Update: 2017-02-24 05:26 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kaar~} : Repha on long a : contd.
{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}


UKT notes :
Blood-red wood {nn.a-ni}?
Mon and Sanskrit


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{kaar~} : Repha on long a : contd.





कार्पटिक [ krpat-ika ]
- m. poorly clad pilgrim.



कार्पण्य [ krpan-ya ]
- n. poor-spiritedness; poverty; meanness, avarice; compassion.



कार्पाण [ krpn ]
- n. sword-fight.



कार्पास [ krpsa ]
- n. cotton; cotton cloth; a. made of cotton: , f. cotton shrub; -ka, a. made of cotton; -tntava, n. cotton cloth; -sautrika, n. id.



कार्पासास्थि [ krpsa‿asthi ]
- n. seed of the cotton shrub.



कार्पासिक [ krps-ika ]
- a. () made of cotton; -ik, f. *cotton shrub.

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कार्मण [ krman-a ]
- a. relating to or proceeding from action; enchanting (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); n. sorcery, magic; -ika, a. produced by magic.



कार्मरङ्ग [ krma-raṅga ]
- a. deep red.



कार्मार [ krmr ]
- m. smith.



- figured web



[krm-uka ]
- . a. efficacious; . a. (i.) made of Krimuka wood; n. bow; -bhrit , a. bearing a bow

See my note on Blood-red wood {nn.a-ni}?



कार्मुकाय [ krmuk-ya ]
- den. . represent a bow.



कार्मुकिन्् [ krmuk-in ]
- a. wearing a bow.


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कार्य [ kr-y ]
- fp. to be done, made, performed, employed, &c. (v. √kri); n. design, purpose, object, interest; duty; business; service; matter, affair; lawsuit; effect, product: -m, with in. of thing and g. of pers., something is of use to, some one cares about; in. on account of.



कार्यकरणापेक्षा [ krya-karana‿apeksh ]
- f. view to carrying out one's design; -kartri, m. promoter of the cause of (g.); -krana, n. a special object as a cause, special reason: -tas, ad. from special motives, -tva, n. being effect and cause; -kla, m. time for action; -kintaka, m. manager of a business.



कार्यतस्् [ krya-tas ]
- ad. as a matter of fact; -t, f., -tva, n. fact of being a product or effect; -darsana, n. (legal) investigation of a case; -darsin, a. sagacious, acute; -dhvamsa, m. abandonment of a cause; -nirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -parikkheda, m. correct judgment of a case.



कार्यरूप [ krya-rpa ]
- a. having the form of a product (ph.).



कार्यवत्् [ krya-vat ]
- a. having business to attend to; busy; having an object: -t, f. business; -vasa, m. influence of an object: ab. from interested motives; -vinimaya, m. mutual engagement to do something; -vinirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -vipatti, f. failure of an object; -vrittnta, m. fact of a matter; -vyasana, n. failure of an object; -sesha, m. what remains to be done, completion of undertakings; -siddhi, f. success of a matter; -hantri, m. thwarter of one's interest; -hetu, m. motive of carrying out one's designs: ab. with a view to one's interests.



कार्याकार्य [ krya‿akrya ]
- n. right & wrong (-).



कार्यातिपात [ krya‿atipt-a ]
- m. neglect of business: -in, a. neglecting business; -‿adhikrin, m. minister of policy; -‿antara, n. another business; leisure hour: -sakiva, m. companion of a prince's leisure or amusements; -‿apekshin, a. having a special object in view.



कार्यार्थ [ krya‿artha ]
- m. undertaking: -m, ad. for a special end, for the purpose of business or work: -siddhi, f. success of an undertaking; -‿arthin, a. concerned about a matter; demanding justice.


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कार्यिक [ kry-ika ]
- a. id.; m. litigant; -in, a. id.; m. official.



कार्योपेक्षा [ krya‿upeksh ]
- f. neglect of official duty; -‿uparodha, m. interruption of business.

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कार्श्य [ krs-ya ]
- n. emaciation; smallness; diminution.


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कार्षक [ krsha-ka ]
- m. agriculturist, husband man.



- m. n. coin of the weight of a Karsha



कार्षिक kars-ika
- a. weighing a Karsha.



कार्ष्ण [ krshna ]
- a. () coming from the black antelope; belonging to or composed by Krishna; n. hide of the black antelope.



कार्ष्णायस [ krshna‿ayasa ]
- a. () made of iron; n. iron.



कार्ष्ण्य [ krshn-ya ]
- n. blackness; darkness.

( end of old p067-1.htm )

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काल [ . kla ]
Skt: काल [ . kla ] - a. () dark blue, black; m. the black in the eye; ep. of Siva.
Pal: {ka-La.} - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: mfn. dark black. n. blackness



काल [ . kl ]
- m. due season, appointed or right time (for, d., g., lc., inf., --); time; opportunity; season; meal-time (of which there are two a day); half a day; hour; age, era; measure, prosody; Time, fate; death, god of death; --, at the right time; in time, gradually; parah klah, high time (w. inf.); klam kri, fix a time for (lc.); klam sdya, according to circumstances; in. klena, in due season; in course of time: -gakkhat, as time goes on, in course of time; drghena--, mahat-- or bahun--, after a long time; kenakit--, after some time; tena--, at that time; ab. klt, in the long run, in course of time; klatas, id.; with regard to time; g. drghasya or mahatah klasya, after a long time; kasya kit--, after some time; lc. kl, at the right or appointed time, opportunely; in time = gradually; -prpte, when the time has come; -gakkhati, in course of time; -yte, after the lapse of some time; kasmims kit--, one day; kle kle, always at the right time; shashthe--, at the end of the third day: --xhnah, at the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon; pa-kasate--, = after 250 days; ubhau klau, morning and evening.



कालक [ kla-ka ]
- a. dark blue, black; -kag, m. pl. N. of a tribe of Asuras; -kanthaka, m. sparrow; -karman, n. death; -kṅkshin, a. waiting or impatient for the right moment; -krita, pp. temporary; -kta, m. kind of poison (esp. that produced at the churning of the ocean); -krita, pp. produced by time; temporary; -krama, m. course of time: in., ab. in course of time; -kshepa, m. waste of time, delay; d. to gain time; -m kri, waste time (w. lc.); -gandik, f. N. of a river; -gupta, (pp.) m. N. of a Vaisya.



कालचक्र [ kla-kakra ]
- n. wheel of time; -ga, a. knowing the proper time; -gna, n. knowledge of time or chronology.



कालता [ kla-t ]
- f. . seasonableness; . blackness; -danda, m. wand of death; -dta, m. harbinger of death; -daurtmya, n. tyranny of time; -dharma, -n, m. law of time = inevitable death; -niyama, m. limitation of time; determination of the terminus ad quem; -nemi, m. N. of an Asura slain by Krishna; N. of a Brhman.

terminus ad quem  /ˌtəːmɪnəs ad ˈkwɛm/ - n. the point at which something ends and finishes. an aim or goal
- Google



कालपक्व [ kla-pakva ]
- pp. ripened by time; -paryaya, m. course of time; -paryya, m. id.; -psa, m. noose of the god of death; -psika, m. hangman; -purusha, m. time personified; minion of the god of death; -prabhu, m. lord of seasons, the moon; -prpta, pp. brought by time; -bhogin, m. black snake; -megha, m. black cloud.

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- m. N. of a caravanserai

caravansary also caravanserai
- n. pl. caravansaries also caravanserais
. An inn built around a large court for accommodating caravans at night in the Near or Far East.
. A large inn or hostelry. [French caravanserai from Persian kārvānsarāykārvān caravan sarāy camp, palace; ]



कालयवन [ kla-yavana ]
- m. N. of a Dvpa; -ypa, m.: -na, n., -n, f. procrastination; -yoga, m. conjuncture of time or fate; point of time: -tas, ad. according to circumstances; -loha, n. iron, steel; -vla, a. having a black tail; -vid, a. knowing the times; -vidy, f. knowledge of chronology or the calendar; -vibhakti, f. division of time; -vriddhi, f. kind of illegal interest; -vyatta, pp. for which the right time has passed.



कालशेय [ klas-eya ]
- n. butter-milk.



कालशाक [ kla-ska ]
- m. a plant; -samrodha, m. protracted retention; -saṅkhy, f. computation or determination of time; -sarpa, m. a. black snake; -stra, n. noose of the god of death; m. n. (also -ka), N. of a hell; -harana, n. loss of time; -hra, m. id.; gain of time.



कालागुरु [ kla‿aguru ]
- m. kind of black aloe; -‿agana, n. black ointment; -‿anda-ga, m. black bird = Indian cuckoo; -‿atikramana, n. neglect of the right moment for (g.); -‿atipta, m. delay; -‿atyaya‿apadishta, pp. lapsed, become void; -‿anala, m. fire of all-destroying time, fire of universal death; -‿anu srya, n. kind of fragrant benzoin, resin; -‿antara, n. interval of time; favourable moment: in., ab. after the lapse of some time: -kshama, a. brooking delay.





कालायस [ kla‿ayasa ]
- n. iron; a. of iron: -dridha, pp. hard or firm as iron.





कालिक [ kl-ika ]
- a. relating to time; seasonable; lasting as long as (--).



कालिका [ kl-ik ]
- f. liver; dark mass of cloud; N. of a river; the goddess Kl; -purna, n. T. of a Purna.



कालिङ्ग kâliṅga, ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. from the land of the Kaliṅgas; m. man or king of Kaliṅga.





कालिदास [ kli-dsa ]
- m. (servant of Kl), N. of various poets; the celebrated lyric, epic, and dramatic poet of this name lived in the sixth century a. d.



कालिन्द [ klinda ]
- n. water-melon; , f. pat. of the Yamun.



कालिमन्् [ kl-i-man ]
- m. blackness.



कालिय [ kl-iya ]
- m. N. of a Nga; cobra.



काली [ kl ]
Skt: काली [ kl ] - f. the Black goddess, a form of Durg. - Mac067c3
Pal: {ka-Li} - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: f. dark-black skinned woman





कालीन [ kl-na ]
- a. relating to the time of (--).



कालीयक [ kl-ya-ka ]
- m. N. of a Nga; n. fragrant black wood (sandal or aloe).



कालीविलासिन्् [ kl-vilsin ]
- m. husband of Kl (Siva).



कालुष्य [ klush-ya ]
- n. turbidness; foulness; unfairness.



कालेचर्या [ kle-kary ]
- f. seasonable occupation.





कालोरग [ kla‿uraga ]
- m. black snake.



काल्य [ klya ]
- n. day-break: -m, lc. at day break.

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कावन्ध [ kvandha ]
- a. () trunk-like.



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{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}

UKT 151105: There are two questions here.
#1 Why are Skt-Dev व & ब are so alike?
#2 Why would Mon-Myan speakers need two more consonantal aksharas for the sounds of /ba/ & /be/ ?
See my note on Mon and Sanskrit


काव्य [ 1. kvy ]
- a. having the qualities of or coming from sages.



काव्य [ 2. kvya ]
- a. id.; n. wisdom; seer's art or gift.


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UKT notes

Blood-red wood

UKT 170223:

Krimka wood is mentioned in Satapatha Brahmana Part III (SBE41), as translated by Julius Eggeling tr. (1894) at sacred-texts.com
"6:6:2:11. It should be one of krimuka wood. Now, the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung from Pragpati, strove together. The gods [Dvas], having placed Agni in front, went up to the Asuras. The Asuras cut off the point of that flame held forward. It settled down on this earth, and became that krimuka tree: hence it is sweet, for there is vital essence (in it). Hence also it is red, for it is a flame, that krimuka [p.255] tree being the same as this Agni: it is (in the shape of) fire that he imparts growth to it."

I wonder whether it is {nn.a-ni}, an essential of {w:hsw:} "blood tonic" of Indigenous Burmese medicine. In Pictorial Herbal Dictionary (in Bur-Myan) by Shin Nagathein, 1976, vol. 2, p152 (available in TIL Library at 35 Thantadalan, Sanchaung, Yangon, in ink-on-paper book form), {nn.a-ni} is given as Skt-Dev: रल च्नदन rala cindana.

Go back Blood-red-wood-note-b

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Mon and Sanskrit

UKT 151105:

There are two questions here. #1 Why are Skt-Dev व & ब are so alike?
#2 Why would Mon-Myan speakers need two more consonantal aksharas for the sounds of /ba/ & /be/.

#1 Probable answer: It appears that Skt-Dev did not have the phoneme /b/ and a glyph to represent it. It has /w/ and the glyph व to represent it. To make up for this, it borrowed the glyph from /w/

व + diagonal line --> ब

I have to make this assumption to compare Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan.

#2 Probable answer: Listen carefully to Mon-Myan 
- Labial - bk-cndl-Mon-row5<))
- Approximants of row#7 - bk-cndl-Mon-row7<))
I cannot hear any labio-dentals in row#5. Yet the only probable explanation that I can give at present is that Mon had followed Skt and had /f/ and /v/. It needed plosive-stops and had introduced {a.} /ba/ & {} /b/. It is because of this argument I hold that Mon-Myan is more close to Skt-Dev than to Pal-Myan.
However listening to the above sound clips has convinced me that there are no /f/ and /v/ in Mon-Myan. Yet English and Sanskrit need them and so I have to invent two glyphs: {fa.} and {va.} .

Go back Mon-Skt-note-b

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End of TIL file