Update: 2019-01-18 05:07 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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Contn. of 2nd phoneme as approximant

{ku.la.} ु : cont
  {kul} / {kul~}: lepha aka super-L
{ku.wa.} / {kuw}

  p071c2 :

UKT 180408: Note below how Romabama is attempting to include foreign fricative pronunciations :
{ku:.sh}, {ku:.S}, {ku:.s}, {ku:.h} - by using Mon-Myan {wic~sa pauk} 'visarga'.

{ku.sha.} --> {ku:.sh}
{ku.Sa.} --> {ku:.S}
{ku.a.} --> {ku:.s}
{ku.ha.} --> {ku:.h}


UKT 171230: Indian foods - Traditional Ayurvedic foods, by P. Sarkar et al., 2015 see downloaded text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- PSarkarEtAl-TradAyurvedFood<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171231)

 Romabama interpretations are not "surface interpretations": I've to look (to the best of my ability), deep down into culture and usage. For, example, the English words Right View vs. Wrong View, are not suitable. I would use the word Appropriate View - to reflect on the Middle Path of Buddhism.


UKT notes :
Funerary art
Orbis terrarum: King Burengnong of Hongsawadee 



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कुलयोषित्् [ kula-yoshit ]
- f. virtuous woman; -rgadhn, f. royal capital; -vat, a. of noble race; -vardhana, m. support of a family; -vidy, f. knowledge hereditary in the family; -vrata, n. family practice (religious or moral): -dhara, a. maintaining the family virtue; -sla-vayo-vritta-vitta-vat, a. of good family, character, age, conduct, and means; -sikharin, m., -saila, m.= kula-parvata; -saṅkhy, f. being accounted of good family; -samgata, m. acquaintance of the family; -samtati, f. progeny; -samnidhi, m. presence of many persons: lc. in the presence of witnesses; -samudbhava, a. sprung of a noble house; -sevaka, m. excellent servant; -stamba, m. family like a bunch of grass; -str, f. virtuous woman; -sthiti, f. family usage; -hna, pp. of ignoble race.
178) कुलयोषित्् (p. 55) kula-yoshit 

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कुलाङ्कुर [ kula‿aṅkura ]
- m. scion of a family; -‿aṅgra, m. firebrand = destroyer of his own family; -‿akala, -‿adri, m. chief mtn. or mtn. range; -‿anuguna-vat, a. having merits corresponding to his race; -‿anta-karana, a. destroying a race; -anvaya, m. noble descent; -‿anvita, pp. of noble race; -‿pda, m. ornament of the family.
177) कुलाङ्कुर (p. 55) kula̮aṅkura



कुलाय [ kuly-a ]
- m. n. web, tissue; nest; lair; dwelling; -n, a. nest-like.
176) कुलाय (p. 55) kulaNy-a



कुलाल [ klla ]
- m. potter; , f. wife of a potter.
175) कुलाल (p. 55) klla

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कुलिक [ kul-ika ]
- m. relation.
174) कुलिक (p. 55) kul-ika 



कुलिङ्ग [ ku-liṅga ]
- m. kind of mouse; N. of various birds.
173) कुलिङ्ग (p. 55) ku-liṅga


p071c1-b07/ not online

कुलिज [kuliga]
- n. a measure of capacity



कुलिश [ k-lisa ]
- m. axe; n. thunderbolt; diamond: -t, f. state of a thunderbolt; -dhara, -pni, -bhrit, m. ep. of Indra.
200) कुलिश (p. 55) k-lisa

कुलिश [k-lisa]
Skt:- m. axe; n. thunderbolt; diamond: -- Mac071c1
BPal: {ku.li.a.} - UHS-PMD0330

  UKT from UHS: n. weapon carried by Indra (MLC-MED2006-471), thunder bolt.

UKT 140315: the meaning given by Macdonell "diamond" suggests flashes of light or lightening. It reminds me of Mahayana Diamond Sutra http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_Sutra 140315
Skt: वज्रच्छेदिकाप्रज्ञापारमितासूत्र, vajracchedikā prajāpāramitā sūtra
Downloaded papers of [Friedrich] Max Muller's Sacred Texts Vol49 are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries. We find in Introduction, p.roman12-19, the mention of the Sutra. On p111-144, we find the translation of text address to the Elder Subhti, and the general audience:
- MaxMuller-SacredTextsVol49<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171230)
- concluding: "As in the Sky, Stars, darkness, a lamp, a phantom, dew, a bubble/ A dream, a flash of lightning, and a cloudthus we should look upon the world (all that was made). / Thus he should explain ; therefore it is said : He should explain.' //"


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कुलीन [ kul-na ]
- a. noble (of race and character); belonging to the race of (--): -tva, n. noble birth; -ya, a. belonging to the family of (--).
199) कुलीन (p. 55) kul-na



कुलीर [ kulra ]
- m. crab; -ka, m. little crab.
198) कुलीर (p. 55) kulra


p071c1-b11/ not online

- m. pl. N. of a people

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कुलोद्गत [ kula‿udgata ]
- pp. coming of a noble stock; -‿udvaha, a. continuing the race of, descended from (g., --).
197) कुलोद्गत (p. 55) kula̮udgata coming of a noble stock

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{kul} / {kul~}: lepha aka super-L

UKT 140326, 170320, 190117: The question arises how to class {kul}: is it the counterpart of {kur~} . We should also note the Bur-Myan word for a military officer, {bo~l} /boːl/ (MLC MED-2006-315), pronounced as / {bo}/.


कुल्माष [ kulmsha ]
- m. sour gruel.
196) कुल्माष (p. 55) kulmsha

For more Indian foods - Traditional Ayurvedic foods, by P. Sarkar et al., 2015 see downloaded text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- PSarkarEtAl-TradAyurvedFood<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171231)



कुल्य [ . kul-ya ]
- a. referring or belonging to a family.
195) कुल्य (p. 55) 1. kul-ya referring or



कुल्य [ . kulya ]
- n. receptacle for the bones of a cremated corpse.
194) कुल्य (p. 55) 2. kulya receptacle f

UKT 140312: I would translate the above as "a family urn", because of the prefix {kul}. See my note on Funerary art



कुल्या [ kuly ]
- f. rivulet, canal.
193) कुल्या (p. 55) kulyaN rivulet,



कुल्याय [ kuly-ya ]
- den. . become a rivulet.
192) कुल्याय (p. 55) kuly-ya


p071c1-b18/ not online

- m. N. of a commentator on Manu, who probably lived in the 16th century.

( end of old p071-1.htm )

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{ku.wa.} / {kuw} : cf. {kul}

p071c1-b19/ not online

कुवणिञ् [ku-vanig ] = क ु व ण ि ञ ्
- m. a rogue of a merchant



कुवधू [ ku-vadh ]
- f. wicked woman; -vartman, n. wrong road, heresy.
191) कुवधू (p. 55) ku-vadh



कुवल [ ku-vala ]
- a tree; n. its fruit; water-lily.
190) कुवल (p. 55) ku-vala water-lily.



कुवलय [ . ku-valaya ]
- n. terrestrial orb, orbis terrarum.
189) कुवलय (p. 55) 1. ku-valaya terrestrial orb

See my note on the orbis terrarum : 'the world, the Earth'



कुवलय [ . ku-vala-ya ]
- n. blue lotus (which opens at night): -dris, -nayan, f. lotus-eyed woman; -ml, f. N. of a mare; -vat, f. N. of a princess.
188) कुवलय (p. 55) 2. ku-vala-ya blue lotus (which opens at night)

UKT 140313, 170320: Water-lilies {kra} are of two kinds: those that open during day, and those that open during night. However, we find in Bur-Myan literature five kinds of water-lilies listed in: Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm (link chk 170321)
Group of Five: 1. white lotus, 2. red lotus, 3. blue lotus, 4. {kra-tn-hsaip}, 5. {kra-hkan:lan:}



कुवलयादित्य [ kuvalaya‿ditya ]
- m. N. of a king; -‿nanda, m. T. of a rhetorical work; -‿pda, m. N. of a Daitya changed into an elephant; N. of a king; -‿aval, f. N. of a queen.
187) कुवलयादित्य (p. 55) kuvalaya̮ditya -̮nanda, 

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कुवलयित [ kuvalay-ita ]
- pp. adorned with water-lilies.
186) कुवलयित (p. 55) kuvalay-ita



कुवलयेश [ kuvalaya‿sa ]
- m. lord of earth, king: -t, f. dominion.
185) कुवलयेश (p. 55) kuvalaya̮sa lord of earth



कुवस्त्र [ ku-vastra ] = क ु व स ् त ् र
- n. bad dress; a. ill-clad: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -vkya, n., -vk, f. ill word; -vdika, m. charlatan, quack; -vsan, f. wrong notion.
184) कुवस्त्र (p. 55) ku-vastra bad dress

[ku-vsan ]
- f. wrong notion - Mac071c2

UKT 180101: See my interpretation of Right and Wrong Notion
Note: I used to be an editorial writer of the North Renfrew Times in Canada, and I am no stranger to turning "Right to Wrong", and "Wrong to Right".



कुविद्् [ kuv-d ]
- ad. perchance? I wonder?
183) कुविद्् (p. 55) kuv-d



कुविन्द kuvinda, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. wearer.
182) कुविन्द (p. 55) -ka wearer.



कुविवाह [ ku-vivha ]
- m. low marriage; -vritti, f. poor maintenance; -vedhas, m. evil fate; -vaidya, m. bad physician; -vypra, m. low occupation.
217) कुविवाह (p. 55) ku-vivha

( end of old p071-2.htm )

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p071c2-b07/ not online

कुश् [ kus ] --> {ku:.sh}
- enclose, encircle



कुश [ kus- ]
--> kuśa
- m. grass, esp. sacrificial grass; N.: - nbha, m. N.
216) कुश (p. 55) kus- grass

कुश [kus-] --> kuśa
Skt: कुश [kus-] - m. grass, esp. sacrificial grass; N.:-- Mac071c1
BPal: {ku.a.} - UHS-PMD0331
  UKT from UHS read with MLC-MED2006-490 & 106:
- m. . kusa grass, long and sharp bladed grass, Eragrostis zeylanica , Leesia hexandra . lots {sa-r:tn} to decide either the recipient or the gift in a religious offering to Buddhist monks (equivalent of drawing straws) .

See Wikipedia: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drawing_straws 140317
Read story of Mahadoat-lots on the merit of offering food to the Buddha or his monks in my note below.



कुशल [ ksa-la ]
- a. appropriate, fitting; profitable; salutary; healthy, well; skilful, expert, experienced (in, g., lc., inf., --): -m man, approve; -m, ad. duly; mildly; n. good condition, due order; welfare, prosperity; health; expertness, skill; kusalam te, how do you do? good luck to you! -m br, -vak, or -vad, wish any one good luck; -m, in., --, duly, regularly.
215) कुशल (p. 55) ksa-la appropriate



कुशलकारण [ kusala-krana ]
- n. cause due to welfare; -t, f. skill, experience (in, lc.); -prasna, m. enquiry as to health; -vat, a. healthy, well; -vk, a. eloquent.
214) कुशलकारण (p. 55) kusala-krana



कुशलिन्् [ kusal-in ]
- a. well, safe and sound; favourable, good (news).
213) कुशलिन्् (p. 55) kusal-in well, safe and sound


p071c2-b12/ not online 

कुसलीकृ [kusal-kri ]
Skt: कुशलीकृ [kusal-kri ] - put in order, set right - Mac071c2
Skt: कुशली करोति { कुशलीकृ } kuśalī karoti { kuśalīkṛ } - v. make right or proper, arrange in due order - SpkSkt



कुशवत्् [ kusa-vat ]
- a. abounding in Kusa grass; -stamba, m. bunch of Kusa grass.
212) कुशवत्् (p. 55) kusa-vat



कुशाग्र [ kusa‿agra ]
- n. point of a blade of Kusa: -buddhi, a. whose intellect is as sharp as a needle.
211) कुशाग्र (p. 55) kusa̮agra point of a blade of Kusa:


p071c2-b15/ not online

कुशावती [kus-vat ]
- f. N. of a city


p071c2-b16/ not online 

कुशिक [kusik]
- m. N. of a sage; pl. N. of a people

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaushik 180101
"Kaushik (also spelt Koushik) is a gotra and also surname of Brahmins mainly found in India.
"The members of the Kaushik gotra claim descent from the legendary sage Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, who was also known as Kaushika. The name "Kaushika" literally means "from Kush". British writer John Garrett (1871) believed that Kush here refers to the name of a place in Central Asia. [1]
Ref.01 - John Garrett (1975) [1871]. A Classical Dictionary of India. Atlantic. pp. 732. GGKEY:YTLNG1DG7JN


कुशिष्य [ ku-sishya ]
- m. bad pupil: -sishya, m. bad pupil as a pupil.
210) कुशिष्य (p. 55) ku-sishya



कुशील [ ku-sla ]
- n. bad character: -va, m. bard, actor: du. N. of the two sons of Rma.
209) कुशील (p. 55) ku-sla bad character



कुशूल [ kusla ]
- m., v.  kusla.
208) कुशूल (p. 55) kusla



कुशेशय [ kuse-saya ]
- a. lying on Kusa grass; n. (day) lotus: -‿aksha, a. lotus-eyed.
207) कुशेशय (p. 55) kuse-saya



कुश्रुत [ ku-sruta ]
- pp. imperfectly heard; n. evil report.
206) कुश्रुत (p. 55) ku-sruta

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p071c2-b22/ not online

कुष् vi. --> {ku:.S}
- kusha , ix. p.  kush-n , pinch, tear. nis , tear out: pp. nish-kushita , turn out


p071c2-b23/ not online

कुषीतक [kushtaka ]
- m. kind of bird; N.



कुषुम्भ [ kushmbha ]
- m. poison sac.
205) कुषुम्भ (p. 55) kushmbha



कुष्ठ [ k-shtha ] = क ु ष ् ठ
- m. n. a plant; , f. point, beak; leprosy.
204) कुष्ठ (p. 55) k-shtha



कुष्ठिका [ kshthik ]
- f. contents of the entrails.
203) कुष्ठिका (p. 55) kshthik



कुष्ठिन्् [ kushth-in ]
- a. leprous.
202) कुष्ठिन्् (p. 55) kushth-in



कुष्माण्ध [kushmnda]
Skt: कुष्माण्ध [kushmnda] - m. a plant; pl. a species of demon
  246) कूष्माण्ड (p. 55) kshmnda xx, 14-16 in the Vgasaneyi-samhit.
Skt: कुष्माण्ड kuṣmāṇḍa - m. pumpkin gourd, class of demons, false conception -- SpkSkt


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UKT 180101: In spite of IPA pronunciation of /θ/ for {a.}, Skt-Dev speakers pronounce it as /s/. Thus there are three hissing-hushing fricative. Against this is the Pali-Myan (and Bur-Myan) two hisser-husher sibilant, and one non-hiss-hush thibilant. Thus we will have to give कुस --> {ku.sha.} or {ku.Sa.}.

कुस kusa
- N. of Bodhisatta King Kusa (husband of Pabhāvatī, daughter of King Madda of Sāgala. - UKT 180101



कुसखी [ ku-sakh ]
- f. bad friend; -sakiva, m. bad minister; -sambandha, m. bad relation; -sarit, f. shallow river.
201) कुसखी (p. 55) ku-sakh bad friend



कुसीद [ k-sda ]
- a. inert; n. usury: -vriddhi, f. usurer's interest.
223) कुसीद (p. 55) k-sda inert

See my note on usury



कुसीदिन्् [ kusd-n ]
- m. usurer.
222) कुसीदिन्् (p. 55) kusd-n usurer.



कुसुम [ kusuma ]
- n. flower, blossom: -krmuka, m. Kma (having a bow of flowers); -ketu, -kpa, m. id.; -komala, a. soft as flowers; -druma, m. flowering tree; -dhanus, -dharvan, m. Kma (having a bow of flowers); -pura, n. Flower city, ep. of Ptaliputra; -bna, m. flower-arrow; - maya, a. () consisting of flowers; -mrgana, m. Kma. 
221) कुसुम (p. 55) kusuma flower

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कुसुमय [ kusum-aya ]
- den. P. furnish with flowers: pp. -ita, flowering, blossoming.
220) कुसुमय (p. 55) kusum-aya



कुसुमलक्ष्मन्् [ kusuma-lakshman ]
- m. ep. of Pradyumna; -lat, f. flowering creeper; -lv, f. flower gatherer; -sayana, n. couch of flowers; -sara, a. having flowers as arrows (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); m. Kma: -‿sana, m. id.; -syaka, m. Kma; -sra, m. N. of a merchant; -surabhi, a. fragrant with flowers; -stabaka, m. bunch of flowers.
219) कुसुमलक्ष्मन्् (p. 55) kusuma-lakshman

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pradyumna 180102
"Pradyumna, प्रद्युम्न = प ् र द ् य ु म ् न is the name of a character in the Srimad Bhagavatam. He was the son of King Lord Krishna [before his earthly death] and Rukmini [principal wife and queen]. Pradyumna is considered as one of the four vyuha avatars [*chatur-vyūha: Vasudeva - creator, Samkarsana - sustainer, Pradyumna - destroyer or dissolver of universe, and Aniruddha - promulgator of spiritual knowledge] of Vishnu. ... the only name in Skt-Dev with all the 3 letters joint (referred as जोडाक्षर)
[*from: https://hinduism.stackexchange.com/questions/16818/what-are-the-purposes-of-vishnus-vyuha-avatars 180102]



कुसुमाकर [ kusuma‿kara ]
- m. spring; -‿agali, m. two handfuls of flowers; -‿yudha, m. Kma; N.; -‿sava, m. honey; -‿starana, n. couch of flowers; -‿astra, m. Kma.
254) कुसुमाकर (p. 55) kusuma̮kara spring



कुसुमित [ kusum-ita ]
- (pp.) n. blossoming, flowering time.
269) कुसुमित (p. 55) kusum-ita 



कुसुमेषु [ kusuma‿ishu ]
- m. Kma (flower-arrowed).
267) कुसुमेषु (p. 55) kusuma̮ishu Kma (flower-arrowed).



कुसुम्भ [ kusumbha ]
- m. safflower; (hermit's) water-pot: -kshetra, n. field of safflower; -vat, a. carrying a water-pot.
263) कुसुम्भ (p. 55) kusumbha



कुसूल [ kusla ]
- m. granary; -dhnyaka, a. having plenty of corn in his granaries.
262) कुसूल (p. 55) kusla granary



कुसृति [ ku-sriti ]
- f. by-path; fraud, deception.
268) कुसृति (p. 55) ku-sriti by-path



कुसौहृद [ ku-sauhrida ]
- m. bad friend; -str, f. bad woman; -sthna, n. miserable place; -svmin, m. bad master.
256) कुसौहृद (p. 55) ku-sauhrida bad friend 


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{ku.ha.} --> {ku:.h}


कुह [ k-ha ]
- ad. where? (often -svid); -kid, somewhere; wherever.
240) कुह (p. 55) k-ha where?



कुहक [ kuha-ka ]
- m. rogue, cheat, juggler; hypocrite; n., , f. jugglery; deception.
239) कुहक (p. 55) kuha-ka



कुहर [ kuha-ra ]
- m. N. of a Nga; cave, cavity; copulation.
238) कुहर (p. 55) kuha-ra cave


p071c3-b13/ not online

कुहा [kuh]
- f. a plant


p071c3-b14/ not online

कुहु [kuhu]
- cry of the cuckoo (also )



कुहू [ kuh&usharp; ]
- f. new-moon (personified as the daughter of Aṅgiras).
237) कुहू (p. 55) kuhuN new-moon

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{ku} ू

√kū , 'design' - Whit0021
UKT 170607 - √kū 'design' implying "fraud", and other "ill-meaning" words . See W. D. Whitney, 1885.


p071c3-b16/ not online

 कू kū      
- vi. . kava , cry. , intend



कू [ k&usharp; ]
- ad. where? with kid, somewhere.
236) कू (p. 55) kuN where?

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कूची [ kk ]
- f. brush, pencil.
235) कूची (p. 55) kk brush


√kūj , 'hum'. - Whit0021


p071c3-b19/ not online

कूज् [ kg ]
- i. p. kga , utter monotonous sounds; cry, hum, coo, buzz, murmur, twitter. ud , cry, utter a (monotonous) coo; lament, wail. vi , cry, twitter. sam , id .



  कूज [ kg-a ]
- m., -ana, n. cry, coo, murmur; -ita, (pp.) n. id.
234) कूज (p. 55) kg-a cry, coo


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कूट [ . k&usharp;ta ]
- n. forehead; horn; m. n. peak, top; heap, multitude; n. deception, fraud, falsehood.
233) कूट (p. 55) 1. kuNta forehead;



कूट [ . kt ]
- a. hornless (cattle); deceptive; spurious; concealed; invidious; -ka, a. false (coin); n. prominence; -karman, n. fraud; -kraka, m. forger, false-witness; -krit, m. forger (of, g.); briber; -kkhadman, m. sharper, cheat; -tpasa, m. counterfeit ascetic; -tul, f. false balance; -pkala, m. elephant's fever; -psa, m. snare, trap; -bandha, m. id.; -yuddha, m. treacherous fight; -rakan, f. fraud; trap, snare; -lekha, m., -lekhya, n. forged document; -slmali, m. f. fabulous cotton shrub with sharp thorns employed to torture criminals in Yama's realm; -ssana, n. forged edict: -kartri, m. forger of edicts; -skshin, m. false-witness; -stha, a. occupying the highest place, chief; being in the midst of (--); immovable, immutable; -svarna, n. counterfeit gold.
232) कूट (p. 55) 2. kt hornless (cattle)


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UKT notes

Funerary art

- UKT 140312

Ancient Pyus of Myanmarpr had used funeral urns to preserve the remains of their dead ones. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyu-city-states 140312). Modern Theravada Buddhists would sometimes rebury the ashes after cremation in urns. This is especially done to some monks and very aged grandparents and parents. 

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funerary_art#Pre-history 140312

In Neolithic and Bronze Age societies , a great variety of tombs are found, with tumulus mounds, megaliths, and pottery as recurrent elements. [UKT ]

UKT 140312: The metal of choice of Ancient Pyus of Myanmarpr was brass, an alloy of copper & zinc, which according to Ancient Jews, brass was a religious metal unlike bronze, the alloy of copper & tin. Bronze according to Jews was a metal of war, and it was forbidden to use bronze at their Altar of Burnt Offering. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar-Bible 140312). Because of this fact, I would refer to our ancestral Pyus as the people of peace - not of war.  

In Eurasia, a dolmen is the exposed stone framework for a chamber tomb originally covered by earth to make a mound which no longer exists. Stones may be carved with geometric patterns (petroglyphs), for example cup and ring marks. Group tombs were made, the social context of which is hard to decipher. Urn burials, where bones are buried in a pottery container, either in a more elaborate tomb, or by themselves, are widespread, by no means restricted to the Urnfield culture which is named after them, or even to Eurasia. Menhirs, or "standing stones", seem often to mark graves or serve as memorials, [13] while the later runestones and image stones often are cenotaphs, or memorials apart from the grave itself; these continue into the Christian period. The Senegambian stone circles are a later African form of tomb markers.[14]

UKT 140322: My mother's father, Zhu Lai Guang (in Pinyin, or, "C." in traditional Chinese use in Burma), was one of the wealthiest Cantonese Chinese at the beginning of the 20th century in southern Burma. Having had an English education, he made his fortune by becoming a building contractor to the British-Burma government.

My mother told me of how her father's body was exhumed three years after his sudden death of plague just as he was turning 40. On opening the coffin, my mother, who was still a child, had a last look at her father's body which was still intact as it was placed in the heavy Chinese coffin 3 years before. Then as the outside air came to act, the body slowly turned to fine powder and only the bones were left. The bones, down to the smallest digits of the fingers and toes were then sifted out of the dust, and cleansed in green-coconut water using small brushes. The bones then became pearly white. Then they were attached to each other with silver-wire. The skeleton was then placed in a sitting position in the burial urn ('che'in' was how my pronounced) with its chin resting on the knees. A small cushion was placed under the pelvic bone so that it looks as if it was sitting. Then the urn was moved into the family horse-shoe tomb.

An article on Chinese burial in Hong Kong by B. D. Wilson, in J. Hong Kong branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc. Vol.1 1961 . http://www.cultus.hk/cemetery_lecture/Wilson.pdf 140312 , p. 120
Downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- BDWilson-ChineseBurialHongKong<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170320)
   "After five years or more, the body is exhumed. The bones will be cleaned by the family and be placed either in a funerary urn kam t'aap or in a formal masonry grave shaan fan shaped like a horseshoe. In the funerary urn, the bones will be arranged in a manner as if the deceased were sitting in the Buddhist lotus posture."

The whole process was very labour-intensive and very expensive. Only the wealthy could afford it. Unfortunately, because my father was not Chinese, my mother could not visit her father's tomb at Thaton regularly. (I have never been there either.) However she continued the ancestral worship every year at home just outside the building. Her father's tomb was not left unattended, because it was he who had purchased the land and had donated it for use as a Cantonese cemetery, and he was also the permanent member (even after death) of his clan society. His clan society continued to honour him for at least 80 years after his death. My mother would send money now and then to the clan society for repair to the tomb. I am told that his tomb and all others from the cemetery had now been moved.

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Merit of offering food

Every year, every Buddhist household is invited to draw Mahadoat (from: Mahāduggata) {sa-r:tn} lots to receive the gift of religious offering. See the story of Mahāduggata below:

Dict. of Pali proper names, by Gunapala Piyasena Malalasekera (1899-1973), vol 2: N-H, first publication in UK1937, book-preview. p504. - https://books.google.ca/books... 170321
or, http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170321

Mahāduggata - A very poor man of Benares in the time of Kassapa Buddha. The citizens of Benares once invited the Buddha and his monks and went about asking people to help in their entertainment. In spite of their extreme poverty, Mahāduggata and his wife undertook to look after one monk; they both worked hard to earn the necessary money and then prepared a simple meal. Sakka knowing what was to come, came in the guise of a labourer to help them. When the time came for the meal it was found that in allotting the monks to their several hosts, Mahāduggata's house had been overlooked. Mahāduggata wrung his hands and burst into tears, but somebody pointed out to him that nobody was yet entertaining the Buddha. He, therefore, went to the vihāra and invited the Buddha, who accepted the invitation, while princes and nobles waited outside wishing to conduct him to their own palaces. The Buddha ate the food prepared by Mahāduggata and Sakka and returned thanks. That same day, by the power of Sakka, the seven kinds of jewels fell from the sky and filled Mahāduggata's house, and when it was reported to the king that he was the wealthiest man in the city, he was appointed Treasurer. Mahāduggata built a new house and discovered many hidden treasures while digging the foundations. With the money from these he entertained the Buddha and his monks for seven days, and, after death, was reborn in heaven. He is identified with Paṇḍitasāmaṇera. Dha. ii. 127-38.

See another story on the merit of offerings in the Jataka story of King Kusha and Pabhavati : The Story of Kushinagar - http://usamyanmar.net/Buddha/Article/KusaandPapavatiFinal.pdf 140317
The pdf paper is undoubted based on: http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/j5/j5024.htm 140317
See downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDV & SD-PDV libraries
- MaungPaw-KusaPavavati<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170321)

UKT 180101: Based on: http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ku/kusa.htm 180101
"Kusa Jātaka (No.531): The story is told with reference to a backsliding monk who became love-sick and was taken to Gautama Buddha. (J.v.278ff; the story is also given in Mtu.iii.1ff; ii.441f; the details differ, as do some of the names, from the Pāli version)." "Kusa consents to marry only on condition that a princess can be obtained exactly like an image which he himself has fashioned. Pabhāvatī, princess of Sāgala, was found and was married to Kusa. ... When the wife discovered how ugly he was, she deserted him and returned to her father. Kusa followed her, and under a variety of menial disguises, including that of a cook, tries, but in vain, to win her affection. At length Sakka, the Buddhist King of Dvas, intervened by inviting seven rival kings to take her. She is saved by the despised husband who was mightier in arms than all the suitors, and she returned to her husband." The story was sung as a popular song which I as a child have learned, and which I still sometimes sing in bits.

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Orbis terrarum : World Atlas

-- UKT 140314, 170320 

"The Latin Phrase Orbis Terrarum has many meanings, mainly: the world, the Earth. "
-- http://www.latinwordlist.com/latin-words/orbis-terrarum-21108133.htm 140314

From the Latin phrasal noun, by adding "theatrum", we get 'World Atlas'

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatrum_Orbis_Terrarum 140314

Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (pronounced [tʰɛˈaːtrʊm ˈɔrbɪs tɛˈrːaːrʊm], "Theatre of the World") is considered to be the first true modern atlas. Written by Abraham Ortelius, strongly encouraged by Gillis Hooftman [2] and originally printed on May 20, 1570, in Antwerp, [3] it consisted of a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved.
The Ortelius atlas is sometimes referred to as the summary of sixteenth-century cartography.

UKT 140314, 170320: My interest is the geographical position of Myanmarpr.

Inset enlarged from the original map. However, for those interested in history, read: The changing nature of conflict between Burma and Siam as seen from the growth and development of Burmese states from the 16th to the 19th centuries , by Pamaree Surakiat, in Asia Research Inst. Working Paper Series no. 64. Downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- ARI-BurmaSiam16-19c<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170607)

The timeline in Burma (Myanmarpr) in 1570 AD was during Bayinnaung Empire.

The following timeline is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history  140314.

UKT 140314: this Wiki article did not do justice to King Bayinnaung aka Burengnong of Hanthawaddy aka Hongsawadee  with his capital at Pegu. He had probably dreamt of a federation of fraternal kingdoms of South-East Asia

1550Apr30 : King Tabinshwehti assassinated by Mons.
1555Jan22 : Bayinnaung of Taunggo captures Ava, and annexes Upper Burma
1557Jan-Mar : Bayinnaung annexes cis-Salween Shan States; abolishes animal sacrifice at Popa Hill and human sacrifice at Shan Hills.
1558Apr02 : Bayinnaung annexes Lan Na
1563Mar : Bayinnaung captures farther Shan States (Kentung and Chinese Shan states)
1564Feb19 : Siam becomes Burmese vassal following the Burmese-Siamese War (1563-64)

UKT 140314: King Burengnong of Hongsawadee (King Bayinnaung) did not seem to have the ambition of taking over Siam. He brought the royal family to his capital (probably as unwilling invited guests), and adopted the Siamese crown-prince , Prince Naresuan, as his own, and had him trained in the Burmese martial arts together with his own sons, the eldest being Naungdawgyi. When the Siamese prince came of age, Bayinnaung sent back the Siamese prince to Siam to rule it as a sovereign king owning Bayinnaung as his father. The adopted son remained loyal to Bayinnaugn until the father's death (1581Nov10), at which he revolted along with all the sons of Bayinnaung now kings in their own kingdoms. The eldest "brother" Naungdawgyi now as Bayinnaung's heir tried to put down his "younger brother" the Siamese king.

On the last day of battle, the rash young Siamese king found himself mounted on his elephant alone right in the middle of the Burmese camp, and saw his elder brother resting under a tree. The younger brother asked for single combat on elephants from the elder brother, which was graciously granted by the elder. Naungdawgyi could have refused and gave an order to his troops to capture the Siamese king. But being a warrior worthy of his father, King Bayinnaung, he granted single combat.

During the single combat, the younger brother killed the elder brother thereby breaking up what the father Bayinnaung had planned to be a confederation of fraternal kingdoms. It is said, that the Siamese king, with genuine sorrow gave his elder, the Burmese king, a royal funeral. -- I am writing this from memory from reading a historical article written by a modern prince of Thailand. I got the names of Prince Naresuan, Burengnong, Hongsawadee  from:  http://www.watyaichaimongkol.net/index.php?lite=article&qid=200146 140314

Though King Burengnong of Hongsawadee aka King Bayinnaung, has been portrayed as an expansionist Burmese king, I do not consider him to be such. I regard him as a far sighted statesman, far ahead of his time, with a dream of a confederation of fraternal kingdoms. I now cite Wikipedia on
Lanna Kingdom: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanna 140314
"But the king was captured by Burmese forces in November 1564, and sent to then Burmese capital Pegu. Bayinnaung then made Visuttidevi , a Lan Na royal, the queen regnant of Lan Na." - I see this as the second case of statesmanship of Bayinnaung.

1569Aug08 : Burmese-Siamese War (1568-69) restores Burmese rule in Siam after the Siamese revolted in 1568
Burma conquers Lan Xang
1584May03 : - Siam declares independence; Repeated Burmese invasions fail to re-conquer Siam (1593)
1593 : - Lan Xang, Manipur and Lan Na throw off allegiance to Burmese throne. Siam regains Tenasserim coast up to Tavoy (to 1594)
1597 : All regions of the kingdom now in revolt 
1599 : Fall of First Toungoo Empire after Pegu [UKT: capital of Hanthawaddy kingdom under King Bayinnaung. The name "Toungoo Empire is inappropriate.] sacked by the Arakanese and Toungoo (city) forces. Siam captures the entire Tenasserim coast to Martaban. Arakanese capture delta ports; appoint Portuguese mercenary de Brito governor of Syriam.

An excerpt from: http://www.watyaichaimongkol.net/index.php?lite=article&qid=200146 140314

King Bayinnaung had the greatest influence on Prince Naresuans life and really deserves praise. King Bayinnuang not only clarified the teachings of Sun Tzus strategies (The Art of War) in the light of his seemingly limitless learning and wisdom, but also in love and care of young prince as though the crown prince had been his own son. The spirit of a great warrior was gradually implanted in the heart of Prince Naresuan from the age of nine to adulthood. Over many years of heart-felt advice, King Bayinnaung natured those seeds of courage Queen Suriyothai had sowed in Prince Naresuan blossom.

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Right and Wrong Notions

UKT 180101:

Being at opposing extreme ends of what is Right vs. Wrong, Buddhism of the Anatta doctrine, and Hinduism of the Atta doctrine hold opposing interpretations. The Eight Noble Path, with the Right View coming first is the Buddhism Way of Life - how to get out of the mire of human existence.

Note: I avoid using the word "Samsara" which is interpreted with diagonally opposite meanings. Ideas can be interpreted in many ways: such as Gautama Buddha - a human of bone and blood - being interpreted as an incarnation of Vishnu-dva. Inset pix shows an interpretation of a school of Hinduism.

To the scientist in me, Buddhism is the Way of Life of uncertainties and miseries, without Axiomatic MahaDev, YHVH, God, Allah, and Mother-goddess Dvi.

With this interpretation - which is the usual way of presentation by Theravada Buddhism - turn the wheel in clock-wise (Right-Hand Path), or in anti-clock-wise (Tantric Path - worship of Mother-goddess Dvi - the Left-Hand Path), until Right Livelihood comes to the top or first position. You'll have either the Right Action or the Right Effort to support your Right Livelihood. Caution: Since "Right vs. Wrong" can be interpreted with opposing meanings, I use the word "Appropriate - with regard to customs and ideas of your neighbours".

For example, if you were born in a fishing village with fishing villages around you, then don't condemn "taking of life". In other words, the Five Precepts with abstinence of taking of life as the most important must be taken (by you) in a light way. Or, move out of the area, cutting off relations with your parents, relatives and friends and live a life of uncertainty as a "refugee" in another place or country.

facet - n. . One of the flat polished surfaces cut on a gemstone or occurring naturally on a crystal. - AHTD

mire - n. . An area of wet, soggy, muddy ground; a bog. . Deep, slimy soil or mud. . A disadvantageous or difficult condition or situation: the mire of poverty. - AHTD

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UKT 140317, 170322:

Usury is the practice of lending something, usually money, at unethical high interest rates. The oldest condemnation of this practice was found in the Vedas. There are many tricks used by the usurers to cover their practice such as charging compound interest which to the uninitiated would appear as a very low interest rate if they were unaware of the method of compounding. The Chettiar bankers from southern India have been accused of using this method on uneducated Burmese farmers during the British occupation of the country because of which they are very much hated even after many years. See Wikipedia articles on:
#1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usury 140317
#2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chettiar 140317

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