Update: 2019-02-17 10:51 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{ku.da.} / {koad}
{ku.na.} / {koan}

{ku.ba.} / {ku.wa.} / {ku.va.}
{ku.ma.} / {koam}

Below the second phoneme is an approximant:

{ku.ya.} : {ku} --> {kw}  
{ku.ra.} : {kur}
{kur~} : repha

UKT notes :
Kuntala - country


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p070c1-b01/ not online

कुथ् [ kuth ]
- stink; pp. -ita , fetid; cs. kothaya , cause to putrefy 
BPal-Dev: {koaht} = कुथ्


p070c1-b02/ p055-117

कुथ kutha
Skt: कुथ [kutha] - m., , f. coloured woollen blanket. -- Mac070c1
  117) कुथ (p. 55) kutha coloured woollen blanket.
BPal: {ku.hta.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: m. mattress on elephant's back, a kind of sacred grass Poa cyanosuroides

UKT 140316: Poa cyanosuroides Retzius is Kusha grass
-- http://ecoheritage.cpreec.org/Viewcontall.php?$mFJyBfK$MA5hj$m1Rt&wm 140316 


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{ku.da.} / {koad}

कुदार kudāra
Skt: कुदार kudāra - adj. having a bad wife -- SpkSkt
BPal: {ku.da-ra.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: m. bad wife, detestable wife. mfn. having a bad wife.


p070c1-b03/ p055-116

कुदारदार [ ku-dra-dra ]
- m. pl. bad wife as a wife; -drishta, pp. imperfectly seen; -drishti, f. defective sight; false system; a. heterodox; -desa, m. bad country; -daisika, m. bad guide.
116) कुदारदार (p. 55) ku-dra-dra


p070c1-b04/ not online

- hoe, spade


p070c1-b05/ p055-115

कुद्रव्य [ ku-dravya ]
- n. bad wealth; -dvra, n. back-door; -dh, a. foolish; m. fool; -nakha, -nakhn, a. having deformed nails; -nadik, f. insignificant rivulet; -nad, f. id.; -na ra‿indra, -‿svara, m. bad king; -nta, n. bad guidance; -nripa, -nripati, m. bad king.
115) कुद्रव्य (p. 55) ku-dravya

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{ku.na.} / {koan}

p070c1-b06/ p055-114

कुन्त [ kunta ]
- m. spear, lance.
114) कुन्त (p. 55) kunta


p070c1-b07/ p055-113

कुन्तल [ kuntala ]
= क ु न ् त ल --> {koan~ta.la.}
- m. hair of the head; m. pl. N. of a people.
113) कुन्तल (p. 55) kuntala

See my note on Kuntala
UKT 171224: The word kuntalā reminds me of the play by Kalidasa Shakuntala śakuntalā which is based on a mythical story. The name of play is derived from Shakunta शकुन्त śakunta.
See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 170316
You can read a translation of the play by A. W. Ryder (1877-1938) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AWRyder-KalidasShakuntala<> / bkp<> (link chk 171224)

p070c1-b08/ p055-112

कुन्तवनमय [ kunta-vana-maya ]
- a. consisting of a forest of spears.
112) कुन्तवनमय (p. 55) kunta-vana-maya


p070c1-b09/ not online

- n. N. of twenty organs alleged to be in the abdomen; a certain section of the Atharva-veda अथर्ववेद

UKT 190115: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atharvaveda 190115
See also a downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- SAKSIVAC-AthavaVeda<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190115)
SAKSIVAC is of the opinion that Atharva Vda seems to be misunderstood by Westerners.


p070c1-b10/ p055-138

कुन्ति [ kunti ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of the Kuntis; -bhoga, m. N. of a king of the Kuntis, who adopted Kunt.
138) कुन्ति (p. 55) kunti


p070c1-b11/ p055-137

कुन्ती [ kunt ]
- f. ep. of Prith, wife of Pndu; -suta, m. son of Kunt (ep. of the sons of Pndu).
137) कुन्ती (p. 55) kunt


p070c1-b12/ p055-136

कुन्द [ kunda ]
- m. kind of jasmine; n. its flower; -lat, f. jasmine creeper.
136) कुन्द (p. 55) kunda

( end of old p070-1.htm )

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p070c1-b13/ not online

कुप् [ kup ]
- iv. kupya , become agitated; grows angry, be angry with (...


p070c1-b14/ p055-135

कुप [ kup- ]
- m. beam of a balance.
135) कुप (p. 55) kup- beam of a balance.

UKT 171224: The beam of the balance has two dampers, one on the left and the other on the right.


p070c1-b15/ p055-134

कुपट [ ku-pata ]
- m. poor garment; -patu, a. stupid; -pathita, pp. who has learnt (his part) badly; -pati, m. bad husband; bad king; -parigta, pp. ill-comprehended; -parksha-ka, a. estimating badly; m. bad estimator; -parkshita, pp. ill-investigated; -ptra, n. unworthy person; -putra, m. bad son; -purusha, m. contemptible man; coward.
134) कुपट (p. 55) ku-pata

कुपण्डित kupaṇḍita
- m. bad scholar - SpkSkt


p070c1-b16/ p055-133

कुप्य [ kupya ]
- n. base metal, i.e. any but gold and silver; m. N.; -ka, --, a. base metal.
133) कुप्य (p. 55) kupya base metal, i. e. any but gold and silver; m. N.; -ka, --, a. base metal.


p070c1-b17/ p055-132

कुप्रभु [ ku-prabhu ]
- m. bad lord; -plava, m. unsafe boat.
132) कुप्रभु (p. 55) ku-prabhu

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{ku.ba.} / {ku.wa.} / {ku.va.}

p070c1-b18/ p055-131

कुबन्ध [ ku-bandha ]
- m. degrading brand; -buddhi, f. wrong view; a. wickedly disposed; stupid.
131) कुबन्ध (p. 55) ku-bandha


p070c1-b19/ p055-130

  कुबेर [ kbera ]
- m. N. of the regent of the spirits of the lower regions and of darkness (V.); god of wealth, the world guardian of the North; -datta, m. N. of a mythical being; -vallabha, m. N. of a Vaisya.
130) कुबेर (p. 55) kbera

कुबेर [ kbera ]  
Skt: कुबेर [ kbera ] - m. N. of the regent of the spirits of the lower regions and of darkness (V.); god of wealth, the world guardian of the North; - Mac070c1
BPal: {ku.w-ra.} - UHS PMD0331

  UKT from UHS: - m. {w~a.wN nt}, ruler of the North of Mt. Mru, ruler of the Ogres {Bi-lu:}.
BPal-Dev: कुवेर = {ku.w-ra.}

See my notes on Bilus of Myanmar


p070c1-b20/ p055-129

कुब्ज [ kubg ]
- a. hunch-backed; crooked; (a)-ka, a. id.; m. an aquatic plant.
129) कुब्ज (p. 55) kubg


p070c1-b21/ p055-128

कुब्रह्मन्् [ ku-brahman ]
- m. bad Brhman.
128) कुब्रह्मन्् (p. 55) ku-brahman


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p070c1-b22/ not online 

कुभ् [kubh ]
- kumbh , be curved


p070c1-b23/ not online

कुभर्तृ [ku-bhartri]
- m. bad husband; -bharya, f. bad wife; -bhikahu, m. rogue of a beggar; -bhukta, n. bad meal; -bhritya, m. bad servant; -bhoga, poor enjoyment; -bhogana, bad food; -bhogya, n. id.; -bhratri, m. bad brother; -mata, false doctrine; -mati, f. wrong opinion; stupidity; a. stupid; -mantra, m. bad advice; evil spell; -mantrin, m. bad counsellor.


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p070c2-b01/ p055-127

कुभा [ kbh- ]
- f. N. of a river (Cabul).
127) कुभा (p. 55) kbh- (Cabul).


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{ku.ma.} / {koam}

p070c2-b02/ p055-126

कुमार [ ku-mr ]
- m. [dying easily], (new born) child; boy; youth, son; prince; ep. of Skanda; (a)-k, m. little boy, boy, youth; --, a young --; -tva, n. boyhood, youth; sonship; -datta, m. N.; ()-deshna, a. giving but fleeting gifts; -dhr, f. N. of a river; -bhukti, f. apanage of a crown prince; -bhrity, f. fostering of a child; midwifery; -vana, n. Kumra's grove; -vikrama, a. valiant as the god of war; -vrata, n. vow of chastity; -sambhava, m. birth of the war-god: T. of a poem by Klidsa; -sena, m. N. of a minister; -sevaka, m. prince's servant.
126) कुमार (p. 55) ku-mr

appanage also apanage - n. . A source of revenue, such as land, given by a sovereign for the maintenance of a member of the ruling family. . Something extra offered to or claimed by a party as due; a perquisite: The leaders of the opposition party agreed to accept another government's appanages, and in doing so became an officially paid agency of a foreign power. . A rightful or customary accompaniment or adjunct. -- AHTD

कुमारसंभव  kumarasambhava
- m. birth of the war-god: T. of a poem by Klidsa; - Mac072c2
See downloaded Kalidas's Kumarasambhavam कुमारसंभवम्  by M R Kalein, 1917 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- MRKale-Kumarasambhava<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171226, 190115)


p070c2-b03/ p055-125

कुमारिका [ kumr-ik ]
- f. girl; N. of a part of Bhratavarsha; -n, a. possessed of children.
125) कुमारिका (p. 55) kumr-ikaN

UKT 171226: Searching for Bhratavarsha, I came across Desi words speak of the Past (Indo-Aryans in the Ancient Near East), by Dr. Liny Srinivans, 2011 . Insert: from p.496


p070c2-b04/ p055-150

कुमारिदत्त [ kumri-datta ]
- m. N.; -la: -bhatta, -svmin, m. N. of a Mmmsist.
150) कुमारिदत्त (p. 55) kumri-datta


p070c2-b05/ p055-149

कुमारी [ ku-mr ]
- f. girl, virgin; daughter; ()-pura, n. part of harem where girls live; -bhga, m. daughter's portion.
149) कुमारी (p. 55) ku-mr girl


कुमारी ku-mari --> {ku.ma-ri}
Skt: कुमारी  [ku-mri] - f. girl, virgin; daughter; -- Mac070c2
BPal: {ku.ma-ri} - UHS-PMD0328
  UKT from UHS: f. maiden (bride), girl, Aloe vera

UKT 140317: Aloes and Cactuses are not the same.
See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_vera 140317


p070c2-b06/ p055-148

कुमार्ग [ ku-mrga ]
- m. wrong way, evil courses; -mlana, m. N.; -mitra, n. bad friend: -mitra, n. bad friend as a friend.
148) कुमार्ग (p. 55) ku-mrga


p070c2-b07/ p055-147

कुमुद [ k-muda ]
- n. (white) night lotus; m. N. of a Nga; N. of a man: -ntha, m. moon; -maya, a. consisting entirely of white lotuses; -‿kara, m. lotus group: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
147) कुमुद (p. 55) k-muda night lotus

कुमुद [k-muda] --> {ku.mu.da.}
Skt: कुमुद [k-muda] - n. (white) night lotus; m. N. of a Nga; N. of a man: -- Mac070c2
BPal: {ku.mu.da.} - UHS-PMD0328
   UKT from UHS: n. white lotus, a numeral  1e105 (1 followed by 105 zeros), {ku.mu.da.}-elephant


p070c2-b08/ not online 

कुमुदिका [kumud-ik] 
- f. N.


p070c2-b09/ p055-146

कुमुदिनी [ kumud-in ]
- f. night lotus; group of night lotuses: -nyaka, -vadhvara, m. lover of lotuses, ep. of the moon.
146) कुमुदिनी (p. 55) kumud-in night lotus;


p070c2-b10/ p055-145

कुमुद्वत्् [ kmud-vat ]
- a. abounding in lotuses: -, f. night lotus; group of night lotuses; N.
145) कुमुद्वत्् (p. 55) kmud-vat


p070c2-b11/ p055-144

कुमुहूर्त [ ku-muhrta ]
- m. evil hour.
144) कुमुहूर्त (p. 55) ku-muhrta


Contents of this page


UKT 170318: Below you'll see entries with glosses that seem to have no relations to each other: e.g. pot, testes (male-sex organ), frontal protuberances of an elephant, demon, raksha, common prostitute, Rishi Agastya, Rasi Kumbha, crocodile, etc. Unless you look into Astrology, Metrology, and Pali myths you will not understand their relationships.

p070c2-b12/ p055-143

कुम्भ [ kumbh ]
- m. pot, jar, urn (--, a. jar shaped); a measure of grain (=20 Dronas); du. frontal protuberances of an elephant; (a)ka, --, a. id.; m. n. religious exercise consisting in closing the nostrils with the right hand to suspend breathing: -karna, m. N. of a Rkshasa (brother of Rvana); -karnya, den. . resemble Kumbha-karna (in sleeping long); -kra, m. potter (a mixed caste); -krik, f. wife of a potter; -ganman, m. ep. of Agastya; -ds, f. common prostitute; -dhnya, a. having only a potful of grain; -yoni, m. ep. of Agastya; -sambhava, m. id.
  143) कुम्भ (p. 55) kumbh

कुम्भ [ kumbh ]
Skt: कुम्भ [ kumbh ] - m. pot, jar, urn (--, a. jar shaped); a measure of grain (=20 Dronas); du. frontal protuberances of an elephant; - Mac070c2
BPali: {koam~Ba.} - UHS PMD0328c1
  UKT 170318: water pot (for carrying on the head of females), frontal protuberances, 1/3 of a cart-load, Kumba Rasi aka Koam Rasi {koam ra-i} (shorted to {koam}).

See my note on my Astrological-birth animal Makara

  कुम्भकार [kumbh-kra ]
Skt: -kra, m. potter (a mixed caste) - Mac070c2
Skt: कुम्भकार kumbhakāra - m. potter - SpkSkt
BHS: kumbhakāraka - m. fem. rikā . potter - FE-BHS187c1-b13
BPali: {koam~Ba. ka-ra.} - UHS PMD0328c2
  UKT from UHS: m. potter


p070c2-b13/ not online

कुम्भाण्ड [kumbha‿anda] kumbhāṇḍa
Skt: कुम्भाण्ड [kumbha‿anda] - m. kind of demon - Mac070c2 

Skt: Kumbhāṇḍa   Pal: Kumbhaṇḍa .
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumbhanda 140317


p070c2-b14/ p055-142

कुम्भिका [ kumbh-ik ]
- f. small pot or jar; -n, m. elephant (having frontal protuberances); *-ila, m. thief.
142) कुम्भिका (p. 55) kumbh-ik


p070c2-b15/ p055-141

कुम्भी [ kumbh&isharp; ]
- f. pot, jar, pan; -dhnyaka, a. having grain in jars; ()-nsa, m. kind of snake; -nas, f. N. of a Rkshas; -pka, m. sg. & pl. kind of hell.
141) कुम्भी (p. 55) kumbh


p070c2-b16/ p055-140

कुम्भीर [ kumbh-ra ]
- m. crocodile; *-la, m. id.
140) कुम्भीर (p. 55) kumbh-ra


p070c2-b17/ p055-139

कुम्भोदर [ kumbha‿udara ]
- m. (pot-bellied), N. of a servant of Siva; -‿udbhava, m. ep. of Agastya; -‿udhta, m. id.
139) कुम्भोदर (p. 55) kumbha̮udara (pot-bellied),

( end of old p070-2.htm )

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{ku.ya.} / (not pronounceable by present-day Bur-Myan speakers)

{ku} --> {kw}

UKT 111005: According to U Tun Tint, MLC (personal communication), the vowel {tic-hkan:ngn ya.t} had existed in Pagan period (11th to 13th CE), but it has given way to {a.w-hto: wa.hsw:}. Other changes have been:


UKT 190116: I view these changes as change from back vowel which is present in Mon-Myan to front vowel . I speculate that with the religious change from Bamah-Ari to Mon-Theravada, Mon-Myan had been introduced to Bur-Myan speaking Pagan. However, the influence of Mon had dwindled overtime and Bur-Myan had come back. Caveat: this note of mine may have to be modified with further study.

UKT 140325: Macdonell does not give any Skt-Dev entry for {ku.ya.}. Similarly U Hoke Sein also does not give any for Pal-Myan. However, when {ya.} is further velarized by making it into a {ya.pn.}-medial, as {yya.}, a Pal-Myan word is possible.
See my note on velarization of consonants.

Pal: {ku.yya.ka.}
- -- UHS-PMD0329
  UKT from UHS: m. a thorny climber Acacia pennata , read with MLC-PMD2006-133:  a

UKT 190117: Not listed in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65.


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{ku.ra.} / {kur}

p070c2-b18/ p055-171

कुरङ्ग [ kuraṅga ]
- m. antelope: -ka, m. id.; -nayan, -netr, -lokan, -‿aksh, a. f. gazelle eyed.
171) कुरङ्ग (p. 55) kuraṅga


p070c2-b19/ p055-170

कुरङ्गाय [ kuraṅg-ya ]
- den. . become an antelope.
170) कुरङ्गाय (p. 55) kuraṅg-ya


p070c2-b20/ p055-169

कुरङ्गी [ kuraṅg ]
- f. female antelope, gazelle; N. of a daughter of Prasenagit: -dris, f. gazelle-eyed.
169) कुरङ्गी (p. 55) kuraṅg

UKT 171227: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasenadi
"Pasenadi, Skt: Prasenajit, {pa.-na.di kau:a.la. mn:} (UHS-PMD0652) (c. 6th century BCE) was an Aikṣvāka dynasty ruler of Kosala. Sāvatthī was his capital. He succeeded his father Sanjaya Mahākosala. [2] He was a prominent Upāsaka (lay follower) of Gautama Buddha, who built many Buddhist monasteries."

p070c2-b21/ p055-168

कुरबक [ kuraba-ka ]
- m. crimson amaranth or purple Barleria; n. its flower.
168) कुरबक (p. 55) kuraba-ka crimson amaranth or purple Barleria; n. its flower.


Contents of this page


p070c3-b00/ p055-167

  कुरर [ kurara ]
- m., , f. osprey. [aka sea hawk]
167) कुरर (p. 55) kurara


p070c3-b01/ p055-166

कुरहस्य [ ku-rahasya ]
- n. base secret; -rgan, m. bad king; -rgya, n. bad rule.
166) कुरहस्य (p. 55) ku-rahasya


p070c3-b02/ not online 

कुरु [kur-u]
- . 2 sg. impv. of √kri , do


p070c3-b03/ not online

कुरु [kru]
- . m. N. of the progenitor of the Kurus : pl. N. of a people


p070c3-b04/ p055-165

कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ] --> {ku.ru. hkt~ta.ra}
- n. plain of Kuru; m. pl. people of Kurukshetra; N. of a country.
165) कुरुक्षेत्र (p. 55) kuru-kshetr

UKT 171227: Bur-Myan speakers are simply unable to pronounce rhotic and fricative hissers. The only way they could pronounce कुरुक्षेत्र [ kuru-kshetr ] --> {ku.ru. hkt~ta.ra}.

p070c3-b05/ not online

कुरुता [kurut]
- f. N. of a woman


p070c3-b06/ p055-164

कुरुनन्दन [ kuru-nandana ]
- m. ep. of Arjuna and of Yudhishthira; -pakl, m. pl. the Kurus and Paklas; -pndava, m. du. pl. descendants of Kuru (i.e. of Dhritarshtra) and of Pndu.
164) कुरुनन्दन (p. 55) kuru-nandana


p070c3-b07/ p055-163

कुरुबक kurubaka, ˚वक [ -vaka ]
- probably in-correct form of kurabaka, -vaka.
163) कुरुबक (p. 55) -vaka kurabaka, -vaka.


p070c3-b08/ p055-162

कुरुविन्द [ kuru-vinda ]
- m. kind of barley; ruby.
162) कुरुविन्द (p. 55) kuru-vinda


p070c3-b09/ p055-161

कुरूप [ ku-rpa ]
- a. deformed, ugly: -t, f. deformity, ugliness.
161) कुरूप (p. 55) ku-rpa


p070c3-b10/ p055-160

कुरूरु [ kurru ]
- m. kind of vermin.
160) कुरूरु (p. 55) kurru

Contents of this page

{kur~} : repha

p070c3-b11/ p055-159

कुर्कुट [ kur-kut-a ]
Skt: कुर्कुट - m. cock - Mac070c3
  159) कुर्कुट (p. 55) kur-kut-a
BPal: {koak~ku.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0322c2
  UKT from UHS: m. cock aka rooster

UKT 190117: While learning Skt-Dev grammar, I came across the example of Paṇini on varieties of vowels, in Sanskrit Grammar, Part 1 & 2, by Dr. P Rajagopal, Shaale.com: School of Traditional Indian Arts and Literature. Watch or just listen to 
- for those at TIL research station - L104-VariatiesVowel<> (link chk 190117)
- or for all (imbedded sound clip: <)) (link chk 190117)
Compare this to Bur-Myan: {auk, i , i: u:t }

Remember Vdic language is not Sanskrit. Vdic probably belongs Tib-Bur language group, the language of the Bronze Age peoples, whereas Sanskrit is IE (Indo-European) the Iron Age intruders who infiltrated from the highlands of Persia (non-Islamic at that time). After getting a foothold they subjugated Bronze-Agers making them into Sudras or slaves of the Iron-Agers, and denied them their own language but adopted their Mantras which they found useful - even turning the Mantras into Hymns to their male-gods, rewriting history claiming the Mother-goddesses of the Bronze-Agers to be wives of their male gods.


p070c3-b12/ p055-158

कुर्कुर [ kur-kur-a ]
- m. dog.
158) कुर्कुर (p. 55) kur-kur-a dog.


p070c3-b13/ p055-157

कुर्वत्् [ kurv-at ]
- pr. pt. of √kri, do.
157) कुर्वत्् (p. 55) kurv-at √kri, do.


p070c3-b14/ p055-156

कुर्वाण [ kurv-na ]
- pr. pt. . of √kri, do.
156) कुर्वाण (p. 55) kurv-na

( end of old p070-3.htm )

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p070c3-b15/ p055-155

कुल [ kl-a ]
- n. herd, flock, swarm; multitude; race, family; community, guild; noble lineage; abode, house; --, often = chief, eminent; -m padtnm, infantry.
155) कुल (p. 55) kl-a


p070c3-b16/ not online

कुलक [ kula-ka ], -
- a. multitude; n. little family; ...

Skt: कुलक kulaka - m. any artisan of eminent birth, chief of a guild, ant-hill, ... - SpkSkt


p070c3-b17/ p055-154

कुलक्षण [ ku-lakshana ]
- a. bearing a baneful mark.
154) कुलक्षण (p. 55) ku-lakshana


p070c3-b18/ p055-153

कुलग्न [ ku-lagna ]
- n. fatal moment.
153) कुलग्न (p. 55) ku-lagna


p070c3-b19/ p055-152

कुलघ्न [ kula-ghna ] = क ु ल घ ् न
- a. (, ) destroying the race; -m-kula, a. going from house to house; -ga, a. of noble race; born in the family of (--).
152) कुलघ्न (p. 55) kula-ghna


p070c3-b20/ p055-151

कुलटा [ kulat ]
- f. unchaste woman.
151) कुलटा (p. 55) kulat


p070c3-b21/ p055-180

कुलतन्तु [ kula-tantu ]
- m. thread on which a family hangs = the last of a race; -deva, m.: -t, f. family deity; -daiva: -ta, n. id.; -dhara, m. N. of a prince; -dharma, m. usage of a family; -dhurya, a. able to bear the burden of a family; m. head of a family; -nandana, a. ɴ. (child) delighting the family; -nr, f. virtuous woman; -nimnag, f. main or noble stream. 
180) कुलतन्तु (p. 55) kula-tantu


p070c3-b22/ p055-179

कुलपतन [ kula-patana ]
- n. fall --, degradation of the family; -pati, m. head of the family; -parvata, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; -p, m. f. head of the family or community; -pmsan, f. disgrace to her family; -plik, f. N.; -putra, m. son of a good family; virtuous youth: -ka, m. id.; -purusha, m. man of good family; virtuous man; -pratishth, f. support of the race; -prasta, pp. born of a noble race; -bhava, a. coming of a noble race; -bhavana, n. chief residence; -bhta, pp. being the head of the guild; -bhbhrit, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; model of a prince; -mrga, m. ancestral path; -mitra, n. friend of the family.
179) कुलपतन (p. 55) kula-patana 


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UKT notes

Bilus of Myanmar

UKT 170316, 190115:

There are two kinds of Bilus in Myanmar mythology: the ferocious kind are the man-eaters who have bald heads or helmets. The Bilu of Ramayana are Nat-Bilus who have tiered helmets and are equals of the Dvas and Humans. The inset shows the Ogress (?) probably from Cambodia. See Bilu island in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilu_Island 190115
"Bilu Island {Bi-lu:kwyn:} (Mon pronunciation) lit. "ogre island", is a Deltaic island of Salween River {n-lwn mric}. .. The island is roughly the size of Singapore, and inhabited by 200,000 people."

UKT 190115: I wonder whether it is connected to the ancient kingdom of Srivijaya, "mentioned" in the written records of his 25-year travels of the Chinese pilgrim monk Yijing (Chinese: 義淨 ; WadeGiles: I Ching; 635713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming (Chinese: 張文明 ). See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yijing_(monk) 181018, 190115
"In some 19th-century publications, Yijing's name may appear as I Tsing, following an antiquated method of Chinese romanization. "

See also p072R.htm for Bilu (as a people) and Bilu city in Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan states by J. George Scott.

Go back Bilus-Myanmar-note-b

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Kuntala - country 

UKT 140310: Surfing the Net with the search string "kuntala people of ancient India" brought me to
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty 140310
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bellary 140310

Excerpts from the two:

"Chronology of Telugu people & Andhra history .... The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. .... Apilaka, Meghasvati and Kuntala Satakarni, who are thought to have been under the suzerainty of ..... Ancient India."

" Bellary was once part of an area also known as Kuntala Desha (ಕುಂತಲ ದೇಶ) [1] [2] [3] or Kuntala Vishaya (ಕುಂತಲ ವಿಷಯ) (Vishaya a territorial division or district of a kingdom). Many inscriptions refer to the Western Chalukyas as rulers of Kuntala or Kondala. [4] [5]

UKT 140310: Since the Telugu speakers were and are still mostly Hindus and Buddhists, I am wondering if these people had had a strong influence on the Mons of Myanmar who eventually earned the discredited name of Talaing .

Go back kuntala-note-b

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UKT 170318:

The Planet-god ruling Koam Rasi {koam ra-i} 'Aquarius' with the 'Water-carrier Sign' is Saturn, who also rules the preceding Rasi, the Maraka Rasi मकर राशि {ma.ka.ra. ra-i} 'Capricorn'. Note the Planet-god Saturn is the ruler of 2 houses. The Animal Sign of this house is the mythical aquatic animal मकर makara described as Sea-goat {ma.kn:}. See UTM PDMD225. Incidentally, this animal is the animal vehicle of the river Goddess Ganga. She is also sometimes shown riding on a crocodile.

See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makara_(Hindu_mythology) 190116
"Some cryptozoologists suspect the legend of the Makara may be based in fact, and associate it with the Trunko sighting on South Africa's Indian Ocean coast. [15] Some ancient sketches of Makara do tend to resemble modern illustrated renditions of the prehistoric mammal Ambulocetus. A more reasonable identification of the creature is that with the South Asian river dolphin; an animal, which, though now endangered, was once abundantly found in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system and with which the Makara shares several visible similarities. The makara could also be based on the mugger crocodile or the gharial. "

Go back Makara-note-b

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End of TIL file