Update: 2017-06-04 09:54 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{kaar~} : Repha on long a : contd.
{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}


UKT notes :
Blood-red wood {nn.a-ni}?
Etymology of Names
Gautama Buddha in Hinduism
Mon and Sanskrit

UKT 140317: Religionists are great at making your god their god, of course a minor one, lower in rank than their god. Because of this I have come to regard their old texts as nothing more than make up stories to present their religion as the best. Inset shows, Gautama Buddha as an avatar of Vishnu. See Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha_in_Hinduism 140317

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{kaar~} : Repha on long a : contd.





कार्पटिक [ krpat-ika ]
- m. poorly clad pilgrim.



कार्पण्य [ krpan-ya ]
- n. poor-spiritedness; poverty; meanness, avarice; compassion.



कार्पाण [ krpn ]
- n. sword-fight.



कार्पास [ krpsa ]
- n. cotton; cotton cloth; a. made of cotton: , f. cotton shrub; -ka, a. made of cotton; -tntava, n. cotton cloth; -sautrika, n. id.



कार्पासास्थि [ krpsa‿asthi ]
- n. seed of the cotton shrub.



कार्पासिक [ krps-ika ]
- a. () made of cotton; -ik, f. *cotton shrub.

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कार्मण [ krman-a ]
- a. relating to or proceeding from action; enchanting (-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); n. sorcery, magic; -ika, a. produced by magic.



कार्मरङ्ग [ krma-raṅga ]
- a. deep red.



कार्मार [ krmr ]
- m. smith.



- figured web



[krm-uka ]
- . a. efficacious; . a. (i.) made of Krimuka wood; n. bow; -bhrit , a. bearing a bow

See my note on Blood-red wood {nn.a-ni}?



कार्मुकाय [ krmuk-ya ]
- den. . represent a bow.



कार्मुकिन्् [ krmuk-in ]
- a. wearing a bow.


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कार्य [ kr-y ]
- fp. to be done, made, performed, employed, &c. (v. √kri); n. design, purpose, object, interest; duty; business; service; matter, affair; lawsuit; effect, product: -m, with in. of thing and g. of pers., something is of use to, some one cares about; in. on account of.

कार्य [ kr-y ]
Skt: कार्य [ kr-y ] - ... n. design, purpose, object, interest; ... - Mac067c1
Skt: कार्य - kārya - n. function, act, deed - SpkSkt


कार्यकरणापेक्षा [ krya-karana‿apeksh ]
- f. view to carrying out one's design; -kartri, m. promoter of the cause of (g.); -krana, n. a special object as a cause, special reason: -tas, ad. from special motives, -tva, n. being effect and cause; -kla, m. time for action; -kintaka, m. manager of a business.



कार्यतस्् [ krya-tas ]
- ad. as a matter of fact; -t, f., -tva, n. fact of being a product or effect; -darsana, n. (legal) investigation of a case; -darsin, a. sagacious, acute; -dhvamsa, m. abandonment of a cause; -nirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -parikkheda, m. correct judgment of a case.



कार्यरूप [ krya-rpa ]
- a. having the form of a product (ph.).



कार्यवत्् [ krya-vat ]
- a. having business to attend to; busy; having an object: -t, f. business; -vasa, m. influence of an object: ab. from interested motives; -vinimaya, m. mutual engagement to do something; -vinirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -vipatti, f. failure of an object; -vrittnta, m. fact of a matter; -vyasana, n. failure of an object; -sesha, m. what remains to be done, completion of undertakings; -siddhi, f. success of a matter; -hantri, m. thwarter of one's interest; -hetu, m. motive of carrying out one's designs: ab. with a view to one's interests.



कार्याकार्य [ krya‿akrya ]
- n. right & wrong (-).



कार्यातिपात [ krya‿atipt-a ]
- m. neglect of business: -in, a. neglecting business; -‿adhikrin, m. minister of policy; -‿antara, n. another business; leisure hour: -sakiva, m. companion of a prince's leisure or amusements; -‿apekshin, a. having a special object in view.



कार्यार्थ [ krya‿artha ]
- m. undertaking: -m, ad. for a special end, for the purpose of business or work: -siddhi, f. success of an undertaking; -‿arthin, a. concerned about a matter; demanding justice.


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कार्यिक [ kry-ika ]
- a. id.; m. litigant; -in, a. id.; m. official.



कार्योपेक्षा [ krya‿upeksh ]
- f. neglect of official duty; -‿uparodha, m. interruption of business.

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कार्श्य [ krs-ya ]
- n. emaciation; smallness; diminution.


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कार्षक [ krsha-ka ]
- m. agriculturist, husband man.



- m. n. coin of the weight of a Karsha



कार्षिक kars-ika
- a. weighing a Karsha.



कार्ष्ण [ krshna ]
- a. () coming from the black antelope; belonging to or composed by Krishna; n. hide of the black antelope.



कार्ष्णायस [ krshna‿ayasa ]
- a. () made of iron; n. iron.



कार्ष्ण्य [ krshn-ya ]
- n. blackness; darkness.

( end of old p067-1.htm )

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काल [ . kla ]
Skt: काल [ . kla ] - a. () dark blue, black; m. the black in the eye; ep. of Siva. - Mac067c2
BHS: . kāla - adj., black as in Skt., - FE-BHS179c2
Pal: {ka-la.} - UHS-PMD0312
  UKT from UHS: m. Time, period, death .
. (= {ka-La.}) dark black.
Pal: {ka-La.} - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: mfn. dark black. n. blackness



काल [ . kl ]
- m. due season, appointed or right time (for, d., g., lc., inf., --); time; opportunity; season; meal-time (of which there are two a day); half a day; hour; age, era; measure, prosody; Time, fate; death, god of death; --, at the right time; in time, gradually; parah klah, high time (w. inf.); klam kri, fix a time for (lc.); klam sdya, according to circumstances; in. klena, in due season; in course of time: -gakkhat, as time goes on, in course of time; drghena--, mahat-- or bahun--, after a long time; kenakit--, after some time; tena--, at that time; ab. klt, in the long run, in course of time; klatas, id.; with regard to time; g. drghasya or mahatah klasya, after a long time; kasya kit--, after some time; lc. kl, at the right or appointed time, opportunely; in time = gradually; -prpte, when the time has come; -gakkhati, in course of time; -yte, after the lapse of some time; kasmims kit--, one day; kle kle, always at the right time; shashthe--, at the end of the third day: --xhnah, at the sixth hour of the day, i.e. at noon; pa-kasate--, = after 250 days; ubhau klau, morning and evening.


काल [ . kl ]
Skt: - m. ... Time, Fate; Death, god of death; --, at the right time; in time, gradually; - Mac067c2
BHS: . kāla - m. (as in Skt. time, death, etc. )
 - FE-BHS179c2    



कालक [ kla-ka ]
- a. dark blue, black; -kag, m. pl. N. of a tribe of Asuras; -kanthaka, m. sparrow; -karman, n. death; -kṅkshin, a. waiting or impatient for the right moment; -krita, pp. temporary; -kta, m. kind of poison (esp. that produced at the churning of the ocean); -krita, pp. produced by time; temporary; -krama, m. course of time: in., ab. in course of time; -kshepa, m. waste of time, delay; d. to gain time; -m kri, waste time (w. lc.); -gandik, f. N. of a river; -gupta, (pp.) m. N. of a Vaisya.



कालचक्र [ kla-kakra ]
- n. wheel of time; -ga, a. knowing the proper time; -gna, n. knowledge of time or chronology.



कालता [ kla-t ]
- f. . seasonableness; . blackness; -danda, m. wand of death; -dta, m. harbinger of death; -daurtmya, n. tyranny of time; -dharma, -n, m. law of time = inevitable death; -niyama, m. limitation of time; determination of the terminus ad quem; -nemi, m. N. of an Asura slain by Krishna; N. of a Brhman.

terminus ad quem  /ˌtəːmɪnəs ad ˈkwɛm/ - n. the point at which something ends and finishes. an aim or goal
- Google



कालपक्व [ kla-pakva ]
- pp. ripened by time; -paryaya, m. course of time; -paryya, m. id.; -psa, m. noose of the god of death; -psika, m. hangman; -purusha, m. time personified; minion of the god of death; -prabhu, m. lord of seasons, the moon; -prpta, pp. brought by time; -bhogin, m. black snake; -megha, m. black cloud.

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- m. N. of a caravanserai

caravansary also caravanserai
- n. pl. caravansaries also caravanserais
. An inn built around a large court for accommodating caravans at night in the Near or Far East.
. A large inn or hostelry. [French caravanserai from Persian kārvānsarāykārvān caravan sarāy camp, palace; ]



कालयवन [ kla-yavana ]
- m. N. of a Dvpa; -ypa, m.: -na, n., -n, f. procrastination; -yoga, m. conjuncture of time or fate; point of time: -tas, ad. according to circumstances; -loha, n. iron, steel; -vla, a. having a black tail; -vid, a. knowing the times; -vidy, f. knowledge of chronology or the calendar; -vibhakti, f. division of time; -vriddhi, f. kind of illegal interest; -vyatta, pp. for which the right time has passed.



कालशेय [ klas-eya ]
- n. butter-milk.



कालशाक [ kla-ska ]
- m. a plant; -samrodha, m. protracted retention; -saṅkhy, f. computation or determination of time; -sarpa, m. a. black snake; -stra, n. noose of the god of death; m. n. (also -ka), N. of a hell; -harana, n. loss of time; -hra, m. id.; gain of time.



कालागुरु [ kla‿aguru ]
- m. kind of black aloe; -‿agana, n. black ointment; -‿anda-ga, m. black bird = Indian cuckoo; -‿atikramana, n. neglect of the right moment for (g.); -‿atipta, m. delay; -‿atyaya‿apadishta, pp. lapsed, become void; -‿anala, m. fire of all-destroying time, fire of universal death; -‿anu srya, n. kind of fragrant benzoin, resin; -‿antara, n. interval of time; favourable moment: in., ab. after the lapse of some time: -kshama, a. brooking delay.



- n. T. of a grammar



कालायस [ kla‿ayasa ]
- n. iron; a. of iron: -dridha, pp. hard or firm as iron.



- m. N. of a Buddhist king

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UKT 140301: {kaal~}-lepha form (or super-L) is not really necessary. Yet to be comparable to {kaar~}-repha form (or super-R), we will note that this phoneme is permissible.


कालिक [ kl-ika ]
- a. relating to time; seasonable; lasting as long as (--).



कालिका [ kl-ik ]
- f. liver; dark mass of cloud; N. of a river; the goddess Kl; -purna, n. T. of a Purna.

कालिका kal-ika
= क ा ल ि क ा --> {ka-li.ka}
Skt: कालिका [kl-ik] - f. liver; dark mass of cloud; N. of a river; the goddess Kl; - Mac067c3
Pal: {ka-li.ka}
- - UHS-PMD-PMD-0314

UKT from UHS: f. {kra.su.} Terminalia citrina fruit with triangular-cross section.

UKT 140320: Usually confused with Terminalia chebula  {hpn-hka:} which we eat as a vegemate with hot fish-paste. {kra.su.} is used in Traditional Bur-Myan medicine. Triangular- {kra.su.} fruit is almost wholly soluble in ethanol giving a sticky black solution. I had used this solution in medicinal products of Chemics Laboratories (the predecessor now TIL) just before and after my retirement from Chemistry professorship in 1988. See Myanmar Medicinal Plants Database, by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL, last update 2006-08-06,
-- MMPD-indx.htm (link chk 140320)
MMPD Akshara Index - r1c1kaM.htm (link chk 140320)



कालिङ्ग kâliṅga, ˚क [ -ka ]
- a. from the land of the Kaliṅgas; m. man or king of Kaliṅga.



- m. N. of a mountain



कालिदास [ kli-dsa ]
--> {ka-li.da-a.}
- m. (servant of Kl), N. of various poets; the celebrated lyric, epic, and dramatic poet of this name lived in the sixth century A.D.

UKT 140302: Whenever, literary works and personages of the first millennium A.D. in our parts are considered, it is instructive to take the timeline of the Buddhist Emperor Asoka (304232 BCE), and Nālandā University (ca. 5th - 12th CE) into consideration. Kālidāsa कालिदासः [note the Visarga विसर्गः {wic~sa.pauk} in the name], fl. 5th century CE, was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%81lid%C4%81sa 170226
See my note on Etymology of names .



कालिन्द [ klinda ]
--> {ka-lain~da.} 
- n. water-melon; , f. pat. of the Yamun.



कालिमन्् [ kl-i-man ]
- m. blackness.



कालिय [ kl-iya ]
- m. N. of a Nga; cobra. 



काली [ kl ]
Skt:  काली [kl ] - f. the Black goddess, a form of Durg. -- Mac067c3
BHS: Kālī   prob. the name of the well-known Hindu goddess, used as . n. of a yogini. . n. of a piśācī : . n. of a rākṣasī  -- FE-BHS-181c1
Pal: {ka-Li} - UHS-PMD0315
  UKT from UHS: f. dark-black skinned woman

UKT 140302: Durg, the Bengali goddess [the first Hindu goddess I came to "know" at the Ramakrisna Soc. in Rangoon in 1946] is fair, but Kl, the Dravidian goddess is black. To imply that they are the same is an extreme form of what I call Grab-goddism. No wonder Gautama Buddha, expounder of Anatta doctrine is being portrayed by some Hindu-religionists as the ninth avatar of Vishnu of the embodiment of Atta. See my note on Gautama Buddha in Hinduism

UKT 140320: There are various "hues" of the colour "black". Women -- my wife Daw Than Than for one -- are choosy when it comes to "black". It is useful to know that:
There is no spectral colour as "black". Black is the absence of visible light. As a pigment black is produced by mixing three primary pigment colours:

There is three kinds of black:
- reddish-black - the colour of Kali
- bluish-black - the colour of Krishna
- greenish-black - the colour of Rama
- I still have to check the info further.



-- blacken



कालीन [ kl-na ]
- a. relating to the time of (--).



कालीयक [ kl-ya-ka ]
- m. N. of a Nga; n. fragrant black wood (sandal or aloe).



कालीविलासिन्् [ kl-vilsin ]
- m. husband of Kl (Siva).


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कालुष्य [ klush-ya ]
- n. turbidness; foulness; unfairness.


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कालेचर्या [ kle-kary ]
- f. seasonable occupation.



कालेय kāleya [kl-eya]
Skt: - n. a. fragrant wood -- Mac067c3
Skt: कालेय kāleya - adj. belonging to kali or the kali age. n. liver, yellow fragrant wood, saffron -- SpkSkt , 


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कालोरग [ kla‿uraga ]
- m. black snake.



काल्य [ klya ]
- n. day-break: -m, lc. at day break.

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कावन्ध [ kvandha ]
- a. () trunk-like.



- f. N. of a river

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{ka-wya.} / {ka-bya.}

UKT 140303: In the following entries you will see a mix up of Skt-Myan {ka-w~ya.} and Pal-Myan {ka-bya.}. Note that though {w~ya.} is disyllabic, {bya.} is monosyllabic. Checking on {w~ya.} with my Indian friends in Deep River is not effective because all of them do not pronounce their L1, Bengali, Gujarati, and Hindi, very carefully. They are more comfortable speaking English. Most of their children rarely speak their ancestral languages even with their parents who were born and educated in India.

UKT 151105: There are two questions here.
#1 Why are the shapes of Skt-Dev व & ब are so alike?
#2 Why would Mon-Myan speakers need two more consonantal aksharas for the sounds of /ba/ & /be/ ?
See my note on Mon and Sanskrit


काव्य [ . kvy ]
- a. having the qualities of or coming from sages.



काव्य [ . kvya ]
- a. id.; n. wisdom; seer's art or gift.


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UKT notes

Blood-red wood

UKT 170223:

Krimka wood is mentioned in Satapatha Brahmana Part III (SBE41), as translated by Julius Eggeling tr. (1894) at sacred-texts.com
"6:6:2:11. It should be one of krimuka wood. Now, the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung from Pragpati, strove together. The gods [Dvas], having placed Agni in front, went up to the Asuras. The Asuras cut off the point of that flame held forward. It settled down on this earth, and became that krimuka tree: hence it is sweet, for there is vital essence (in it). Hence also it is red, for it is a flame, that krimuka [p.255] tree being the same as this Agni: it is (in the shape of) fire that he imparts growth to it."

I wonder whether it is {nn.a-ni}, an essential of {w:hsw:} "blood tonic" of Indigenous Burmese medicine. In Pictorial Herbal Dictionary (in Bur-Myan) by Shin Nagathein, 1976, vol. 2, p152 (available in TIL Library at 35 Thantadalan, Sanchaung, Yangon, in ink-on-paper book form), {nn.a-ni} is given as Skt-Dev: रल च्नदन rala cindana.

Go back Blood-red-wood-note-b

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Etymology of Names

UKT 140302 

Whenever, literary works and personages of the first millennium A.D. in our parts are considered, it is instructive to take the timeline of the Buddhist Emperor Asoka (304232 BCE), and Nālandā University (ca. 5th - 12th CE) into consideration.

Since the great Sanskrit dramatist Kālidāsa कालिदास (fl. 5th century CE) had belonged to this period, he might not even be a Hindu let alone a Saivite Hindu. Thus to relate his name to the Saivite Goddess Kāli as "servant of Kāli " is not proper. I have seen his name being translated as the "black slave".

One of his historical dramas, Sakuntala, was based on the story of seduction of ex-king turned Rishi Vishvamitra विश्वामित्र viśvā-mitra, the author of Gayatri mantra, probably the oldest "formulas" in Rig Veda, by an apsara-dancer sent by Indra with the specific instruction to distract the Rishi from his work. This story was thus a story based on Vishnuvite Gods and Goddesses.

Unless you realized that modern Hinduism is not one but a "unified" version or versions of three faiths, Shaktism and the belief in Mother Goddess of the Tib-Bur speakers, Vaishnavism (principal male-god Vishnu) of the Indo-European invaders, and Shaivism (principal male-god Siva) of Dravidian invaders [from Africa?], you will be misled when you compare Hinduism (works in Sanskrit) to Buddhism (works in Pali). See my note on Three faiths within Hindusim & the Second Coming in - p065-1.htm (link chk 140302).

See Shakuntala, and Other works by Kalidasa, translated by Arthur W. Ryder, 1914, Sacred Texts , http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sha/ 140302.

Go back etymology-note-b

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Gautama Buddha in Hinduism

UKT 140302, 140317:

Durg, the Bengali goddess is fair, but Kl, the Dravidian goddess is black. To imply that they are the same is an extreme form of what I call Grab-goddism. No wonder Gautama Buddha, expounder of Anatta doctrine has been portrayed by some Hindu-religionists as the ninth avatar of Vishnu of the embodiment of Atta.

When I used the label "Hindu-religionists", I seem to be implying that Hinduism is a unified religion. It is not. The modern form of Hinduism is made up of at least three kinds of adherents: the followers of Vishnu, the followers of Siva, and the followers of Shakti - the Mother Goddess. The followers of the Mother Goddess and other goddesses seem to be the remnants of the original aboriginal peoples of the Indian sub-continent before the incursion of Indo-European speakers - the followers of Vishnu the male god, and the incursion of Dravidian speakers - the followers of Siva the male god. The aboriginal peoples of the Brass Age (not Bronze) were no match militarily against the new comers who use of bronze and steel weapons. The aboriginals were easily overwhelmed and made into servants and later classed as Sudra. Their goddesses were made into consorts of Vishnu and Siva. To take care of the Goddess of Learning, the Mahabrahma-dva (not the same of the Brahmas of Buddhism who were asexual) was invented to marry the Goddess of Learning.

At the time of writing of the Vedas, the present-day Hindu Trinity: Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva were minor gods far less in importance than the king of the heaven - Indra, his messenger - Agni, and peace (sleep and rest) - Soma. We can arrive at this conclusion by counting the number of hymns dedicated to the above gods.

I must note that Gautama Buddha had much respect for the old Vedic rishis who wrote the Vedas than those who promoted the present Trinity because they continue write what they call the Ancient texts up to 16th century AD.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddha_in_Hinduism 140302

The Buddha in Hinduism is viewed as an avatar of the god Vishnu. Buddha's teachings deny the authority of the Vedas [1] and consequently Buddhism is generally viewed as a nāstika school (heterodox, literally "It is not so") [2] from the perspective of orthodox Hinduism.

The Buddha is described in important Hindu scriptures, including almost all the major Puranas. It is considered that not all of them refer to the same person: some of them refer to other persons, and some occurrences of "buddha" simply mean "a person possessing buddhi"; most of them, however, refer specifically to the founder of Buddhism. [3] They portray him with two roles: preaching false views in order to delude demons, and criticizing animal sacrifice. [4]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_denominations 140317

Hinduism is the dominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. It comprises three major traditions, Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism, [1] whose followers considered Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti (UKT 170226 also called as Devi - Supreme Source of Energy or Power) to be the supreme deity respectively. Most of the other deities were either related to them or different forms (incarnations) of these deities. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and many practitioners refer to Hinduism as "the eternal law". ( Sanātana Dharma). [2]

Hindus are persons that believe they may obtain moksha (union with Brahman) by practicing either good karma, bhakti, or jnana. The main denominations of Hinduism are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism. These four denominations may share rituals, beliefs, and traditions, but each denomination has a different philosophy on how to achieve life's ultimate goal, Atma Jnana (self-realization). There are also smaller denominations, and newer movements. Cross-denominational influences are the Bhakti-movement, and the six orthodox schools of thought.

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140317

In the Rigveda it is stated that there are 33 deities associated with sky (dyu), earth (prithvi) and the middle realm (antariksha), though a larger number of deities are mentioned in the text. [1] There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

Indra, a heroic god, slayer of Vrtra and destroyer of the Vala, liberator of the cows and the rivers; Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods; and Soma the ritual drink dedicated to Indra are the most prominent deities.

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puranas 140317

The Puranas ( पुराण purāṇa, "of ancient times") are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories. Puranas may also be described as a genre of important Hindu religious texts alongside some Jain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. [1]

UKT: More in the Wiki article.

Go back Buddha-Hinduism-note-b

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Mon and Sanskrit

UKT 151105:

There are two questions here. #1 Why are Skt-Dev व & ब are so alike?
#2 Why would Mon-Myan speakers need two more consonantal aksharas for the sounds of /ba/ & /be/.

#1 Probable answer: It appears that Skt-Dev did not have the phoneme /b/ and a glyph to represent it. It has /w/ and the glyph व to represent it. To make up for this, it borrowed the glyph from /w/

व + diagonal line --> ब

I have to make this assumption to compare Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan.

#2 Probable answer: Listen carefully to Mon-Myan 
- Labial - bk-cndl-Mon-row5<))
- Approximants of row#7 - bk-cndl-Mon-row7<))
I cannot hear any labio-dentals in row#5. Yet the only probable explanation that I can give at present is that Mon had followed Skt and had /f/ and /v/. It needed plosive-stops and had introduced {a.} /ba/ & {} /b/. It is because of this argument I hold that Mon-Myan is more close to Skt-Dev than to Pal-Myan.
However listening to the above sound clips has convinced me that there are no /f/ and /v/ in Mon-Myan. Yet English and Sanskrit need them and so I have to invent two glyphs: {fa.} and {va.} .

Go back Mon-Skt-note-b

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