Update: 2019-06-24 09:02 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


• A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
• The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 180627)
• The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<Ō> / bkp<Ō> (link chk 190113)
•  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
• Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H Ųrberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{kār~pa.} : Repha on long a {kār~}: contd.


UKT 140301, 181225: I've formulated Lepha form (or super-L) {kāl~} to be comparable to Repha form (or super-R) {kār~}.


{kā-wya.} / {kā-bya.}

Skt Roots: entered below:
Whitney: none

UKT notes :
• Blood-red wood {nän.ža-ni}?
• Etymology of Names
• Gautama Buddha in Hinduism
• Kālanemi Asura : related to King Kamsa on p060-3.htm
• Kalasoka and Asoka
• Mon and Sanskrit
• Terminalia bellirica

Contents of this page



p067c1-b00/ p054-006

• कार्पटिक [ kārpat-ika ]
- m. poorly clad pilgrim.
6) कार्पटिक ( p. 54) kārpat-ika



• कार्पण्य [ kārpan-ya ]
- n. poor-spiritedness; poverty; meanness, avarice; compassion.
5) कार्पण्य (p. 54) kārpan-ya



• कार्पाण [ kārpānį ]
- n. sword-fight.
4) कार्पाण (p. 54) kārpānį



• कार्पास [ kārpāsa ]
- n. cotton; cotton cloth; a. made of cotton: ī, f. cotton shrub; -ka, a. made of cotton; -tāntava, n. cotton cloth; -sautrika, n. id.
3) कार्पास (p. 54) kārpāsa



• कार्पासास्थि [ kārpāsa‿asthi ]
- n. seed of the cotton shrub.
2) कार्पासास्थि (p. 54) kārpāsa̮asthi



• कार्पासिक [ kārpās-ika ]
- a. (ī) made of cotton; -ikā, f. *cotton shrub.
1) कार्पासिक (p. 54) kārpās-ika

Contents of this page



• कार्मण [ kārman-a ]
- a. relating to or proceeding from action; enchanting (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); n. sorcery, magic; -ika, a. produced by magic.
17) कार्मण (p. 54) kārman-a



• कार्मरङ्ग [ kārma-raṅga ]
- a. deep red.
16) कार्मरङ्ग (p. 54) kārma-raṅga



• कार्मार [ kārmārį ]
- m. smith.
15) कार्मार (p. 54) kārmārį


p067c1-b09/ not online

• [kārm-ika]
Skt:  [kārm-ika] - figured web - Mac067c1
Skt: कार्मिक «kārmika» - m. engaged in action. n. manufactured, embrodered, any variegated texture - SpkDict
Skt: कार्मिक «kārmika» - a. (-की f.) [कर्मन्-ठक्] ¹. Manufactured, made. -². Embroidered, intermixed with coloured thread (as cloth). -³. Any variegated texture; Y.2.18. - Apte:SktDict


p067c1-b10/ not online

• [kārm-uka ]
- ¹. a. efficacious; ². a. (i.) made of Krimuka wood; n. bow; -bhrit , a. bearing a bow

See my note on Blood-red wood {nän.ža-ni}?



• कार्मुकाय [ kārmukā-ya ]
- den. Ā. represent a bow.
14) कार्मुकाय (p. 54) kārmukā-ya



• कार्मुकिन्् [ kārmuk-in ]
- a. wearing a bow.
13) कार्मुकिन्् (p. 54) kārmuk-in

Contents of this page



• कार्य [ kār-yć ]
- fp. to be done, made, performed, employed, &c. (v. √kri); n. design, purpose, object, interest; duty; business; service; matter, affair; lawsuit; effect, product: -m, with in. of thing and g. of pers., something is of use to, some one cares about; in. on account of. 
12) कार्य (p. 54) kār-yć t

© कार्य [ kār-yć ]
Skt: कार्य [ kār-yć ] - ... n. design, purpose, object, interest; ... - Mac067c1
Skt: कार्य - «kārya» - n. function, act, deed - SpkSkt



• कार्यकरणापेक्षा [ kārya-karana‿apekshā ]
- f. view to carrying out one's design; -kartri, m. promoter of the cause of (g.); -kārana, n. a special object as a cause, special reason: -tas, ad. from special motives, -tva, n. being effect and cause; -kāla, m. time for action; -kintaka, m. manager of a business.
11) कार्यकरणापेक्षा (p. 54) kārya-karana̮apekshā



• कार्यतस्् [ kārya-tas ]
- ad. as a matter of fact; -tā, f., -tva, n. fact of being a product or effect; -darsana, n. (legal) investigation of a case; -darsin, a. sagacious, acute; -dhvamsa, m. abandonment of a cause; -nirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -parikkheda, m. correct judgment of a case.
10) कार्यतस्् (p. 54) kārya-tas



• कार्यरूप [ kārya-rūpa ]
- a. having the form of a product (ph.).
9) कार्यरूप (p. 54) kārya-rūpa



• कार्यवत्् [ kārya-vat ]
- a. having business to attend to; busy; having an object: -tā, f. business; -vasa, m. influence of an object: ab. from interested motives; -vinimaya, m. mutual engagement to do something; -vinirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -vipatti, f. failure of an object; -vrittānta, m. fact of a matter; -vyasana, n. failure of an object; -sesha, m. what remains to be done, completion of undertakings; -siddhi, f. success of a matter; -hantri, m. thwarter of one's interest; -hetu, m. motive of carrying out one's designs: ab. with a view to one's interests.
8) कार्यवत्् (p. 54) kārya-vat



• कार्याकार्य [ kārya‿akārya ]
- n. right & wrong (°-).
7) कार्याकार्य (p. 54) kārya̮akārya



• कार्यातिपात [ kārya‿atipāt-a ]
- m. neglect of business: -in, a. neglecting business; -‿adhikārin, m. minister of policy; -‿antara, n. another business; leisure hour: -sakiva, m. companion of a prince's leisure or amusements; -‿apekshin, a. having a special object in view.
25) कार्यातिपात (p. 54) kārya̮atipāt-a



• कार्यार्थ [ kārya‿artha ]
- m. undertaking: -m, ad. for a special end, for the purpose of business or work: -siddhi, f. success of an undertaking; -‿arthin, a. concerned about a matter; demanding justice.
24) कार्यार्थ (p. 54) kārya̮artha

Contents of this page



• कार्यिक [ kāry-ika ]
- a. id.; m. litigant; -in, a. id.; m. official.
56) कार्यिक (p. 54) kāry-ika



• कार्योपेक्षा [ kārya‿upekshā ]
- f. neglect of official duty; -‿uparodha, m. interruption of business.
33) कार्योपेक्षा (p. 54) kārya̮upekshā

Contents of this page



• कार्श्य [ kārs-ya ]
- n. emaciation; smallness; diminution.
32) कार्श्य (p. 54) kārs-ya


Contents of this page


• कार्ष «कार्ष »
Skt: कार्ष «कार्ष » - m. n. bastard myrobalan tree [Terminalia Belerica - Bot.] - SpkSkt

See my note on Terminalia bellirica,



• कार्षक [ kārsha-ka ] = क ा र ् ष क
- m. agriculturist, husband man.
31) कार्षक (p. 54) kārsha-ka


p067c2-b04/ not online

• [kārsha‿āpasa]
- m. n. coin of the weight of a Karsha

Karsha, Karshapaṇa, S. &c. ( ) A weight of gold or silver equal to 16 mįshas, or about 180 troy grains; in Uriya, it is written Karisa, and means a brass weight of four mįṛhas. - H. H. Wilson, 1855, page 265
- https://sizes.com/units/karsha.htm 171213,
See downloaded Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms, etc., by H. H. Wilson, 1855
- HHWilson-JudicialRevenueTerms<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 190410)
UKT 190410: H. H. Wilson writing in 1855, after Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852-1853) has only a few lines on Bur-Myan language in Preface, p.roman024.

"In India, at least as early as the 4th century BCE – 19th century, a unit of mass = 16 suvarna-mashas. Also called a suvarna. Perhaps about 6.8 grams." - https://www.sizes.com/units/karsha.htm 181229



• कार्षिक kars-ika
- a. weighing a Karsha.
30) कार्षिक (p. 54) kārsh-ika



• कार्ष्ण [ kćrshna ]
- a. (ī) coming from the black antelope; belonging to or composed by Krishna; n. hide of the black antelope.
23) कार्ष्ण (p. 54) kaNrshna



• कार्ष्णायस [ kārshna‿ayasa ]
- a. (ī) made of iron; n. iron.
22) कार्ष्णायस (p. 54) kārshna̮ayasa



• कार्ष्ण्य [ kārshn-ya ]
- n. blackness; darkness.
21) कार्ष्ण्य (p. 54) kārshn-ya blackness; darkness.

UKT 140301, 181225: I've to accept Lepha form (or super-L) {kaal~} to be comparable to Repha form (or super-R) {kaar~}.

( end of old p067-1.htm )

Contents of this page



• काल [ ¹. kāla ]
Skt: काल [ ¹. kāla ] - a. (ī) dark blue, black; m. the black in the eye; ep. of Siva. - Mac067c2
  20) काल (p. 54) ¹. kāla
BHS: ¹. «kāla» - adj., black as in Skt., - FE-BHS181c1-b08 
BPal: {kā-la.} - UHS-PMD0312
  UKT from UHS: m. Time, period, death .
. (= {kā-La.}) dark black.
BPal: {kā-La.} - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: mfn. dark black. n. blackness



• काल [ ². kālį ]
- m. due season, appointed or right time (for, d., g., lc., inf., --°); time; opportunity; season; meal-time (of which there are two a day); half a day; hour; age, era; measure, prosody; Time, fate; death, god of death; --°, at the right time; in time, gradually; parah kālah, high time (w. inf.); kālam kri, fix a time for (lc.); kālam āsādya, according to circumstances; in. kālena, in due season; in course of time: -gakkhatā, as time goes on, in course of time; dīrghena--, mahatā-- or bahunā--, after a long time; kenakit--, after some time; tena--, at that time; ab. kālāt, in the long run, in course of time; kālatas, id.; with regard to time; g. dīrghasya or mahatah kālasya, after a long time; kasya kit--, after some time; lc. kālé, at the right or appointed time, opportunely; in time = gradually; -prāpte, when the time has come; -gakkhati, in course of time; -yāte, after the lapse of some time; kasmims kit--, one day; kāle kāle, always at the right time; shashthe--, at the end of the third day: --xhnah, at the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon; pań-kasate--, = after 250 days; ubhau kālau, morning and evening.
19) काल (p. 54) 2. kālį 

© काल [ ². kālį ]
Skt: - m. ... Time, Fate; Death, god of death; --°, at the right time; in time, gradually; - Mac067c2
BHS: ². «kāla» - m. (as in Skt. time, death, etc. )
 - FE-BHS179c2-b09    



• कालक [ kāla-ka ]
- a. dark blue, black; -kańgį, m. pl. N. of a tribe of Asuras; -kanthaka, m. sparrow; -karman, n. death; -kāṅkshin, a. waiting or impatient for the right moment; -kārita, pp. temporary; -kūta, m. kind of poison (esp. that produced at the churning of the ocean); -krita, pp. produced by time; temporary; -krama, m. course of time: in., ab. in course of time; -kshepa, m. waste of time, delay; d. to gain time; -m kri, waste time (w. lc.); -gandikā, f. N. of a river; -gupta, (pp.) m. N. of a Vaisya.
18) कालक (p. 54) kāla-ka



• कालचक्र [ kāla-kakra ]
- n. wheel of time; -gńa, a. knowing the proper time; -gńāna, n. knowledge of time or chronology.
35) कालचक्र (p. 54) kāla-kakra



• कालता [ kāla-tā ]
- f. ¹. seasonableness; ². blackness; -danda, m. wand of death; -dūta, m. harbinger of death; -daurātmya, n. tyranny of time; -dharma, -n, m. law of time = inevitable death; -niyama, m. limitation of time; determination of the terminus ad quem; -nemi, m. N. of an Asura slain by Krishna; N. of a Brāhman.
34) कालता (p. 54) kāla-tā \

terminus ad quem  /ˌtəːmɪnəs ad ˈkwɛm/ - n. the point at which something ends and finishes. an aim or goal
- Google

© [kālanemi]
 -nemi, m. N. of an Asura slain by Krishna; N. of a Brāhman.

See my note on : Kālanemi Asura
There are two characters with the name Kālanemi, one was an Asura, and the other a Brāhman. The story of the Brāhman is told Somadeva in his Ocean Streams of Stories, from:
- http://www.wollamshram.ca/1001/Ocean/Ocean_Main.htm 181230
- https://www.wollamshram.ca/1001/Ocean/oosChapter010.pdf 181230
Kālanemi Brāhman is mentioned in Book02: Kathāmukha, Ch.10, Sec5. Story of Śrīdatta and Mṛigānkavatī. Translation by N M Penzer, 1923, is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- NMPenzer-SomadevaOceanStreamsStories<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 181230)



• कालपक्व [ kāla-pakva ]
- pp. ripened by time; -paryaya, m. course of time; -paryāya, m. id.; -pāsa, m. noose of the god of death; -pāsika, m. hangman; -purusha, m. time personified; minion of the god of death; -prabhu, m. lord of seasons, the moon; -prāpta, pp. brought by time; -bhogin, m. black snake; -megha, m. black cloud.
29) कालपक्व (p. 54) kāla-pakva

Contents of this page



p067c3-b00/ not online

• [kālambya]
- m. N. of a caravanserai

car·a·van·sa·ry also car·a·van·se·rai
- n. pl. car·a·van·sa·ries also car·a·van·se·rais
¹. An inn built around a large court for accommodating caravans at night in the Near or Far East.
². A large inn or hostelry. [French caravanserai from Persian kārvānsarāykārvān caravan sarāy camp, palace; ]
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caravanserai 190410
"Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa and Southeast Europe, most notably the Silk Road."



• कालयवन [ kāla-yavana ]
- m. N. of a Dvīpa; -yāpa, m.: -na, n., -nā, f. procrastination; -yoga, m. conjuncture of time or fate; point of time: -tas, ad. according to circumstances; -loha, n. iron, steel; -vāla, a. having a black tail; -vid, a. knowing the times; -vidyā, f. knowledge of chronology or the calendar; -vibhakti, f. division of time; -vriddhi, f. kind of illegal interest; -vyatīta, pp. for which the right time has passed.
28) कालयवन (p. 54) kāla-yavana



• कालशेय [ kālas-eya ]
- n. butter-milk.
27) कालशेय (p. 54) kālas-eya



• कालशाक [ kāla-sāka ]
- m. a plant; -samrodha, m. protracted retention; -saṅkhyā, f. computation or determination of time; -sarpa, m. a. black snake; -sūtra, n. noose of the god of death; m. n. (also -ka), N. of a hell; -harana, n. loss of time; -hāra, m. id.; gain of time.
26) कालशाक (p. 54) kāla-sāka



• कालागुरु [ kāla‿aguru ]
- m. kind of black aloe; -‿ańgana, n. black ointment; -‿anda-ga, m. black bird = Indian cuckoo; -‿atikramana, n. neglect of the right moment for (g.); -‿atipāta, m. delay; -‿atyaya‿apadishta, pp. lapsed, become void; -‿anala, m. fire of all-destroying time, fire of universal death; -‿anu sārya, n. kind of fragrant benzoin, resin; -‿antara, n. interval of time; favourable moment: in., ab. after the lapse of some time: -kshama, a. brooking delay.
55) कालागुरु (p. 54) kāla̮aguru



• [kālāpaka]/ not online
- n. T. of a grammar



• कालायस [ kāla‿ayasa ]
- n. iron; a. of iron: -dridha, pp. hard or firm as iron.
54) कालायस (p. 54) kāla̮ayasa


p067c3-b07/ not online

• [kāla‿asoka]
- m. N. of a Buddhist king

See my note on Kalasoka-Asoka


Contents of this page



• कालिक [ kāl-ika ]
- a. relating to time; seasonable; lasting as long as (--°).
53) कालिक (p. 54) kāl-ika



• कालिका [ kāl-ikā ]
- f. liver; dark mass of cloud; N. of a river; the goddess Kālī; -purāna, n. T. of a Purāna.
52) कालिका (p. 54) kāl-ikā

© कालिका kal-ika
= क ा ल ि क ा --> {ka-li.ka}
Skt: कालिका [kāl-ikā] - f. liver; dark mass of cloud; N. of a river; the goddess Kālī; - Mac067c3
  50) कालिदास (p. 54) kāli-dāsa


• «kalika»
Skt: «kalika» - m. a curlew - MWilliams:SktDict
BPal: {kā-li.kā}
- - UHS-PMD-PMD-0314
  UKT from UHS: f. {kra.su.} Terminalia citrina fruit with triangular-cross section.

UKT 180419: Usually confused with Terminalia chebula  {hpūn-hka:} which we eat as a vegemate with hot fish-paste. {kra.su.} is used in Traditional Bur-Myan medicine. Triangular- {kra.su.} fruit is almost wholly soluble in ethanol giving a sticky black solution.

I had used this solution in medicinal products of Chemics Laboratories (the predecessor now TIL) just before and after my retirement from Chemistry professorship in 1988.
See Myanmar Medicinal Plants Database, by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL, last update 2006-08-06, in Section 9 : Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hsé:}
-- MP-Para-indx.htm > 1.1. MMPD Akshara index MMPD-indx.htm
• Medial {ka.ra.ric} {ka.} > {kra.su.} • Terminalia citrina • Combrataceae 

See also ¤ A Checklist of Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by
Planning section, Agricultural Dept, Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000.
- Agri2000-indx.htm - update 141130 (link chk 180419)
entry 07-0170: {kra.su.}, common name Hara nut tree, botanical name Terminalia citrina , family Combretaceae


• कालिङ्ग kâliṅga, ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. from the land of the Kaliṅgas; m. man or king of Kaliṅga.
51) कालिङ्ग (p. 54) -ka


p067c3-b11/ not online

• [kālińgara]
- m. N. of a mountain


p067c3-b12/ not online

• कालिदास [ kāli-dāsa ] --> {kā-li.dā-ža.}
- m. (servant of Kālī [meaning the devotee of Goddess Kali]), N. of various poets; the celebrated lyric, epic, and dramatic poet of this name lived in the sixth century A.D.

UKT 140302: Whenever, literary works and personages of the first millennium A.D. in our parts are considered, it is instructive to take the timeline of the Buddhist Emperor Asoka (304–232 BCE), and Nālandā University (ca. 5th - 12th CE) into consideration. Kālidāsa कालिदासः [note the Visarga विसर्गः {wic~sa.pauk} in the name], fl. 5th century CE, was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%81lid%C4%81sa 170226
See my note on Etymology of names .



• कालिन्द [ kālinda ] --> {ka-lain~da.} 
- n. water-melon; ī, f. pat. of the Yamunā.
49) कालिन्द (p. 54) kālinda



• कालिमन्् [ kāl-i-man ]
- m. blackness.
48) कालिमन्् (p. 54) kāl-i-man



• कालिय [ kāl-iya ]
- m. N. of a Nāga; cobra. 
47) कालिय (p. 54) kāl-iya cobra.



• काली [ kālī ]
Skt:  काली [kālī ] - f. the Black goddess, a form of Durgā. -- Mac067c3
  46) काली (p. 54) kālī
BHS: «Kālī »  prob. the name of the well-known Hindu goddess, used as ¹. n. of a yogini. ². n. of a piśācī : ³. n. of a rākṣasī  -- FE-BHS-181c1
Pal: {ka-Li} - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: f. dark-black skinned woman

UKT 140302: Durgā, the Bengali goddess [the first Hindu goddess I came to "know" at the Ramakrisna Soc. in Rangoon in 1946] is fair, but Kālī, the Dravidian goddess is black. To imply that they are the same is an extreme form of what I call Grab-goddism. No wonder Gautama Buddha, expounder of Anatta doctrine is being portrayed by some Hindu-religionists as the ninth avatar of Vishnu of the embodiment of Atta. See my note on Gautama Buddha in Hinduism

UKT 140320: There are various "hues" of the colour "black". Women -- my wife Daw Than Than for one -- are choosy when it comes to "black". It is useful to know that:
• There is no spectral colour as "black". Black is the absence of visible light. As a pigment black is produced by mixing three primary pigment colours:

• There is three kinds of black:
- reddish-black - the colour of Kali
- bluish-black - the colour of Krishna
- greenish-black - the colour of Rama
- I still have to check the info further.


p067c3-b17/ not online

• [kālī-kri]
-- blacken



• कालीन [ kāl-īna ]
- a. relating to the time of (--°).
45) कालीन (p. 54) kāl-īna



• कालीयक [ kāl-īya-ka ]
- m. N. of a Nāga; n. fragrant black wood (sandal or aloe).
44) कालीयक (p. 54) kāl-īya-ka



• कालीविलासिन्् [ kālī-vilāsin ]
- m. husband of Kālī (Siva).
43) कालीविलासिन्् (p. 54) kālī-vilāsin


Contents of this page



• कालुष्य [ kālush-ya ]
- n. turbidness; foulness; unfairness.
42) कालुष्य (p. 54) kālush-ya 


Contents of this page



• कालेचर्या [ kāle-karyā ]
- f. seasonable occupation.
41) कालेचर्या (p. 54) kāle-karyā


p067c3-b23/ not online

• कालेय «kāleya» [kāl-eya]
Skt: - n. a. fragrant wood -- Mac067c3
Skt: कालेय «kāleya» - adj. belonging to kali or the kali age. n. liver, yellow fragrant wood, saffron -- SpkSkt , 


Contents of this page



• कालोरग [ kāla‿uraga ]
- m. black snake.
40) कालोरग (p. 54) kāla̮uraga



• काल्य [ kālya ]
- n. day-break: -m, lc. at day break.
39) काल्य (p. 54) kālya

Contents of this page



• कावन्ध [ kāvandha ]
- a. (ī) trunk-like.
38) कावन्ध (p. 54) kāvandha 


p067c3-b27/ not online

• [kāveri]
- f. N. of a river

Contents of this page

{kā-wya.} / {kā-bya.}

UKT 140303: In the following entries you will see a mix up of Skt-Myan {kā-w~ya.} and Pal-Myan {kā-bya.}. Note that though {w~ya.} is disyllabic, {bya.} is monosyllabic. Checking on {w~ya.} with my Indian friends in Deep River is not effective because all of them do not pronounce their L1, Bengali, Gujarati, and Hindi, very carefully. They are more comfortable speaking English. Most of their children rarely speak their ancestral languages even with their parents who were born and educated in India.

UKT 151105: There are two questions here.
#1 Why are the shapes of Skt-Dev व & ब are so alike?
#2 Why would Mon-Myan speakers need two more consonantal aksharas for the sounds of /ba/ & /be/ ?
See my note on Mon and Sanskrit


• काव्य [ ¹. kāvyį ]
- a. having the qualities of or coming from sages.
37) काव्य (p. 54) ¹. kāvyį

UKT 171217: Be careful of English and Burmese translations. What is a sage and a seer? From Skt-Dev spelling, the two are the same. From AHTD:
sage ¹ - n. 1. One venerated for experience, judgment, and wisdom.
seer - n. ¹. One that sees: an inveterate seer of sights. ². A clairvoyant. ³. A prophet.
From Skt-Dev spelling, I would relate sage to the Bur-Myan {ka.bya} 'a verse', and translate a sage as a wise person, not a poet (versifier) who can be wise or stupid in worldly affairs. From my understanding of clairvoyants - many in Myanmarpré who claim themselves or acclaim by others to be one, a seer is nothing but a person who is good at guessing.


• काव्य [ ². kćvya ]
- a. id.; n. wisdom; seer's art or gift.
36) काव्य (p. 54) ². kaNvya

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Blood-red wood

UKT 170223:

Krimka wood is mentioned in Satapatha Brahmana Part III (SBE41), as translated by Julius Eggeling tr. (1894) at sacred-texts.com
"6:6:2:11. It should be one of krimuka wood. Now, the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung from Pragāpati, strove together. The gods [Dévas], having placed Agni in front, went up to the Asuras. The Asuras cut off the point of that flame held forward. It settled down on this earth, and became that krimuka tree: hence it is sweet, for there is vital essence (in it). Hence also it is red, for it is a flame, that krimuka [p.255] tree being the same as this Agni: it is (in the shape of) fire that he imparts growth to it."

I wonder whether it is {nän.ža-ni}, an essential of {žwé:hswé:} "blood tonic" of Indigenous Burmese medicine. In Pictorial Herbal Dictionary (in Bur-Myan) by Shin Nagathein, 1976, vol. 2, p152 (available in TIL Library at 35 Thantadalan, Sanchaung, Yangon, in ink-on-paper book form), {nän.ža-ni} is given as Skt-Dev: रल च्नदन «rala cindana».

Go back Blood-red-wood-note-b

Contents of this page

Etymology of Names

UKT 140302, 190101 

Whenever, literary works and personages of the first millennium A.D. in our parts are considered, it is instructive to take the timeline of the Buddhist Emperor Asoka (304–232 BCE), and Nālandā University (ca. 5th - 12th CE) into consideration.

Since the great Sanskrit dramatist Kālidāsa कालिदास (fl. 5th century CE) had belonged to the period of  Nālandā University (ca. 5th - 12th CE - a liberal period), he might not even be a Hindu let alone a Saivite Hindu. Thus to relate his name to the Saivite Goddess Kāli as "servant of Kāli " is not proper. I have seen his name being translated as the "black slave".

One of his historical dramas, Sakuntala, was based on the story of seduction of ex-king turned Rishi Vishvamitra {waiž~ža-mait~ta. ra.žé.} विश्वामित्र «viśvā-mitra», the author of Gayatri mantra, probably the oldest "formulas" in Rig Veda, by an apsara-dancer sent by Indra with the specific instruction to distract the Rishi from his work. This story was thus a story based on Vishnuvite Gods and Goddesses.

It should also be noted that Gayatri mantra is also chanted by Shaivite Brahmins, which probably indicated that the mantra was composed long before IE-speakers and Aus-Asi speakers infiltrated into the Indian sub-continent. I opine it had belonged to the Tib-Bur speakers - no wonder Indra had sought to destroy the Rishi.

Unless you realized that modern Hinduism is not one but a "unified" version or versions of three faiths, Shaktism and the belief in Mother Goddess of the Tib-Bur speakers, Vaishnavism (principal male-god Vishnu) of the Indo-European invaders, and Shaivism (principal male-god Siva) of Dravidian invaders [from Africa?], you will be misled when you compare Hinduism (works in Sanskrit) to Buddhism (works in Pali).

See Shakuntala, and Other works by Kalidasa, translated by Arthur W. Ryder, 1914, Sacred Texts ,
- http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sha/ 140302.
See pdf play, 1912, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- AWRyder-KalidasaShakuntala<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 171220)

Go back etymology-note-b

Contents of this page

Gautama Buddha in Hinduism

UKT 140302, 140317, 171220:

Durgā, the Bengali goddess is fair, but Kālī, the Dravidian goddess is black. To imply that they are the same is an extreme form of what I call Grab-goddism. No wonder Gautama Buddha, expounder of Anatta doctrine has been portrayed by some Hindu-religionists as the ninth avatar of Vishnu of the embodiment of Atta.

Religionists are great at making your god their god, of course a minor one, lower in rank than their god. Because of this I have come to regard their so-called old texts or Purana, as nothing more than make up stories to present their religion as the best. Inset shows, Gautama Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu. See Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha_in_Hinduism 140317
In #1. Nilamata Purana (Skt-Dev text, English introduction), by R L Kaniilal, 1924
- RLKaniilal-NilamataPuran<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 190101)
on p006 of Introduction, we find "the acceptance of Buddha as an Avatāra of Viṣṇu was unquestionably established in 1000AD."

When I used the label "Hindu-religionists", I seem to be implying that Hinduism is a unified religion. It is not. The modern form of Hinduism is made up of at least three kinds of adherents: the followers of Vishnu, the followers of Siva, and the followers of Shakti - the Mother Goddess. The followers of the Mother Goddess and other goddesses seem to be the remnants of the original aboriginal peoples of the Indian sub-continent before the incursion of Indo-European speakers - the followers of Vishnu the male god, and the incursion of Dravidian speakers - the followers of Siva the male god. The aboriginal peoples of the Brass Age (not Bronze) were no match militarily against the new comers who use of bronze and steel weapons. The aboriginals were easily overwhelmed and made into servants and later classed as Sudra. Their goddesses were made into consorts of Vishnu and Siva. To take care of the Goddess of Learning, the Mahabrahma-déva (not the same of the Brahmas of Buddhism who were asexual) was invented to marry the Goddess of Learning.

At the time of writing of the Vedas, the present-day Hindu Trinity: Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva were minor gods far less in importance than the king of the heaven - Indra, his messenger - Agni, and peace (sleep and rest) - Soma. We can arrive at this conclusion by counting the number of hymns dedicated to the above gods.

I must note that Gautama Buddha had much respect for the old Vedic rishis who wrote the Vedas than those who promoted the present Trinity because they continue write what they call the Ancient texts up to 16th century AD.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha_in_Hinduism 140302

The Buddha in Hinduism is viewed as an avatar of the god Vishnu. Buddha's teachings deny the authority of the Vedas [1] and consequently Buddhism is generally viewed as a nāstika school (heterodox, literally "It is not so") [2] from the perspective of orthodox Hinduism.

The Buddha is described in important Hindu scriptures, including almost all the major Puranas. It is considered that not all of them refer to the same person: some of them refer to other persons, and some occurrences of "buddha" simply mean "a person possessing buddhi"; most of them, however, refer specifically to the founder of Buddhism. [3] They portray him with two roles: preaching false views in order to delude demons, and criticizing animal sacrifice. [4]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_denominations 140317

Hinduism is the dominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. It comprises three major traditions, Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism, [1] whose followers considered Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti (UKT 170226 also called as Devi - Supreme Source of Energy or Power) to be the supreme deity respectively. [UKT ¶]

UKT 171219: Though not celestial beings such as Déva, and Asura, there are Energy-beings known as Māhātmya. In downloaded pdf text Rajtarangini, vol 1 & 2, by M A Stein, 1900, you'll find a list of Māhātmyas of Kaśmīr Tīrthas on p491 of Note AA
- MAStein-KalhanaRajtarangini02<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 181225)
I still have to find out how they are related, if at all, to Devi Mahatmya text. See:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devi_Mahatmya 171219
"Devi Mahatmya is a text extracted from Markandeya Purana, and constitutes the latter's chapters 81 through 93. [28] The Purana is dated to the ~3rd century CE, [9] and the Devi Mahatmya was added to the Markandeya Purana either in the 5th or 6th century. [3] [4] [5]"

Most of the other deities were either related to them or different forms (incarnations) of these deities. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and many practitioners refer to Hinduism as "the eternal law". (Sanātana Dharma). [2]

Hindus are persons that believe they may obtain moksha (union with Brahman) by practicing either good karma, bhakti, or jnana. The main denominations of Hinduism are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism. These four denominations may share rituals, beliefs, and traditions, but each denomination has a different philosophy on how to achieve life's ultimate goal, Atma Jnana (self-realization). There are also smaller denominations, and newer movements. Cross-denominational influences are the Bhakti-movement, and the six orthodox schools of thought.

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140317

In the Rigveda it is stated that there are 33 deities associated with sky (dyu), earth (prithvi) and the middle realm (antariksha), though a larger number of deities are mentioned in the text. [1] There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Indra, a heroic god, slayer of Vrtra and destroyer of the Vala, liberator of the cows and the rivers; Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods; and Soma the ritual drink dedicated to Indra are the most prominent deities.

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puranas 140317

The Puranas ( {pu.rāN kyūm:}, पुराण «purāṇa», "of ancient times") are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories. Puranas may also be described as a genre of important Hindu religious texts alongside some Jain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. [1]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From various sources: UKT 40302, 140317, 171220:

Religionists are great at making your god their god, of course a minor one, lower in rank than theirs. Because of this I have come to regard their so-called old texts or Purana , as nothing more than make up stories to present their religion as the best. Inset shows, Gautama Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu. In Nilamata Purana, by R L Kaniilal, 1924
- RLKaniilal - NilamataPuran<Ō> / Bkp<Ō> (link chk 1904010)
on p006 of Introduction, we find "the acceptance of Buddha as an Avatāra of Viṣṇu was unquestionably established in 1000AD."

UKT 190410: Do not think that only the Indians are good at creating myths. The Europeans and the Middle Easterners are also creating legends.
Read, the myths of
#1. Barlaam and Josaphat - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barlaam_and_Josaphat 190410
 - Stories of legendary Christian martyrs and saints ... may have been based on that of Gautama Buddha.
#2. Prester John, the : - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prester_John 190410.
 - supposedly Christian King of the East.
Now, what about Myanmars ?

Go back Buddha-Hinduism-note-b

Contents of this page

Kālanemi Asura

- UKT 181231:

Narada and Kamsa - http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39442/39442-h/39442-h.html#narada-and-kansa 181231

Nārada told Kansa: — "The female child was the daughter of Yasodā; Krishna and Rāma are sons of Devaki. Vāsudeva kept them with his friend Nanda out of fear. Those two brothers have killed your spies." In rage the king of Bhoja took his sword to kill Vāsudeva. Nārada prevented him. But the King put Yasudeva and his wife in iron fetters. He then ordered Kesi to kill Rāma and Krishna. He called his ministers together in council. Addressing Chānur and Mushtika he said: — "Rāma and Krishna are to kill us. So Nārada told me." Those two Asuras came ready for Vraja. But Kansa said: "No, you need not go. I shall send for the two brothers and kill them in a wrestling match. So prepare the playground. Place the elephant Kubalayāpida at the entrance and let him kill my enemies. On the fourteenth day of the Moon, let us commence Dhanus Yajna, and let animals be killed in honor of Śiva."

Kansa then sent for Akrūra, one of the chiefs of the Yadu clan. "Akrūra," said he, "Thou art my friend and do the work of a friend. Please go to Vraja. Take this chariot and bring the two sons of Vāsudeva. Tell them, they are to see the Dhanus Yajna and have a sight of the town. Let Nanda and other Gopas come with presents. The elephant shall kill the two boys. Or if perchance they escape, the wrestlers shall do away with them. I will then make easy work of Vāsudeva, my old father Ugrasena, his brother Devaka, the Vrishnis, the Bhojas and the Dasārhas. Then, O friend, the earth will be left without a thorn. Jarāsandha is my guide. Dvivid is my friend. Samvara, Naraka, and Vāna have made alliance with me. With the help of these, I shall kill all kings that are on the side of the Devas. Know this to be my plan." Akrūra said: — "The design is all right. But it may or may not succeed. Even lofty desires are frustrated by unforeseen obstacles. Still man entertains them, to meet with either joy or sorrow. But I will do thy behests."

The council broke up.

... ... ...

Rājā Parikshit asked — "Who was the man and why was he sleeping in the cave?"

Suka replied: — "He was a descendant of the line of Ikshvāku, son of the great King Māndhātā, by name Muchukunda. He had helped the Devas in their fight with the Asuras. When the fight was over, the Devas showed him the cave and asked him to rest there. The Devas blessed him with a long sleep."

When Yavana was killed, Krishna appeared before Muchukunda.

"Who mayest thou be with such overpowering glory?" the latter asked.

Krishna replied: — "My births and deeds are infinite. Even I cannot count them. At the request of Brahmā, I am at present born in the line of Yadu as the son of Vāsudeva, for the protection of religion and for the rooting out of the Asuras. I have killed Kansa who is no other than Kalanemi. I have killed Pralamba and others. This Yavana was also killed by me, by means of the fire from your eyes. I have now come here to favor thee, for I am bound by affection to my votaries. Ask what boon thou likest. Thou shalt have all thou desirest."

Muchu Kunda remembered the foresaying of Garga that there was to be a Divine Incarnation in the 28th Kali Yuga and he therefore knew Krishna to be the divine Lord. He asked for no boon but devotion to Krishna.

"Truly" said Krishna, "thy mind is pure and noble for it is not tempted by boons. Those that are wholly devoted to me do not yield to desires. Those that are not devoted may control their mind by Prānāyama and other practices but, as their desires are not overcome, they are found to go astray. Roam about the Earth, with mind fixed in me. Thy devotion shall never fail. Wash away the impurities of the present life with devoted concentration of the mind. In the next birth thou shalt be born as a Brāhmana and become the greatest friend of all beings, and thou shalt then fully attain me."

Muchu Kunda came out of the mountain cave. He found that the animals and trees were all short-sized and hence inferred it was Kali Yuga. He made his way to the north and engaged himself in devotional practices in the Badari Asram of Nara and Nārāyana.

(What has been the next birth of Muchu Kunda? How has he befriended the universe! Or is he still to come?)

Krishna came back to Mathurā. He killed the Mlechha troops. His men and cattle were carrying the booty to Dvārakā. When on the way, Rāma and Krishna were attacked by Jara Sandha with a large army. The brothers feigned a flight. Jara Sandha chased them with his army. They climbed up a mountain. Jara Sandha made a search, but could not find them. He then set fire to the mountain sides. The brothers jumped down eleven Yojanas and made their way to Dvārakā.

-Go back Kalanemi-note-b

Contents of this page

Kālāsoka and Asoka


From: ¤ Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 171213

Son of Susunāga and king of Magadha for twenty-eight years. The tenth year of his reign completed one hundred years from the date of the Buddha's death.

During the reign of Kālāsoka the Vajjian heresy appeared among the Sangha, and at first the king took the side of the Vajjians. Later, his sister Nandā persuaded him to transfer his patronage to the orthodox monks, and a convocation was held, with his support, at the Vālikārāma in Vesāli, at which the Vajjians were proved in the wrong. (Mhv.iv.7, 8, 9, 31, 38, 39, 42, 63; Dpv.iv.44, 52; v.25, 80, 99; Sp i.33).

The names of his ten sons were: Bhaddasena, Korandavanna, Mangura, Sabbańjaha, Jālika, Ubhaka, Sańjaya, Korabya, Nandivaddhana, and Pańcamaka. Mbv. p.98.

There is great difference of opinion as to the identity of Kālāsoka. Some hold that he is the same as Kākavanna of the Purānas and Udāyin of the Jaina traditions, and that these names are merely other appellations of Udayabhadda of the Pali sources. Kālāsoka is credited with having removed the capital of Magadha from Rājagaha to Pātaliputta. The whole question of Kālāsoka is discussed by Geiger in his Introd. to the Mhv.Trs.xliii.f.


From: ¤ Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))

King of Magadha {ā-žau:ka. mķn:}. He was the son of Bindusāra. Bindusāra had sixteen wives who bore him 101 sons.

The chief Pāli sources of information regarding Asoka are Dīpavamsa (chaps. i., v., vi., vii., xi., etc.), Mahāvamsa (v., xi., xx., etc.),

Samantapāsādikā (pp. 35 ff. ). Other sources are the Divyāvadāna passim, and the Avadānasataka ii.200ff. For an exhaustive discussion of the sources and their contents see Prszlyski, La Legende de l'Empereur Asoka.

The Pāli Chronicles (Dīpavamsa and Mahāvamsa) mention only three of the sons, viz. Sumana (Susīma according to the northern legends) the eldest, Asoka, and Tissa (uterine brother of Asoka) the youngest. The Mahāvamsa Tīka (p.125; Mbv.98. In the northern tradition, e.g., Asokāvadānamālā, she is called Subhadrāngī, daughter of a brahmin of Campā) gives the name of his mother as Dhammā and calls her Aggamahesī (Bindusāra's chief queen); she belonged to the Moriyavamsa. The preceptor of Dhammā's family was an ājīvaka called Janasāna (which probably explains Asoka's earlier patronage of the ājīvakas).

In his youth Asoka was appointed Governor of Avanti with his capital at Ujjeni. The Divy. says he was in Takkasilā with headquarters in Uttarāpatha, where he superseded Susīma and quelled a rebellion. When Bindusāra lay on his death-bed, Asoka left Ujjeni and came to Pātalīputta where he made himself master of the city and possessor of the throne. He is stated in the Mahāvamsa (v.20; Mbv.98) to have killed all his brothers except Tissa that he might accomplish his purpose, and to have been called Candāsoka on account of this outrage (Mhv.v.189). It is impossible to say how much truth there is in this account of the accession. Asoka's Rock Edicts seem to indicate that he had numerous brothers, sisters and relations alive at the time they were written in Pātaliputta and other towns (see Mookherji, Asoka, pp. 3-6). His brother Tissa he appointed as his uparāja (advisor) (Mhv.v.33), but Tissa became a religious devotee attaining arahantship. The Theragāthā Commentary refers to another younger brother of Asoka, Vitasoka, who also became an arahant. (i.295f. The northern works give quite a different account of his brothers, see Mookherji, p.6).

Asoka had several wives. His first wife was the daughter of a merchant of Vedisagiri, whom he met when stopping at the merchant's house on his way to Ujjeni (Mhv.xiii.8ff). Her name was Devī, also called Vedisa-Mahādevī, and she was a Sākiyan, descended from a Sākiyan family who migrated to Vedisa to escape from Vidūdabha {wi.šu-ša.Ba. mķn:ža:} (Mbv., pp.98, 116). Of Devī were born a son Mahinda, and a daughter Sanghamittā, who became the wife of Aggibrahmā and mother of Sumana. Devī evidently did not follow Asoka to Pātaliputta, for his aggamahesī (chief-queen) there was Asandhamittā (Mhv.v.85). Asandhamittā died in the thirtieth year of Asoka's reign, and four years later he raised Tissarakkhā to the rank of queen. Mhv.xx.1-3. The Allahabad Pillar Inscription mentions another queen, Kāruvākī, mother of Tivara. The Divy. (chap. xxvii.) gives another, Padmāvatī, Kunāla's mother. Besides the children mentioned above, names of others are given: Jalauka, Cārumatī (Mookherji. p.9).

According to Mahāvamsa (v.21, 22), Asoka's accession was 218 years after the Buddha's death and his coronation was four years later. The chronicles (v.22ff) contain various stories of his miraculous powers. His command spread a yojana into the air and a yojana under the earth. The devas supplied him daily with water from the Anotatta Lake and with other luxuries from elsewhere. Yakkhas, Nāgas and even mice and karavīka birds ministered to his comfort, and thoughtful animals came and died outside his kitchen in order to provide him with food.

At first Asoka maintained the alms instituted by his father, but soon, being disappointed in the recipients, he began looking out for holy men. It was then that he saw from his window, his nephew, the young novice Nigrodha. Owing to their friendship in a past birth [Asoka, Devanampiyatissa and Nigrodha had been brothers, traders in honey, and they gave honey to a Pacceka Buddha. Asandhamittā had been the maiden who showed the honey-shop to the Pacceka Buddha. The story is given in Mhv.v.49ff], Asoka was at once drawn to him and invited him into the palace. Nigrodha preached to him the Appamādavagga and the king was greatly pleased. He ceased his benefactions to other religious orders and transferred his patronage to Nigrodha and members of the Buddhist Order. His wealth, which, according to the Samantapāsādikā (i.52), amounted to 500,000 pieces daily, he now spent in doing acts of piety - giving 100,000 to Nigrodha to be used in any manner he wished, a like sum for the offering of perfumes and flowers at the Buddha's shrines, 100,000 for the preaching of the Dhamma, 100,000 for the provision of comforts for members of the Order, and the remainder for medicines for the sick. To Nigrodha, in addition to other gifts, he sent sets of robes three times each day, placing them on the back of an elephant, adorned by festoons of flowers. Nigrodha gave these robes to other monks (MA.ii.931).

Having learnt from Moggaliputta-Tissa that there were 84,000 sections of the Dhamma, he built in various towns an equal number of vihāras, and in Pātaliputta he erected the Asokārāma. With the aid of the Nāga king Mahākāla, he created a life-size figure of the Buddha, to which he made great offerings.

His two children, Mahinda and Sanghamittā, aged respectively twenty and eighteen, he ordained under Moggaliputta-Tissa and Dhammapālā, in the sixth year of his reign (MA.v.197, 209). This raised him from a paccadāyaka to a sāsanadāyādin.

In order to purge the Order of undesirable monks and heretical doctrines, Moggaliputta-Tissa held the Third Council under the king's patronage. It is said that the pious monks refused to hold the uposatha with those they considered unworthy. The king, desirous of bringing about unity in the Sangha, sent a minister to restore amity, but the minister, misunderstanding his orders, beheaded many holy monks, being at last stopped by the king's brother Tissa, who was then a monk (MA.vs.240ff).

At the conclusion of the Council, held in the seventeenth year of his reign (Ibid., 280; in the northern texts Moggaliputta-Tissa's name is given as Upagupta. It was for this Council that the Kathāvatthu was written), Asoka sent forth Theras {hté-ra.} to propagate the Buddha's religion:

(Ibid., xii.1-8. For particulars of these missions and identification of the places mentioned, see under the different names; this list appears also in the Samantapāsādikā, where further interesting details are given. For a discussion on them see Mookherji, pp.33ff). In the eighteenth year of his reign he sent to Lankā, at Devanampiyatissa's request, Sanghamittā, with a branch of the great Bodhi Tree at Buddhagayā (Mhv.xx.1). A little earlier he had sent by his grandson Sumana, some relics of the Buddha and the Buddha's alms-bowl to be deposited in the thūpas {htu-pa-roan sé-ti} of Lankā (Mhv.xvii.10f).

Asoka reigned for thirty-seven years (Mhv.xx.6). In his later life he came to be called Dhammāsoka on account of his pious deeds (Mhv.v.189). The Dīpavamsa gives his name in several places as Piyadassī. E.g., vi.1, 2, 25. The title Devānampiya used by Asoka in his inscriptions was also used by Tissa, Asoka's contemporary in Ceylon, and by Asoka's grandson Dasaratha (Nāgarjunī Hill Cave Inscription). It was used also by other kings in Ceylon: Vankanāsika Tissa, Gajabāhukagāminī and Mahallaka-Nāga (Ep. Zeyl. i.60.f).

The Chronicles state that Asoka and Devanampiya Tissa of Ceylon had been friends - though they had never seen each other - even before Mahinda's mission to Ceylon. Tissa had sent him, as a friendly gesture, various gifts, and Asoka had returned the courtesy. He sent an embassy of his chosen ministers, bearing gifts marvellous in splendour, that Tissa might go through a second coronation ceremony, and the messengers were directed to give this special message to the king: "I have taken refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and declared myself a follower of the religion of the Sākyaputta. Seek then, even thou, oh best of men, converting thy mind with believing heart, refuge in these best of gems." (Mhv.xi.18-36)

The Milindapanha (p.121) mentions an encounter of Asoka with a courtesan of Pātalīputta, Bindumatī, who, in order to show the king the power of an Act of Truth, made the waters of the Ganges to flow back.

According to the Petavatthu Atthakathā (244ff) there was a king of Surattha, called Pingala, who used to visit Asoka in order to give him counsel. Perhaps he was an old friend or tutor of the king.

Asoka is called a dīpacakkavatti as opposed to padesarājās like Bimbisāra and Pasenadi (Sp.ii.309).

Asoka had three palaces for the three seasons: Mahāsappika, Moragīva and Mangala (Ras.i.93).

Go back Kalasoka-Asoka-note-b

Contents of this page

Mon and Sanskrit

UKT 151105, 171217:

There are two questions here:
#1 Why are Skt-Dev व & ब are so alike?
#2 Why would Mon-Myan speakers need two more consonantal aksharas for the sounds of /ba/ & /be/.

 #1 Probable answer: It appears that Skt-Dev did not have the phoneme /b/ and a glyph to represent it. It has /w/ and its corresponding glyph व . To make up for this, Skt-Dev borrowed the glyph from /w/

व + diagonal line --> ब

I have to make this assumption to compare Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan.

 #2 Probable answer: Listen carefully to Mon-Myan 
- Labial - bk-cndl-Mon-row5<))
- Approximants of row#7 - bk-cndl-Mon-row7<))
I cannot hear any labio-dentals in row#5. Yet the only probable explanation that I can give at present is that Mon had followed Skt and had /f/ and /v/. It needed plosive-stops and had introduced {ßa.} /ba/ & {ßé} /bé/. It is because of this argument I hold that Mon-Myan is more close to Skt-Dev than to Pal-Myan.
However listening to the above sound clips has convinced me that there are no /f/ and /v/ in Mon-Myan. Yet English and Sanskrit need them and so I have to invent two glyphs: {fa.} and {va.} .

Go back Mon-Skt-note-b

Contents of this page

Terminalia bellirica

Skt: कार्ष «कार्ष » - m. n. bastard myrobalan tree [Terminalia Belerica - Bot.] - SpkSkt

From Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_bellirica 181229

Terminalia bellirica, known as bahera or beleric or bastard myrobalan, (Skt: Vibhitaka विभीतक, [2] Aksha अक्ष [3]), is a large deciduous tree common on plains and lower hills in Southeast Asia, where it is also grown as an avenue tree. The basionym is Myrobalanus bellirica Gaertn. (Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 90, t. 97. 1791). William Roxburgh transferred M. bellirica to Terminalia as "T. bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.". This spelling error is now widely used, causing confusion. The correct name is Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. [4]

The leaves are about 15 cm long and crowded toward the ends of the branches. It is considered a good fodder for cattle. Terminalia bellirica seeds have an oil content of 40%, whose fatty-acid methyl ester meets all of the major biodiesel requirements in the USA (ASTM D 6751-02, ASTM PS 121-99), Germany (DIN V 51606) and European Union (EN 14214). [5] The seeds are called bedda nuts. [6] 

In traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine, Beleric is known as "Bibhitaki" (Marathi: "Behada or Bhenda") (Terminalia bellirica). Its fruit is used in the popular Indian herbal rasayana treatment triphala. In Sanskrit it is called vibhītaka विभीतक.

Go back Terminalia bellirica-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file