Update: 2018-04-21 01:03 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{ku.hta.} ु : cont of {ku.ta.}-group
{ku.da.} / {koad} / BPal-Dev: {koaht} = कुथ्
{ku.na.} / {koan}

UKT 171225: Burmese speech in Devanagari script:  Since both Myanmar and Devanagari are phonetic scripts, we should be able to transcribe - or at least transliterate - Burmese speech and BPali speech in Devanagari akshara. I've been toying with this idea for many years. After coming across Shin Kicsi's "motto" recently, I've started implementing my idea into practice, because of which don't be surprised to find a few BPal-Myan (and Bur-Myan) words written in Bur-Dev.

Only remember that in reading Bur-Dev, you must follow the Bur-Myan phonology. Even if you do not know Bur-Myan phonology, which is the same as BPal-Myan phonology, you would know what the message is, especially if it is on Buddhism. You'll come across a few BPal-Myan (and Bur-Myan) words, such as {koaht} = कुथ् , and कुवेर = {ku.w-ra.}, written in Bur-Dev, and BPal-Dev.

{ku.ma.} / {koam}
{ku.ya.} : {ku-} --> {kw} 
{ku.ra.} : {kur}
{kur~} : repha


----- on line 171217 : p068.htm - search for काश्मल्य


UKT notes :
Kuntala - country
Velarization, lip-rounding, and missing nasal


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{ku.hta.} : cont of {ku.ta.}-group


p070c1-b01/ not online

कुथ् [ kuth ]
- stink; pp. -ita , fetid; cs. kothaya , cause to putrefy 
BPal-Dev: {koaht} = कुथ्


p070c1-b02/ p055-117

कुथ kutha
Skt: कुथ [kutha] - m., , f. coloured woollen blanket. -- Mac070c1
117) कुथ (p. 55) kutha coloured woollen blanket.
BPal: {ku.hta.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: m. mattress on elephant's back, a kind of sacred grass Poa cyanosuroides

UKT 140316: Poa cyanosuroides Retzius is Kusha grass -- http://ecoheritage.cpreec.org/Viewcontall.php?$mFJyBfK$MA5hj$m1Rt&wm 140316 


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{ku.da.} / {koad}

कुदार kudāra --> {ku.da-ra.}
Skt: कुदार kudāra - adj. having a bad wife -- SpkSkt
BPal: {ku.da-ra.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: m. bad wife, detestable wife. mfn. having a bad wife.


p070c1-b03/ p055-116

कुदारदार [ ku-dra-dra ]
- m. pl. bad wife as a wife; -drishta, pp. imperfectly seen; -drishti, f. defective sight; false system; a. heterodox; -desa, m. bad country; -daisika, m. bad guide.
116) कुदारदार (p. 55) ku-dra-dra


p070c1-b04/ not online

- hoe, spade


p070c1-b05/ p055-115

कुद्रव्य [ ku-dravya ]
- n. bad wealth; -dvra, n. back-door; -dh, a. foolish; m. fool; -nakha, -nakhn, a. having deformed nails; -nadik, f. insignificant rivulet; -nad, f. id.; -na ra‿indra, -‿svara, m. bad king; -nta, n. bad guidance; -nripa, -nripati, m. bad king.
115) कुद्रव्य (p. 55) ku-dravya

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{ku.na.} / {koan}

p070c1-b06/ p055-114

कुन्त [ kunta ]
- m. spear, lance.
114) कुन्त (p. 55) kunta


p070c1-b07/ p055-113

कुन्तल [ kuntala ]
= क ु न ् त ल --> {koan~ta.la.}
- m. hair of the head; m. pl. N. of a people.
113) कुन्तल (p. 55) kuntala

See my note on Kuntala
UKT 171224: The word kuntalā reminds me of the play by Kalidasa Shakuntala śakuntalā which is based on a mythical story. The name of play is derived from Shakunta शकुन्त śakunta.
See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 170316
You can read a translation of the play by A. W. Ryder (1877-1938) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AWRyder-KalidasShakuntala<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

p070c1-b08/ p055-112

कुन्तवनमय [ kunta-vana-maya ]
- a. consisting of a forest of spears.
112) कुन्तवनमय (p. 55) kunta-vana-maya


p070c1-b09/ not online

- n. N. of twenty organs alleged to be in the abdomen; a certain section of the Atharva-veda


p070c1-b10/ p055-138

कुन्ति [ kunti ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of the Kuntis; -bhoga, m. N. of a king of the Kuntis, who adopted Kunt.
138) कुन्ति (p. 55) kunti


p070c1-b11/ p055-137

कुन्ती [ kunt ]
- f. ep. of Prith, wife of Pndu; -suta, m. son of Kunt (ep. of the sons of Pndu).
137) कुन्ती (p. 55) kunt


p070c1-b12/ p055-136

कुन्द [ kunda ]
- m. kind of jasmine; n. its flower; -lat, f. jasmine creeper.
136) कुन्द (p. 55) kunda

( end of old p070-1.htm )

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p070c1-b13/ not online

कुप् [ kup ]
- iv. kupya , become agitated; grows angry, be angry with (...


p070c1-b14/ p055-135

कुप [ kup- ]
- m. beam of a balance.
135) कुप (p. 55) kup- beam of a balance.

UKT 171224: The beam of the balance has two dampers, one on the left and the other on the right.


p070c1-b15/ p055-134

कुपट [ ku-pata ]
- m. poor garment; -patu, a. stupid; -pathita, pp. who has learnt (his part) badly; -pati, m. bad husband; bad king; -parigta, pp. ill-comprehended; -parksha-ka, a. estimating badly; m. bad estimator; -parkshita, pp. ill-investigated; -ptra, n. unworthy person; -putra, m. bad son; -purusha, m. contemptible man; coward.
134) कुपट (p. 55) ku-pata


p070c1-b16/ p055-133

कुप्य [ kupya ]
- n. base metal, i.e. any but gold and silver; m. N.; -ka, --, a. base metal.
133) कुप्य (p. 55) kupya base metal, i. e. any but gold and silver; m. N.; -ka, --, a. base metal.


p070c1-b17/ p055-132

कुप्रभु [ ku-prabhu ]
- m. bad lord; -plava, m. unsafe boat.
132) कुप्रभु (p. 55) ku-prabhu

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UKT 140316, 170316: The problem of mixing up {ku.ba.} and {ku.wa.}, is accentuated by the existence of Labio-dentals in Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat: {fa.} & {va.} which can give rise to pronunciations like /{ku.va.}/. Labio-dentals are absent in regular Bur-Myand and Pal-Myan.  

p070c1-b18/ p055-131

कुबन्ध [ ku-bandha ]
- m. degrading brand; -buddhi, f. wrong view; a. wickedly disposed; stupid.
131) कुबन्ध (p. 55) ku-bandha


p070c1-b19/ p055-130

  कुबेर [ kbera ]
- m. N. of the regent of the spirits of the lower regions and of darkness (V.); god of wealth, the world guardian of the North; -datta, m. N. of a mythical being; -vallabha, m. N. of a Vaisya.
130) कुबेर (p. 55) kbera

कुबेर [ kbera ]
Skt: कुबेर [ kbera ] - m. N. of the regent of the spirits of the lower regions and of darkness (V.); god of wealth, the world guardian of the North; - Mac070c1
BPal: {ku.w-ra.} - UHS PMD0331

  UKT from UHS: - m. {w~a.wN nt}, ruler of the North of Mt. Mru, ruler of the Ogres {Bi-lu:}.
BPal-Dev: कुवेर = {ku.w-ra.}

UKT 170316: There are two kinds of Bilus in Myanmar mythology: the ferocious kind are the man-eaters who have bald heads or helmets. The Bilu of Ramayana are Nat-Bilus who have tiered helmets and are equals of the Dvas and Humans. The inset shows the Ogress (?) probably from Cambodia. See Bilu island in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilu_Island 170317


p070c1-b20/ p055-129

कुब्ज [ kubg ]
- a. hunch-backed; crooked; (a)-ka, a. id.; m. an aquatic plant.
129) कुब्ज (p. 55) kubg


p070c1-b21/ p055-128

कुब्रह्मन्् [ ku-brahman ]
- m. bad Brhman.
128) कुब्रह्मन्् (p. 55) ku-brahman


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p070c1-b22/ not online 

कुभ् [kubh ]
- kumbh , be curved


p070c1-b23/ not online

कुभर्तृ [ku-bhartri]
- m. bad husband; -bharya, f. bad wife; -bhikahu, m. rogue of a beggar; -bhukta, n. bad meal; -bhritya, m. bad servant; -bhoga, poor enjoyment; -bhogana, bad food; -bhogya, n. id.; -bhratri, m. bad brother; -mata, false doctrine; -mati, f. wrong opinion; stupidity; a. stupid; -mantra, m. bad advice; evil spell; -mantrin, m. bad counsellor.


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p070c2-b01/ p055-127

कुभा [ kbh- ]
- f. N. of a river (Cabul).
127) कुभा (p. 55) kbh- (Cabul).


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p070c2-b02/ p055-126

कुमार [ ku-mr ]
- m. [dying easily], (new born) child; boy; youth, son; prince; ep. of Skanda; (a)-k, m. little boy, boy, youth; --, a young --; -tva, n. boyhood, youth; sonship; -datta, m. N.; ()-deshna, a. giving but fleeting gifts; -dhr, f. N. of a river; -bhukti, f. apanage of a crown prince; -bhrity, f. fostering of a child; midwifery; -vana, n. Kumra's grove; -vikrama, a. valiant as the god of war; -vrata, n. vow of chastity; -sambhava, m. birth of the war-god: T. of a poem by Klidsa; -sena, m. N. of a minister; -sevaka, m. prince's servant.
126) कुमार (p. 55) ku-mr

appanage also apanage - n. . A source of revenue, such as land, given by a sovereign for the maintenance of a member of the ruling family. . Something extra offered to or claimed by a party as due; a perquisite: The leaders of the opposition party agreed to accept another government's appanages, and in doing so became an officially paid agency of a foreign power. . A rightful or customary accompaniment or adjunct. -- AHTD

कुमारसंभव  kumarasambhava
- m. birth of the war-god: T. of a poem by Klidsa; - Mac072c2
See downloaded Kumarasambhavam by M R Kalein, 1917 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- MRKale-Kumarasambhava<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171226)


p070c2-b03/ p055-125

कुमारिका [ kumr-ik ]
- f. girl; N. of a part of Bhratavarsha; -n, a. possessed of children.
125) कुमारिका (p. 55) kumr-ikaN

UKT 171226: Searching for Bhratavarsha, I came across Desi words speak of the Past (Indo-Aryans in the Ancient Near East), by Dr. Liny Srinivans, 2011 . Insert: from p.496


p070c2-b04/ p055-150

कुमारिदत्त [ kumri-datta ]
- m. N.; -la: -bhatta, -svmin, m. N. of a Mmmsist.
150) कुमारिदत्त (p. 55) kumri-datta


p070c2-b05/ p055-149

कुमारी [ ku-mr ]
- f. girl, virgin; daughter; ()-pura, n. part of harem where girls live; -bhga, m. daughter's portion.
149) कुमारी (p. 55) ku-mr girl


कुमारी ku-mari --> {ku.ma-ri}
Skt: कुमारी  [ku-mri] - f. girl, virgin; daughter; -- Mac070c2
BPal: {ku.ma-ri} - UHS-PMD0328
  UKT from UHS: f. maiden (bride), girl, Aloe vera

UKT 140317: Aloes and Cactuses are not the same.
See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera 140317


p070c2-b06/ p055-148

कुमार्ग [ ku-mrga ]
- m. wrong way, evil courses; -mlana, m. N.; -mitra, n. bad friend: -mitra, n. bad friend as a friend.
148) कुमार्ग (p. 55) ku-mrga


p070c2-b07/ p055-147

कुमुद [ k-muda ]
- n. (white) night lotus; m. N. of a Nga; N. of a man: -ntha, m. moon; -maya, a. consisting entirely of white lotuses; -‿kara, m. lotus group: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
147) कुमुद (p. 55) k-muda night lotus

कुमुद [k-muda] --> {ku.mu.da.}
Skt: कुमुद [k-muda] - n. (white) night lotus; m. N. of a Nga; N. of a man: -- Mac070c2
BPal: {ku.mu.da.} - UHS-PMD0328
   UKT from UHS: n. white lotus, a numeral  1e105 (1 followed by 105 zeros), {ku.mu.da.}-elephant


p070c2-b08/ not online 

कुमुदिका [kumud-ik] 
- f. N.


p070c2-b09/ p055-146

कुमुदिनी [ kumud-in ]
- f. night lotus; group of night lotuses: -nyaka, -vadhvara, m. lover of lotuses, ep. of the moon.
146) कुमुदिनी (p. 55) kumud-in night lotus;


p070c2-b10/ p055-145

कुमुद्वत्् [ kmud-vat ]
- a. abounding in lotuses: -, f. night lotus; group of night lotuses; N.
145) कुमुद्वत्् (p. 55) kmud-vat


p070c2-b11/ p055-144

कुमुहूर्त [ ku-muhrta ]
- m. evil hour.
144) कुमुहूर्त (p. 55) ku-muhrta


Contents of this page


UKT 170318: Below you'll see entries with glosses that seem to have no relations to each other: e.g. pot, testes (male-sex organ), frontal protuberances of an elephant, demon, raksha, common prostitute, Rishi Agastya, Rasi Kumbha, crocodile, etc. Unless you look into Astrology, Metrology, and Pali myths you will not understand their relationships.

p070c2-b12/ p055-143

कुम्भ [ kumbh ]
- m. pot, jar, urn (--, a. jar shaped); a measure of grain (=20 Dronas); du. frontal protuberances of an elephant; (a)ka, --, a. id.; m. n. religious exercise consisting in closing the nostrils with the right hand to suspend breathing: -karna, m. N. of a Rkshasa (brother of Rvana); -karnya, den. . resemble Kumbha-karna (in sleeping long);
 -kra, m. potter (a mixed caste); -krik, f. wife of a potter; -ganman, m. ep. of Agastya; -ds, f. common prostitute; -dhnya, a. having only a potful of grain; -yoni, m. ep. of Agastya; -sambhava, m. id.
143) कुम्भ (p. 55) kumbh

कुम्भ [ kumbh ]
Skt: कुम्भ [ kumbh ] - m. pot, jar, urn (--, a. jar shaped); a measure of grain (=20 Dronas); du. frontal protuberances of an elephant; - Mac070c2
BPali: {koam~Ba.} - UHS PMD0328c1
  UKT 170318: water pot (for carrying on the head of females), frontal protuberances, 1/3 of a cart-load, Kumba Rasi aka Koam Rasi {koam ra-i} (shorted to {koam}).

UKT 170318: The Planet-god ruling Koam Rasi {koam ra-i} 'Aquarius' with the 'Water-carrier Sign' is Saturn, who also rules the preceding Rasi, the Maraka Rasi मकर राशि {ma.ka.ra. ra-i} 'Capricorn'. Note the Planet-god Saturn is the ruler of 2 houses. The Animal Sign of this house is the mythical aquatic animal मकर makara described as Sea-goat {ma.kn:}. See UTM PDMD225. Incidentally, this animal is the animal vehicle of the river Goddess Ganga. She is also sometimes shown riding on a crocodile.
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makara_(Hindu_mythology) 170318

  कुम्भकार [kumbh-kra ]
Skt: -kra, m. potter (a mixed caste) - Mac070c2
Skt: कुम्भकार kumbhakāra - m. potter - SpkSkt
BHS: kumbhakāraka - m. fem. rikā . potter - FE-BHS187c1
BPali: {koam~Ba. ka-ra.} - UHS PMD0328c2
  UKT from UHS: m. potter


p070c2-b13/ not online

कुम्भाण्ड [kumbha‿anda] kumbhāṇḍa
Skt: कुम्भाण्ड [kumbha‿anda] - m. kind of demon - Mac070c2 

Skt: Kumbhāṇḍa   Pal: Kumbhaṇḍa .
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumbhanda 140317


p070c2-b14/ p055-142

कुम्भिका [ kumbh-ik ]
- f. small pot or jar; -n, m. elephant (having frontal protuberances); *-ila, m. thief.
142) कुम्भिका (p. 55) kumbh-ik


p070c2-b15/ p055-141

कुम्भी [ kumbh&isharp; ]
- f. pot, jar, pan; -dhnyaka, a. having grain in jars; ()-nsa, m. kind of snake; -nas, f. N. of a Rkshas; -pka, m. sg. & pl. kind of hell.
141) कुम्भी (p. 55) kumbh


p070c2-b16/ p055-140

कुम्भीर [ kumbh-ra ]
- m. crocodile; *-la, m. id.
140) कुम्भीर (p. 55) kumbh-ra


p070c2-b17/ p055-139

कुम्भोदर [ kumbha‿udara ]
- m. (pot-bellied), N. of a servant of Siva; -‿udbhava, m. ep. of Agastya; -‿udhta, m. id.
139) कुम्भोदर (p. 55) kumbha̮udara (pot-bellied),

( end of old p070-2.htm )

Contents of this page

{ku.ya.} / (not pronounceable by present-day Bur-Myan speakers)

{ku-} --> {kw}

UKT 111005: According to U Tun Tint, MLC (personal communication), the vowel {tic-hkan:ngn-ya.t} had existed in Pagan period (11th to 13th CE), but it has given way to {a.w-hto: wa.hsw:}. The changes have been:


UKT 140325: Macdonell does not give any Skt-Dev entry for {ku.ya.}. Similarly U Hoke Sein also does not give any for Pal-Myan. However, when {ya.} is further velarized by making it into a {ya.pn.}-medial, as {yya.}, a Pal-Myan word is possible.
See my note on velarization of consonants.

Pal: {ku.yya.ka.}
- -- UHS-PMD0329

UKT from UHS, read with MLC-PMD2006-133: m. a thorny climber Acacia pennata
Not listed in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65.


Contents of this page


p070c2-b18/ p055-171

कुरङ्ग [ kuraṅga ]
- m. antelope: -ka, m. id.; -nayan, -netr, -lokan, -‿aksh, a. f. gazelle eyed.
171) कुरङ्ग (p. 55) kuraṅga


p070c2-b19/ p055-170

कुरङ्गाय [ kuraṅg-ya ]
- den. . become an antelope.
170) कुरङ्गाय (p. 55) kuraṅg-ya


p070c2-b20/ p055-169

कुरङ्गी [ kuraṅg ]
- f. female antelope, gazelle; N. of a daughter of Prasenagit: -dris, f. gazelle-eyed.
169) कुरङ्गी (p. 55) kuraṅg

UKT 171227: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasenadi
"Pasenadi, Skt: Prasenajit, {pa.-na.di kau:a.la. min:} (UHS-PMD0652) (c. 6th century BCE) was an Aikṣvāka dynasty ruler of Kosala. Sāvatthī was his capital. He succeeded his father Sanjaya Mahākosala. [2] He was a prominent Upāsaka (lay follower) of Gautama Buddha, who built many Buddhist monasteries."

p070c2-b21/ p055-168

कुरबक [ kuraba-ka ]
- m. crimson amaranth or purple Barleria; n. its flower.
168) कुरबक (p. 55) kuraba-ka crimson amaranth or purple Barleria; n. its flower.


Contents of this page


p070c3-b00/ p055-167

  कुरर [ kurara ]
- m., , f. osprey. [aka sea hawk]
167) कुरर (p. 55) kurara


p070c3-b01/ p055-166

कुरहस्य [ ku-rahasya ]
- n. base secret; -rgan, m. bad king; -rgya, n. bad rule.
166) कुरहस्य (p. 55) ku-rahasya


p070c3-b02/ not online 

कुरु [kur-u]
- . 2 sg. impv. of √kri , do


p070c3-b03/ not online

कुरु [kru]
- . m. N. of the progenitor of the Kurus : pl. N. of a people


p070c3-b04/ p055-165

कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ] --> {ku.ru. hkt~ta.ra}
- n. plain of Kuru; m. pl. people of Kurukshetra; N. of a country.
165) कुरुक्षेत्र (p. 55) kuru-kshetr

UKT 171227: Bur-Myan speakers are simply unable to pronounce rhotic and fricative hissers. The only way they could pronounce कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ] --> {ku.ru. hkt~ta.ra}.

p070c3-b05/ not online

कुरुता [kurut]
- f. N. of a woman


p070c3-b06/ p055-164

कुरुनन्दन [ kuru-nandana ]
- m. ep. of Arjuna and of Yudhishthira; -pakl, m. pl. the Kurus and Paklas; -pndava, m. du. pl. descendants of Kuru (i.e. of Dhritarshtra) and of Pndu.
164) कुरुनन्दन (p. 55) kuru-nandana


p070c3-b07/ p055-163

कुरुबक kurubaka, ˚वक [ -vaka ]
- probably in-correct form of kurabaka, -vaka.
163) कुरुबक (p. 55) -vaka kurabaka, -vaka.


p070c3-b08/ p055-162

कुरुविन्द [ kuru-vinda ]
- m. kind of barley; ruby.
162) कुरुविन्द (p. 55) kuru-vinda


p070c3-b09/ p055-161

कुरूप [ ku-rpa ]
- a. deformed, ugly: -t, f. deformity, ugliness.
161) कुरूप (p. 55) ku-rpa


p070c3-b10/ p055-160

कुरूरु [ kurru ]
- m. kind of vermin.
160) कुरूरु (p. 55) kurru

Contents of this page

{kur~} : repha

p070c3-b11/ p055-159

कुर्कुट [ kur-kut-a ]
Skt: कुर्कुट - m. cock - Mac070c3
159) कुर्कुट (p. 55) kur-kut-a
{koak~ku.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0322c2
  UKT from UHS: m. cock aka rooster

UKT 171228: While learning Skt-Dev grammar from
SktDevGramLect-indx.htm (link chk 170611) 
I came across the example of Paṇini on varieties of vowels, e.g. :
Listen to the sound clip: <))
Remember Vdic language is not Sanskrit. Vdic probably belongs Tib-Bur language group, the language of the Bronze Age peoples, whereas Sanskrit is IE (Indo-European) the Iron Age intruders who infiltrated from the highlands of Persia (non-Islamic at that time). After getting a foothold they subjugated Bronze-Agers making them into Sudras or slaves of the Iron-Agers, and denied them their own language but adopted their Mantras which they found useful - even turning the Mantras into Hymns to their male-gods, rewriting history claiming the Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Agers to be wives of their male gods.


p070c3-b12/ p055-158

कुर्कुर [ kur-kur-a ]
- m. dog.
158) कुर्कुर (p. 55) kur-kur-a dog.


p070c3-b13/ p055-157

कुर्वत्् [ kurv-at ]
- pr. pt. of √kri, do.
157) कुर्वत्् (p. 55) kurv-at √kri, do.


p070c3-b14/ p055-156

कुर्वाण [ kurv-na ]
- pr. pt. . of √kri, do.
156) कुर्वाण (p. 55) kurv-na

( end of old p070-3.htm )

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p070c3-b15/ p055-155

कुल [ kl-a ]
- n. herd, flock, swarm; multitude; race, family; community, guild; noble lineage; abode, house; --, often = chief, eminent; -m padtnm, infantry.
155) कुल (p. 55) kl-a


p070c3-b16/ not online

कुलक [ kula-ka ], -
- a. multitude; n. little family; ...

Skt: कुलक kulaka - m. any artisan of eminent birth, chief of a guild, ant-hill, ... - SpkSkt


p070c3-b17/ p055-154

कुलक्षण [ ku-lakshana ]
- a. bearing a baneful mark.
154) कुलक्षण (p. 55) ku-lakshana


p070c3-b18/ p055-153

कुलग्न [ ku-lagna ]
- n. fatal moment.
153) कुलग्न (p. 55) ku-lagna


p070c3-b19/ p055-152

कुलघ्न [ kula-ghna ] = क ु ल घ ् न
- a. (, ) destroying the race; -m-kula, a. going from house to house; -ga, a. of noble race; born in the family of (--).
152) कुलघ्न (p. 55) kula-ghna


p070c3-b20/ p055-151

कुलटा [ kulat ]
- f. unchaste woman.
151) कुलटा (p. 55) kulat


p070c3-b21/ p055-180

कुलतन्तु [ kula-tantu ]
- m. thread on which a family hangs = the last of a race; -deva, m.: -t, f. family deity; -daiva: -ta, n. id.; -dhara, m. N. of a prince; -dharma, m. usage of a family; -dhurya, a. able to bear the burden of a family; m. head of a family; -nandana, a. ɴ. (child) delighting the family; -nr, f. virtuous woman; -nimnag, f. main or noble stream. 
180) कुलतन्तु (p. 55) kula-tantu


p070c3-b22/ p055-179

कुलपतन [ kula-patana ]
- n. fall --, degradation of the family; -pati, m. head of the family; -parvata, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; -p, m. f. head of the family or community; -pmsan, f. disgrace to her family; -plik, f. N.; -putra, m. son of a good family; virtuous youth: -ka, m. id.; -purusha, m. man of good family; virtuous man; -pratishth, f. support of the race; -prasta, pp. born of a noble race; -bhava, a. coming of a noble race; -bhavana, n. chief residence; -bhta, pp. being the head of the guild; -bhbhrit, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; model of a prince; -mrga, m. ancestral path; -mitra, n. friend of the family.
179) कुलपतन (p. 55) kula-patana 


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UKT notes

Kuntala - country 

UKT 140310: Surfing the Net with the search string "kuntala people of ancient India" brought me to
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty 140310
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bellary 140310

Excerpts from the two:

"Chronology of Telugu people & Andhra history .... The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. .... Apilaka, Meghasvati and Kuntala Satakarni, who are thought to have been under the suzerainty of ..... Ancient India."

" Bellary was once part of an area also known as Kuntala Desha (ಕುಂತಲ ದೇಶ) [1] [2] [3] or Kuntala Vishaya (ಕುಂತಲ ವಿಷಯ) (Vishaya a territorial division or district of a kingdom). Many inscriptions refer to the Western Chalukyas as rulers of Kuntala or Kondala. [4] [5]

UKT 140310: Since the Telugu speakers were and are still mostly Hindus and Buddhists, I am wondering if these people had had a strong influence on the Mons of Myanmar who eventually earned the discredited name of Talaing .

Go back kuntala-note-b

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Velarization , lip-rounding, and missing nasal

- UKT 140325, 170319, 180418

The English approximant-consonant w is always pronounced by Bur-Myan speakers as {wa.} /w/. However, because the two speeches, English and Burmese belong to different linguistic-groups - IE and Tib-Bur - I am never sure whether it is correct or not. Lately, I have come across a research article English /w,j/ : frictionless Approximants or Vowels out of place? by Leigh Lisker (19182006) , Haskins Laboratories, Univ. of Pennsylvania, in Producing Speech - contemporary issues by F. Bell-Berti and L. J. Raphael, 1995.
See downloaded pdf papers in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
LLisker-EnglishWJSounds<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171227)

Moreover, I am interested in the missing Bur-Myan nasal Nya'gyi {a.} which is definitely a basic consonant on the strength of its stability under Virama.

First of all lets recap what we know (as of 170319) of the BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit) consonants.

BEPS consonants are of several kinds which can be differentiated not only by their POA (Point of Articulation), but by their influence (as coda) on the preceding vowel in a syllable. The POAs have been studied for thousands of years in India, and for about a few centuries in the West. I am sure the coda-influence had also been studied especially by Panini and others when they codified the Prakrits into Sanskrit. There had been many grammars in that period, but only that of Panini has been accepted to this day.

One grammarian who was not well recorded was a Buddhist monk known to Bur-Myan speakers as Shin Kicsi {kic~s:}.
See A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {kic~s:} [alternate title: Kaccayana Vyakarana]
  - PEG-indx.htm  (link chk 170319)
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
  - on line: http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  In referring to downloaded versions, be sure to refer to the source. In the following source #1, #2 and #3 are different. And now we have the Burmese version which is not in PDF. Texts available in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
#1  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171227)
#2  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm-German<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170319)
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
#3  -  FMasonMazard-PalGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171227) 
#4  - inset pix - BPali version: and Shin Kic'si's motto:
Kicsi Pali Grammar from Burmese point of view, 1872.
  - FMason-PaliLangBurView<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171227) "THERE are two schools of Pali. One takes for its basis the Pali derived from the oldest Burmese manuscripts, and the other the language as it now exists in books and manuscripts in Ceylon, condemning everything as irregular which differs from Singalese standards".

Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha: "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

UKT 140326: Note the {a.} - it must not be broken up into two {a.}. What the Indologists have done is totally wrong! - showing that they do not realized that {{a.} is present in the name as a basic consonant and not a conjunct.

If the conjecture were right, we will have to conclude that Shin Kicsi {kic~s:} was a Bur-Myan speaker (probably of ancient Tagaung) who had travelled to the west - India - and had met the Buddha himself. 

The coda has not been well studied in the West. The result is that the present day IPA transcriptions have been very misleading when applied to the aksharas of Asoka (Brahmi) group, particularly Bur-Myan.

  r1c1, r1c2, r1c3, r1c4
  r2c1, r2c2, r2c3, r2c4
  r3c1, r3c2, r3c3, r3r4
  r4c1, r4c2, r4c3, r4c4
  r5c1, r5c2, r5c3, r5c4
nasals (which may be considered to be an appendix of wag-consonants):
  r1c5, r2c5, r3c5, r4c5, r5c5
approximant semi-consonants (aka semi-vowels):
  r6c1, r6c2, r6c3, r6c4, {a.} - which appears as r2c5 in Bur-Myan matrix
approximant fricatives:
  r6c5 (thibilant), 2 Skt-aksharas {Sa.} & {sha.} (hissing-sibilants)
approximant deep-H (produced deep down in the throat without POA) in Bur-Myan phonology.
  However, it is an "aspirate" in Mon-Myan.

IPA gives the English y as a palatal approximant and transcribed it as /j/ . It is also possibly true for European consonants. However, it is not true for Bur-Myan {ya.}. We have another approximant {a.} (known as "Nya-gyi") which is definitely palatal. Therefore, I have to move {ya.} into velar position. We therefore have:

palatal approximant, {a.}/ {}
velar approximant, {ya.}/ {} 

corresponding to:

palatal nasal, {a.} /ɲ/, and palatal plosive-stop {sa.} /s/ or /c/
velar nasal, {nga.} /ŋ/, and velar plosive-stop {ka.} /k/

Skt-Dev speakers, and to some extent Eng-Lat speakers, got mixed up in the Palatal plosive-stops the row#2 aksharas: they pronounce them as Affricates. Because of these mis-pronunciations, I have to be very careful in using IPA and IAST in Romabama.

Skt-Dev speakers realized r1c2 {sa.}/ {c} as Affricate {kya.}, and
Eng-Lat speakers deny the existence Palatal /c/ , and
introduce the Dental hissing sibilant {Sa.}/ {S}.
Skt-Dev speakers deny the existence of /θ/ , even though they knew
of its existence in common English word like <thin> /θɪn/ & <thorn> /θɔːn/ .

Bur-Myan being a non-sibilant and non-hissing language has no need of {Sa.}/ {S}. To Bur-Myan speakers {sa.} is always Palatal plosive-stop. However, Romabama has to introduce the hisser {Sa.}/ {S} . Romabama differentiates the two in the coda as killed-aksharas.

Palatal plosive-stop: {sa.}/ {c}
Dental fricative - the hissing sibilant aka hisser: {Sa.}/ {S} 

We can further refine the pronunciation of BEPS consonants by making them into medials. Remember medials are monosyllabic and are present in Bur-Myan, and possibly in Pal-Myan, but absent in Skt-Dev. Eng-Lat occupies an intermediate position. There are 4 or 5 types of medial-formation:

1. {ya.ping.}, shown as  
2. {ra.ric}, shown as or :
  differentiate from highly rhotic vowel-signs by the length of the hood /. These are Romabama innovations
  to incorporate Pal-Myan. Note Skt-Dev rhotic vowel ऋ / ृ is denoted in Romabama as {iRi.}
3. {la.hsw:}, shown as : present only in Daw dialect
4. {wa.hsw:}, shown as
5. {ha.hto:}, shown as  

To handle BEPS languages as a group, Romabama has to formulate the following Non-rhotic to Rhotic series using {ka.} as the "dummy" consonant:

(non-rhotic): {kya.} , {kra.} , {kar~}* , {kRa.} (rhotic)
* Repha: see Repha in Romabama: introduction
- RBM-intro-indx.htm > Romabama-rule4-9.htm (link chk 170319)
under Romabama Rule 06

The formation of medials is important as it gives us insight into the "full pronunciation" of a consonant. Thus we know that, for example, the velar plosive-stop {ka} /k/, has a deep-H flavour because it cannot be made into a {ha.hto:}, whereas the velar nasal {nga.} /ŋ/ can become {ngha.}.

It should be noted that the colonial British-Burma European administrators had recognized that {nga.} has a /g/ flavour (even though it is designated as nasal /ŋ/), and had spelled the name of a village in Hanthawaddy District as {gnak au sm:} where the Catholic orphanage for Anglo-Indian boys, De La Salle, was situated from 1919, through the WWII, and for some years after Independence. The village of {gnak au sm:} being in the Public Health area under my father's control, the Catholic Brothers of the school became our family's friends. I remember Brother John and one or two companions coming more than once to our house in Kungyangon to have dinner. My mother, who was a school teacher (English and Geography) was one of the few in the town who could speak fluent English. She used to give them a proper English dinner. Brother John and his Catholic brothers, being French, stayed at the school throughout the War years, unmolested by the Japanese. See also: http://sauvita.wordpress.com/ 140325

This immediately bring back to my mind two English words with the digraphic coda made up of the same <g> & <n> pair but spelled differently, thereby producing different pronunciations:

<sign> /saɪn/ (DJPD16-488)
<sing> /sɪŋ/ (DJPD16-490)

I hade given much thought to this problem when I was deciding how to transcribe {nga.} either as {gna.} or {nga.}.

Medial-formation in Mon-Myan is different: I still need to learn the Mon language and the formation of {ya.pn.}.

UKT: 180420: I wasn't aware of the great differences between S'gaw Karen aka Burmah-Karen, and Po Karen aka Talaing-Karen* . The Po-Myan has 36 consonants, and is almost the same as Mon which has 35. S'gaw-Myan, on the other hand has only 25 because the missionary (Rev. Jonathan Wade)  who invented it, thought that the Myanmar consonants of row #3 was not relevant - little did he knew the retroflex sounds. Others of his kind also had thought the same.

The Karen alphabet was created by American missionary Jonathan Wade in the 1830s, based on the Sgau Karen language; Wade was assisted by a Karen named Paulah. ... The consonants and most of the vowels are adopted from the Myanmar Akshara Burmese alphabet; however the Karen pronunciation of the akshara letters is slightly different from that of the Burmese akshara alphabet. Since Karen has more tones than Burmese, additional tonal markers were added.
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%27gaw_Karen_alphabet 180420
Listen to S'gaw-Myan in Burma section : SgawKarenAksKid1<>

* The word "Talaing" has been painted very negatively by politicians some of who do not even know how to speak the still extant Martaban dialect of Mon-language. My great grandmother Daw MMa was a Peguan-Mon whose dialect is now totally extinct. No matter I much I would like to learn her dialect, none of my Mon relatives of the ancient Dalla city that had stretched for Twent to Kungyangon do not even know the Mon-akshara. When I asked them to listen to what the still extant Mon-akshara, they were surprised to hear how different the sounds were from Bur-Myan.
Listen to the Mon-Myan consonants
  Mon-Myan Akshara song: BkCdn-Mon-Aks<))
Listen to Pwo-Myan lessons in Mon section: 
  Akshara lesson 1 : PwoAks1<>
  Akshara lesson 2 : PwoAks2<>
  Lesson 1-2: PwoLesson1-2<>

For me, who has no training in Phonetics, terms in that discipline are still obscure. For example I am not sure how to describe medial-formation in phonetic terms: Velarization and Palatalization.

From: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/624756/velarization 140325

Velarization, in phonetics, secondary articulation in the pronunciation of consonants, in which the tongue is drawn far up and back in the mouth (toward the velum, or soft palate), as if to pronounce a back vowel such as o or u . Velarization is not phonemic in English, although for most English speakers the l  in <feel> is velarized, but the l  in <leaf> is not. It is distinctive in some languages (e.g., Arabic). Velarized consonants may be distinguished from velar consonants, in which the primary articulation involves the back of the tongue and the velum; in velarized consonants there must always be some other primary articulation.

Excerpt from: https://irishpalatals.sites.ucsc.edu/getting-started/introduction/ 170319
Listen to the Irish pronunciations from: http://www.teanglann.ie/en/fuaim/_b 170319

Irish consonants come in pairs consisting of a slender version and a broad version. For example, the slender b is the first sound in the word beo (alive), whereas the first sound in the word b (cow) is the broad b. Beo and b differ only in the slenderness vs. broadness of the b .

In phonetic terms, both the slender and the broad consonant of a pair are articulated with the same primary gesture. For b, this primary gesture is the lips closing to stop the airflow from the mouth. However, they differ in their secondary articulation the details of how they are pronounced.

The slender consonants like the b in beo are palatalized, meaning that the tongue body moves up and forward toward the hard palate, as if making a y [j] sound, while the primary articulatory gesture is going on. (This is known as secondary palatalization. A consonant with a palatal primary articulatory gesture is English y (IPA /j/) as in you.)

The broad consonants, in contrast, are velarized. The term velarized refers to the velum, or soft palate, toward the back of the mouth. When a velarized consonant like the b in b is pronounced, the tongue body moves back and up toward the velum. The velum is the place of primary articulation for consonants like /k/ in kangaroo and /g/ in gorilla.

UKT 170319: Listening Irish b in b , and in beo (alive) have convinced me that  b is {bo} and beo is {byo}. The second sound beo is {byo} has the Bur-Myan {ya.pn.} sound.

Almost all Bur-Myan wag-consonants can be modified with {ya.pn.} sound giving monosyllables, with the possible exception of {tya.} in which is pronounced as a disyllabe: {t~ya.}.

Go back velarization-note-b

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