Update: 2017-03-16 12:04 AM -0500

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

p069.htm

by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top
MCc1pp-indx.htm

Contents of this page

{ki}
{ki-Ta.}
  p069c1
{ki-da.}
{ki-na.}
{ki-la.}
{ki-sha.}

{ku.}
{ku.ka.} / {koak}
{ku.hka.} : Regular Kha should be here, but we see only the Pseudo Kha
{ku.ga.}
{ku.nga.} / {kon}
{ku.sa.}
  p069c2
{ku.a.}
{ku.Ta.}
  p069c3
{ku.a.}
{ku.Na.}
{ku.ta.}

Orphan

कुब्ज kubja
= क ु ब ् ज
- a. hunch-backed; crooked; (a)-ka, a. id.; m. an aquatic plant.

 

UKT notes :
Checking the peak vowel with coda consonant --> {koak} 
  - back close-vowel /ku/  with /k/ killed-consonant of the same kind
Common expressions for measure
Laceration vs puncture wound
Units of measrement in Ayuvdic system
Vidarbha  : Marathi: विदर्भ  {wi.dar~Ba.}

 

Contents of this page

{ki}
{ki-Ta.}

p069c1

p069c1-b01

कीटावपन्न [ kta‿avapanna ]
- pp. upon which an insect has fallen.

 

p069c1-b02

कीटोत्कर [ kta‿utkara ]
- m. ant-hill.

Contents of this page

{ki-da.}

p069c1-b03

कीदृक्ष [ k-driksha ]
- a. of what kind?

 

p069c1-b04

कीदृगाकार [ kdrig-kra ]
- a. having what appearance? -rpa, a. id.; -vypra-vat, a. having what occupation?

 

p069c1-b05

[k-drs ]
- a. what kind of ? w. following ka and preceding yvat , of whatever kind; -drisa , a. (i) of what kind? of what use?

 

Contents of this page

{ki-na.}

p069c1-b06

कीनाश [ k-n&asharp;sa ]
- m. [acquiring what? = indigent], agricultural labourer; miser.

Contents of this page

{ki-ra.} / {kiir}

p069c1-b07

कीर [ kra ]
- m. parrot: pl. N. of a people.

 

p069c1-b08

कीरि [ kr- ]
- m. bard, poet; -n, a. praising; m. bard.

 

p069c1-b09

कीर्ण [ krna ]
- pp. √kr, scatter.

 

p069c1-b10

कीर्तन [ krt-ana ]
- n. mention, report; enumeration; narration; -anya, fp. to be mentioned or praised.

 

p069c1-b11

[krtya]
- p. () mention, say; name; propound, proclaim; recite, narrate; celebrate; call, pronounce to be (2 ac.) ; ps. be called, be regarded as. ud, glorify, pari , blazed abroad; proclaim, ...

 

 

p069c1-b12

कीर्ति [ kr-t ]
- f. mention; renown, fame: -kara, a. () making famous; -mat, a. renowned, famous; -yuta, pp. id.; -sesha, m. survival in fame only, death; -sra, m. N.; -sena, m. N. of a nephew of Vsuki; -soma, m. N.

 

Contents of this page

{ki-la.}

p069c1-b13

कील kla, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. stake; peg, pin; wedge.

 

p069c1-b14

कीलिका [ kl-ik ]
- f. peg; bolt; -ita, pp. fastened, bolted; nailed down; studded with (in., --).

Contents of this page

{ki-sha.}

p069c1-b15

कीश [ ksa ]
- m. monkey.

( end of old p069-1.htm )

Contents of this page

{ku.}

p069c1-b16

कु [ . ku ]
- v. कू [k]

 

p069c1-b17

कु [ . ku ]
- f. earth, land, ground.

 

p069c1-b18

कु [ . ku ]
- the class of gutturals (gr.).

 

p069c1-b19

कु [ 4. ku ]
- prn. st. in ku-tas &c.; --, bad, in significant; badly, very; -kanyak, f. bad girl; -karman, n. wicked deed; -kalatra, n. bad wife; -kavi, m. bad poet, poetaster; -kvya, m. bad poem; -kutumbin, f. bad house wife; -kritya, n. infamous deed, wickedness.

Contents of this page

{ku.ka.}

p069c1-b20

कुकुर [kukura]
- m. pl. N. of a people

UKT 140310: Kukura was a Naga chieftain (of Naga-worshipping peoples of Ancient India). See
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom 170303

Since Bur-Myan speakers of northern Myanmarpr, before Anawrahta's religious reforms in the 11th century AD,  were also Nag-worshippers, we should keep in mind that there might have been a connection between the two ancient peoples. See :
Taung-thu-gyi Min (c. 956 to 1001 AD) aka Nyaung-U Sawrahan:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyaung-u_Sawrahan 170303
King Taung-thu-gyi of Pagan is said to have erected on his cucumber plantation a huge statue of Naga as thanksgiving after he became king from being a simple cucumber farmer.
Cult of Naga in Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism , by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Rangoon, BURMA. 1981.
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch07-cult-naga.htm (link chk 170303)

 

p069c1-b21

कुकूल [kukla]
Skt: कुकूल [kukla] - chaff - Mac069c1
Skt: कुकूल kukūla - m.n. chaff, conflagration or fire made of chaff. n. hole filled with stakes, amour, mail - SpkSkt

 

Contents of this page

{koak}

UKT 140324: See my note on checking the nuclear vowel with consonants
- back close-vowel /ku/ with /k/ killed-consonant of the same kind
-->  /koak/ rhyming with <cloak> not <coat> when pronouncing words derived from English: coda k is silent in Irrawaddy dialect.

 

p069c1-b22

कुक्कुट [ kukkut ]
- m. cock: , f. hen; -ka, m. son of a Nishda and a Sdr.

 

p069c1-b23

कुक्कुर [ kukkura ]
- m. dog; , f. bitch.

Contents of this page

{ku.hka.} : Regular Kha should be here, but we see only the Pseudo Kha

p069c1-b24

कुक्षि [ kuk-sh ]
= क ु क ् ष ि
Skt: कुक्षि [ kuk-sh ] - m. [√kus] belly; womb; cavity, cavern; valley; bay: -ga, m. son. - Mac069c1
Pal: KUCCHI - mf  belly, cavity, hollow, interior - Childers-PLD210c2
Pal: kucchi - mf. the belly, womb, cavity, interior - UPMT-SPED075
Pal: {koac~hsi.} - UHS-PMD0323c2
  UKT from UHS: mf. belly, womb

 

p069c1-b25

[kuksh]
- f. = kuksh

 

Contents of this page

{ku.ga.}

p069c1-b26

कुगृह [ ku-griha ]
- m. pl. bad housewife; -gehin, f. id.; -grma, m. wretched village.

 

Contents of this page

{ku.nga.} / {kon}

UKT 170303: In both Pali and Sanskrit {nga.} can only occur in the coda as Kinsi {kn:si:} given rise to a difficult-to-pronounce phoneme and grapheme {koang} because of which it is written in The'the'tin {::tn} aka dot-above form: {kon} .

p069c1-b27

कुङ्कुम [ kuṅ-kum-a ]
- n. saffron (a kind of crocus): -paṅka, m. saffron ointment.

कुङ्कुम [ kuṅ-kum-a ]
Skt: कुङ्कुम [ kuṅ-kum-a ] - n. saffron (a kind of crocus) - Mac069c1
Pal: {koang~ku.ma.} - UHS-PMD0323c2
  UKT from UHS: Goan'ga'mn {kon-ku.mn} saffron

Contents of this page

{ku.sa.}

p069c1-b28

कुच् [ kuk ]
- vi. p. kuka , kuk , vi. . kuka , contract, bend (int.): pp. -ita , contracted ; bent, curved; curly. sam- , cs. pp. contracted, oblique; suppressed. ud , cs. pp. utkokita ,

 

 

Contents of this page

p069c2

p069c2-b01

कुच [ kuk-a ]
- m. (du.) female breast.

 

p069c2-b02

कुचन्दन [ ku-kandana ]
- n. red sandal; -kar, a. roaming about; vicious; m. bad man; -karitra, n., -kary, f. bad conduct; -kela, n. poor garment, rags; a. ill-clad: -t, f. abst. ɴ.

 

p069c2-b03

कुज [ ku-ga ]
- m. son of earth, ep. of the planet Mars: -dina, n. Tuesday; -gana, m. bad man or people; -ganman, m. . man of low birth, slave; . son of earth, planet Mars; tree; -gvik, f. wretched existence.

 

Contents of this page

{ku.a.}

p069c2-b04

कुञ्चन [ kuk-ana ]
- n. contraction.

 

p069c2-b05

[kuk-i ]
- m. a measure = eight handfuls

See my note on Common expressions for measure .

 

p069c2-b06

कुञ्चिका [ kuk-ik ]
- f. key.

 

p069c2-b07

कुञ्ची [ kuk- ]
- f. caraway.

 

p069c2-b08

कुञ्ज [kug ]
- i. p. rustle, roar

 

p069c2-b09

कुञ्ज [ kug-a ]
- m. copse, thicket; bower: -kutra, bower; -vat, m. N. of a part of the Dandaka forest.

 

p069c2-b10

कुञ्जर [ kuga-ra ]
- m. elephant: --, an elephant among = chief of, most excellent; , f. female elephant.

Contents of this page

{ku.Ta.}

p069c2-b11

कुट् [kut ]
- divide, break up

 

p069c2-b12

कुटज [kuta-ga ]
- m. a tree (Wrightia antidysenterica )

UKT: There is confusion between Wrightia antidysenterica and Holarrhena pubescens . It has long been known in Indian Ayurvedic tradition. It is known in Sanskrit as kuṭaja or ambikā [1] and in Sinhala it is called වල් ඉද්ද (wal idda). It is also known as "white angel" in the Philippines. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrightia_antidysenterica 170309 
The name of the tree in Bur-Myan is {lak-htoat-kri:}, the whole extract is used to treat amebic dysentery.
See Section 7: Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database, in Para-Medicine :
-- MP-Para-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm > r6c3 {la.} entry 53-1417 (link chk 170314)
-- MP-Para-indx.htm > MMPD-indx.htm > r6c3 {la.} (link chk 170314)
{lak-htoat} Alstonia scholaris   fam. Apocynaceae See also {tan-mu.ro:}
{lak-htoat-kri:} Holarrhena antidysenterica fam. Apocynaceae
{lak-htoat-aim} Wrightia tomentosa fam. Apocynaceae

 

p069c2-b13

कुटरु [ kutru ]
- m. cock.

 

p069c2-b14

कुटि [ kut-i ]
- f. bend, curve (--); hut, shed.

 

p069c2-b15

कुटिल [ kuti-la ]
- a. bent, curved; crooked, winding; curly; going crooked ways, deceitful; adverse: -ka, a. winding; curly; -kesa, a. () curly-haired; -gati, a. going crookedly or stealthily; f. a metre; -g, f. river: -‿sa, m. lord of rivers, ocean; -gman, a. winding; capricious; -t, f. curliness; deceitfulness; -tva, n. id.; deviation from (-- ); -mati, a. crooked-minded, deceitful; -manas, a. id.

 

p069c2-b16

कुटिलाशय [ kutila‿saya ]
- a. having crooked aims.

 

p069c2-b17

कुटिलिका [ kutil-ik ]
- f. winding movement (on the stage).

 

p069c2-b18

[kutil-kri ]
- knit (the brow)

 

p069c2-b19

कुटी [kut ]
- f. = kuti

 

p069c2-b20

कुटीर [kutra]
- hut; sexual intercourse; i-kri , choose for one's hut or abode

 

p069c2-b21

कुटुम्ब kutumba, ˚क [ -ka ]
- n. household; family; family property: -parigraha, m. household; family.

 

p069c2-b22

कुटुम्बिन्् [ kutumb-in ]
- m. householder, paterfamilias; member of a family; domestic; du. householder and his wife: -, f. mistress of the house; female domestic.

p069c2-b23

कुट्ट [kutt ] , x. p.
Skt: कुट्ट [kutt ] , x. p. kuttaya , crush, bruise, vi. lacerate - Mac069c2
Skt: कुट्टयति { कुट्ट् } kuṭṭayati { kuṭṭ } - verb10  to grind or pound, abuse, paw, fill, strike slightly, crush, multiply, bruise, censure - SpkSkt
Pal: {koaT~Ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0325

UKT from UHS: m. powder

UKT 140323: Macdonell gives in the meanings the English word <lacerate>. Look into my note on Laceration vs. puncture wound.

 

p069c2-b24

कुट््ट kutta, ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. crushing or grinding with (--).

 

p069c2-b25

कुट््टन [ kutt-ana ]
- n. stamping; , f. procuress.

 

p069c2-b26

कुट््टार [ kutt-ra ]
- a. tearing, lacerating (--); m. brawler.

 

p069c2-b27

कुट््टिनी [ kutt-in ]
- f. procuress: -kapata, m. N. of a rogue.

 

p069c2-b28

कुट््टिम [ kutt-ima ]
- n. levelled floor.

( p069c2-end)

Contents of this page

p069c3

{ku.HTa.}

UKT 140310: CAUTION : We have a look alike in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan :

{koaT~Hta.} (a conjunct) = .

Note the pronunciation difference. 

 

p069c3-b00

कुठार kuthâra, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. axe; i-k, f. small axe; i-ka, m. wood-cutter.

Contents of this page

{ku.a.}

p069c3-b01

कुड् [kud ]
- kund , encircle

 

p069c3-b02

कुडव [ kuda-va ]
- m. a measure and weight (=1/4 prastha).

UKT 151106: According to Inscriptions of Ancient Nepal, by D.R. Regmi, Abhinav Publish. 1983, New Delhi, "prastha" is a measure of grain. According to
- http://www.oocities.org/reldictionary/dictionary/page-M/measure-weight.htm 151106
  4 kudav = 1 prasth = 12 double handfuls
See my note on Units of Measurement

p069c3-b03

कुड्मल [ kud-mala ]
- a. budding; m. n. bud; n. kind of hell: -t, f. closure (of bud or eye); i-ta, pp. covered with buds; closed like a bud.

 

p069c3-b04

कुड्य [ kud-ya ]
- n. wall; , f. id.

Contents of this page

{ku.Na.}

p069c3-b05

कुणप [ knapa ]
- n. corpse; carcase, carrion; a. (pa) decomposing, stinking like carrion.

 

p069c3-b06

कुणारु [ kn-ru ]
- a. paralysed in the arm.

 

p069c3-b07

  कुणि [ kun-i ]
- a. id.: -tva, n. paralysis.

 

p069c3-b08

[kunth ]
- pp. -ita , blunted, blunt; relaxed, jaded; ineffectual; dull. vi , pp. blunted

 

p069c3-b09

कुण्ठ [ kunth-a ]
- a. blunt; relaxed; dulled: -t, f. absence of feeling (in a limb); -tva, n. dulness, obtuseness; -a‿asma-ml-maya, a. consisting of a series of blunt stones; --kri, blunt; --bh, prove ineffectual.

 

p069c3-b10

  कुण्ड [ kund-a ]
- n., , f. pitcher, jar, pot; scuttle; round cavity in the ground, round fire-pit; m. bastard of an adulteress; -ka, m. n. jar, pot, pitcher.

UKT 170315: The gloss "m. bastard of an adulteress" for कुण्ड kuṇḍa is interesting. Below, you'll see कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī "n. coiled one, Hindu Dharma primal energy aka Shakti ". Since कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī is said to have the power to give you 'intense pleasure' similar to "intense sexual satisfaction" as a woman of loose character "adulteress" or prostitute could, are we to understand that Shakti has been compared to an adulteress?

 

p069c3-b11

कुण्डल [ kunda-la ]
- n. ring, esp. earring; -lin, a. wearing earrings; coiled; m. snake; -kri, make into a ring, coil.

 

कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī
- n. coiled one, Hindu Dharma primal energy aka Shakti said to be located at the base of the spine.
  - UKT 170315: from Google Search

UKT 170315: I remember one meditation master (forgotten name) reminding me not to concentrate my mind on any point of the body below the navel. Theravada Buddhist meditation recommends only to concentrate on the feeling of touch of incoming and outgoing breath on the tip of the nostrils. This is Thamadi-concentration which done in excess can lead you astray - enjoying pleasures of mental powers. The aim is Nibbana or cessation of all Attachments - the opposite of the Hindu goal of wakening the Kundalini or primal energies. I've been warned by my meditation teacher, U Winiya from SunLunVipassana group, to stop improving Thamadi-practice, and do only Wipassana-observation 'close examination of reality including my body-functions'. 
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundalini 170315

 

p069c3-b12

कुण्डाशिन्् [ kunda‿sin ]
- a. eating the food given by a kunda (bastard of an adulteress).

 

p069c3-b13

कुण्डिका [ kund-ik ]
- f. pot.

 

p069c3-b14

[kund-ina ]
- n. N. of the capital of Vidarbha

UKT: See my note on Vidarbha : Marathi: विदर्भ  {wi.dar~Ba.}

 

p069c3-b15

कुण्डोघ्नी [ kunda‿dhn ]
- a. f. hvg. a jar-shaped udder.

( end of old p069.htm )

Contents of this page

{ku.ta.}

p069c3-b16

कुतनय [ ku-tanaya ]
- m. bad son.

 

p069c3-b17

कुतप [ ku-tapa ]
- m. n. goat's hair blanket.

 

p069c3-b18

कुतपस्विन्् [ ku-tapasvin ]
- m. bad ascetic; -tarka, m. bad dialectics, sophistry.

dialectic - n. Abbr. dial. . The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments. . a. The process especially associated with Hegel of arriving at the truth by stating a thesis, developing a contradictory antithesis, and combining and resolving them into a coherent synthesis. b. Hegel's critical method for the investigation of this process. . a. Often dialectics used with a sing. or pl. verb The Marxian process of change through the conflict of opposing forces, whereby a given contradiction is characterized by a primary and a secondary aspect, the secondary succumbing to the primary, which is then transformed into an aspect of a new contradiction. b. The Marxian critique of this process. 4. dialectics used with a sing. verb A method of argument or exposition that systematically weighs contradictory facts or ideas with a view to the resolution of their real or apparent contradictions. 5. The contradiction between two conflicting forces viewed as the determining factor in their continuing interaction. -- AHTD

 

p069c3-b19

कुतस्् [ k-tas ]
- ad. =ab. of ka, from which? from whom? whence? sts. whither? why? often in drama before a couplet confirming a previous remark =for; how? how much less, to say nothing of; kutoxpi, (late) from some; kutas kid, id.; from somewhere: na-- , from nowhere; na kutas-kana, id.; in no direction.

 

p069c3-b20

कुतस्त्य [ kutas-tya ]
- a. coming from whence? with api, of unknown origin.

 

p069c3-b21

कुतापस [ ku-tpasa ]
- m., , f. bad ascetic.

 

p069c3-b22

कुतुक [ ku-tu-ka ]
- n. [regard to the whence], curiosity; interest; eagerness for (--).

 

p069c3-b23

कुतूहल [ kut-hala ]
- n. [cry of whence], id.; pleasure, delight in (prati, lc. or --); curious, interesting, or amusing object: in. eagerly, zealously: -krit, a. exciting curiosity, curious; -vat, a. inquisitive; interested; eager.

कुतूहल [kut-hala]
= क ु त ू ह ल --> {ku.tu-ha.la.}
Skt: - n. [cry of whence], id.; pleasure, delight in (prati, lc. or --); curious, interesting, or amusing object: in. eagerly, zealously: -- Mac069c3
Pal: {ku.tu-ha.la.}
- - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: n. tumultuous happening

 

p069c3-b24

कुतूहलिन्् [ kuthal-in ]
- a. curious; interested.

 

p069c3-b25

कुत्र [ k-tra (-tr) ]
- ad. =lc. of ka, in what? where? whither? what for? --‿api, (late) somewhere; --kid, =lc. in some--; somewhere: with neg. nowhere (also of direction); kutra-kid - kutra-kid, in one case -in the other, sometimes-sometimes.

 

p069c3-b26

कुत्रत्य [ kutra-tya ]
- a. dwelling or coming from where?

 

p069c3-b27

कुत्स [ kts-a ]
- m. N. of various men; -ana, n. reviling, abuse; contempt; term of abuse; -aya, den. P. [ask as to the whence: kut(a)s ] abuse, blame; contemn: pp. -ita, contemptible; blameworthy; -, f. abuse, blame: in. contemptuously; -ya, fp. blameworthy.

( end of new p069.htm )

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Checking the peak vowel with coda consonant
- back close-vowel /ku/ with /k/ killed-consonant of the same kind

UKT 140325:

As the first step into the study of coda consonants having an influence on the nuclear, we have to consider syllables formed with 4 corner vowels of the vowel quadrilateral:

front: {a.} /a/, {i.} /i/ 
back: {u.} /u/, {au:} /ɑ/ : with possibility some lip-rounding
Note: Bur-Myan usually ends {au:} /ɑ/ with emphasis. However, for checking it must be considered to be a short vowel (with duration of one eye-blink) like the rest of the corner vowels.

We have already seen how these corner vowels as free vowels have been checked. Now we are in the process of looking at them as bound vowels in:

front:  {ka.}, {ki.} 
back: {ku.}, {kau:} 

We are now at {ku.} which can be pronounced with a slight lip-rounding. However we must remember that with full lip-rounding the pronunciation changes to {kwu.} & {kwau:} which are not realized in spoken Bur-Myan.

Myanmar akshara is like IPA, and it can be used to transcribe many sounds. However, the speakers of Bur-Myan uses only some, whereas other speakers such as Mon-Myan uses others which I think is the result of using different sets of vocal muscles. The only way to teach speakers of one language to speak another language is to let them listen to authentic sounds, and let the ears of the listeners train their own muscles.

Go back check-with-conson-note-b

Contents of this page

Common expressions for measure

- UKT 140307, 170304:

"Eight handfuls" were a common expression for "some" measure. "Eight" need not be number 8. See it being used in the excerpt below from : The Life of Buddha, (original title: La Vie du Bouddha ), by Ferdinand Hrold, tr. by Paul C Blum (1922), at sacred-texts.com.
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/lob/lob20.htm 140307, 170304

In chapter 18. Siddhartha Under the Tree of Knowldge, p.083 , we read the excerpt on p.087

"He [Prince-rishi Siddhartha] approached the tree. On the side of the road, he saw Svastika, the reaper.

" 'They are tender, these grasses you are mowing, Svastika. Give me some grass; I want to cover (p087endsp088begins) the seat I shall occupy when I attain supreme knowledge. They are green, these grasses you are mowing, Svastika. Give me some grass, and you will know the law some day, for I shall teach it to you, and you may teach it to others.'

"The reaper gave the Saint eight handfuls of grass.

"There stood the tree of knowledge. The hero went to the east of it and bowed seven times. He threw the handfuls of grass on the ground, and, suddenly, a great seat appeared. The soft grass covered it like a carpet."

In Bur-Myan, if we want to express a measure of for untold problems, we would say: "Problems amounting to 16,000". We do not actually count the number 16,000.

Go back Common-expressions-note-b

Contents of this page

Laceration vs puncture wound

- UKT 140323 

Always be careful of dictionary meanings. An English word can have more than one meaning, only one of which may be applicable to Sanskrit. Here we have <laceration> as an example. The word has two meanings.

From: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19616.htm 140323

A laceration is a wound that is produced by the tearing of soft body tissue. This type of wound is often irregular and jagged. A laceration wound is often contaminated with bacteria and debris from whatever object caused the cut.

A puncture wound is usually caused by a sharp pointy object such as a nail, animal teeth, or a tack. This type of wound usually does not bleed excessively and can appear to close up. Puncture wounds are also prone to infection and should be treated appropriately.

UKT 140323: Open sores oozing pus from lacerations giving out an unmistakable odour is a condition of advanced leprosy. With this little note I remember Dr. U Tha Saing, chief Leprosy officer of Union of Burma after Independence. Dr. U Tha Saing was one of my father U Tun Pe's personal friends. Dr. U Tha Saing was a dedicated doctor, and had  examined countless patients (without medical gloves which were very expensive) at Satthadaw clinic north of Rangoon on the Rangoon-Prome road. My father as the head of the Epidemic Mobile Team had to visit the clinic and the neighbouring village where the lepers had settled. My father and his team had to do the public health work and immunized the villagers many of whom were lepers. My father would never take me on his trips to Satthadaw.

While the power-hungry politicians in and out of the government were killing each other, and also the innocent civilians with arms, these unsung heroes like Dr. U Tha Saing had served their mother country well braving bullets and bayonets. Sad to say many medical personal (and others) lost their lives, or were maimed for life, while doing their duty to serve fellow countrymen. They also had to avoid, to the best of their ability, the ire of democratically elected government of U Nu which had issued specific orders to them not to give medicine or immunization against communicable diseases to the villagers living under insurgent control. Satthadaw was such a village only under government control in the day time, while from dusk to dawn the armed rebels had full control.

Go back Laceration-note-b

Contents of this page

Units of Measurement in Ayuvedic System

- UKT 170314:

The Buddhist king, Asoka, of Magadha Empire, after banning animal sacrifices promoted the ancient medicinal system of Aryuvda which in turn resulted in promoting the study of medicinal plants. At present I have no intention of going into the system, but for those interested in the subject, you will need to know the units of measurement. Being a chemist, I still need to know how good were the ancients in instruments, for without a good chemical balance small units of measurement are useless.

My judgment is based on my experience of repairing and setting up chemical balances of different kinds imported from UK, US and Soviet Union, at Rangoon and Mandalay universities. In Mandalay, I had the experience of repairing the most sensitive analytical balance of the period - a balance that can measure up to 4th decimal place. Common analytical balances of that period could measure up to 3rd decimal place. Common laboratory balances, known as technical balances measure up to 2nd decimal place. The inset pix from Wikipedia has pneumatic dampers. For balances without dampers we have to rely on the amount of swings of the pointer.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_balance 170314

Setting up a balance for research work can last a couple of hours. Laboratories in the US (in which I had worked) and other advanced countries have their balances set up and certified by specially trained persons sent by the company which make the balances. In Myanmarpr, we have to do it ourselves.

Ratti is the commonly used unit for expressing the weights of diamonds and other precious jewelry stones in Myanmarpr, and so I can rely on 1 RATTI = 125 mg. Weight expressions lower than RATTI are just figments of imagination. In Myanmarpr, the unit of weight measurement is Kyat . 1 kyat-weight = 16.3293 gram (based on MLC MED2006 append ii).

Weight measurement in the most ancient times, those of the Harappan civilization, 2600 - 1900 BCE., seems to be highly developed. Basic unit the weight is about 13.65 grams.
See Harappan Units of Weights - https://sizes.com/units/harappan_weights.htm 170315

See also Ancient Indian Weights by E. Thomas, 1874
downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EThomas-AnciIndianWeights<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170315)

From Ayur Times: https://www.ayurtimes.com/ayurvedic-measurements/ 170314

Ayurvedic Metric Units (Classical Units) :
  UKT 170315: Devanagari spellings from E. Thomas.

1 PARAMANU = 0.0016 mg; 1 DHAVANSHI (VANSI & TRASRENU) = 0.05 mg;
1 MARICHI = 0.32 mg; 1 LAL SARSHAP = 1.95 mg
1 TUNDAL = 15.62 mg; 1 DHANYAMASH = 31.25 mg

1 YAVA यव yava = 62.5 mg
1 RATTI रति rati = 125 mg

1 ANDIKA = 250 mg; 1 MASHAK (MASA) = 1 gram
1 SHAAN = 3 grams; 1 KOL = 6 grams
1 TOLA = 12 grams; 1 KARSHA  (1 KARSA) = 12 grams
1 SHUKTI = 24 grams; 1 PAL (1 PALAM) = 48 grams
1 CHHATANK = 60 grams; 1 PRASRTIS (1 PRASRTI) = 96 grams
1 CHHATAAK (CHHATAK) = 186 grams; 1 KUDAV (1 KUDAVAS) = 192 grams कुडव
1 MANIKA (MAANIKA) = 384 grams; 1 PRASTHA (PRASTH) = 768 grams
1 SER (SERA or SEER) = 960 grams; 1 ADHAKA (AADAK) = 3 Kg 73 grams
1 TULA = 4 Kg 800 grams; 1 DRONA (DRON) = 12 Kg 228 grams
1 SURPA (SHOORP) = 24 Kg 576 grams; 1 DRONI = 49 Kg 152 grams
1 BHARA = 96 Kg; 1 KHARI = 196 Kg 608 grams

Accepted measurements are given according to CHARAKA SAMHITA based on TOLA equivalent to 12 grams. There are slight differences in SARNGADHARA SAMHITA and other classical texts.

 

Measurement of Time in Ayurveda

Ayurvedic Metric Units (Classical Units) Modern Metric Equivalent
1 KSANA 0.38 seconds
1 LAVA 0.77 seconds
1 NIMESHA 1.55 seconds
1 KASTHA 4.66 seconds
1 KALA 2 minutes 20 seconds
1 GHATI 24 minutes
1 MUHURTA 48 minutes
1 AHORATRA 24 hours
1 PAKSA 15 days
1 MASA 30 days (1 month)
1 RITU 60 days (2 months)
1 AYANA 6 months
1 SAMVATSARA 12 months (1 year)
1 YUGA 5 years

Linear Measurement

Ayurvedic Metric Units (Classical Units) Modern Metric Equivalent
1 YAVODARA 2.4 millimeter
1 ANGULA 1.95 cm
1 BITAHASTI 22.86 cm
1 ARATNI 41.91 cm
1 HASTA 45.72 cm
1 RAJAHASTA (NRIPAHASTA) 55.88 cm
1 VYAMA 182.88 cm

Go back Units-Measurement-note-b

Contents of this page

Vidarbha

- UKT 140308

My interest in Vidarbha is because of its language connection to Naga नग naga and Pur पुर pura 'town'. The combined word can mean the "City of Nagas". An unusual geological feature is the almost round Lonar crater-lake which is now believed to be not of volcanic origin but of impact of an meteorite about 52,000 6,000 years (Pleistocene). A new estimate has put the date much further to 570,000 47,000 years.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidarbha 140308

Vidarbha (Marathi: विदर्भ {wi.dar~Ba.} is the eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, comprising Nagpur Division and Amravati Division. Its former name is Berar (Varhad in Marathi). [2] [3] 

Go back Vidarbha-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file