Update: 2019-01-18 04:48 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

UKT 190114: This is the first page in which I've included selected entries from
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)

{ki} - contd.
{ki-ra.} / {kiir}

{ku.} ु
{ku.ka.} / {koak}
{ku.hka.}  कुक्ष kukṣa  : Don't expect Regular Kha: we are not finished with Ka. You'll see only the Pseudo Kha. 
{ku.gna.} / {kon}
{ku.sa.} : √kuc, {koac}, √kue, 'shrink, curl'. - Whit021


UKT notes :
Checking the peak vowel with coda consonant --> {koak} 
  - back close-vowel /ku/  with /k/ killed-consonant of the same kind
Common expressions for measure
Laceration vs puncture wound
Units of measrement in Ayuvdic system
Vidarbha  : Marathi: विदर्भ  {wi.dar~Ba.}


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{ki} - contd



IPal: {kīṭa} - m. an insect, worm; *{ja} - n. silk. - UPMT-PED075
BPal: {ki-Ta.} - UHS PMD0321c2
  UKT from UHS: m. caterpillar, insect [moth]

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombyx_mori - 190114
"The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").


p069c1-b01/ p055-49

कीटावपन्न [ kta‿avapanna ]
- pp. upon which an insect has fallen.
49) कीटावपन्न (p. 55) kta̮avapanna


p069c1-b02/ p055-48

कीटोत्कर [ kta‿utkara ]
- m. ant-hill.
48) कीटोत्कर (p. 55) kta̮utkara

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p069c1-b03/ p055-47

कीदृक्ष [ k-driksha ]
- a. of what kind?
  47) कीदृक्ष (p. 55) k-driksha
IPal: {kīdisa}, {kīrisa} - adj. like what? of what Sort? - UPMT-PED075
BPal: {ki-di.a.} - UHS PMD0321c2
  UKT from UHS: mfn. like what? what sort? what shape?


p069c1-b04/ p055-46 

कीदृगाकार [ kdrig-kra ]
- a. having what appearance? -rpa, a. id.; -vypra-vat, a. having what occupation?
46) कीदृगाकार (p. 55) kdrig-kra 


p069c1-b05/ not online

[k-drs ]
- a. what kind of ? w. following ka and preceding yvat , of whatever kind; -drisa , a. (i) of what kind? of what use?


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p069c1-b06/ p055-45

कीनाश [ k-n&asharp;sa ]
- m. [acquiring what? = indigent], agricultural labourer; miser.
45) कीनाश (p. 55) k-naNsa

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{ki-ra.} / {kiir}

p069c1-b07/ p055-226

कीर [ kra ]
- m. parrot: pl. N. of a people.
266) कीर (p. 55) kra


p069c1-b08/ p055-261

कीरि [ kr- ]
- m. bard, poet; -n, a. praising; m. bard.
261) कीरि (p. 55) kr-


p069c1-b09/ not online

कीर्ण [ krna ]
- pp. √kr, scatter.


p069c1-b10/ p055-181 

कीर्तन [ krt-ana ]
- n. mention, report; enumeration; narration; -anya, fp. to be mentioned or praised.
181) कीर्तन (p. 55) krt-ana mention, report; enumeration; narration; -anya, fp. to be mentioned or praised.


p069c1-b11/ not online 

- p. () mention, say; name; propound, proclaim; recite, narrate; celebrate; call, pronounce to be (2 ac.) ; ps. be called, be regarded as. ud, glorify, pari , blazed abroad; proclaim, ...


p069c1-b12/ p055-075

कीर्ति [ kr-t ]
- f. mention; renown, fame: -kara, a. () making famous; -mat, a. renowned, famous; -yuta, pp. id.; -sesha, m. survival in fame only, death; -sra, m. N.; -sena, m. N. of a nephew of Vsuki; -soma, m. N.
75) कीर्ति (p. 55) kr-t


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p069c1-b13/ p055-074

कील kla, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. stake; peg, pin; wedge.
74) कील (p. 55) -ka


p069c1-b14/ p055-073

कीलिका [ kl-ik ]
- f. peg; bolt; -ita, pp. fastened, bolted; nailed down; studded with (in., --).
73) कीलिका (p. 55) kl-ik

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p069c1-b15/ p055-072

कीश [ ksa ]
- m. monkey.
72) कीश (p. 55) ksa monkey.

( end of old p069-1.htm )

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√ku, see √kū . - Whit019


p069c1-b16/ not online

कु [ . ku ]
- v. कू [k]


p069c1-b17/ p055-071

कु [ . ku ]
Skt: कु [ . ku ] - f. earth, land, ground. - Mac069c1
  71) कु (p. 55) . ku earth, land, ground.
InPal: {ku} - a prefix meaning bad, inferior, wicked; f. the earth. - UPMT-PaliDict075


p069c1-b18/ p055-070

कु [ . ku ]
- the class of gutturals (gr.).
70) कु (p. 55) . ku


p069c1-b19/ p055-069

कु [ 4. ku ]
- prn. st. in ku-tas &c.; --, bad, in significant; badly, very; -kanyak, f. bad girl; -karman, n. wicked deed; -kalatra, n. bad wife; -kavi, m. bad poet, poetaster; -kvya, m. bad poem; -kutumbin, f. bad house wife; -kritya, n. infamous deed, wickedness.
69) कु (p. 55) 4. ku ku-tas &c.; --,

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p069c1-b20/ not online

कुकुर [kukura]
- m. pl. N. of a people

UKT 140310: Kukura was a Naga chieftain (of Naga-worshipping peoples of Ancient India). See
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naga_Kingdom 171222

Since Bur-Myan speakers of northern Myanmarpr, before Anawrahta's religious reforms in the 11th century AD,  were also Nag-worshippers, we should keep in mind that there might have been a connection between the two ancient peoples. See :
Taung-thu-gyi Min (c. 956 to 1001 AD) aka Nyaung-U Sawrahan:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyaung-u_Sawrahan 170303
King Taung-thu-gyi of Pagan is said to have erected on his cucumber plantation a huge statue of Naga as thanksgiving after he became king from being a simple cucumber farmer.
Cult of Naga in Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism , by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung, Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Rangoon, BURMA. 1981.
- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch07-cult-naga.htm (link chk 170303)


p069c1-b21/ not online

कुकूल [kukla]
Skt: कुकूल [kukla] - chaff - Mac069c1
Skt: कुकूल kukūla - m.n. chaff, conflagration or fire made of chaff. n. hole filled with stakes, amour, mail - SpkSkt


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UKT 140324: See my note on checking the nuclear vowel with consonants
- back close-vowel /ku/ with /k/ killed-consonant of the same kind
-->  /koak/ rhyming with <cloak> not <coat> when pronouncing words derived from English: coda k is silent in Irrawaddy dialect.

InPal: {kukkucca} - n. worry, remorse; {cāyati} - v. to be worried - UPMT-PalDict075
BPal: {koak~koac~sa.} - UHS-PMD0322c2
  UKT from UHS: n. evil, bad habit, remorse, anxiety, suspicion


p069c1-b22/ p055-068 

कुक्कुट [ kukkut ]
- m. cock: , f. hen; -ka, m. son of a Nishda and a Sdr.
68) कुक्कुट (p. 55) kukkut

UKT 171222: From: http://bhagavata.org/glossary/index.html 171222:
"Nishda: see B h u k a."
--> " Bhuka: Churned from the legs of king V e n a was Bhuka (the dwarf) born. He had copperlike hair and was called 'Just sit down here' or Nishda. From him the Naishdas are known living in the hills and forests, feared because, being born from V e n a they had taken the sins upon them of Vena (see SB 4.14: 43-46)."
--> "Vena: the demoniac son of king A n g a and father of king P r i t h u (see 4.14). "
--> "Prithu Mahrja: an empowered incarnation of Lord K r i s h n a who demonstrated how to be an ideal king (see 4.15-23). "


p069c1-b23/ p055-067

कुक्कुर [ kukkura ]
- m. dog; , f. bitch.
67) कुक्कुर (p. 55) kukkura


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कुक्ष {ku.kSa.} : Pseudo Kha {ku.hka.}
Skt: कुक्ष kukṣa - n. belly - SpkSkt


p069c1-b24/ p055-066

कुक्षि [ kuk-sh ] = क ु क ् ष ि
Skt: कुक्षि [ kuk-sh ] - m. [√kus] belly; womb; cavity, cavern; valley; bay: -ga, m. son. - Mac069c1
  66) कुक्षि (p. 55) kuk-sh [√kus]
Pal: KUCCHI - mf  belly, cavity, hollow, interior - Childers-PLD210c2
IPal: {kucchi} - mf. the belly, womb, cavity, interior - UPMT-PD075
BPal: {koac~hsi.} - UHS-PMD0323c2
  UKT from UHS: mf. belly, womb


p069c1-b25/ not online 

- f. = kuksh


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p069c1-b26/ p055-065

कुगृह [ ku-griha ]
- m. pl. bad housewife; -gehin, f. id.; -grma, m. wretched village.
65) कुगृह (p. 55) ku-griha


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{ku.gna.} / {kon}

UKT 170303, 190113: r1c5 & r2c5 are not true nasals. In particular, that r1c5 /ŋ/ has some elements of /g/ in its pronunciation. I've classed it as semi-nasal. I came to that conclusion after studying Mon-Myan Peguan dialect, which according to early European observers had no /g/-sound (usually ascribed to Bur-Myan {ga.}). The /g/-sound is only to be found in r1c5 {gna.}/ {ng}. This gives rise to the fact that in both Pali and Sanskrit r1c5 {gna.}/ {ng} can only occur in the coda as Kinsi-sign {n~:} giving rise to a difficult-to-pronounce phoneme  and grapheme {kon} because of which it is written in The'the'tin {::tn} aka dot-above form: {kon} .

p069c1-b27/ p055-064 

कुङ्कुम [ kuṅ-kum-a ]
- n. saffron (a kind of crocus): -paṅka, m. saffron ointment.
64) कुङ्कुम (p. 55) kuṅ-kum-a

कुङ्कुम [ kuṅ-kum-a ]
Skt: कुङ्कुम [ kuṅ-kum-a ] - n. saffron (a kind of crocus) - Mac069c1
BPal: {kon~ku.ma.} - UHS-PMD0323c1
  UKT from UHS: Goan'ga'mn {kon-ku.mn} saffron (see also MLC MED024c2

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√kuc, {koac}, √kue, 'shrink, curl'. - Whit021


p069c1-b28/ not online

कुच् [ kuk ]
- vi. p. kuka , kuk , vi. . kuka , contract, bend (int.): pp. -ita , contracted ; bent, curved; curly. sam- , cs. pp. contracted, oblique; suppressed. ud , cs. pp. utkokita , ...


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p069c2-b01/ p055-063

कुच [ kuk-a ]
- m. (du.) female breast.
63) कुच (p. 55) kuk-a


p069c2-b02/ p055-090

कुचन्दन [ ku-kandana ]
- n. red sandal; -kar, a. roaming about; vicious; m. bad man; -karitra, n., -kary, f. bad conduct; -kela, n. poor garment, rags; a. ill-clad: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
90) कुचन्दन (p. 55) ku-kandana


p069c2-b03/ p055-089

कुज [ ku-ga ]
- m. son of earth, ep. of the planet Mars: -dina, n. Tuesday; -gana, m. bad man or people; -ganman, m. . man of low birth, slave; . son of earth, planet Mars; tree; -gvik, f. wretched existence.
89) कुज (p. 55) ku-ga

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p069c2-b04/ p055-088

कुञ्चन [ kuk-ana ]
- n. contraction.
88) कुञ्चन (p. 55) kuk-ana


p069c2-b05/ not online

[kuk-i ]
- m. a measure = eight handfuls

See my note on Common expressions for measure .


p069c2-b06/ p055-087

कुञ्चिका [ kuk-ik ]
- f. key.
87) कुञ्चिका (p. 55) kuk-ik


p069c2-b07/ p055-086

कुञ्ची [ kuk- ]
- f. caraway.
86) कुञ्ची (p. 55) kuk-


p069c2-b08/ not online

कुञ्ज [kug ]
- i. p. rustle, roar


p069c2-b09/ p055-085

कुञ्ज [ kug-a ] = क ु ञ ् ज
- m. copse, thicket; bower: -kutra, bower; -vat, m. N. of a part of the Dandaka forest.
85) कुञ्ज (p. 55) kug-a


p069c2-b10/ p055-084

कुञ्जर [ kuga-ra ]
- m. elephant: --, an elephant among = chief of, most excellent; , f. female elephant.
84) कुञ्जर (p. 55) kuga-ra

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IPal: {kuṭa} - mn. a waterpot; *{dhārikā} - f. a maid-servant - UPMT-PED075
BPal: {ku.Ta.} - UHS PMD0324
  UKT from UHS: mn. water pot, mountain, hammer, tree


p069c2-b11/ not online

कुट् [kut ]
- divide, break up


p069c2-b12/ not online

कुटज [kuta-ga ]
- m. a tree (Wrightia antidysenterica )

UKT: There is confusion between Wrightia antidysenterica and Holarrhena pubescens . It has long been known in Indian Ayurvedic tradition. It is known in Sanskrit as kuṭaja or ambikā [1] and in Sinhala it is called වල් ඉද්ද (wal idda). It is also known as "white angel" in the Philippines. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrightia_antidysenterica 170309 
The name of the tree in Bur-Myan is {lak-htoat-kri:}, the whole extract is used to treat amebic dysentery.
See Section 7: Myanmar Medicinal Plant Database, in Para-Medicine :
-- MP-Para-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm > r6c3 {la.} entry 53-1417 (link chk 170314)
-- MP-Para-indx.htm > MMPD-indx.htm > r6c3 {la.} (link chk 170314)
{lak-htoat} Alstonia scholaris   fam. Apocynaceae See also {tan-mu.ro:}
{lak-htoat-kri:} Holarrhena antidysenterica fam. Apocynaceae
{lak-htoat-aim} Wrightia tomentosa fam. Apocynaceae


p069c2-b13/ p055-083

कुटरु [ kutru ]
- m. cock.
83) कुटरु (p. 55) kutru


p069c2-b14/ p055-082

कुटि [ kut-i ]
- f. bend, curve (--); hut, shed.
82) कुटि (p. 55) kut-i


p069c2-b15/ p055-081

कुटिल [ kuti-la ]
- a. bent, curved; crooked, winding; curly; going crooked ways, deceitful; adverse: -ka, a. winding; curly; -kesa, a. () curly-haired; -gati, a. going crookedly or stealthily; f. a metre; -g, f. river: -‿sa, m. lord of rivers, ocean; -gman, a. winding; capricious; -t, f. curliness; deceitfulness; -tva, n. id.; deviation from (-- ); -mati, a. crooked-minded, deceitful; -manas, a. id.
81) कुटिल (p. 55) kuti-la


p069c2-b16/ p055-080

कुटिलाशय [ kutila‿saya ]
- a. having crooked aims.
80) कुटिलाशय (p. 55) kutila̮saya


p069c2-b17/ p055-079

कुटिलिका [ kutil-ik ]
- f. winding movement (on the stage).
79) कुटिलिका (p. 55) kutil-ik


p069c2-b18/ not online

[kutil-kri ]
- knit (the brow)


p069c2-b19/ not online

कुटी [kut ]
- f. = kuti


p069c2-b20/ not online

कुटीर [kutra]
- hut; sexual intercourse; i-kri , choose for one's hut or abode


p069c2-b21/ p055-078

कुटुम्ब kutumba, ˚क [ -ka ]
- n. household; family; family property: -parigraha, m. household; family.
78) कुटुम्ब (p. 55) -ka


p069c2-b22/ p055-077

कुटुम्बिन्् [ kutumb-in ]
- m. householder, paterfamilias; member of a family; domestic; du. householder and his wife: -, f. mistress of the house; female domestic.
77) कुटुम्बिन्् (p. 55) kutumb-in


p069c2-b23/ not online

कुट्ट [kutt ] , x. p.
Skt: कुट्ट [kutt ] , x. p. kuttaya , crush, bruise, vi. lacerate - Mac069c2
Skt: कुट्टयति { कुट्ट् } kuṭṭayati { kuṭṭ } - verb10  to grind or pound, abuse, paw, fill, strike slightly, crush, multiply, bruise, censure - SpkSkt

UKT 140323: Macdonell gives in the meanings the English word <lacerate>. Look into my note on Laceration vs. puncture wound.

IPal: {kuṭṭa} - n. a wall, fence, enclosure. - UPMT-PED075
BPal: {koaT~Ta.} - UHS-PMD0325
  UKT from UHS: m. powder


p069c2-b24/ p055-076

कुट्््ट kutta, ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. crushing or grinding with (--).
76) कुट्््ट (p. 55) -ka


p069c2-b25/ p055-062

कुट्््टन [ kutt-ana ]
- n. stamping; , f. procuress.
62) कुट्््टन (p. 55) kutt-ana


p069c2-b26/ p055-061

कुट्््टार [ kutt-ra ]
- a. tearing, lacerating (--); m. brawler.
61) कुट्््टार (p. 55) kutt-ra


p069c2-b27/ p055-060 

कुट्््टिनी [ kutt-in ]
- f. procuress: -kapata, m. N. of a rogue.
60) कुट्््टिनी (p. 55) kutt-in


p069c2-b28/ p055-111

कुट्््टिम [ kutt-ima ]
- n. levelled floor.
111) कुट्््टिम (p. 55) kutt-ima

( p069c2-end)

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UKT 140310: CAUTION : We have a look alike in Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan :  {koaT~Hta.} which is a conjunct) = .

p069c3-b00/ p055-110

कुठार kuthâra, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. axe; i-k, f. small axe; i-ka, m. wood-cutter.
110) कुठार (p. 55) -ka

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p069c3-b01/not online

कुड् [kud ]
- kund , encircle


p069c3-b02/ p055-109

कुडव [ kuda-va ]
- m. a measure and weight (=1/4 prastha).
109) कुडव (p. 55) kuda-va (=1/4 prastha).

UKT 151106: According to Inscriptions of Ancient Nepal, by D.R. Regmi, Abhinav Publish. 1983, New Delhi, "prastha" is a measure of grain. According to
- http://www.oocities.org/reldictionary/dictionary/page-M/measure-weight.htm 151106
  4 kudav = 1 prasth = 12 double handfuls
See my note on Units of Measurement
See downloaded paper on Ancient and Medieval Nepal, by D R Regmi, 1952 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF
- DRRegmi-AnciMedNepal<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190114)

p069c3-b03/ p055-108

कुड्मल [ kud-mala ]
- a. budding; m. n. bud; n. kind of hell: -t, f. closure (of bud or eye); i-ta, pp. covered with buds; closed like a bud.
108) कुड्मल (p. 55) kud-mala


p069c3-b04/ p055-107

कुड्य [ kud-ya ]
- n. wall; , f. id.
107) कुड्य (p. 55) kud-ya

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कुणप [ knapa ]
- n. corpse; carcase, carrion; a. (pa) decomposing, stinking like carrion.
106) कुणप (p. 55) knapa



कुणारु [ kn-ru ]
- a. paralysed in the arm.
105) कुणारु (p. 55) kn-ru



  कुणि [ kun-i ]
- a. id.: -tva, n. paralysis.
104) कुणि (p. 55) kun-i


p069c3-b08/ not online

[kunth ]
- pp. -ita , blunted, blunt; relaxed, jaded; ineffectual; dull. vi , pp. blunted



कुण्ठ [ kunth-a ]
- a. blunt; relaxed; dulled: -t, f. absence of feeling (in a limb); -tva, n. dulness, obtuseness; -a‿asma-ml-maya, a. consisting of a series of blunt stones; --kri, blunt; --bh, prove ineffectual.
103) कुण्ठ (p. 55) kunth-a


p069c3-b10/ not online

  कुण्ड [ kund-a ]
- n., , f. pitcher, jar, pot; scuttle; round cavity in the ground, round fire-pit; m. bastard of an adulteress; -ka, m. n. jar, pot, pitcher.

UKT 170315: The gloss "m. bastard of an adulteress" for कुण्ड kuṇḍa is interesting. Below, you'll see कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī "n. coiled one, Hindu Dharma primal energy aka Shakti ". Since कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī is said to have the power to give you 'intense pleasure' similar to "intense sexual satisfaction" as a woman of loose character "adulteress" or prostitute could, are we to understand that Shakti has been compared to an adulteress?



कुण्डल [ kunda-la ]
- n. ring, esp. earring; -lin, a. wearing earrings; coiled; m. snake; -kri, make into a ring, coil.
101) कुण्डल (p. 55) kunda-la


कुण्डलिनी kuṇḍalinī
- n. coiled one, Hindu Dharma primal energy aka Shakti said to be located at the base of the spine.
  - UKT 170315: from Google Search

UKT 170315: I remember one meditation master (forgotten name) reminding me not to concentrate my mind on any point of the body below the navel. Theravada Buddhist meditation recommends only to concentrate on the feeling of touch of incoming and outgoing breath on the tip of the nostrils. This is Thamadi-concentration which done in excess can lead you astray - enjoying pleasures of mental powers. The aim is Nibbana or cessation of all Attachments - the opposite of the Hindu goal of wakening the Kundalini or primal energies. I've been warned by my meditation teacher, U Winiya from SunLunVipassana group, to stop improving Thamadi-practice, and do only Wipassana-observation 'close examination of reality including my body-functions'. 
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundalini 170315



कुण्डाशिन्् [ kunda‿sin ]
- a. eating the food given by a kunda (bastard of an adulteress).
100) कुण्डाशिन्् (p. 55) kundsin

UKT 171223: A mother's sin should not be a smear on her son. The son of Amrapali - the courtesan - Vimala Kondanna by name became a Buddhist monk and a renowned elder. If only he had been a layman, what harm is there in eating food given by the kunda? See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amrapali 171223



कुण्डिका [ kund-ik ]
- f. pot.
99) कुण्डिका (p. 55) kund-ik


p069c3-b14/ not online

[kund-ina ]
- n. N. of the capital of Vidarbha

UKT: See my note on Vidarbha : Marathi: विदर्भ  {wi.dar~Ba.}



कुण्डोघ्नी [ kunda‿dhn ]
- a. f. hvg. a jar-shaped udder.
98) कुण्डोघ्नी (p. 55) kunda̮dhn

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कुतनय [ ku-tanaya ]
- m. bad son.
97) कुतनय (p. 55) ku-tanaya



कुतप [ ku-tapa ]
- m. n. goat's hair blanket.
96) कुतप (p. 55) ku-tapa



कुतपस्विन्् [ ku-tapasvin ]
- m. bad ascetic; -tarka, m. bad dialectics, sophistry.
95) कुतपस्विन्् (p. 55) ku-tapasvin

dialectic - n. Abbr. dial. . The art or practice of arriving at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments. . a. The process especially associated with Hegel of arriving at the truth by stating a thesis, developing a contradictory antithesis, and combining and resolving them into a coherent synthesis. b. Hegel's critical method for the investigation of this process. . a. Often dialectics used with a sing. or pl. verb The Marxian process of change through the conflict of opposing forces, whereby a given contradiction is characterized by a primary and a secondary aspect, the secondary succumbing to the primary, which is then transformed into an aspect of a new contradiction. b. The Marxian critique of this process. 4. dialectics used with a sing. verb A method of argument or exposition that systematically weighs contradictory facts or ideas with a view to the resolution of their real or apparent contradictions. 5. The contradiction between two conflicting forces viewed as the determining factor in their continuing interaction. -- AHTD



कुतस्् [ k-tas ]
- ad. =ab. of ka, from which? from whom? whence? sts. whither? why? often in drama before a couplet confirming a previous remark =for; how? how much less, to say nothing of; kutoxpi, (late) from some; kutas kid, id.; from somewhere: na-- , from nowhere; na kutas-kana, id.; in no direction.
94) कुतस्् (p. 55) k-tas



कुतस्त्य [ kutas-tya ]
- a. coming from whence? with api, of unknown origin.
93) कुतस्त्य (p. 55) kutas-tya



कुतापस [ ku-tpasa ]
- m., , f. bad ascetic.
124) कुतापस (p. 55) ku-tpasa



कुतुक [ ku-tu-ka ]
- n. [regard to the whence], curiosity; interest; eagerness for (--).
123) कुतुक (p. 55) ku-tu-ka



कुतूहल [ kut-hala ] = क ु त ू ह ल --> {ku.tu-ha.la.}
- n. [cry of whence], id.; pleasure, delight in (prati, lc. or --); curious, interesting, or amusing object: in. eagerly, zealously: -krit, a. exciting curiosity, curious; -vat, a. inquisitive; interested; eager.
122) कुतूहल (p. 55) kut-hala

कुतूहल [kut-hala]
Skt: - n. [cry of whence], id.; pleasure, delight in (prati, lc. or --); curious, interesting, or amusing object: in. eagerly, zealously: -- Mac069c3
BPal: {ku.tu-ha.la.} - UHS-PMD0326
  UKT from UHS: n. tumultuous happening



कुतूहलिन्् [ kuthal-in ]
- a. curious; interested.
121) कुतूहलिन्् (p. 55) kuthal-in



कुत्र [ k-tra (-tr) ]
- ad. = lc. of ka, in what? where? whither? what for? --‿api, (late) somewhere; --kid, =lc. in some--; somewhere: with neg. nowhere (also of direction); kutra-kid - kutra-kid, in one case -in the other, sometimes-sometimes.
120) कुत्र (p. 55) k-tra (-tr)



कुत्रत्य [ kutra-tya ]
- a. dwelling or coming from where?
119) कुत्रत्य (p. 55) kutra-tya



कुत्स [ kts-a ]
- m. N. of various men; -ana, n. reviling, abuse; contempt; term of abuse; -aya, den. P. [ask as to the whence: kut(a)s ] abuse, blame; contemn: pp. -ita, contemptible; blameworthy; -, f. abuse, blame: in. contemptuously; -ya, fp. blameworthy.
118) कुत्स (p. 55) kts-a

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UKT notes

Checking the peak vowel with coda consonant
- back close-vowel /ku/ with /k/ killed-consonant of the same kind

UKT 140325, 171222:


As the first step into the study of coda consonants having an influence on the nuclear vowel, we have to consider syllables formed with 4 corner vowels of the vowel quadrilateral:

front: {a.} /a/, {i.} /i/ 
back: {u.} /u/, {au:} /ɑ/ : with possibility some lip-rounding

UKT 190114: Bur-Myan usually ends {au:} /ɑ/ with emphasis. However, for checking it must be considered to be a short vowel (with duration of one eye-blink) like the rest of the corner vowels. However, this corner-vowel could very well be {ou} which is not present in Bur-Myan.

We have already seen how these corner vowels as free vowels have been checked. Now we are in the process of looking at them as bound vowels in:

front:  {ka.}, {ki.} 
back: {ku.}, {kou} 

We are now at {ku.} which can be pronounced with a slight lip-rounding. However we must remember that with full lip-rounding the pronunciation changes to {kwu.} & {kwou} which are not realized in spoken Bur-Myan.

Myanmar akshara is like IPA, and it can be used to transcribe many sounds. However, the speakers of Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur language group) uses only some, whereas other speakers such as Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi group) uses others which I think is the result of using different sets of vocal muscles. The only way to teach speakers of one language to speak another language is to let them listen to authentic sounds, and let the ears of the listeners train their own muscles.

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Common expressions for measure

- UKT 140307, 170304, 171222:

"Eight handfuls" were a common expression for "some" measure. "Eight" need not be number 8. See it being used in the excerpt below from : The Life of Buddha, (original title: La Vie du Bouddha ), by Ferdinand Hrold, tr. by Paul C Blum (1922), at sacred-texts.com.
- AFHerold-LifeOfBuddha<> / Bkp<> (180419)
on Ch 18, p049:

He approached the tree. On the side of the road, he saw Svastika, the reaper.

"They are tender, these grasses you are mowing, Svastika. Give me some grass; I want to cover the seat I shall occupy when I attain supreme knowledge. They are green, these grasses you are mowing, Svastika. Give
me some grass, and you will know the law some day, for I shall teach it to you, and you may teach it to others."

The reaper gave the Saint eight handfuls of grass.

"There stood the tree of knowledge. The hero went to the east of it and bowed seven times. He threw the handfuls of grass on the ground, and, suddenly, a great seat appeared. The soft grass covered it like a carpet."

There stood the tree of knowledge. The hero went to the east of it and bowed seven times. He threw the handfuls of grass on the ground, and, suddenly, a great seat appeared. The soft grass covered it like a carpet.

In Bur-Myan, if we want to express a measure of for untold problems, we would say: "Problems amounting to 16,000". We do not actually count the number 16,000.

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Laceration vs puncture wound

- UKT 140323 

Always be careful of dictionary meanings. An English word can have more than one meaning, only one of which may be applicable to Sanskrit. Here we have <laceration> as an example. The word has two meanings.

From: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19616.htm 140323

A laceration is a wound that is produced by the tearing of soft body tissue. This type of wound is often irregular and jagged. A laceration wound is often contaminated with bacteria and debris from whatever object caused the cut.

A puncture wound is usually caused by a sharp pointy object such as a nail, animal teeth, or a tack. This type of wound usually does not bleed excessively and can appear to close up. Puncture wounds are also prone to infection and should be treated appropriately.

UKT 140323: Open sores oozing pus from lacerations giving out an unmistakable odour is a condition of advanced leprosy. With this little note I remember Dr. U Tha Saing, chief Leprosy officer of Union of Burma after Independence. Dr. U Tha Saing was one of my father U Tun Pe's personal friends. Dr. U Tha Saing was a dedicated doctor, and had  examined countless patients (without medical gloves which were very expensive) at Satthadaw clinic north of Rangoon on the Rangoon-Prome road. My father as the head of the Epidemic Mobile Team had to visit the clinic and the neighbouring village where the lepers had settled. My father and his team had to do the public health work and immunized the villagers many of whom were lepers. My father would never take me on his trips to Satthadaw.

While the power-hungry politicians in and out of the government were killing each other, and also the innocent civilians with arms, these unsung heroes like Dr. U Tha Saing had served their mother country well braving bullets and bayonets. Sad to say many medical personal (and others) lost their lives, or were maimed for life, while doing their duty to serve fellow countrymen. They also had to avoid, to the best of their ability, the ire of democratically elected government of U Nu which had issued specific orders to them not to give medicine or immunization against communicable diseases to the villagers living under insurgent control. Satthadaw was such a village only under government control in the day time, while from dusk to dawn the armed rebels had full control.

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Units of Measurement in Ayuvedic System

- UKT 170314:

The Buddhist king, Asoka, of Magadha Empire, after banning animal sacrifices promoted the ancient medicinal system of Aryuvda which in turn resulted in promoting the study of medicinal plants. At present I have no intention of going into the system, but for those interested in the subject, you will need to know the units of measurement. Being a chemist, I still need to know how good were the ancients in instruments, for without a good chemical balance small units of measurement are useless.

My judgment is based on my experience of repairing and setting up chemical balances of different kinds imported from UK, US and Soviet Union, at Rangoon and Mandalay universities. In Mandalay, I had the experience of repairing the most sensitive analytical balance of the period - a balance that can measure up to 4th decimal place. Common analytical balances of that period could measure up to 3rd decimal place. Common laboratory balances, known as technical balances measure up to 2nd decimal place. The inset pix from Wikipedia has pneumatic dampers. For balances without dampers we have to rely on the amount of swings of the pointer.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_balance 170314

Setting up a balance for research work can last a couple of hours. Laboratories in the US (in which I had worked) and other advanced countries have their balances set up and certified by specially trained persons sent by the company which make the balances. In Myanmarpr, we have to do it ourselves.

Ratti is the commonly used unit for expressing the weights of diamonds and other precious jewelry stones in Myanmarpr, and so I can rely on 1 RATTI = 125 mg. Weight expressions lower than RATTI are just figments of imagination. In Myanmarpr, the unit of weight measurement is Kyat . 1 kyat-weight = 16.3293 gram (based on MLC MED2006 append ii).

Weight measurement in the most ancient times, those of the Harappan civilization, 2600 - 1900 BCE., seems to be highly developed. Basic unit the weight is about 13.65 grams.
See Harappan Units of Weights - https://sizes.com/units/harappan_weights.htm 170315

See also Ancient Indian Weights by E. Thomas, 1874
downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EThomas-AnciIndianWeights<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)

From Ayur Times: https://www.ayurtimes.com/ayurvedic-measurements/ 170314

Ayurvedic Metric Units (Classical Units) :
  UKT 170315: Devanagari spellings from E. Thomas.

1 PARAMANU = 0.0016 mg; 1 DHAVANSHI (VANSI & TRASRENU) = 0.05 mg;
1 MARICHI = 0.32 mg; 1 LAL SARSHAP = 1.95 mg
1 TUNDAL = 15.62 mg; 1 DHANYAMASH = 31.25 mg

1 YAVA यव yava = 62.5 mg
1 RATTI रति rati = 125 mg

1 ANDIKA = 250 mg; 1 MASHAK (MASA) = 1 gram
1 SHAAN = 3 grams; 1 KOL = 6 grams
1 TOLA = 12 grams; 1 KARSHA  (1 KARSA) = 12 grams
1 SHUKTI = 24 grams; 1 PAL (1 PALAM) = 48 grams
1 CHHATANK = 60 grams; 1 PRASRTIS (1 PRASRTI) = 96 grams
1 CHHATAAK (CHHATAK) = 186 grams; 1 KUDAV (1 KUDAVAS) = 192 grams कुडव
1 MANIKA (MAANIKA) = 384 grams; 1 PRASTHA (PRASTH) = 768 grams
1 SER (SERA or SEER) = 960 grams; 1 ADHAKA (AADAK) = 3 Kg 73 grams
1 TULA = 4 Kg 800 grams; 1 DRONA (DRON) = 12 Kg 228 grams
1 SURPA (SHOORP) = 24 Kg 576 grams; 1 DRONI = 49 Kg 152 grams
1 BHARA = 96 Kg; 1 KHARI = 196 Kg 608 grams

Accepted measurements are given according to CHARAKA SAMHITA based on TOLA equivalent to 12 grams. There are slight differences in SARNGADHARA SAMHITA and other classical texts.


Measurement of Time in Ayurveda

Ayurvedic Metric Units (Classical Units) Modern Metric Equivalent
1 KSANA 0.38 seconds
1 LAVA 0.77 seconds
1 NIMESHA 1.55 seconds
1 KASTHA 4.66 seconds
1 KALA 2 minutes 20 seconds
1 GHATI 24 minutes
1 MUHURTA 48 minutes
1 AHORATRA 24 hours
1 PAKSA 15 days
1 MASA 30 days (1 month)
1 RITU 60 days (2 months)
1 AYANA 6 months
1 SAMVATSARA 12 months (1 year)
1 YUGA 5 years

Linear Measurement

Ayurvedic Metric Units (Classical Units) Modern Metric Equivalent
1 YAVODARA 2.4 millimeter
1 ANGULA 1.95 cm
1 BITAHASTI 22.86 cm
1 ARATNI 41.91 cm
1 HASTA 45.72 cm
1 VYAMA 182.88 cm

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- UKT 140308

My interest in Vidarbha is because of its language connection to Naga नग naga and Pur पुर pura 'town'. The combined word can mean the "City of Nagas". An unusual geological feature is the almost round Lonar crater-lake which is now believed to be not of volcanic origin but of impact of an meteorite about 52,000 6,000 years (Pleistocene). A new estimate has put the date much further to 570,000 47,000 years.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidarbha 140308

Vidarbha (Marathi: विदर्भ {wi.dar~Ba.} is the eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, comprising Nagpur Division and Amravati Division. Its former name is Berar (Varhad in Marathi). [2] [3]

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagas_of_Padmavati 171223

Naga Dynasty (or Nagas of Padmavati) (210 340 CE) was an ancient royal family of Central India that ruled Vidisha, Padmavati, Kantipur and Mathura. [1] The Naga kings are best known for their coins. [2] Several thousands of them have been found. [3]

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padmavati 171223
and : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padmavati_Pawaya 171223

Padmavati Pawaya, a celebrated ancient city mentioned in Sanskrit classics and inscriptions.

Malatimadhavam of Bhavabhuti [1]], Harshacharita of Bana, [2] and Sarasvatīkaṇṭhabharaṇ a of Raja Bhoja. Bhavabhuti describes the city with tall mansions and temples with shikharas and gates, located between Para and the Sindhu rivers. ... It is also mentioned in inscriptions like the Kokkala Grahapati inscription of Khajuraho. [3] The inscription mentions that the city had rows of tall mansions. The dust used to arise because of running of strong horses. [4]

UKT 180419: The following on the ancient city of Padmavati, is an interesting article
http://silentpagesindia.blogspot.com/2015/04/visit-to-lost-ancient-city-of-padmavati.html#!/2015/04/ visit-to-lost-ancient-city-of-padmavati.html 180419

Padmavati may not be a familiar name today, but, to the Indologist, the very name serves as a reminder of the glory of the ancient Nagas who had flourished in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. [UKT]

Padmavati was their magnificent capital city wherefrom they succeeded in the creation of a stable empire which included areas from Mathura in Uttar Pradesh to Ujjain and Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh. The Naga power grew after the fall of the Kushanas who earlier ruled from Mathura. Historians like K.P. Jaiswal credit the Nagas as being one of the first dynasties to raise the banner of independence against the Kushana rulers who had foreign origins. [UKT ]

Kushans of Mathura -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire 180419
"The Kushan Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν ; ... Skt: कुषाण साम्राज्य kuṣāṇa kamrajya; BHS: guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; ... [8] was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of Afghanistan, [9] present-day Pakistan and then the northern parts of India at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great. [10] Kanishka was a great patron of [Mahayana] Buddhism; however, as Kushans expanded southward toward the Indian subcontinent the deities of their later coinage came to reflect its new Hindu majority. [11] [12] "

It was due to their efforts along with that of other Indian dynasties of the time that a phase of Hindu revivalism was initiated, which continued and strengthened during the rule of the Imperial Guptas.

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