Update: 2019-02-17 10:37 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Note this page is the first page related to Univ Chicago p055.

{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.} : contd
{ka-Sa.} : Dental
{ka-a.} : √kās {kaa}, 'cough'. - Whit019
-----see p068c1-b17/ p055-025   कास [ . ks- ]

{ki.} / {kin} :
  p068c2 : --------

The problem of paucity of nasals in IE is solved by the introduction of a universal stand-in {kin}. See Nasal Endings in BEPS

? / {kan} : cf. pronunciation with {lan} 'gender'
{kin-sa.}/ {ka}

{ki.ta.} / {kait}




UKT 170227: Paucity of nasals in IE - Eng-Lat & Skt-Dev - has necessitate the introduction of a sort of universal stand-in {kin}. It is allowed by Shin Kicsi: - the Buddhist grammarian praised by Gautama Buddha.
See in {kan} & {ka} .


UKT notes :
Arundo karka
 Dot-above, Dot-below, & Double-dots : {::tn} & {auk-mric}
Kikata - non-Aryan Magadhi 
Kirata {ki.ra-ta.}: Himalayan ethnics of Npal, Manipur, Tripura, etc.
Primary suffix : kṛt-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix).
Rishi Kasyapa of Kashmir


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{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}


p068c1-b00/ p055-013

काव्य [ . kvya ]
- m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem; -kartri, m. poet; -goshth, f. discussion on poetry; -gva-ga, m. Venus, Jupiter, and Mercury, or a. understanding the purport of a poem; -t, f., -tva, n. condition of a poem; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -praksa, m. Light of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Mammata and Alata (11th or 12th century); -mmmsaka, m. rhetorician; -rasa, m. flavour of poetry; -sstra, n. poetry and learning (--); treatise on poetry; Poetics: T. of a work.
13) काव्य (p. 55) 3. kvya

काव्य [ . kvya ]
Skt: काव्य [ . kvya ]  - m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem - Mac068c1
Pal: {ka.bya.} - UHS PMD0293
  UKT from UHS: n. poetry . m. Planet Venus


p068c1-b01/ p055-012

काव्यादर्श [ kvya‿darsa ]
- m. Mirror of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Dandin (6th century AD.); -‿alamkra, m. Ornament of poetry: T. of a work by Vmana (9th century): -stra, n. pl. Vmana's Stras, -vritti, f. his commentary on them.
12) काव्यादर्श (p. 55) kvya̮darsa

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p068c1-b02/ not online

[ks ]
- i. . (p.) be visible, appear; shine; pp. -ita , shining, bright; intr. kkas , shine brightly. nis , cs. show; turn or drive out, pra , appear, become manifest; shine; cs. make visible, show, display; announce; illumine. vi , intv. illuminate.


p068c1-b03/ p055-271

काश [ ks-a ] --> Skt: {ka-sha.}
Skt: काश [ks-a ] - m. kind of shining white grass. - Mac068c1
  271) काश (p. 55) ks-a shining white grass.
Pal: {ka-a.}
- UHS-PMD0314
  UKT from UHS: . m. {ak-k-kri:} - kind of grass used for roofing, {hpan:hka:mrak}. . m. a disease accompanied by coughing

UKT 140318: Botanical names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept., 2000 gives {ak-k-kri:} gives: #59-1576 - {ak-k-kri:} - Themeda bilosa , fam. Gramineae
My reference above does not list {hpan:hka:mrak}


p068c1-b04/ p055-011 

काशि [ ks- ] --> Skt: {ka-shi.} = Pal: {ka-i.}
- m. closed hand or fist; handful: pl. N. of a people; f. i or , Benares / {ba-ra-Na.i. mro./pr}: i-ka, a. coming from Ksi or Benares: , f. Benares; T. of a commentary (probably 7th century AD.) on Pnini by Vmana and Gayditya (sc. vritti); -in, a. having the appearance of (--); i-pti, m. lord of the Ksis; -pur, f. city of Benares.
11) काशि (p. 55) ks-

काशि [ks- ] 
--> {ka-shi.}
Skt: काशि [ks- ] - m. closed hand or fist; handful: pl. N. of a people; -- Mac068c1
BHS: kāśi (see also kāśi-skṣma ), ... ... some large number) , . some valuable textile product of Benares, fine cotton cloth (?) [UKT: I would interpret as "linen" produced from fibres of leaves of Kasi grass which is soft and silky] ... ... . a. thousand pieces (of money) [UKT: gold or silver coins] ... ... -- FE-BHS181-b15
Pal: {ka-i.}
- - UHS-PMD0315 
  UKT from UHS: m. {ka-i.ten:} aka country of {ka-i.}, one thousand (UKT: probably pieces of silver or gold for a piece/bale of textile from {ka-i.ten:}).


p068c1-b05/ p055-010  

काश्मल्य [ ksmal-ya ]
- n. despondency, despair.
10) काश्मल्य (p. 55) ksmal-ya


p068c1-b06/ p055-009  

काश्मीर [ ksmra ]
- a. () belonging to Kasmra; m. king of Kasmra: pl. N. of a people and a country; n. saffron: -ka, a. belonging to Cashmere; i-k, f. princess of Cashmere; -ga, n. saffron.
9) काश्मीर (p. 55) ksmra

UKT 171218: For the story of Kashmir, see Nilamata Puranam, by R L Kaniilal, 1924,  in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- RLKaniilal-NilamataPuran<> / Bkp<> (link chk 18040)
"That land is protected by Nila, the lord* of all the Nāgas, whose regal parosal is formed by the circular pond [of the Nīlakunḍa] with the Vitastā's newly rising stream as its stick." - (Stein, Rājata I , 28)

* The word "lord" probably means a rishi who was the leader of the population, because on p005 of Introduction, and following pages, we find the word "sage Nila". Also, we must take the Nagas to be a people who worship the Naga the mythical creature.
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 171219


p068c1-b07/ not online 

= ksmraka 


p068c1-b08/ p055-008  

काश्य [ ksya ]
- m. king of the Ksis; , f. princess of the Ksis.
8) काश्य (p. 55) kaNsya


p068c1-b09/ p055-007  

काश्यप [ ksyapa ]
Skt: काश्यप [ ksyapa ] - a. () belonging to Kasyapa; m. pat. descendant of Kasyapa. - Mac068c1
  7) काश्यप (p. 55) kaNsyapa
BPal: Kassapa - n. . name of one of the five Buddhas to spread enlightenment in this world, who after practising austerities for 7 days achieved enlightenment under a banyan tree and lived a total of 20,000 years. . name of a Mahāthera under whose auspices the First Great Council was convened; Venerable Mahā Kassapa. 029-5 - from: U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha 
- PED-MK-indx.htm > kum.htm (link chk 190103)

UKT 171219: For the name "Kasyapa", see Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 171219.
There are at least three individuals who had the name "Kasyapa":

1. Buddha Kasyapa aka Kassapa Buddha - the mythical Buddha preceding the historical Gautama Buddha. He is the third Buddha of bhadrakalpa 'Auspicious aeon'.

2. A chief disciple of Gautama Buddha - Mahākāśyapa aka Shin MahaKathahpa - the Arahat who presided the First Buddhist Council (ca. 400 BCE) together with Shin Ananda "Buddha's secretary".

3. Rishi Kasyapa of Kashmir - the semi-historical person. 


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UKT 151105: Dental {Sa.}/ {S} is different from Palatal {sa.}/ {c}.
Palatal {sa.}/ {c} is present in Burmese, but Dental {Sa.}/ {S} is absent, but we need it in BEPS and for transcription of English into Burmese.

p068c1-b10/ p055-006  

काष [ ksha ]
- m. rubbing (--).
6) काष (p. 55) ksha


p068c1-b11/ p055-005  

काषाय [ kshya ]
- a. brownish red; n. brown red garment; , f. kind of bee or wasp.
5) काषाय (p. 55) kshya


p068c1-b12/ p055-029  

काष्ठ [ kshth ] = क ा ष ् ठ
- n. (piece of) wood, log; a measure of length; a measure of capacity; -kutta, m. kind of woodpecker; -kta, m. id.; -bhrika, m. carrier of wood; -maya, a. () made of wood; -raggu, f. rope for tying wood together; -loshta-maya, a. made of wood or clay; -stambha, m. beam.
29) काष्ठ (p. 55) kshth


p068c1-b13/ p055-028

काष्ठा [ kshth ]
- f. race-course, celestial course (of wind and cloud); quarter; goal, boundary; summit; height, maximum; a measure of time.
28) काष्ठा (p. 55) kaNshth 


p068c1-b14/ p055-027

काष्ठिक [ kshth-ika ]
- m. wood-carrier.
27) काष्ठिक (p. 55) kshth-ika

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√kās {kaa}, 'cough'. - Whit019


p068c1-b15/ not online 

- i. . cough


p068c1-b16/ p055-026

कास [ . ks-a ]
- m. going, moving.
26) कास (p. 55) . ks-a


p068c1-b17/ p055-025

  कास [ . ks- ]
- m., , f. cough; -vat, a. coughing.
25) कास (p. 55) . ks-


p068c1-b18/ p055-024

कासार [ ksra ]
- m. pond, lake.
24) कासार (p. 55) ksra

UKT 171219: The word कासार ksra 'pond, lake' is intruding.
Read my note on Rishi Kasyapa of Kashmir and Nilamata Purana


p068c1-b19/ p055-172

कासिका [ ks-ik ]
- f. (slight) cough; -in, a. coughing.
172) कासिका (p. 55) kaNs-ik

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p068c1-b20/ p055-023 

काहल [ khala ]
- a. indecent; excessive; dry; m. large drum; , f. kind of wind instrument.
23) काहल (p. 55) khala


p068c1-b21/ p055-022

काल्हार [ khlra ]
- a. derived from the white water-lily.
22) काल्हार (p. 55) khlra

( end of old p068-1.htm )

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{ki.} / {kin}

p068c1-b22/ p055-021

कि [ . ki ]
- inter. prn. st. in kim, kiyat, kdris, &c.
21) कि (p. 55) . ki


p068c1-b23/ p055-020

कि [ . k-i ]
- suffix i in pap-i, &c. (gr.).
20) कि (p. 55) . k-i


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{kin}/ {kan}/ {kin}

UKT 140304, 190103: This is the problem of {ki.} checked by {ng}. Because of the problem of paucity of nasals in Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev, {::tn} - which has no POA, has to be introduced. See Dot-above problem


p068c2-b00/ p055-019

किंयु [ kim-y ]
- a. desiring what? -rpa, a. of what form or appearance? -vadanta, m. N. of a demon: , f. report; saying, proverb; -varna, a. of what colour? -vishaya-ka, a. relating to what? -vritta, pp. surprised at what has happened, incautious; -vypra, a. occupied with what?
19) किंयु (p. 55) kim-y


p068c2-b01/ p055-018

किंशुक [ kim-suka ]
- m. a tree; n. its (scentless red) blossom; -sakhi, m. bad friend; -suhrid, m. id.; -hetu, a. caused by what?
18) किंशुक (p. 55) kim-suka


p068c2-b02/ p055-017

किक्नस [ kiknasa ]
- m. particles of bruised grain.
17) किक्नस (p. 55) kiknasa

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p068c2-b03/ p055-016

किंकर [ kim-kar ]
- m. servant, slave: -tva, n. servitude; , f. female servant or slave; -kartavya-t, f. perplexity as to what is to be done next; -krya-t, f. id.
16) किंकर (p. 55) kim-kar 

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? / {kan} : cf. pronunciation with {lan} 'gender'

p068c2-b04/ p055-015

किङ्किणी kinkin-i
= क ि ङ ् क ि ण ी
- f. small bell; -ik, f. id.; -ik-in, a. adorned with small bells.
15) किङ्किणी (p. 55) kiṅ-kin-

कङ्कणीका kaṅkaṇīkā = क ङ ् क ण ी क ा
Skt: कङ्कणीका kaṅkaṇīkā - f. ornament furnished with bells, string tied round the wrist -- SpkSkt
Pal: {kan~ki.Ni.ka}
- - UHS-PMD0316
  UKT from UHS: f. Hkyu-bells, Hsei-lei bells

UKT 140319: The two kinds of small bells work on different principles, and are not the same.
Hkyu-bell is a round small bell with a freely moveable brass pellet or even a pebble inside.
Hsei-lei bell is a small bell on pagoda-umbrella which act as wind-chimes. The bell has open bottom, and the striker is a small brass pellet suspended in the bell-body. The striker is attached to a sail below which moves with the wind making the striker strike the inside of the bell.

p068c2-b04/ not online 

किङ्किणी [ kiṅ-kin- ]
- f. small bell; -ik, f. id.; -ik-in, a. adorned with small bells.

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{kin-sa.} / {kai}

किंचन  kaṅcana
Pal: {kai~sa.na.} - UHS-PMD0317
  UKT from UHS: n. something, anxiety


p068c2-b05/ p055-014

किंचन्य [ kimkan-ya ]
- n. property.
14) किंचन्य (p. 55) kimkan-ya


p068c2-b06/ p055-004 

किंचित्क [ kimkit-ka ]
- indef. prn. with preceding ya, any, every; -kara, a. significant; (n)-mtra, n. a little bit.
4) किंचित्क (p. 55) kimkit-ka


p068c2-b07/ not online

- stamina (esp. of lotus); -in , a. furnished with stamina


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p068c2-b08/ p055-003 

किटि [kit i ] --> {ki.Ti.}
Skt: किटि [kit i ] - m. wild boar. -- Mac068c2
  3) किटि (p. 55) kiti wild boar.
Skt: किटि kiṭi - m. sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas - Bot.], hog -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ki.Ti.] - UHS-PMD0317
  UKT from UHS: m. pig

UKT 140304: The word "pig" can mean one of the three words here, boar, hog, and pig, all referring to the genus Sus.
" A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates."
  -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig 140304
"A boar is an uncastrated maleastrated male pig. It doesn't have to be a wild pig. A female pig is a sow. Rhymes with that other farmyard female, the cow. In North America, a hog is any sort of pig. In other parts of the world, hog may mean a large, castrated pig."
  -- http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=871703 140304
"Pig = a general term for any species/gender/castration status of swine. Hog = not really used in NZ. Boar = I guess a male pig, but also strong connotations of "wild boar"/"wild pig". I'm not sure what a female wild pig is called??
  -- http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=871703 140304

UKT 140319, 190101: Seeing "sweet potato" and "Hog" given together has brought to my mind the question: What did Buddha eat that caused his death? Pork, truffle, or mushroom - not sweet potato. In Pali it is "Sukaramaddava" and various translators translate it as pork, truffle, or mushroom.
   It must be noted that the Buddha had practiced concentration and analysis of mind {a.ma.hta. wi.p~a.na}, during long hours of fasting stretching into days. He had the power to control his bodily functions. Unless those who are trying to find the cause of death, have done such practices, their efforts would be futile. I, who had fasted 36, 72, and finally to 150 hours, to settle my own questions that have been troubling me, would say, it was Buddha himself who had controlled his mind to die at the time of his choosing.


p068c2-b09/ p055-002

किट्््ट [ kitta ]
- n. secretion.
2) किट्््ट (p. 55) kitt


p068c2-b10/ p055-001

किण [ kina ]
- m. callosity; scar.
1) किण (p. 55) kina callosity; scar.


BHS:  kiṇīkṛta - ppp. (Skt: kiṇa plus kṛ- ), made callous, hardened, in fig. sense, of mentality (as in Eng. hard or callous: SP 319.8 (prose), for KN kilikrta-samja(h), read with WT and their K' kini, their fancy made callous; Lank 253.7, read kinīkrta-ruksa-cetasam (rksasnmiva), having minds calloused and harsh: one ms. kini another kimni; text kimkanikrta-ruksa, Suzuki implausibly em. (a-) junjarujrta,... - FE-BHS183c1-b09


p068c2-b11/ p055-044

किण्व [ kinva ]
- n. yeast; ferment (used in making spirit).
44) किण्व (p. 55) kinva

UKT 140305: The English word spirit used by Macdonell is very misleading. The word used should be alcohol or even better ethanol. The chemical process involved is "fermentation" of sugars into ethanol.


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Bur: {kait} -  UTM-PDMD018c2


p068c2-b12/ p055-043

कित्् [ k-it ]
- a. having k as its it (gr.).
43) कित्् (p. 55) k-it


p068c2-b13/ p055-042

  कितव [ kitav ]
- m., , f. gamester; cheat, rogue.
42) कितव (p. 55) kitav


p068c2-b14/ p055-041

किद्वत्् [ kid-vat ]
- ad. like a kit (gr.).
41) किद्वत्् (p. 55) kid-vat

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{ki.na.} / {kain}

p068c2-b15/ p055-040

किन्् [ k-i-n ]
- a primary suffix i (gr.).
40) किन्् (p. 55) k-i-n i (gr.).

UKT 171220: See my note on Primary suffix : kṛt-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix).

p068c2-b16/ p055-039

किन्दुबिल्व kindu-bilva, ˚विल्ल [ -villa ]
- N. of a race or of the birthplace of Gayadeva.
39) किन्दुबिल्व (p. 55) -villa

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jayadeva 171220
for the poet (b. c. 1170 CE)


p068c2-b17/ p055-038

किंनर [ kim-nara ]
- m. fabulous being (half man half animal) in the service of Kubera Skt: कुबेर ; N. of various persons; -nmaka (ik), -nmadheya, -nman, a. having what name? -nimitta, a. occasioned by what? -m, why?
38) किंनर (p. 55) kim-nara


p068c2-b18/ not online

किम् [km]
Skt: किम् [km] - (nm, ac. n. of ka) what? why? often simple inter. pcl. not to be translated = num, an ); often used with other pcls.: -aṅg , why, pray? how much more? ...


किम् [km]
Skt: किम् [km] - (nm, ac. n. of ka) what? why? often simple inter. pcl. not to be translated = num, an ); often used with other pcls.: - Mac068c2

Skt: किम् kim - indecl. what? - SpkSkt 
  अथ किम् ? atha kim expr. Then? sent. Of course! What else? (rhetorical expression)
  न किमपि na kimapi indecl. nothing, not at all 


p068c2-b19/ p055-037

किमधिकरण [ kim-adhikarana ]
- a. directed to what? -abhidhna, a. how named? -artha, a. having what purpose? -m, ad. for what purpose? wherefore? -khya, a. how named? -dhra, a. relating to what?
37) किमधिकरण (p. 55) kim-adhikarana

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p068c3-b00/ not online

- m. kind of demon


p068c3-b01/ p055-218

किमीय [ kim-ya ]
- a. belonging to whom or what place?
218) किमीय (p. 55) kim-ya

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p068c3-b02/ p055-036

किंपरिवार [ kim-parivra ]
- a. having what retinue? - prusha (or ), m. kind of elf, dwarf (attendants of Kubera); -prabhva, a. how mighty? -prabhu, m. bad lord; -phala, a. producing what fruit? -bala, a. how strong? -bhta, pp. being what? having what attribute (in commentaries w. reference to nouns)? -bhritya, m. bad servant; -mya, a. consisting of what? -mtra, a. of what extent?
36) किंपरिवार (p. 55) kim-parivra

( end of old p068-2.htm )

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p068c3-b03/ p055-035

कियच्चिरम्् [ kiyak-kiram ]
- ac. ad. how long? -kirena, in. ad. how soon?
35) कियच्चिरम्् (p. 55) kiyak-kiram


p068c3-b04/ p055-034

कियत्् [ k-yat ]
- a. how great? how far? how long? how various? of what kind? of what value? kyat, ad. how far? how much? wherefore? = uselessly; indef. prn. a. small, little, some; n. ad. a little, somewhat; with following ka & preceding yvat, however great; of what ever kind; with api, however great; kyati‿, (lc. with prp. ) since how long?
34) कियत्् (p. 55) k-yat


p068c3-b05/ p055-033

कियद्दूर [ kiyad-dra ]
- n. some distance: -m, lc., --, not far, a short way.
33) कियद्दूर (p. 55) kiyad-dra


p068c3-b06/ p055-032

कियन्मात्र [ kiyan-mtra ]
- a. of little importance; n. trifle.
32) कियन्मात्र (p. 55) kiyan-mtra


p068c3-b07/ not online

- n. an aquatic plant


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p068c3-b08/ not online

किर्् [. kir ]
- kirti &c., v  कृ kri , scatter 


p068c3-b09/ p055-031

किर्् [ . kir ]
- a. scattering, pouring out (--).
31) किर्् (p. 55) . kir


p068c3-b10/ p055-030

किरण [ kir-na ]
- m. dust; mote; ray.
30) किरण (p. 55) kir-na dust; mote; ray.


p068c3-b11/ p055-059

किराट [ kirta ]
- m. merchant.
59) किराट (p. 55) kirta


p068c3-b12/ p055-058 

किरात [ krta ] --> {ki.ra-ta.}
- m. pl. N. of a barbarous mountain tribe of hunters; sg. man or king of the Kirtas: , f. Kirta woman; -‿argunya, n. Arguna's combat with Siva disguised as a Kirta: T. of a poem by Bhravi (6th cent. A.D.).
58) किरात (p. 55) krta

किरात [krta]
Skt: किरात [krta] - m. pl. N. of a barbarous mountain tribe of hunters; sg. man or king of the Kirtas: -- Mac068-b12
Pal: {ki.ra-ta.} - UHS-PMD0319
  UKT from UHS: m. wild tribe, a medicinal plant known as Shan Bitter {rhm:hs:hka:}

See my note on Kirata - the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmar.

UKT 140320: Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, by Agri. Dept., Govt. of Union of Myanmar gives: -- Agri2000-indx.htm
entry 20-0520 - {hs:hkha:kri:} - King of bitters - Andrographis paniculata - fam. Acanthaceae
entry 52-1391 {rhm:hs:hka:kri:} - Grewia humilis  fam. Tiliaceae 


p068c3-b13/ p055-092

किरीट [ kirt-a ]
- n. diadem; m. merchant; -in, a. adorned with a diadem; m. epithet of Indra and of Arguna.
92) किरीट (p. 55) kirt-a


p068c3-b14/ p055-091

किर्मिर [ kirmi-r ]
- a. variegated; -ra, a., [ -rita, pp. id.
91) किर्मिर (p. 55) kirmi-r

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p068c3-b15/ p055-260

किल [ . kla (V. sts. ) ]
- ad. quidem, indeed, certainly, it is true; that is to say, it is said or alleged; as is well known.
260) किल (p. 55) . kla

Roman-Latin: quidem 
1. indeed - Usage note: Do not confuse quidem with quidam. Sometimes emphasizes the word that comes before it. e.g. Magister quidem verba deponentia coniugationis primae imperavit, sed haec sunt mihi enigma.
  English translation by Google: "Deponent [Latin verb], and rebuked the union, the union of the first words which are indeed the Master , but these are to me, "

p068c3-b16/ p055-275

किल [ . kila ]
- a. playing.
275) किल (p. 55) . kila


p068c3-b17/ p055-274

किलञ्ज [ kilaga ] = क ि ल ञ ् ज --> {ki.li~za.}
- >m. mat.
274) किलञ्ज (p. 55) kilaga mat.


p068c3-b18/ p055-231

किलास [ kils-a ]
- a. leprous; n. leprosy; -in, a. leprous.
231) किलास (p. 55) kilaNs-a


p068c3-b19/ p055-273

किलिञ्ज [ kiliga ]
- m. mat.
273) किलिञ्ज (p. 55) kiliga


p068c3-b20/ p055-057

किल्बिष [ kilbish-a ]
- n. transgression, guilt, sin; injustice, injury: -sprit, a. removing or avoiding sin; -in, a. guilty, sinful; m. sinner.
57) किल्बिष (p. 55) kilbish-a

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p068c3-b21/ p055-056

किशोर [ kisor ]
- m. foal; young of an animal; -ka, m. id.
56) किशोर (p. 55) kisor

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p068c3-b22/ p055-055

किष्किन्ध [ kishkindha ]
- m. N. of a mountain; , f. N. of a cave.
55) किष्किन्ध (p. 55) kishkindha 


p068c3-b23/ p055-054

किष्कु [ kishku ]
- m. fore-arm; handle (of an axe).
54) किष्कु (p. 55) kishku

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p068c3-b24/ not online

किस् [ks ]
- inter. pcl.


p068c3-b25/ p055-053

किसलय [ kisalaya ]
- n. bud, shoot, sprout; den. P. cause to sprout; arouse: pp. i-ta, sprouted; having young shoots.
53) किसलय (p. 55) kisalaya

( end of old p068-3.htm )

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p068c3-b26/ not online

[kkata ]
- m. pl. N. of a non-Aryan people

See my note on Kikata {ki.ka.Ta.} - the non-Aryans


p068c3-b27/ p055-052

कीकस [ kkasa ]
- m. spine; n. bone.
52) कीकस (p. 55) kkasa


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p068c3-b28/ p055-051

कीचक [ kkaka ]
- m. kind of bamboo; m. a general of Virta, vanquished by Bhmasena: pl. N. of a people. - Mac068c3
  51) कीचक (p. 55) kkaka
Pal: {ki-sa.ka.} - UHS PMD0321
  UKT from UHS: m. a kind of bamboo with hollow stem which produces sound when the wind blows over it. Arundo karka 


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p068c3-b29/ p055-050

कीट [ kta ]
Skt: कीट [ kta ] - m. insect; worm; worm of a --, = wretched (--); -ka, m., i-k, f. id.; -ga, n. silk; -mani, m. fire-fly. - Mac068c3
  50) कीट (p. 55) kta
Skt: कीट kīṭa - n. feces -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka.ri-a.} - UHS-PMD0299
  UKT from UHS: . a small area for rice cultivation . . spent food, feces, dried cow-dung


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UKT notes

Arundo karka

- UKT 151105, 170302 :

Back in 2015, when I was looking for A. karda in Wikipedia, I found only the French version. Now in 2017, when I look for it again, I came to be aware that I must look for the genus Phragmites .

From Wikipedia: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites_karka 151105

Phragmites karka est une espce de roseau asiatique de la famille des Poaceae. Elle pousse dans les savanes humides d'Afrique, d'Asie et d'Australie.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phragmites 170302

Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, maintained by Kew Garden in London, accepts the following four species: [1]

1. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. cosmopolitan
2. Phragmites japonicus Steud. Japan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands, Russian Far East
3. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. tropical Africa, southern Asia, Australia, some Pacific Islands
4. Phragmites mauritianus Kunth central + southern Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius

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Dot-above, Dot-below, and Double-dots

{::tn} , {auk-mric} , {wic~sa.pauk}

UKT 140304, 140319, 171220, 190109:

To explain the dots used in Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev, I have to take examples from Burmese, Mon, and Sanskrit.

The dot-above {::tn} problem stems from the lack of the first nasal of the consonant matrix. We must remember that the akshara matrix is defined into two ways: row-column, r-c , and column-row, c-r.

See the two corresponding akshara-matrices given: the Asokan script (wrongly-dubbed Brahmi akshara {brah~mi ak~hka.ra}) and Myanmar script {mrm~ma ak~hka.ra}. My style of spelling the word "Myanmar" is based on the oldest spelling book, and on Prescribed Parliamentry Spelling book {lhwt-tau on: t-pon}, by Shin Oak'kan-tha Marlar {shn OAk~kn-a.ma-la} that have come to my notice.

Here, we first come into an unexpected problem due to the Bur-Myan intellectuals' lack of understanding the importance of coda-nasals in pronunciation. How should we spell "Myanmar": is it NM {mrn-ma} or MM {mrm~ma} ? Both my MLC friend Ko (Dr.} Tun Tint and I, agree that MM {mrm~ma} is probably correct. He has his own reasons to come to that conclusion, whereas I have my own.

I argue that if we were to set aside the influence of Sanskrit which had come in the Pagan Period due to heightened cooperation of Sri-Lanka and Pagan Theravada monks, we are left with the influence of Pal-Myan on Bur-Myan, and MM {mrm~ma} is correct..

We have met the Dot-above or {::tn} problem for vowels long time ago on p001-2.htm.

The first difficult-to-pronounce nasal r2c5 /ŋ/ (velar)

Now it is for consonants. Though both Asokan and Bur-Myan has r1c5 akshara, Skt-Dev does not really have a /ŋ/ (velar), it had to borrow the grapheme from r3c3 , the retroflex:

ड + dot --> ङ  

Even though the Sanskrit speakers, now have a r1c5, they could not pronounce it perfectly.

As a solution, Shin Kic'si {shn kic~s:}, the celebrated Buddhist grammarian who preceded Sanskrit Grammarian Panini {hsa.ra pa-Ni.ni.}, made an allowance and said it can be borrowed from {n} /ʌn/ (ending with dental-nasal) and represented it with a dot-above {n}. The sound {n} ends with an open mouth. However, the Sanskrit speakers pronounce it with a closing mouth as {m} /ʌm/ .

If so, {kin} is {kan}, which rhymes with {lan} 'lingam' or 'male sexual organ used for injecting sperm into female vagina'. See MLC MED2006-451 for {lan}.

The second difficult-to-pronounce nasal r2c5 /ɲ/ (palatal)

There is another nasal that cannot be fully represented by IE languages. It is /ɲ/ (palatal) in r2c5 cell. There are two candidates for this cell. In both Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan, the candidate is Nya-major {a.}/ {}, whereas in Pal-Myan, it is Nya-minor {a.}/ {}. In Myanmarpr, where we have to deal with only Bamah (Burmese) & Mon on one hand and Pali on the other, all we have to say that, in Pal-Myan Nya-major {a.} is a conjunct which breaks down under virama.

Pali-Myan: Nya-major {a.} + viram --> ~ {~a.}
Bur-Myan: Nya-major {a.} + viram --> {}

Use of arbitrary conventions will not do in Binpathak {bn~pa-ak} BEPS, and I have to find a new cell for Nya-major {a.}/ {}, still under Palatal-heading but in another group. Since in IPA (Pulmonic)-consonant table, in the Approximant-row, Velar cell is empty, I moved the {a.}/ {} under Velar-heading, and assign {a.}/ {} to Approximant-row under Palatal-heading.

Remember, I've already stated that {kin} is {kan} rhyming with {lan} 'lingam'
Now, we have {ki.} on being checked by {} is another candidate for {kin} , as in Pal: {kai~sa.na.}.

The third difficult-to-pronounce nasal r3c5 /ɳ/ (retroflex)

The third nasal r3c5 that is beyond the representation by IE languages is /ɳ/ (retroflex). However, since it is close to /n/ (dental) , we do not have many problems.

I have defined all syllables beginning with vowels and ending with nasals as codas:

{ n}, {}, {N}, {n}, {m}.

You'll note that the first two { n}, {i}, and the second three {N}, {n}, {m}, in having the nuclear vowel change from to u , i.e. from front-close to back-slightly close. This change would not have been evident if I had written the nuclear vowel as a .

In Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan, r1c5 consonant, and r2c5 consonant have some non-nasal property, and I've classified them as Semi-nasals. Different from them, r4c5 and r5c5 are the True-nasals. The semi-nasals { n} & {i} may be represented with {n}.

The Dot-above problem is the first I encountered when I first studied Skt-Dev starting with vowels. Now, the Dot-below and the Double-dots .

See: http://pratyeka.org/sanskrit/support_vowels.html 190110
or, Devanagari Script, by an anonymous author, undated
- Anon-DevScript<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190109)

In addition to short vowels and long vowels, there are two support vowels known as "ubhayakshara" and are mostly appended to syllables. They are not used independently like other vowels.

They add specific sounds to the syllables they are appended to. These two support vowels are represented using the first vowel अ .

Dot-above "anuswara" , Bur-Myan The'the'tin {::tn} : अं
Double-dots "visarga" , Bur-Myan Wic'sa'pauk {wic~sa.pauk}: अः

The first is known as the "anuswara" and the second "visarga" The anuswara adds a sound similar to the sound of m in "sum" to the syllable. The visarga adds a sound similar to "ha" to the syllable.

The "ha" will change depending on the vowel ending the syllable. The visarga more or less extends the vowel in the syllable with h+the same vowel as in the syllable.

What is not given in the above article is the Dot-below  Auk'mric {auk-mric}.

Dot-below  Auk'mric {auk-mric} which is not present in Mon-Myan, and also probably not in Skt-Dev.

The Dot-under and Double-dots affects the vowel-lengths in terms of eye-blinks.

{a:.} (1/2 blnk) , {a.} (1 blnk) , {a} (2 blnk) , {a:} (2 blnk + emphasis) , {aa.} (1/2 blnk)
Note the "visarga" {wic~sa.pauk} used in two ways in Myanmar script:
- Mon-Myan , {a:.} (1/2 blnk)
- Bur-Myan , {a:} (2 blnk+emphasis)

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Kikata - the non-Aryans

UKT 170302, 180123, 190110:

In the following you'll come across some of the ancient peoples of India:
   Kikata {ki.ka.Ta.}, Vrātya {bra-tya.}, Asura {a.u-ra}

From bookpreview: Urban Development in India - Kamaldeo Narain Singh - 1978 (link chk 190110)|
See also by the same author in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- KNSingh-Urbanization01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190112)


UKT 190112: Points of interest
The history of Gaya {ga-ya mro.} is the history of a part of Magadha [Janapada] {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha-za.na.pa.da.}.
Kikata {ki.ka.Ta. nen-gnn} was then [during early Vdic Period when Gayatri mantra was written] inhabited by Vratyas {bra-tya} and Asuras {a.u.ra}, having their distinct religions and cultures.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kikata_Kingdom 190110

Kikata {ki.ka.Ta. nen-gnn} was an ancient kingdom in what is now India, mentioned in the Vedas. It is believed that they were the forefathers of Magadhas. It lay to the south of Magadha Kingdom {mn: nen-gnn}.

UKT 190111: Note how I've differentiated two entities, {mn: nen-gnn} and {nen-gnn}. The first is a country ruled by a king, and the second, without a king - may be a republic.

A section in the Rigveda (RV 3.53.14) refers to the Kīkaṭas, a tribe which most scholars have placed in Bihar (Magadha). [1]

Zimmer has argued, in referring to Yaksa , that they were a non-Aryan people. According to Weber, they were a Vedic people, but were sometimes in conflict with other Vedic people. [2]

UKT 190112: A. P. Karmarker in his Religions of India, 1950, identifies Vratyas {bra-tya} as Dravidians. See The Religions of India, vol 1, by A. P. Karmarkar, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- APKarmarkar-ReligionsIndia01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190112)
He wrote in 1950, in his Preface, p.vi: "We feel courageous to say this, mainly because, the various data that have become available to us during the last five and twenty years in the field of Epigraphy, Numismatics, Archaeology, and other allied sciences, have changed the outlook of scholarship, and other allied sciences, have changed the outlook of scholarship, and have proved beyond doubt the possibility of the existence of a marvellous civilization of the Vrātyas {bra-tya.} in pre-Aryan India. Especially, the wonderful discoveries made at Mohanjo Daro, Harappa and other proto-Indian sites are of an absorbing interest.

"It was in this light that I took a detailed survey of the Mohenjo Daro inscriptions and other finds, the originals of twenty-four Purānas {pu.raaN kym} and Upa-Purāṇas, and the Vedic, Brāhmaṇic, Upaniṣadic, Epic, Tāntric and other allied literature. I have made full use of all the Epigraphic, Numismatic and other available materials. I found in the Purāṇas a very valuable material indeed! It is my firm opinion that they contain the history of man from the early beginnings of history down to about the fourteenth century A.D."

UKT 190112: Karmarkar's first assertion that the peoples of Indus-Sarasvati civilization were the Vrātyas and the second assertion that Dravidians were the Vrātyas, are doubtful. The so-called Indus-Sarasvati inscriptions are still yet to be deciphered.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilisation 190112

Continue reading below into Kirata : Himalayan race .

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Kirata - Himalayan race

UKT 140320

The Kirata {ki.ra-ta.} are the Tib-Bur tribes of Himalayas down into the mountains of western Myanmarpr. See a downloaded video from:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHrUwOvJ_9Q 171221
- Kiratas<> (link chk 171221)
Inset map from the above video. The legend in the map:
"The karatas were ... in Ramayana and Mahabharata, and in many Puranas. ..."
The map shows their area extending into the Arakan Yoma area - the are of Chins of Myanmarpr.


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirata 140320

The Kirāta , किरात {ki.ra-ta.} is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India [UKT: Assam, Manipur, Tripura] and who are postulated to have been Mongoloid in origin. [1] [2] It has been theorized that the word Kirata- or Kirati- means people with lion nature. [3] It is derived from two words Kira (meaning Lion) and Ti (meaning people). [3] The reference of lion as well as them staying in the Himalayan Mountains may suggest their possible relation to the mythical lion-headed tribe called Kimpurusha.

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Primary suffix

UKT 171220:

Online Skt-Dev grammar:
http://learnsanskrit.org/start/words/primary 171220

"Also known as: kṛt-pratyaya (a special kind of suffix). ... Such Skt-Dev suffixes are often called primary suffixes because they're the first thing to follow the verb root. ... e.g.:
सर्ज् sarj 'send forth' → सर्ग sarga 'creation; the creation of the world'
विसर्ज् vi-sarj 'send forth' → विसर्ग vi-sarga 'the visarga'
जय् jay 'win, conquer' → जय jaya 'victory'

Pali-Lat also has suffixes, and these and derivations can be seen on:
  - http://www.buddha-vacana.org/toolbox/suf.html  190108
The roots of the Pali-Lat language, with slight variations in form, are common with those of Skt-Dev, and consequently with many of the roots of IE (lndo-European) Languages.

There are two great divisions of Derivation:
(i) kita, or Primary.
(ii) taddhita, or Secondary.

Primary Derivatives are formed from the root itself and Secondary Derivatives from the Primary Derivatives. The student will readily understand that the root may be preceded by any prefix:
  sam+√gam+a = saṅgāma, assembly;
  pa+√vis, to enter+a = pavesa, entrance;
  anu+√sar to go, move,
  walk+a = anusara, following.
The same remark applies to all the other suffixes.

When relating to Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, remember that row#2 aksharas are pronounced as Affricates in Mon-Myan & Skt-Dev, e.g. {za.} is pronounced as {gya.} (derived from {ga.}). An added problem is when {a.} is involved which is pronounced as Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/ in both Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan. The main difference between Skt-Dev and Mon-Myan is in the pronunciation of r1c4 {Ga.}. It is pronounced as /{ga.}+emphasis/ in Bur-Myan, Pal-Myan, and Skt-Dev.

Only in Mon-Myan, it is pronounced as /{hk}/ :

Mon-Myan row#1 - bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) 

However, it is emphasized by J.M. Haswell and R.C. Temple that in the Pegu dialect of Mon-Myan, the /g/ is absent. So, I venture to say that the pair r1c3 & r1c4 as /{k}/ & /{hk}/

Listen to the sounds of simple disyllabic words of Mon-Myan, taken from
Mon-Myan Language: Speech - spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all02.htm (link chk 190108)
Keep in mind that what you are hearing is Mon-Myan speech

, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,

I haven't given the Romabama transcription for Mon-Myan, because it is untenable for Mon-Myan.

Bur-Myan differs from both Pali-Myan and Skt-Dev in being an uninflected language. See
Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis in 2 Parts, A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 190109)

I still need to learn formal Bur-Myan grammar before I can proceed with this topic. With regard to Bur-Myan grammar, A. W. Lonsdale, in his Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis , Rangoon 1899, wrote:
"The Burmese language is constructed on scientific principles, and there is no reason why its grammar should not be dealt with also from a scientific standpoint. But it may be safely said that Burmese grammar as a science has not received that attention it deserves.
"With regard to the grammatical treatises by native writers, ... not content with merely borrowing the grammatical nomenclature of the Pali language, ... assimilate the grammatical principles of the uninflected Burmese to those of the inflected Pali; so that they produced, not Burmese grammars, but modified Pali grammars in Burmese dress."

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Rishi Kasyapa

of Kashmir and Nilamata Purana

I'm working on a hunch [being a hunch it could only led me on a wild goose chase - yet it introduces me to books that I should have read] that it is connected to Kashmir and Rishi Kasyapa - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 171219

Search for " King Abhimanyu the First of Kashmir "
Return: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didda 171219

It has led me further to:
#1. Nilamata Purana, by R L Kaniilal, 1924
- RLKaniilal - NilamataPuran<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180419)
#2. Rajtarangini, vol 1 & 2, by M A Stein, 1900
- MAStein-KalhanaRajtarangini01<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180124)
- MAStein-KalhanaRajtarangini02<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180124)


In #1: Nilamata Purana, by R L Kaniilal, 1924

   On p006 of Introduction, we find "the acceptance of Buddha as an Avatāra of Viṣṇu was unquestionably established in 1000AD."

   On p009 of Introduction: "Then follows the elucidation of the sanctity of Kashmir which obliged Śrikrishna [King Krishna - before his death and subsequent deification as a dva] to anoint the queen of Dāmodara himself. This according to Vaiśampāyana consisted in Kashmir's being nothing else than the manifestation of Pāravati [a Tib-Bur m-tau before being taken up by Hindu god Shiva]. In course of his eulogistic description of the manifold charms of Kashmir, the sage [the rishi] discloses that in previous Manvantaras it was a lake called Satīsaras. This revelation excites Janamejaya to ask further an account of the transformation of the lake into a beautiful and populated valley. ..."

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End of TIL file < /p>