात [ kla-gta ]
- pp. growing on the bank.



कूलमुद्रुज [ klam-udruga ]
- a. undermining the bank.



कूलवती [ kla-vat ]
- f. river.



कूलिनी [kl-in ]
- f. id.



  कूष्माण्ड [ kshmnda ]
- m. kind of demon; kind of text; n., , f. N. of the verses xx, 14-16 in the Vgasaneyi-samhit.

UKT 170322: See my note on Vgasaneyi-samhit or Esoteric text.

( end of old p072.htm )

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{kRi.} :

UKT 170328: See my note on the Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans.
See also कृत्यका kṛtyakā on  p073.htm
  Skt: -k, f. wicked fairy, witch [ {soan:}] - Mac073c2
  Skt: कृत्यका kṛtyakā - f. enchantress, witch - SpkSkt
and about {soan:} and {Bi-lu:} peoples living among the Kachins.
See also Rhotic-open-vowel and Soans and Bilus
UKT: I need to rewrite this note.


कृ [. kri ] (skri after upa, pari, sam), VIII.
- [kro] strong, [kuru] weak; V.+ I. kra, II. kr, V. krin; make, do; fashion, build; perform, fulfil; produce; execute; effect; conclude (friendship), display, show, exercise; prepare, cook; compose; cultivate; make anything out of (in. ab.); do anything to or for (g., lc.); make any one anything (2 ac.); do violence to (ac.); perform the usual action with (ac.); used thus with great latitude, e.g. udakam kri, offer the usual oblation of water (allied with this is the use of kri in the periphr. pf. with an abst. N. in ); utter, pronounce, use; describe; fix, determine; pass (time); await (amoment); procure for (g., lc.); assume (shape, voice: .); place on ro in, direct to (in. lc.), turn the mind or thoughts, give the hear (manas, buddhim, matim, bhvam) to, resolve on (d., lc., inf. or oratio recta with iti); appoint to (lc.); commission; act, fare; sacrifice; do anything with, make use of (in. and kim?); avail, be of use (with kim?); with adverbs in (e.g. atithi-), (e.g. mrid-), make, turn into ; with -st, reduce to, turn into; vase kri, subdue; hridi-, take to heart, remember; hridayena-, love; evam kritav, for this reason; tath-, yath‿uktam-, do so, consent; [UKT ]

UKT: कार्य - kārya - n. function, act, deed - SpkSkt

cs. kraya, cause to make (2 ac.) cause to be made by (in.); cause to be prepared; cause to be made (2 ac.); cause to be placed in (lc.); cause to be performed; cause to be cultivated; -to be put or buried; order to make, -to prepare, -to practise: often=simple verb; des. kikirsha, wish to do, -perform, -establish; intend; strive after. ati, transgress. adhi, place at the head of, appoint to (lc.); put forward, make a subject of discussion: pp. entrusted with, appointed to (lc., -); concerned in (lc.). anu, imitate (ac.); equal, rival (ac., g.), equal (ac.)in (in.) apa, take away, remove; injure (ac. g., lc.); cs. id. prati‿apa, take vengeance on (g.) abhi, do, make; des. wish to do, undertake. aram, prepare; serve, satisfy (d.). alam, prepare, produce; adorn (. adorn oneself); do violence to (g.). abhi‿-, upa‿-, adorn, sam-alam, id.; violate. ava, direct downwards. , bring hither; produce; appropriate (g.); cs. call; ask for (2 ac.); des. intend to perform. apa‿, remove, drive away, dispel, counteract, repel; give up, desist from; pay. upa‿, bring near, fetch, deliver; grant; prepare for a sacred rite; consecrate. ni‿, keep back. nir-, set apart; put away, remove; drive away; reject, repel; deny. vi‿, separate, distinguish; explain. sam-, unite, keep together. upa, confer; offer, present; serve, do a service to, oblige (g., lc.); . cherish. upa-skri, prepare, compose; equip, adorn; care for (ac.): pp. furnished with (in.) prati‿upa, repay; do a service in return. ni, bring done, humble, overcome: pp. humbled; dejected; mortified. vi-ni, mortify; injure; defraud. nis, remove; prepare; seek out; cure; expiate. pari-shiri, prepare; adorn, deck, furnish with (in.). puras, place in front; show, display; appoint to (lc.); choose, prefer; honour; gd. -kritya, regarding, about, on account of (ac.); pp. accompanied with (-). pra, do; fashion, make; perform; show, cause; make into (2 ac.); marry (a wife, a girl); violate, pollute (a gril); appoint to (lc.); put forward; make the subject of discussion; buddhim or manas -, apply one's heart to, make up one's mind to (d., lc.), resolve; pp. begun; accomplished; mentioned, under discussion; in question; cs. cause to prepare. vi-pra, injure; harass; obstruct. prati, make (ac.) out of (ac.) in opposition; repay (good and evil) with ac. of thing and d., g., lc. of person; resist; make good, repair; pay; des. wish to take revenge on (ac., lc.) for (ac.). vi, make different, change, alter; compare; disfigure, destroy, mutilate; develop; be hostile to (g., lc.); become unfaithful to (lc.): ., ps. be changed or modified; become alienated or disloyal; pp. changed, altered, qualified; mutilated, deformed, disfigured; unnatural, repulsive; cs. cause to change one's sentiments. pra-vi (for vi-pra); pp. sinned. sam (generally - skri), put together, unite; accumulate; prepare; invest (with the sacred thread); hallow (a girl at a wedding or the dead with sacred fires); adorn, polish, form gramatically: pp. sam-skrita, hallowed, invested; adorned, polished, elaborate, refined, Sanskrit. prati-sam, repair.

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कृ [. kri  ]
- pt. kakrt , intv., kar-kri , remember, mention with praise (g.)

( end of old p072-3.htm )

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कृकर [ kri-kara ]
- m. kind of partridge; a vital air causing hunger.



कृकलास kṛkalāsa  
Skt: कृकलास [krikals] - m. lizard; chameleon. -- Mac072c2 (p072c2end)
Skt: कृकलास kṛkalāsa - m. chameleon, lizard -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka.kN~ta.ka.} - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: m. chameleon

UKT: The above {ka.kN~ta.ka.} कृकलास kṛkalāsa is a terrestrial creature. There is also an amphibious kind known as {r poat-n} 'newt'. The amphibians, including frogs are once plentiful in Myanmarpr, but are fast disappearing due to agricultural pesticides. I have seen them while stationed at Taunggyi College (now University) in 1980s. They are considered by the natives of Shan State to have medicinal properties and dried animals were available in the Taunggyi bazaar. Since, the Myanmar species are lake species, I've shown what is available to me from Wikipedia. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newt 170323
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yunnan_lake_newt 170323


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कृकवाकु [ krika-v&asharp;ku ]
- m. cock; peacock.



कृकषा [krikash}
- f. kind of bird



कृकालिक [kriklika]
- f. kind of bird


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कृकिन kṛkin
BHS: kṛkin - Pal: kiki(n) --> {ki.ki.}
- n. of legendary king -- FE-BHS190
Pal: {ki.ki.} - UHS-PMD0316 read with UHS-BEPD0653
  UKT from UHS: blue jay


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कृच्छ्र [ krikkhr ]
= कृ च ् छ ् र
- a. distressing, grievous, dire; severe, dangerous; wretched, miserable: -m, ad. miserably; m. n. difficulty, distress, trouble, misery; danger; penance; kind of minor penance; --, -tas, in., ab. with difficulty, with much ado.



कृच्छ्रकर्मन्् [ krikkhra-karman ]
- n. distress, trouble; -kla, m. time of distress or danger; -gata, pp. distressed, endangered; practising penance; -t, f. dangerousness; -patita, pp. fallen into distress; -prna, a. whose life is in danger; eking out one's existence with difficulty; -sdhya, fp. difficult of accomplishment.



कृच्छ्रातिकृच्छ्र [ krikkhra‿atikrikkhra ]
- m. du. ordinary and extraordinary penance; sg. kind of penance.



कृच्छ्राब्द [ krikkhra‿abda ]
- m. kind of one year's penance.



- the root of kri (gr.).


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कृणोतन [ kri-no-tana ]
- V. 2 pl. impv. of √kri, do.

( end of old p072-4.htm )

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कृत् [kri-t] 
--> {kRait}
Skt: कृत्  [kri-t] - (-) a, making, producing, causing, performing; m.. composer, maker, fashioner; primary norminal suffix (attached to roots); primary noun -- Mac072c3 
Pal: {ka.ta.} - UHS-PMD0318
  UKT from UHS: {ki.ta.} - mfn. doing, dressing

Pal: {ka.rait~hta.}
- UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: {ka.rait~hta.} - (request) do



कृत् [. krit ]
- vi. p. krint ( e. also . and i.p. karta ), cut, cut off, out; up or down; ...




कृत् [. krit ]
- vii. p. krintti , spin



कृत [ kri-t ]
- pp. made, done, performed; prepared, ready; acquired; well done, all right; --, relating to: -m, done! = it shall be done at once; w. in. away with, enough of; n. deed, work, action; benefit (-m vid, be conscious of benefits received); stake (in play); booty; die or side of a die marked with 4 ; first or golden age.

UKT 170323: You can make a die of many shapes. The above is obviously a four-sided die in the shape of a tetrahedron - not a regular die which is a cube. Shown in the inset is the tetrahedral-die, the kind that the Hindu God must have played.
The First Epoch of Hinduism is known as Krita Yuga aka  Satya Yuga - the Golden Age.



कृतक [ krita-ka ]
- a. artificial, feigned, false; adopted (son): -m, feignedly, -tva, n. quality of being artificially produced; -kartavya, a. having fulfilled his task; -karman, n. an accomplished deed; a. having fulfilled one's duty; -krin, a. doing a thing; -krya, n. an attained object; a. having accomplished his object; satisfied: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -kla, m. appointed time; -kritya, a. having done his duty; having attained his object, satisfied (as to, lc.): -t, f. satisfaction; -kriya, a. having performed a sacred rite; pious; -kshana, a. having an appointed time, i.e. waiting impatiently for (lc., ac. w. prati, inf., --); -kshobha, a. shaken; -ghna, a. ignoring benefits, ungrateful: -t, f., -tva, n. ingratitude; -kda, a. having received the tonsure; -ganman, a. planted; -ga, a. recognising benefits, grateful: -t, f. gratitude.

कृतक krta-ka
--> {kRi.ta.ka.}
Skt: कृतक [krita-ka] - a. artificial, feigned, false; adopted (son): - Mac072c3
BHS: kṛtaka - adj. (perhaps essentially identical with Skt. kṛtaka, but with ... -- FE-BHS0190
Pal: {kait~ti.ma.}
- - UHS-PMD0318

UKT from UHS: mfn. made [meaning not occurring in Nature], son [child] by adoption.
UKT 140401: Kaittima adoption by Bur-Buddhist customary law and by India-Hindu law are quite different. See: - p060-2.htm  (link chk 140401) 

BHS: kṛtaja - n. of a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, hero of Avādāna-kalpalatā  ... -- FE-BHS0190
Pal: katau

UKT 140406: See my note on Avādāna-kalpalatā from Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon University of the West @ 1409 Walnut Grove Ave., Rosemead, CA 91770 . Surfing further I came across: (Skt: kṛtaja; P: katau) in the Google search index on John Ross Carter, 2012, "In the Company of Friends"
See also Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avadana 170323



कृततीर्थ [ krita-trtha ]
- a. to which a stair has been made; -tvara, a. hastening; -dra, a. married; -dsa, m. one who offers himself as a slave for a fixed time; -drgha-rosha, m. protracted wrath; -dh, a. clever; resolved on (inf.); -dhvag, a. furnished with banners; -nsaka, a. ungrateful; -nsana, a. id.; -niskaya, a. convinced; firmly resolved on (d., lc., inf., --); resolute; -niskayin, a. resolute.

कृततीर्थ kṛtatīrtha 
Skt: कृततीर्थ [krita-trtha] - a. to which a stair has been made; -- Mac072c3
Skt: कृततीर्थ kṛtatīrtha - adj. rendered accessible or easy, an adviser, who frequents them, furnished with a passage, one fertile in expedients, one who has visited holy places -- SpkSkt

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UKT notes


-- UKT 140406, 170323

To claim that I am a practicing Myanmar Theravada Buddhist and a skeptical scientist at the same time without knowing anything of the Tibetan Buddhism is a shameful thing for me. Of course, I, as a human being can not know everything, yet I must have a broad knowledge.

I have come to know of Avādāna-kalpalatā only recently. You can get a slew of Skt-Dev writings with a Buddhist flavour in Tibetan Buddhism.

See also: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_Buddhist_literature 170323
The following is an excerpt on the history of Sanskrit manuscripts from Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon University of the West @ 1409 Walnut Grove Ave., Rosemead, CA 91770 :

"We have come to know through our understanding of Buddhist history that an enormous amount of Buddhist literature was created in Sanskrit, beginning right after the Buddhas Mahaparinirvana, continuing up to the 12th century AD in India. Out of this vast literature, comprising several thousand texts, only a portion was translated into Tibetan between the 7th and 15th centuries and into Chinese between the 2nd and 11th centuries. Unfortunately, with the passage of time, the great treasure of Buddhist literature in Sanskrit was lost or destroyed due to various developments over the course of history."

From Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avadana 170323

Avadāna (Skt; Pali cognate: Apadāna) [1] is the name given to a type of Buddhist literature correlating past lives' virtuous deeds to subsequent lives' events. While including accounts from the Pali language Vinaya Pitaka ("Basket of Discipline"), this literature also includes a large number of Sanskrit collections, of which the chief are the Mahāsaṅghika's Mahāvastu ("Great Book"), and the Sarvāstivāda's Avadānaśataka (Century of Legends) and Divyāvadāna (The Heavenly Legend). These latter collections include accounts relating to Buddha Gautama and the third-century BC "righteous ruler," Ashoka. [2]

Amongst the most popular avadānas of Northern Hinayāna Buddhism are:

the story of Sudhana, preserved in the Mahāvastu under the title Kinnarī jātaka, amongst others, who falls in love with a kinnarī and saves her life.

the Vessantara jātaka, the story of the compassionate prince who gives away everything he owns, including his wife and children, thereby displaying the virtue of perfect charity.

the Suvannasankha jātaka [3]

Though of later date than most of the canonical Buddhist books, avadānas are held in veneration by the orthodox, and occupy much the same position with regard to Buddhism that the Puranas do towards Hinduism. They act in a similar way to other texts describing past deeds or past lives held in other traditions in the region, such as the aforementioned Puranas, the Dasam Granth and Janamsakhis of Sikhism, and the Kalpa Sutra of Jainism.

Go back Avādāna-note-b

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Krita Yuga

UKT 170323:

From: http://hinduism.enacademic.com/436/Krita_Yuga 170323

All of the YUGAS, or ages, in the Indian tradition, refer to throws in an ancient game of dice. Krita (the one that made it!) is the best throw a 4.

The Krita Yuga, which like all ages has appeared an infinite number of times and will return an infinite number of times, is also called Satya Yuga, or the age of truth. It is 1,728,000 years long. In Krita Yuga the highest virtue is said to be MEDITA-TION. In this age, BRAHMA is god. Eternal DHARMA is said to have all its four feet in this age, while in the others it progressively has three, two, and one. In the Krita age there is no distinction between the best and worst of creatures. Their life, happiness, and attractiveness are all equal. They are also free of sorrow, completely good, and enjoy solitude, rather than crowds. They are devoted to MEDITA-TION, active in spiritual restraints and austerities, and act always without self-interest. They are always joyful and have no permanent homes, but live in the mountains or by the oceans.

From : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuga 170323

Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four age cycle. A complete Yuga starts with the Satya Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga. Our present time is a Kali Yuga, which started at 3102 BCE with the end of the Mahabharata war.

Go back Krita-Yoga-note-b

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Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa

- UKT 120126, 120303, 140401.

There is no open vowel {kRa.} comparable to highly rhotic close vowel {kRi.}. In many Pal-Myan words, {kRi.} is simply substituted with {ka.} or {ki.}.

If the rhotic vowel ऋ had been taken as an open vowel we would have Skt-Myan {kRa.} instead of {kRi.} . The Romabama transcription (not transliteration) of Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa from {kRa.} is {kRiS~Na.}, and from {kRi.}, {kRaiS~Na.}.

I am unable to find the equivalent of Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa in UHS-PMD (I might have overlooked). But it gives {ki.Nha.) on p0318 as 'black' which may be taken as an epithet of Khrisna.

FE-BHS-191 gives kṛṣṇa '(3) n. of a king, previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, and a hero of a Jātaka (Pali Jāt. 440, Kaṇha-J)". I have downloaded and stored it TIL library.
See my online source: - http://zugangzureinsicht.org/html/tipitaka/kn/j/j09/j440_en.html 140402
I quote from text: "... in the womb of this brahmin's wife was conceived the Bodhisatta, and from his black colour they gave him on his nameday the name of Kaṇha-kumāra, young Blackie. ..." On transcription we get {ka.Nha.} .
See also in Jataka vol. 4, ed. by E. B. Cowell, 1901, http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/j4/index.htm 170323
Jataka no. 440, Kaṇha Jātaka . The Hindu-god Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa is obviously not the same as Buddhist Kaṇha .

I wonder what the pronunciation of ऋ in days before Panini [time-line 2500yrs ago], when Sanskrit would be Vedic. At present, I suspect, the name Khrisna कृष्ण would be pronounced with different degrees of rhoticity by various speakers from Tamil-speakers in the extreme south, through Gujarati-speakers, to Hindi-speakers in the north just south of the Himalayas.

Go back Khrisna-note-b

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Rhotic accent of the Indo-Europeans

UKT 160303, 170328:

There are words, such as {kRi.}, formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk) which are not present in Bur-Myan and possibly in Pali-Myan.

UKT 140401, 170328: {kRi.} words are listed in Franklin Edgerton, 18851963, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary  , vol. 2 p.190-192.  {kRi.} is the highly rhotic vowel present only in Skt-Dev. However its counter-part the Highly rhotic open-vowel is absent. Khrisna कृष्ण kṛs-ṇa is a typical word which can exemplified the phoneme {kRi. The rhotic sound is probably the hallmark of Brahmin Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na}, and their brethren the Indo-European (IE-speakers) who came into the then non-rhotic or slightly rhotic Tib-Bur speaking Indian subcontinent. Listen to one of their chants from Bhagavagītā Bg18.2:  bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))

I am using BHS to see how highly rhotic Sanskrit and almost-non rhotic Pali words are related. The very first entry on p190 is a name Kṛkin spelled with cap <k> which I have rewritten as kṛkin because Romabama is case sensitive. From the spelling I am transcribing into Skt-Dev and Pal-Myanmar only giving a gloss for the meaning.

The intruding Brahmin Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na}, and their brethren the Indo-European (IE-speakers) found many wonderful things in ancient Indian subcontinent, which they adopted and to make them their own they rewrite the ancient texts of the Vdas. They found many kinds of people whom they call devils and ogres.

The Brahmin Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na} were the forerunners of the modern colonialists, the Europeans of the 17th to 19th centuries. Lately, I have come across a brief description of two kinds of people, the Bilus {Bi-lu:} and the Soans {soan:}, of Myanmarpr. See Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States, in 5 volumes, ed. by J. G. Scott, 1900. The downloaded paper is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JGScott-GazettUpperBurShan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170328)

The affricates {hkya.} (vl.) and {gya.} are a problem in Bur-Myan: what is spelled as "voiceless" is usually pronounced as "voiced", resulting in confusion between {hkyn:} 'Chin'/'ginger' and {gyn:} 'ginger'. However, the ethnic tribe "Chin" though spelled {hkyn:} is pronounced as it is written. Moreover, the absence of /ŋ/ phoneme and tenuis sounds in English makes the problem unsolvable. My invention Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} (Burmese speech in Latin script) is my hope to solve such problems, and mitigate the Curse of the Tower of Babel.

 Sn {soan:} and Bilu {Bi-lu:}

See alternate spellings in MLC MED2006-089c1 (taking note of Romabama convention for Mauk'cha-Weik'cha): {gyein-hpau.}, {gyn:hpau}, {ain:pau}.

The Chingpaw is usually pronounced as {gyn:hpau}. The problem usually becomes a mess for English speakers who are only used to Palatal affricates, and not to Palatal plosive-stops. Because of possible mis-spellings and mis-pronunciations, I am giving spellings in Romabama: my only hope is that I haven't compounded the mess. Some of the names of peoples and places can be checked with Language Change in Political Systems of Highland Burma by E. R. Leach, 1954
- ERLeach-LangChangeHighlandBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170329)
- ERLeach-PolSysHighlandBurma<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170329)

1. The Khangs {hken:} who are said to live on the other side of the Chindwin beyond Bisu, and who, Mr. George thinks, may be perhaps identified with some Chin {hkn:} tribe. They also found northeast of the Bor Khamti country and originally separated the Khenungs on the Salween {n-lwn mric} from the Khumongs on the west. Mr. Errol Grey says that they have a distinct language and are less feminine in type than the Khumongs, with whom they are much mixed up, though they occupy separate villages. (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p389end-p390begin)

2. The Kaphawks. - Some of these accompanied the Khangs across the Chindwin {hkn-twn: mric}, while others remained to the east of Hkamti Long [Putao]. With them are related --

3. The Kaluns, who are said to differ in some way. These are probably the Kalangs, a naked tribe spoken of by Major Fenton, who calls them wild and uncivilized and says they eat their aged relations to spare them unnecessary misery.

4. The Tarens or Tarengs are found on the west border of the Chinese State of Santa and in Hkamti Long. They wear clothes something after the Chinese style, and are well known in Upper Burma as coolies under the name Maingthas. They are a distant tribe with a language and custom of their own and are renowned for their excellence of their dhas {Da:} They appear to be great travellers and itinerant merchants. During the cold weather they desert their villages and scatter over the adjacent countries returning at the beginning of the rains.

The name Maingtha is a simple Burmese perversions of the Shan form Tai Mong Hsa, that is to say, Shans from the two Hsa and La Hsa. [UKT 170329: I would transcribe Maingtha as {mren-a} 'forester'.]. There they call themselves and are called by their Chinese neighbours Ngachang or Achang (see Ethnology Chapter) and appear to be called Paran by the Kachins round about. Their dress, religion, and customs are those of the Chinese-Shans {rhn:ta.roat}. They are Buddhists and their language a curious mixture. Captain H. R. Davies estimates that about 30% of the words appear to be connected with Burmese and 12% with Shan. The latter have probably been borrowed from the surrounding Shans as names for things of which they knew nothing until they encountered the Shans and were converted to Buddhism. [UKT ]

Mr. Errol Grey speaks of meeting Turengs on his way to the country of the Khumongs, above latitude 2715' and about longitude 9730' . The Turengs, he says, are the great blacksmiths of that neighbourhood, just as the Ngachang are for the country round Hotha and Latha. They make all the dhas {Da:} and daggers worn by the Singpho and Hkamti Shans, and these under the name of Hkamti dhas form one of the chief articles of trade between the Hkamti valley and Assam. [UKT ]

The iron is found in the hills forming the boundary between the Turengs and the Khumongs. "It is of excellent quality and the knives are very durable." The dhas are made in four varieties, "the streaked, the indented, the white, "and the black dhas." [UKT ]

Mr. Errol Grey refers to a Tureng Dhu or Chief who visited him and gave a list  of the Singpho tribes, amongst which appeared Marans,  Marips, Laphars (no doubt Ledais ),and Darengs or Tullings, who presumably are the Tarengs themselves. He also says "a range of snows, separating (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p390end-p391begin) the Tisang from the Tamai," which is said to be the eastern limit of the Tureng Singpho country.  The Tamai is the local name for the eastern branch of the Irrawaddy {-ra-wa.ti mric}. This would place the Turengs in about longitude 98 and about latitude 2730'. ...

5. The Khenungs, according to Mr. Errol Grey, come from the valley of the Salween {n-lwn mric}, where their country bounds that of the Khunnongs or Khumongs on the east above latitude 27. ...

6. The Khunnongs, [UKT: metal workers] also called Kumongs or Khumongs, are found above latitude 27 30' between the Nam Kiu, the western branch of the Irrawaddy {-ra-wa.ti mric}, and the Salween {n-lwn mric}, that is to say, east of Hkamti Long, called Bor Khampti by Mr. Errol Grey. ... He thinks their language somewhat resembles Singpho, "about 5% of the words being identical." They are a timid people and as a consequence (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p391end-p392begin) are oppressed on all sides - by the Khenungs on the east, the Singphos onthe sound, and the Hkamti Shans on the west, and pay tribute to all of them. ... (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII , cont. on p393) ... Colonel Macgregor says that the Khunnongs used to live nearer to the Chinese towards the east and close to the Lamas (whom the Hkamti people called the Hpangs) on the north, but they were so much oppressed by both, especially by the Lamas, that they placed themselves under the protection of the Tai of Hkamti Long. [UKT ]

They [UKT: metal workers] are a hard-working people and, like the Tarengs, have a great reputation as blacksmiths. Their dhas are noted; they are shorter and thicker in the blade than those used by the Kachins. Mr. Errol Grey says:-

"I saw  a blacksmith at work this evening forging these blades. His anvil was a large flat stone and his hammer a round one with a slightly flat head. A splint of bamboo about thirty-six inches in length was bent into the form of a pair of tongs, and the round stone was placed inside the loop so formed and the free ends of the tongs, being lashed well together, served both to keep the stone in its place and also as a handle to the hammer thus made. This hammer weighed about twenty pounds, and was used in the first process of forging only, the finishing touches to be given by a small light iron hammer with a long head. I did not see that any steel was used, but was told that the small pieces of iron that flew off on all sides from the red-hot blade in the process of forging were collected and added to the iron, serving the purposes of steel.'

The Khunnongs [UKT: metal workers] also extract silver, which is found at Nogmun to the east of the Nam Tisang.  Colonel Macgregor says the ore is melted out  in an iron vessel over red hot charcoal; a draught is kept up by "blow-pipes " on opposite sides, and the melted silver is carried away by means of an iron pipe. "The Khunnongs trade with the Burmese to the south." They may have traded with Burma at one time, but of late years their trade does not seem to have extended beyond Hkamti. Mr. Errol Grey also notes that they make their own cloth out of the fibres of the hemp plant [UKT: {pn-ni}]. "In appearance the cloth resembles fine canvas." ...

7. The Murus exist on the authority of Colonel Macgregor and he saw only one of them on his visit to the valley of the Nam Kiu (The Upper Burma Gazetteer, Chap. VII p393end-p394begin ) (the Irrawaddy). They are said to inhabit the hills north of the Hukawng valley ... It is possible that these Muru are the Kumans about whom Mr. George learnt details from "the Amber Mines pngyi." The monk said the men wore nothing but a breech clout tied with a string, and the women a scanty kirtle kept in place by a rattan girdle. ... Besides these, according to Kachin information given to Major Fenton, there are --

8. The Sn {soan:} and Bilu {Bi-lu:} people, who live beyond the Khunnongs. These wizards [ {waiz~za} of Righthand Path, or {ka.w} of Left-hand Path}] and ogres {Bi-lu:} eat dogs, and the Kachins north of the confluence and in Hkamti Long trade with them in that animal. This race would hardly be worth mentioning if it were not for the Bilu city which used to exist near Mohnyin, according to Mong Ynag and Mng Kawng history. The Sn, according to the Kachins, are clever workers in iron, which they get in their own country .

These eight tribes seem to have very little resemblance to the Kachins. 


Highly rhotic open vowel {kRa.}

UKT - 120303 , 140328, 140401, 170322

Can there be a highly rhotic open vowel such as {kRa.}? I had asked myself not having any other to ask. After two years, I can definitely give the answer. No. I have found only {kRi.}, which itself is unknown in Pal-Myan, and definitely not known in Bur-Myan. In many Pal-Myan words, {kRi.} is simply substituted with {ka.} or {ki.}. Though I still need to observe more, I will take it to be tentatively true. This is one indication that Pali or its predecessor Magadhi was a Tib-Bur language similar to Bur-Myan.

We now know that the Skt-Dev ऋ is an extremely fricative front close vowel. However its presumably non-rhotic counterpart ऌ is rarely found in Classical Sanskrit. It is said be common in Vedic. How do I present Skt-Dev ऋ to Bur-Myan speakers, who are not used to highly fricative sounds, but are used to non-rhotic sounds. Bur-Myan speakers are extremely familiar with lateral sounds. And so if there is a need I might be able to present ऌ to them.

Alas, I don't speak Hindi the direct descent from Sanskrit. Therefore my guide is A Practical Sanskrit Introductory, by Charles Wikner which may be downloaded from http://www.danam.co.uk/Sanskrit/Sanskrit%20Introductory/Sanskrit%20Introductory.html 120125, 140328. I thank the author for his excellent presentation.

I always remind myself that my real task is to come up with a reliable two-way transcription between Burmese and English, i.e. improving Romabama, and therefore my foray into Sanskrit was not my real intention. Since it is inconceivable to get the old pronunciation, I have to settle with the Hindi pronunciation and Tamil pronunciation of the rhotic vowel, I had to watch related videos concentrating on the name of Krishna . Sanskit spelling is most likely {kRaiS~Na.} कृष्ण, kṛṣṇa). [My original rendition {KriS~Na.} is most likely wrong pronunciation]. Listen for this sound:
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6J7x3Wdeb10&list=RD6J7x3Wdeb10 140328
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQ8ItLGo2aQ&list=RD6J7x3Wdeb10 140328

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UKT 170322: The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01) by Max Muller (1879):
" V. The Vgasaneyi-samhit : THE Vgasaneyi-samhit-upanishad, commonly called from its beginning, s or svsya, forms the fortieth and concluding chapter of the Samhit of the White Yagur-veda. If the Samhits are presupposed by the Brhmanas, at least in that form in which we possess them, then this Upanishad, being the only one that forms part of a Samhit, might claim a very early age. The Samhit of the White Yagur-veda, however, is acknowledged to be of modern origin, as compared with the Samhit of the Black Yagur-veda, and it would not be safe therefore to ascribe to this Upanishad a much higher antiquity than to those which have found a place in the older Brhmanas and ranyakas. ..."

UKT 170322: I understand the White Yagur-veda to be the Upper of Right-Hand Path {a.htak-lm: pi~a} of the Waizzars {waiz~za}, and the Black Yagur-veda to be the Lower or Left-Hand Path {auk-lm: pi~a} or Mhau {mhau} of the Ka'ws {ka.w} of Myanmarpr. Both Path dabble in Tantra-Mantra-Yantra which may be grouped as In { n:}.
See: Folk Elements in Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 170322)

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