Update: 2017-03-02 08:44 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.} : contd
{ka-Sa.} : Dental

{ki.} / {kin} : The problem of paucity of nasals in IE
  p068c2 : -------- is solved by the introduction of a universal stand-in {kin}.

? / {kan} :
{kin-sa.}/ {kai}

{ki.ta.} / {kait}




UKT 170227: Paucity of nasals in IE - Eng-Lat & Skt-Dev - has necessitate the introduction of a sort of universal stand-in {kin}. It is allowed by Shin Kicsi: - the Buddhist grammarian praised by Gautama Buddha.
See in {kan} & {kai} .


UKT notes :
Arundo karka
 Dot-above problem or {::tn}
Kirata : Himalayas race


Contents of this page

{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}



काव्य [ . kvya ]
- m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem; -kartri, m. poet; -goshth, f. discussion on poetry; -gva-ga, m. Venus, Jupiter, and Mercury, or a. understanding the purport of a poem; -t, f., -tva, n. condition of a poem; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -praksa, m. Light of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Mammata and Alata (11th or 12th century); -mmmsaka, m. rhetorician; -rasa, m. flavour of poetry; -sstra, n. poetry and learning (--); treatise on poetry; Poetics: T. of a work.

काव्य [ . kvya ]
Skt: काव्य [ . kvya ]  - m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem - Mac068c1
Pal: {ka.bya.} - UHS PMD0293
  UKT from UHS: n. poetry . m. Planet Venus



काव्यादर्श [ kvya‿darsa ]
- m. Mirror of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Dandin (6th century AD.); -‿alamkra, m. Ornament of poetry: T. of a work by Vmana (9th century): -stra, n. pl. Vmana's Stras, -vritti, f. his commentary on them.

Contents of this page



[ks ]
- i. . (p.) be visible, appear; shine; pp. -ita , shining, bright; intr. kkas , shine brightly. nis , cs. show; turn or drive out, pra , appear, become manifest; shine; cs. make visible, show, display; announce; illumine. vi , intv. illuminate.



काश [ ks-a ]
--> Skt: {ka-sha.} = {ka-a.}
Skt: काश [ks-a ] - m. kind of shining white grass. - Mac068c1
Pal: {ka-a.}
- UHS-PMD0314
  UKT from UHS: . m. {ak-k-kri:} - kind of grass used for roofing, {hpan:hka:mrak}. . m. a disease accompanied by coughing

UKT 140318: Botanical names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept., 2000 gives {ak-k-kri:} gives: #59-1576 - {ak-k-kri:} - Themeda bilosa , fam. Gramineae
My reference above does not list {hpan:hka:mrak}



काशि [ ks- ]
--> Skt: {ka-shi.} = Pal: {ka-i.}
- m. closed hand or fist; handful: pl. N. of a people; f. i or , Benares {ba-ra-Na.i.}: i-ka, a. coming from Ksi or Benares: , f. Benares; T. of a commentary (probably 7th century AD.) on Pnini by Vmana and Gayditya (sc. vritti); -in, a. having the appearance of (--); i-pti, m. lord of the Ksis; -pur, f. city of Benares.

काशि [ks- ]
--> {ka-shi.  }
Skt: काशि [ks- ] - m. closed hand or fist; handful: pl. N. of a people; -- Mac068c1
BHS: kāśi (see also kāśi-skṣma ), ... ... some large number) , . some valuable textile product of Benares, fine cotton cloth (?) [UKT: I would interpret as "linen" produced from fibres of leaves of Kasi grass which is soft and silky] ... ... . a. thousand pieces (of money) [UKT: gold or silver coins] ... ... -- FE-BHS181
Pal: {ka-i.}
- - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: m. country of {ka-i.}, one thousand (UKT: probably pieces of silver or gold).



काश्मल्य [ ksmal-ya ]
- n. despondency, despair.



काश्मीर [ ksmra ]
- a. () belonging to Kasmra; m. king of Kasmra: pl. N. of a people and a country; n. saffron: -ka, a. belonging to Cashmere; i-k, f. princess of Cashmere; -ga, n. saffron.



= ksmraka



काश्य [ ksya ]
- m. king of the Ksis; , f. princess of the Ksis.



काश्यप [ ksyapa ]
- a. () belonging to Kasyapa; m. pat. descendant of Kasyapa.

Contents of this page


UKT 151105: Dental {Sa.}/ {S} is different from Palatal {sa.}/ {c}.
Palatal {sa.}/ {c} is present in Burmese, but Dental {Sa.}/ {S} is absent, but we need it in BEPS and for transcription of English into Burmese.


काष [ ksha ]
- m. rubbing (--).



काषाय [ kshya ]
- a. brownish red; n. brown red garment; , f. kind of bee or wasp.



काष्ठ [ kshth ]
= क ा ष ् ठ
- n. (piece of) wood, log; a measure of length; a measure of capacity; -kutta, m. kind of woodpecker; -kta, m. id.; -bhrika, m. carrier of wood; -maya, a. () made of wood; -raggu, f. rope for tying wood together; -loshta-maya, a. made of wood or clay; -stambha, m. beam.



काष्ठा [ kshth ]
- f. race-course, celestial course (of wind and cloud); quarter; goal, boundary; summit; height, maximum; a measure of time.



काष्ठिक [ kshth-ika ]
- m. wood-carrier.

Contents of this page



- i. . cough



कास [ . ks-a ]
- m. going, moving.



  कास [ . ks- ]
- m., , f. cough; -vat, a. coughing.



कासार [ ksra ]
- m. pond, lake.



कासिका [ ks-ik ]
- f. (slight) cough; -in, a. coughing.

Contents of this page



काहल [ khala ]
- a. indecent; excessive; dry; m. large drum; , f. kind of wind instrument.



काल्हार [ khlra ]
- a. derived from the white water-lily.

( end of old p068-1.htm )

Contents of this page

{ki.} / {kin}


कि [ . ki ]
- inter. prn. st. in kim, kiyat, kdris, &c.



कि [ . k-i ]
- suffix i in pap-i, &c. (gr.).


Contents of this page


{kin}/ {kaing} ?

UKT 140304: I am wondering if is {ki.} checked by {ng}. Or, something else such as being checked by {}. See below the discussion on {::ti} or Dot-above problem



किंयु [ kim-y ]
- a. desiring what? -rpa, a. of what form or appearance? -vadanta, m. N. of a demon: , f. report; saying, proverb; -varna, a. of what colour? -vishaya-ka, a. relating to what? -vritta, pp. surprised at what has happened, incautious; -vypra, a. occupied with what?



किंशुक [ kim-suka ]
- m. a tree; n. its (scentless red) blossom; -sakhi, m. bad friend; -suhrid, m. id.; -hetu, a. caused by what?



किक्नस [ kiknasa ]
- m. particles of bruised grain.

Contents of this page



किंकर [ kim-kar ]
- m. servant, slave: -tva, n. servitude; , f. female servant or slave; -kartavya-t, f. perplexity as to what is to be done next; -krya-t, f. id.

Contents of this page

? / {kan}


किङ्किणी kinkin-i
= क ि ङ ् क ि ण ी --> {kan-ki.Ni}
- f. small bell; -ik, f. id.; -ik-in, a. adorned with small bells.

कङ्कणीका kaṅkaṇīkā
= क ङ ् क ण ी क ा
Skt: कङ्कणीका kaṅkaṇīkā - f. ornament furnished with bells, string tied round the wrist -- SpkSkt
Pal: {kan~ki.Ni.ka}
- - UHS-PMD0316
  UKT from UHS: f. Hkyu-bells, Hsi-l bells

UKT 140319: The two kinds of small bells work on different principles, and are not the same.
Hkyu-bell is a round small bell with a freely moveable brass pellet or even a pebble inside.
Hsi-l bell is a small bell on pagoda-umbrella which act as wind-chimes. The bell has open bottom, and the striker is a small brass pellet suspended in the bell-body. The striker is attached to a sail below which moves with the wind making the striker strike the inside of the bell.



किङ्किणी [ kiṅ-kin- ]
- f. small bell; -ik, f. id.; -ik-in, a. adorned with small bells.

Contents of this page


{kin-sa.} / {kai}

किंचन  kaṅcana
Pal: {kai~sa.na.}
- - UHS-PMD0317
  UKT from UHS: n. something, anxiety



किंचन्य [ kimkan-ya ]
- n. property.



किंचित्क [ kimkit-ka ]
- indef. prn. with preceding ya, any, every; -kara, a. significant; (n)-mtra, n. a little bit.



- stamina (esp. of lotus); -in , a. furnished with stamina


Contents of this page



किटि [kit i ]
--> {ki.Ti.}
Skt: किटि [kit i ] - m. wild boar. -- Mac068c2
Skt: किटि kiṭi - m. sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas - Bot.], hog -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ki.Ti.]
- - UHS-PMD0317
  UKT from UHS: m. pig

UKT 140304: We have three words here, boar, hog, and pig, all referring to the genus Sus.
" A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig 140304
"A boar is an uncastrated male pig. It doesn't have to be a wild pig. A female pig is a sow. Rhymes with that other farmyard female, the cow. In North America, a hog is any sort of pig. In other parts of the world, hog may mean a large, castrated pig." -- http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=871703 140304
"Pig = a general term for any species/gender/castration status of swine. Hog = not really used in NZ. Boar = I guess a male pig, but also strong connotations of "wild boar"/"wild pig". I'm not sure what a female wild pig is called??
-- http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=871703 140304

UKT 140319: Seeing "sweet potato" and "Hog" given together has brought to my mind the question: What did Buddha ate that caused his death? Pork, truffle, or mushroom - not sweet potato. In Pali it is "Sukaramaddava" and various translators translate it as pork, truffle, or mushroom.



किट््ट [ kitta ]
- n. secretion.



किण [ kina ]
- m. callosity; scar.


BHS:  kiṇīkṛta - ppp. (Skt: kiṇa plus kṛ- ), made callous, hardened, in fig. sense, of mentality (as in Eng. hard or callous: ... - FE-BHS183c1




किण्व [ kinva ]
- n. yeast; ferment (used in making spirit).

UKT 140305: The English word <spirit> used by Macdonell is very misleading. The word used should be <alcohol> or even better <ethanol>. The chemical process involved is "fermentation" of sugars into ethanol.


Contents of this page



Contents of this page


Bur: {kait} -  UTM-PDMD018c2



कित्् [ k-it ]
- a. having k as its it (gr.).



  कितव [ kitav ]
- m., , f. gamester; cheat, rogue.



किद्वत्् [ kid-vat ]
- ad. like a kit (gr.).

Contents of this page

{ki.na.} / {kain}


किन्् [ k-i-n ]
- a primary suffix i (gr.).



किन्दुबिल्व kindu-bilva, ˚विल्ल [ -villa ]
- N. of a race or of the birthplace of Gayadeva.



किंनर [ kim-nara ]
- m. fabulous being (half man half animal) in the service of Kubera Skt: कुबेर ; N. of various persons; -nmaka (ik), -nmadheya, -nman, a. having what name? -nimitta, a. occasioned by what? -m, why?



किम् [km]
Skt: किम् [km] - (nm, ac. n. of ka) what? why? often simple inter. pcl. not to be translated = num, an ); often used with other pcls.: -aṅg , why, pray? how much more? ...



किम् [km]
Skt: किम् [km] - (nm, ac. n. of ka) what? why? often simple inter. pcl. not to be translated = num, an ); often used with other pcls.: - Mac068c2

Skt: किम् kim - indecl. what? - SpkSkt 
  अथ किम् ? atha kim expr. Then? sent. Of course! What else? (rhetorical expression)
  न किमपि na kimapi indecl. nothing, not at all 



किमधिकरण [ kim-adhikarana ]
- a. directed to what? -abhidhna, a. how named? -artha, a. having what purpose? -m, ad. for what purpose? wherefore? -khya, a. how named? -dhra, a. relating to what?

Contents of this page



- m. kind of demon



किमीय [ kim-ya ]
- a. belonging to whom or what place?

Contents of this page



किंपरिवार [ kim-parivra ]
- a. having what retinue? - prusha (or ), m. kind of elf, dwarf (attendants of Kubera); -prabhva, a. how mighty? -prabhu, m. bad lord; -phala, a. producing what fruit? -bala, a. how strong? -bhta, pp. being what? having what attribute (in commentaries w. reference to nouns)? -bhritya, m. bad servant; -mya, a. consisting of what? -mtra, a. of what extent?

( end of old p068-2.htm )

Contents of this page



कियच्चिरम्् [ kiyak-kiram ]
- ac. ad. how long? -kirena, in. ad. how soon?



कियत्् [ k-yat ]
- a. how great? how far? how long? how various? of what kind? of what value? kyat, ad. how far? how much? wherefore? = uselessly; indef. prn. a. small, little, some; n. ad. a little, somewhat; with following ka & preceding yvat, however great; of what ever kind; with api, however great; kyati‿, (lc. with prp. ) since how long?



कियद्दूर [ kiyad-dra ]
- n. some distance: -m, lc., --, not far, a short way.



कियन्मात्र [ kiyan-mtra ]
- a. of little importance; n. trifle.



- n. an aquatic plant


Contents of this page


UKT 140319: I suspect the pronunciation is /kiːr/ (note IPA triangular column following the long vowel). If so there might be a lengthening of vowel to {kiir}. Need to check carefully.


किर्् [. kir ]
- kirti &c., v  कृ kri , scatter 



किर्् [ . kir ]
- a. scattering, pouring out (--).



किरण [ kir-na ]
- m. dust; mote; ray.



किराट [ kirta ]
- m. merchant.



किरात [ krta ]
--> {ki.ra-ta.}
- m. pl. N. of a barbarous mountain tribe of hunters; sg. man or king of the Kirtas: , f. Kirta woman; -‿argunya, n. Arguna's combat with Siva disguised as a Kirta: T. of a poem by Bhravi (6th cent. A.D.).

किरात [krta]
Skt: किरात [krta] - m. pl. N. of a barbarous mountain tribe of hunters; sg. man or king of the Kirtas: -- Mac068-b12
Pal: {ki.ra-ta.} - UHS-PMD0319
  UKT from UHS: m. wild tribe, a medicinal plant known as Shan Bitter {rhm:hs:hka:}

See my note on Kirata - the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmar.

UKT 140320: Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept., Govt. of Union of Myanmar gives: -- Agri2000-indx.htm
entry 20-0520 - {hs:hkha:kri:} - King of bitters - Andrographis paniculata - fam. Acanthaceae
entry 52-1391 {rhm:hs:hka:kri:} - Grewia humilis  fam. Tiliaceae 



किरीट [ kirt-a ]
- n. diadem; m. merchant; -in, a. adorned with a diadem; m. epithet of Indra and of Arguna.



किर्मिर [ kirmi-r ]
- a. variegated; -ra, a., [ -rita, pp. id.

Contents of this page


UKT 140319: I suspect the pronunciation is /kiːl/ (note IPA triangular colon following the long vowel). If so there might be a lengthening of vowel to {kiil}. Need to check carefully.


किल [ . kla (V. sts. ) ]
- ad. quidem, indeed, certainly, it is true; that is to say, it is said or alleged; as is well known.

Roman-Latin: quidem 
1. indeed - Usage note: Do not confuse quidem with quidam. Sometimes emphasizes the word that comes before it. e.g. Magister quidem verba deponentia coniugationis primae imperavit, sed haec sunt mihi enigma.
  English translation by Google: "Deponent [Latin verb], and rebuked the union, the union of the first words which are indeed the Master , but these are to me, "


किल [ . kila ]
- a. playing.



किलञ्ज [ kilaga ]
= क ि ल ञ ् ज --> {ki.li~za.}
- m. mat.



किलास [ kils-a ]
- a. leprous; n. leprosy; -in, a. leprous.



किलिञ्ज [ kiliga ]
- m. mat.



किल्बिष [ kilbish-a ]
- n. transgression, guilt, sin; injustice, injury: -sprit, a. removing or avoiding sin; -in, a. guilty, sinful; m. sinner.

Contents of this page



किशोर [ kisor ]
- m. foal; young of an animal; -ka, m. id.

Contents of this page



किष्किन्ध [ kishkindha ]
- m. N. of a mountain; , f. N. of a cave.



किष्कु [ kishku ]
- m. fore-arm; handle (of an axe).

Contents of this page



किस् [ks ]
- inter. pcl.



किसलय [ kisalaya ]
- n. bud, shoot, sprout; den. P. cause to sprout; arouse: pp. i-ta, sprouted; having young shoots.

( end of old p068-3.htm )

Contents of this page




[kkata ]
- m. pl. N. of a non-Aryan people

See my note on Kikata - the non-Aryans



कीकस [ kkasa ]
- m. spine; n. bone.


Contents of this page



कीचक [ kkaka ]
- m. kind of bamboo; m. a general of Virta, vanquished by Bhmasena: pl. N. of a people.
  - Mac068c3
Pal: {ki-sa.ka.} - UHS PMD0321
  UKT from UHS: m. a kind of bamboo with hollow stem which produces sound when the wind blows over it. Arundo karka 


Contents of this page



कीट [ kta ]
- m. insect; worm; worm of a --, = wretched (--); -ka, m., i-k, f. id.; -ga, n. silk; -mani, m. fire-fly.

कीट kīṭa
Skt: - m. insect; worm; worm of a --, = wretched (--); -- Mac068c3
Skt: कीट kīṭa - n. feces -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka.ri-a.} - UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: . a small area for rice cultivation . . spent food, feces, dried cow-dung


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Arundo karka

- UKT 151105, 170302 :

Back in 2015, when I was looking for A. karda in Wikipedia, I found only the French version. Now in 2017, when I look for it again, I came to be aware that I must look for the genus Phragmites .

From Wikipedia: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites_karka 151105

Phragmites karka est une espce de roseau asiatique de la famille des Poaceae. Elle pousse dans les savanes humides d'Afrique, d'Asie et d'Australie.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites 170302

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species: [1]

1. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. cosmopolitan
2. Phragmites japonicus Steud. Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Russian Far East
3. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. tropical Africa, southern Asia, Australia, some Pacific Islands
4. Phragmites mauritianus Kunth central + southern Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius

Go back A-karka-note-b

Contents of this page

Dot-above or {::ting} problem

UKT 140304, 140319:

We have met the Dot-above or {::ting} problem for vowels long time ago. Now it is for consonants. Because Skt-Dev did not really have a /ŋ/ (velar), it had to borrow the grapheme from r3c3 , the retroflex:

   ड + dot --> ङ  

For pronunciation, Shin Kic'si {rhn kic~s:}, the celebrated Buddhist grammarian who preceded Panini, made an allowance and said it can be borrowed from {n} /ʌn/ (ending with dental-nasal) and represented it with a dot-above {n}. The sound {n} ends with an open mouth which the IE speakers could not articulate. So they borrowed from {m} /ʌm/ (which ends with bilabial-nasal with a closing mouth).

If so, {kin} is {kan}, which rhymes with {lang} 'lingam' or male sexual organ used for injecting sperm into female vagina. See MLC MED2006-451 for {lan}.

There is another nasal that cannot be fully represented by IE languages. It is /ɲ/ (palatal). on being checked by {} is another candidate for {kin} . e.g. Pal: {kai~sa.na.} given below. This example shows that Pal-Myan is not IE.

The third nasal that is beyond the representation by IE languages is /ɳ/ (retroflex). However, since it is close to /n/ (dental) , we do not have many problems.

At present all syllables, {n}, {i}, {N}, {n}, {m}, ending with nasal codas are represented with {n}.

The Dot-above problem is the first I encountered when I first studied Skt-Dev starting with vowels.
See: p001-1.htm (link chk 140304)

I intend to write a comprehensive note later after going through more consonants and then approximants. Among the approximants, we will meet another Bur-Myan phoneme known as Nya Gyi {a.} which is similar to {ya.} the velar-approximant in many ways. Though it is included in the cell r2c5 together with Nya Le {a.}. it is not a palatal plosive-stop. It is the palatal-approximant. We will have to compare {} & {} / {}.

Go back Dot-above-note-b

Contents of this page

Kikata - the non-Aryans

UKT 170302:

I cannot find who the Kikata people were. They seem to be the original inhabitants of Magadha. The ancient name of "Magadha" is said to be Kikata. Since the Kingdom of Tagaung founded by King Abiraza, in northern Myanmarpr was culturally linked to the Magadha region long before the time of Gautama Buddha, I wonder if the Kikata people had been related to the old inhabitants of Myanmarpr.

Go back Kikata-note-b

Contents of this page

Kirata - Himalayas race

UKT 140320

The Kirata are the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmarpr. See a video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Q_fJ-_OQVM 140320 - no longer available on 170301

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirata 140320

The Kirāta , किरात {ki.ra-ta.} is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India [UKT: Assam, Manipur, Tripura] and who are postulated to have been Mongoloid in origin. [1] [2] It has been theorized that the word Kirata- or Kirati- means people with lion nature. [3] It is derived from two words Kira (meaning Lion) and Ti (meaning people). [3] The reference of lion as well as them staying in the Himalayan Mountains may suggest their possible relation to the mythical lion-headed tribe called Kimpurusha.

Go back Kirata-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file