Update: 2017-02-22 05:24 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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  {kal~pa.} : Lepha
  {kal~la.} : * {kal~la.} may also be written in non-Lepha form as


IAST: श ś /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ /s/; स s /θ/

{ka.sha.} कश kaśa
{ka.Sa.} कष kaṣa : don't be led astray by of Macdonell transliteration [ kash ], it is [ṣ] not [sh]
{ka.a.} कस kasa: Skt-Dev speakers pronounce स as /s/, Bur-Myan speakers and IPA pronounce it /θ/.

{ka-kSa.} : Pseudo Kha
{kn-} : Kinsi
{ka-a.} **


UKT notes :
See my note on Repha and Lepha on p063.htm
Danu Asura - female Asura
Deficiency in graphemes compared to phonemes
Dhutanga robe
Kakshivat - Buddha's birth
Katantra Vyakaranam : {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.}
  - Sanskrit for a Telugu king
Kanabhuti the Cyclop :
Kanva Rishi : Origin of Tantra ?
Kashyapa Rishi : कश्यप kaśyapa
Two-three tone problem

* UKT 170209 : {kal~la.} may also be written in non-Lepha form as . However it is not possible to write {kr~} as {kr~} as a vertical conjunct similar to . See: p063.htm
**UKT 151031 : A vowel shift occurs when Pal-Myan {ki~sa.na.} changes into Skt-Myan {kaa~sa.na.}. If we may speculate that as northern-eastern India changes demographically from Tib-Bur (Magadha speakers) to IE (Sanskrit speakers) in areas like Bihar, Bengal, and Assam - areas adjacent to northern Myanmarpr (Burmese speakers) vowel changes had taken place. A similar vowel change is taking place today in Canada especially in areas like Ontario as more and more immigrants arrive. See Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Shift 151031
A study should be made of Pali as spoken by Indian monks and Pali as spoken by Burmese monks in Bodh Gaya - a place visited by Buddhist monks from all over the world speaking many L1 speeches or mother tongues.


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कल्पाय [ kalpya ]
- den. . become or seem a Kalpa: pp. i-ta.



कल्पितार्घ [ kalpita‿argha ]
- a. to whom an offering of (--) has been made.



कल्प्य [ kalp-ya ]
- fp. to be assigned; to be imagined.


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कल्मष [ kalmasha ]
- n. dirt; taint; guilt; sin.



कल्माष [ kalmsha ]
- a. () having black spots (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a Nga; n. spot.



कल्माषित [ kalmsh-ita ]
- pp. spotted, variegated with (in.).


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कल्य [ kal-ya ]
- a. healthy, vigorous; ready (for, lc. or inf.); clever; n. health; day-break (-m, lc., --, at day-break); intoxicating liquor: -t, f. health.



कल्यवर्त [ kalya-varta ]
- n. breakfast; trifle.



कल्याण [ kalyna ]
- a. (&isharp;) beautiful, lovely; good, excellent, noble; blessed, auspicious, prosperous; m. N. of a king; n. the good; virtue, merit; welfare, prosperity; festival; , f. kind of pulse; -kataka, N. of a locality; -kara, a. () propitious; -kra, a. productive of utility; -krit, a. performing good deeds; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -parampar, f. continuous good fortune; -pura, n. N. of a town; -prakriti, a. noble-natured; -lakshana, a. having auspicious marks; -vartman, m. N. of a king; -svmi-kesava, m. N. of a statue of Vishnu; -‿abhinivesin, a. benevolent; m. patron.



कल्याणिन्् [ kalyn-in ]
- a. virtuous; prosperous.

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UKT151030, 170208: UHS-PMD lists two Pal-Myan words involving one {ka.} and two {la.}. The English translations are mine:
{ka.la.la.} - n. mud, semen, body [fetus] formed from {ka.la.la.}-fluid 'male semen'  - UHS-PMD0300c2
{kal~la.} - . mfn. appropriate, fitting, respectability, proper. m. freedom from disease. n. dawn of the day.
. mn. ash - UHS-PMD0302c2


कल्लोल [ kallola ]
- m. wave.

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कल्हण "Kalhana"

Kalhana (sometimes spelled Kalhan or Kalhan'a) (c. 12th century), a Kashmiri, was the author of Rajatarangini (River of Kings), an account of the history of Kashmir. He wrote the work in Sanskrit between 1148 and 1149. [1]
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalhana 120222, 151030
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajatarangini 120222

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UKT: 120222, 170208: In a one-to-one phonetic writing systems script such as Abugida-Akshara system (e.g. Burmese-Myanmar and Sanskrit-Devanagari), script must match the pronunciation. However it is not so in Alphabet-Letter system (e.g. English-Latin). See my note on: Deficiency of graphemes compared to phonemes



कव [kava]
= - = ka-, kad-, k-, ku- , bad



कवक [ kavaka ]
- n. mushroom.



कवच [ kvaka ] "
- m. n. armour, mail; jacket; bark; - dhara, a. wearing armour = youth.



कवचिन्् [ kavak-n ]
- a. clad in mail.



कवन्ध [ kvandha ]
- m. n. barrel; cloud; belly; trunk (of the body); ep. of the demon Danu [female Asura], whose head and thighs were thrust into her his trunk by Indra.

UKT 170209: See my note on Danu Asura - it is note worthy that Hindu worshippers of Indra refer to his enemies as 'demons'. However, to the Buddhists, Asura and Indra are of the same kind. Demonization of an enemy is a misuse of a language which is still done by modern news writers to misinform the the public.

The treatment of Indra - male Dva king, not only killing a female but mutilating her body is considered to be unworthy of a male.



कवय [ kavaya ]
- den. P. compose poetry.



कवल [ kavala ]
- m. mouthful, morsel: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -na, a. swallowing; -ya, den. P. swallow: pp. kavalita, devoured by mouthfuls.



कवष [ kvasha ]
- a. (&isharp;) wide apart; m. N.



- fold of a door; -ka , id. (-)



कवि [ kav- ]
- a. wise; m. wise man, sage, seer; poet; planet Venus.



कविका [ kav-k ]
- f. bit (on a bridle).



  कविता [ kavi-t ]
- f., -tv, n. poetic art or gift; -putra, m. N. of a dramatist; -rga, m. king of poets; N. of a poet; ()-sasta (or ), pp. spoken or praised by sages.



कवोष्ण [ kava‿ushna ]
- a. lukewarm: -t, f. -ness.



कव्य [kav-y]
= [kav]
- m. pl. kind of Ma'nes; n. offerings to these Ma'nes (generally whavya ); -vhana , a. conveying the offerings to the Ma'nes (Agn);  -havya-bhug , m. ep. of Agni -- Mac065c1
Skt: कव्य kavya - adj. sacrificial priest, a sacrificer -- SpkSkt

( end of old p065-1.htm )

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कश [ ksa ]
- m. kind of rodent; whip; , f. whip; bridle; -‿ghta, m. stroke of the whip.

कशा [ks]
= क श ा --> {ka.sha}
Skt: कशा [ks] - f. whip; bridle -- Mac065c1
Pal: {ka.a}
- - UHS-PMD0303
  UKT from UHS: f. rattan cane (used as cattle goad - different from whip used in the West).



कशिपु [ kasip ]
- m. n. mat, cushion.



कश्मल [ kasmala ]
- a. (, ) dirty; n. dirt; pusillanimity; despair.



कश्मीर [ kasmra ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. N. of a country (Cashmere).


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कश्यप [ kasypa ]
- a. black-toothed; m. tortoise; a divine being; N. of various Rishis.

See my note on Kashyapa Rishi कश्यप kaśyapa Rishi 


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कष् [ kash] {kaSS} : Macdonell [sh] should have [ṣ]
--1. kasha , rub, scrape, scratch
Skt: कषति { कष् } kaṣati { kaṣ } - v.1 rub, scratch, exterminate, scrape, rub or scratch oneself, test or try - SpkSkt



कष [ kash-a ]
- a. scraping (--); m. touchstone: -na, n. rubbing, scraping, friction; -pattik, f., -pshna, m. touchstone.



कषाय [ kashya ]
- a. astringent (taste); fragrant; red, yellowish red; m. red colour; passion; m. n. astringent juice; decoction; medicinal potion; ointment; dirt; taint; deterioration, moral decline; n. yellow garment; -ya, den. P. dirty; molest; i-ta, pp. coloured red; dirtied, stained; penetrated w., full of (--).

= --> {ka.Sa-ya.}
Skt: कषाय [kashya] - a. astringent (taste); fragrant; red, yellowish red; m. red colour; passion; m. n. astringent juice; decoction; medicinal potion; ointment; dirt; taint; deterioration, moral decline; n. yellow garment -- Mac065c2
Pal: {ka.a-ya.}
- - UHS-PMD0303
  UKT from UHS: mfn. astringent. m. tannin solution [which is mildly antiseptic], golden-red color

UKT 140223: Tannic acid, a constituent of tea, is an example. However, the monks at the time of Gautama Buddha, including the Buddha himself, would recover a stained shroud (infested with maggots) from a badly decomposed corpse, washed it in a running stream, and disinfect it by boiling with barks from certain trees. The disinfected cloth was then used as a robe. Similar robes would also be made from discarded rags from the garbage dump. Such a robe is the freest from Greed, Anger, and Pride and is the most "clean". See my note on Dhutanga Robe



कष्ट [ kash-ta ]
- pp. bad; heavy, severe; miserable; forced, unnatural; pernicious, dangerous; n. evil, misfortune, misery (kashtt kashtataram, worst of all evils): -m, in., ab., --, with difficulty, only just; -m, ij. woe! often w. dhik or h dhik; -tapas, a. doing severe penance; -tara, cpv. most dangerous or pernicious; -labhya, fp. hard to obtain; -‿adhika, a. worse.

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कस् [ kas ] i.
- beam. nis, cs. -nishksaya drive out. vi burst, open, blossom; beam (with joy); ...



कसुन् [ k-as-un ]
= क स ु न ् --> {ka.oan}
Skt: - inf. suffix as (gr.). -- Mac065-c2
Skt: - kasun the kṛt suffix as forming in the Veda an indeclinable (avyaya Pāṇ. 1-1, 40) infinitive with abl. sense Pāṇ. 3-4, 13 and 17 (cf. vi-sṛ́pas, ā-tṛ́das.) -- MonWill266-c1

UKT 120202: कसुन् k-as-un {ka.oan} is not given in UHS-PMD. Skt-Myan transcription is mine.



कस्तम्भी [ ka-stambh&isharp; ]
- f. support of a carriage pole.



कस्तूरिका [ kastrik ]
- f. musk; -kuraṅga, m. musk-deer [Himalayan musk deer: Moschus leucogaster ]; -mrig, f. female of the musk deer.



कस्तूरी [ kastr ]
- f. musk: -mriga, m. musk deer.



कस्मात्् [ k-smt ]
- ab. of kim; ad. whence? why? on what account?



कल्हार [ kahlra ]
- n. white esculent water-lily.

UKT 140313:
According to http://sanskritdictionary.com/?q=kumuda, 140313, Monier-Williams gives:
kumuda कुमुद {ku.mu.da.} - n. "exciting what joy", the esculent white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta).
According to http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?415799 140313,
Nymphaea esculenta Roxb. is the synonym of Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
"Esculent" means 'edible' -- AHTD

( end of old p065-2.htm )

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See my note on Two-three tone problem, and its resolution when Mon-Myan, which is similar to Skt-Dev, is taken into account.


का [k]
- - = ka- , kad- , kava- , ku- , bad


UKT 170222: का [k] , the Skt-Dev interrogative, is also the name of God.

See Allah, The Unique Name of God, 'research into the names of God in over 150 languages of the world' by Maulana Abdul Haq Vidyarthi , 2007.

Inset pix: p.092 of the above book:



कांशि [ kmsi ]
- m. goblet, cup.



कांस्य [ kmsya ]
- a. brazen; n. brass; -kra, m. bell-founder; -tla, m. cymbal; -ptra, n., , f. brazen vessel.

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काक [ kka ]
- m. crow: , f. female crow; -t, f. state of a crow; -tlya, a. accidental as the fall of the fruit in the story concerning the crow and the date, i.e. as accidental as the fall of the date at the moment of the crow's alighting on the palm-tree = post hoc, non propter hoc: -m or -vat, ad. suddenly, unexpectedly; -paksha, m. crow's wing; curl on the temples of boys or youths: -ka, --, a. id.; -yava, m. pl. grainless barley; -rava, a. cawing like a crow, cowardly; -rka, a. cowardly.



काकलि [ kkali ]
- f. low, sweet tone; , f. id.; musical instrument with a low note used to test whether one is asleep.



काकाक्षिन्याय [ kka‿akshi-nyya ]
- m.: in., ab. after the manner of the crow's eye, i.e. in opposite directions, with reference both to what precedes and what follows; -‿akshi-golanyya, m. id.



काकिणी kâkin, ˚नी [ -n ]
- f. cowrie, small coin = 1/4 pana.



काकु [ kku ]
- f. cry of grief, wail; change of voice, emphasis.



काकुत्स्थ [ kkutstha ]
- m. descendant of Kakutstha (ep. of Aga, Dasaratha, Rma, Lakshmana).

UKT 170213: Kakutstha was a king of the Solar dynasty, the son of Bhageeratha, and an ancestor of Rama. His son is Raghu. - http://www.apamnapat.com/entities/Kakutstha.html 110903
See detail in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suryavansha 170213
"Suryavansha {u.ri.ya. wn-a.} (Suryavam(n)sham aka Solar Dynasty) is a mythological dynasty of ancient India. The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to Suryvansha dynasty. ... Ikshvaku: the first prominent monarch of this dynasty, ..."  King Ikshvaku 'Sugar-cane' is known as "Okkaka" {auk~ka-ka. mn:} in Bur-Myan.



काकुद्् [ kkud ]
- f. palate.


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काकोल [ kkola ]
- m. raven; n. kind of poison; a certain hell.



काकोलूकीय [ kka‿ulk-ya ]
- n. story of the crows and the owls.

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{ka-kSa.} : Pseudo Kha


काक्षीवती [ kkshvat ]
= (क ा) (क ् ष) ी व त ी
- f. daughter of Kakshvat.

See my note on Kakshivat - persons of miraculous birth: my first introduction (110904) to Mahayana Buddhist texts. As a down-to-earth scientist, I am sceptical of miracles: my interest is only in their linguistic content.


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{kn-} : Kinsi    


कङ्क्ष् [kāṅkśa] - UKT rendition
- desire, long for, strive after; expect, wait for (ac.): ...



काङ्क्षणीय [ kṅksh-anya ]
- fp. desirable; -, f. desire for (--); -in, a. desirous of, longing for, waiting for (ac. or --).

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काच [ kk ]
- m. glass: -mani, m. crystal; -ra, a. made of glass.

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काज [ kga ]
- n. mallet.

UKT 140225: A Myanmar male child about to be novitiated into the Theravada Buddhist order sometimes spends a few days in the monastery learning the elements of Buddhist prayers. Known as a Master Novice-to-be or Master Holiness {hpo:u-tau}, he has his prayer beads around his neck and in his hands he holds a brass triangular gong {kr:s} by its single string, and in his right hand he holds a wooden mallet {lak-hkt} with which he is about to strike at a corner of the triangular gong to make it spin while producing a sweet note that goes up and down.


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UKT 151031 : A vowel shift occurs when Pal-Myan {ki~sa.na.} changes into Skt-Myan {kaa~sa.na.}. If we may speculate that as northern-eastern India changes demographically from Tib-Bur (Magadha speech) to IE (Sanskrit speech) in areas like Bihar, Bengal, and Assam - areas adjacent to northern Myanmarpr (Burmese speech) vowel changes has taken place. Such a vowel change is taking place today in Canada especially in areas like Ontario as more and more immigrants arrive. See Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_Shift 151031
A study should be made of Pali as spoken by Indian monks and Pali as spoken by Burmese monks in Bodh Gaya - a place visited by Buddhist monks from all over the world speaking many L1 speeches or mother tongues.


काञ्चन [ kkana ]
= क ा ञ ् च न --> {kaa~sa.na.}
- n. gold; money; a. () golden; - giri, m. gold mtn., ep. of Meru; -prabha, a. shining like gold; -maya, a. () golden; -ml, f. N. of various women; -varman, m. N. of a king; -‿akala, -‿adri, m. ep. of Mount Meru.


काञ्चन [ kkana ]
= क ा ञ ् च न --> {kaa~sa.na.}
Skt: काञ्चन [ kkana ] - n. gold; money; a. () golden; - MC065c3
Pal: {ki~sa.na.} - UHS PMD0277
  UKT from UHS: n. gold

UKT 151031: Notice the vowel change in going from Pal-Myan: {ki~sa.na.} to Skt-Myan: {kaa~sa.na.}.


काञ्चनीय [ kkan-ya ]
- a. golden.



काञ्ची [ kk ]
- f. small girdle generally adorned with bells; -kalpa, m. id.; -guna, m. girdle-band; - sthna, n. hips.



काञ्जिक [ kgika ]
- n. sour gruel.

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काट [ kt ]
- m. depth, bottom.



- m. N. of a commentator



काटव [ ktava ]
- n. sharpness.


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काठ [ ktha ]
--> {ka-HTa.}
- a. derived from Katha; -ka, a. () relating to Katha; n. N. of a Veda: -‿upanishad = katha‿upanishad.

UKT note 170214
- from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katha_Upanishad 170214
"The Katha Upanishad कठोपनिषद् kaṭhopaniṣad aka Kāṭhaka Upanishad is one of the mukhya (primary) Upanishads, embedded in the last short eight sections of the Kaṭha school of the Yajurveda. [1] [2] ... The Upanishad is the legendary story of a little boy, Nachiketa the son of Sage Vajasravasa, who meets Yama (the Indian deity of Death [and Justice]). [Yama in popular Myanmar Buddhism is King of the Hell.] Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge, Atman (Soul, Self) and moksha (liberation). [2] "



काठिन्य [ kthin-ya ]
- n. hardness, stiffness; firmness, austerity.

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काण [ kn ]
-- > {ka-Na.} :
- a. one-eyed; blind (eye); perforated; one-handled; -tva, n. one-eyedness; -bhti, m. N. of a Yaksha.
UKT 170214: Don't mix up with Karna {kar~Na.} कर्ण, karṇa of Mahabharata.


काण [ kn ]
-- > {ka-Na.} : Don't mix up with Karna {kar~Na.} कर्ण, karṇa of Mahabharata ,
Skt: काण [ kn ] - a. one-eyed; blind (eye); perforated; one-handled; - Mac65c3
Pal: {ka-Na.} - UHS-PMD0306
  UKT from UHS: mfn. blinded in one eye - it reminds me of the "Cyclops the one-eyed giants" of Greek mythology. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclops 170214
Also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysiaca 170214
to "the life of Dionysus, his expedition to India, and his triumphant return to the west."

See my note on Kanabhuti the Cyclops



[knel-mtri ]
- m. bastard



काण्टक [ kntaka ]
- a. () consisting of thorns.



काण्ड [ knda (or ) ]
Skt:  काण्ड [ knda (or )] - m. n. piece; section of a plant (from joint to joint); slip; blade, stalk; arrow; tube (of bone); section (in a book); -pata: -ka, m. curtain. - Mac065c3

काण्ड [ knda (or ) ]
Skt:  काण्ड [ knda (or )] - m. n. piece; section of a plant (from joint to joint); slip; blade, stalk; arrow; tube (of bone); section (in a book) - Mac065c3
Skt: काण्ड kāṇḍa - adj. part of trunk of tree with branches, praise, opportunity, quantity, separate department or subject, kind of square measure, cluster, flattery - SpkSkt
Pal: {kN~a.} - UHS PMD0281
  UKT from UHS: mn. arrow, section (in a book), division, part, trunk (bearing branches of a tree)



- m. a certain mixed caste 



काण्डी [ knd ]
- f. little blade.



काण्डीर [ knd-ra ]
- a. armed with arrows.



काण्व [ knv ]
- m. pat. descendant of Kanva: pl. the school of Kanva.

Kanva (Skt: कण्‍व kṇva) was an ancient Hindu rishi, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed. He was called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas. He is sometimes included in the list of the seven sages (the Saptarishis). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanvas 110904
See my note on Kanva Rishi

( end of old p065-3.htm )

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कातन्त्र [k-tantra]
= क ा त न ् त ् र --> {ka-tn~tra.}
-- n. T. of a grammar; m. pl. its followers

UKT 140225, 170218: Grammar is {d~da} 'sound' of the human voice. However {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Nm} कातन्त्र-व्याकरणम्  is morphology. Note the visible virama which shows that {bya-ka.ra.Nm} is Skt-Myan.  Katantra Vyakaranam {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Nm} कातन्त्र-व्याकरणम् belongs to Aindra School of Grammar. See my note on Katantra Vyakaranam .



कातर [ ktara ]
--> {ka-ta.ra.}
- a. cowardly; timid, faint-hearted, despondent; afraid of (lc., inf., --): -t, f., -tva, n. fear.

कातर [ ktara ]
Skt: कातर [ ktara ] - a. cowardly; timid, faint-hearted, despondent; afraid of (lc., inf., --): - Mac065c3
Pal: {ka-ta.ra.} - UHS-PMD0306
  UKT from UHS: m. a person unstable in mind and character



कातर्य [ ktar-ya ]
- n. apprehension, faint-heartedness, cowardice.



[kt-kri ]
- mock, deride



कात्यायन [ ktya‿ayana ]
- m. pat. N. of a celebrated sage; &isharp;, f. N. of Ygavalkya's wife; a. () derived from Ktyyana; -ya, m. pl. school of Ktyyana; n. T. of various works.

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कादम्ब [ kdamba ]
- m. kind of goose with dark-grey wings; n. flower of the Kadamba tree.



कादम्बर [ kdambara ]
- n. sour cream; , f. kind of intoxicating liquor; T. of a romance & its heroine: -lokana‿nanda, m. ep. of  the moon; -sagdhik, f. common carouse.


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UKT notes

Danu Asura 

-- UKT 110903, 170209

The first time I looked into this entry in 110903, I came to know that Danu was a female Asura goddess. Originally, in Rigvda, Asuras were not demonized, and Indra was the chief god, the king of the celestial deities. From the number of hymns directed to the deities we know that the present-day Trimūrti त्रिमूर्ति trimūrti - the Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva, were minor gods. Moreover Siva who was also known as Rudra was just a storm god. The Wikipedia article that I looked into shows that "Indra a male god had not only killed a female but had mutilated her body - an unworthy act for a king.

I hold that the original Vda including the Rigvda was the source of knowledge of the Tibeto-Burmans (Tib-Bur) of the Bronze Age. The Tib-Bur were easily defeated by the invading Indo-Europeans (IE) of the Iron Age. The Tib-Bur were made into slaves and servants, and IE made themselves the masters of the First-Caste (or top-class) comprising the Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} 'the teachers', the Second-Caste the Ksatriya {hkt~ti.ya.} 'rulers and soldiers', and Third-Caste the Vaisya 'traders, craftsmen, agriculturalists, and herders'. Finally the defeated indigenous peoples as Fourth-Caste the Sudra 'slaves to serve the top castes': everything as commanded by the Creator (Mahabrahma - to the Vaishnavite, and Siva to the Saivite) . What a self-serving arrangement!

Gautama Buddha would have none of it and made himself the enemy of the {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} and {i-wa. poaN~Na:}. He singled out the original rishis of the untainted Vda. The Saivite Brahmins, {i-wa. poaN~Na:} a later-day sect, were responsible for the final destruction of Buddhism in India the land of its birth.

The Buddha names the following as "early sages" of Vedic verses, "Atthaka (either Astaka or Atri), Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta (Visvamitra), Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha (Vashistha), Kassapa (Kashyapa) and Bhagu (Bhrigu)" - Long Discourse of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya, by Maurice Welshe, Simon and Schuster, 2005, p188-189 .

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danu-Asura - 110903
Note 170214: Wikipedia URL shown with brackets are inactive: removing the brackets also makes it inactive. In such a case go on line and look for "Danu Asura".

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vrtra, the demonic serpent [Naga ?] slain by Indra [1]. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of Kasyapa {ka.a.hpa. ra..}. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 170209

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neuter, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54.

As a Hindu goddess, Dānu has 2 temples in Bali, Indonesia: Pura Ulun Danu Temple on Lake Bratan, Bali and Ulun Danu Batur, near Penelokan.

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub.

-- UKT 140222
I looked again and found that the word "Kabandha" (कबन्ध =  क ब न ् ध ) lit. "headless torso"). I also came across another Wikipedia article on "Danu - the Irish goddess"

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabandha 140222

In Hindu mythology, Kabandha (कबन्ध = क ब न ् ध {ka.bn~Da.} Kabandha, lit. "headless torso") is a Rakshasa (demon) who is killed and freed from a curse by the god Rama an Avatar of Vishnu and his [half-] brother Lakshmana.  [UKT ]

UKT 140222: Rama was a human hero king who was later deitified. Raksha could also mean a guardian. I have struck through such misleading words. My additions are in [...].

Kabandha's legend appears in the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as in later Ramayana adaptations.

Kabandha was a gandharva (celestial musician) [Gandharva are not Dvas. They belonged to a separate kingdom. Being musically minded the males were employed by Indra as musicians, and the females as dancers.]  named Vishvavasu or Danu, who was cursed and made into an ugly, carnivorous demon by Indra, the king of the Dva gods, and/or a sage. In an encounter with Rama and Lakshmana, the brothers sever his arms and proceed to cremate his corpse. Upon his death, Kabandha resumes his gandharva form and directs Rama to the Rsyamukha mountain, where the exiled monkey-chief Sugriva is hiding. Kabandha advises Rama to form an alliance with Sugriva, who would be of assistance in the search for Rama's wife Sita, who had been kidnapped by Ravana, the demon-king of Lanka. Following Kabandha's instructions, Rama befriends Sugriva and rescues Sita with his help.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danu_Irish_goddess 140222 

In Irish mythology, Danu ([ˈdanu]; modern Irish Dana [ˈd̪ˠanˠə]) is the mother goddess of the Tuatha D Danann (Old Irish: "The peoples of the goddess Danu"). Though primarily seen as an ancestral figure, some Victorian sources also associate her with the land. [1]

The theonym is of PIE (Proto-Indo-European) age, and seems to have denoted a water goddess in origin. A goddess Dānu is attested in the Rigveda, and also the river names Danube (Latin: Danuvius), Dniestr, Dniepr and Don derive from the name.

The Rigvedic Danu was the mother of a race of Asuras called the Danavas. A shortened form of the name appears to have been . The Greek goddess Demeter (Da-mater), is also associated with water several times. [2] Julius Pokorny reconstructs the name from the PIE root da:-: "flow, river", da:-nu: "any moving liquid, drops", da: navo "people living by the river, Skyth. nomadic people (in Rigveda water-demons), fem.Da:nu primordial goddess , in Greek Danaoi (Danaans, Greek tribe, Egypt. Danuna). [3] [4]

UKT 170209: A solution to my finding that Myanmar script may have reached as far as the country of Georgia on the basis of {ta.} & {ti.}, etc. in the Georgian script, and the mention of a dragon-killer known in the West as St. George similar to our dragon-killer of Tagaung in northern Myanmarpr, might be found in the PIE roots. Because of which I need to know the works of Julius Pokorny - a scholar of Celtic languages. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Pokorny 170209
"Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist [1] and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism. He held academic posts in Austrian and German universities."

The genitive form of Old Irish Danu is Danann, and the dative Danainn. Irish Danu is not identical with Vedic Dānu but rather descends from a Proto-Celtic *Danona, which may contain the suffix -on- also found in other theonyms such as Matrona, Maqonos/Maponos and Catona. [5] [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Deficiency of graphemes compared to phonemes

UKT 140223: Long time ago, as I was starting on Romabama, I realized that to transcribe Eng-Lat (English-Latin) into Bur-Myan and for the reverse process, I need dedicated graphemes for hissing sibilants, /ʃ/ and /s/. Then I noted that Skt-Dev has dedicated graphemes: श for /ʃ/ and ष for /s/.

However, it is unfortunate that Skt-Dev does not have any non-hissing thibilant, and has listed Bur-Myan {a.} as a hissing sibilant. IAST reflecting the phonemics of Sanskrit proceeds to give transliterations that do not agree with IPA. It should be noted that Eng-Lat has the non-hissing thibilant in words like <thin> /θɪn/ - DJPD16-535.

I then realized that for BEPS as a group, I have no choice but to come up with my own dedicated graphemes, which are not conjunct-medials. In Bur-Myan /ʃ/ is sometimes represented by {hya.}. Being a conjunct, it breaks down on being "killed" and is not suitable for BEPS. As an example where {hya.} stands for /ʃ/ see MLC MED2006-610 for Bur-Myan name for Bael fruit {U.hic}. Therefore, I am representing the three basic aksharas and their killed counterparts as:

/ʃ/ with {sha.} श , and {sh} श + ् --> श्
/s/ with {Sa.} ष ,  and {S} ष + ् --> ष्
/θ/ with {a.} स , and {} स + ् --> स् 

Hindi and other Indic speakers should not forget the virama ् at the end of the syllables, e.g. the word pronounced in Hindi as "Ram" is spelled "Rama" राम {ra-ma.}. Only when you put a virama to kill the inherent vowel of म, can you pronounce this word as "Ram" {raam} /raːm/. (Notice the IPA triangular colon.) That is why I always pronounce it in the Pali way as "Rama". (I thank my Deep River friend Hashad Patil for this remark.)


UKT: 120222, 170208:

Skt-Dev (IE) was deficient in graphemes compared to Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur). And moreover English missed two whole columns, c2 & c4 of Akshara matrix:

Skt-Dev (IE) had to borrow what it lacked from Myanmar (Tib-Bur) script changing the pronunciation as well. We can also have the reverse where Myanmar (Tib-Bur) has to borrow from Skt-Dev. We note the following cases:


Case#1: Skt-Dev has no <wa> /w/ (rounded bilabial): it has only <va> /v/ (labio-dental)

A parallel case: Eng-Lat <wa> /o/ --> Eng-Lat <va> /v/

UKT: 170211: Remember this note is on language, both speech {sa.ka:} and script {sa}, and not on esoteric beliefs of Old Britain. However, since language and religion is interrelated, I will have to look into the religion as well. I will have to look into the achievements of the Anglo-Saxon king, Alfred the Great, who was repelling another wave of intruders from the North - the Danes.

For religion, I will have to look further to a time before Roman invasion which came about because of the Britain being rich in copper (Cu) {kr:ni} and tin (Sn) two minerals needed to make the alloy bronze {kr:o} to make implements of war. Note what Myanmarpr was noted for is brass {kr:wa}, a softer alloy of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Brass is not fit for making war implements and was considered to be a metal of peace.

In fact the ancients Jews forbid the use of bronze and iron in constructing their fire-altar, and allowed only brass to be used, nor were any allowed on or near it, because iron and bronze were used for implements of war. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar_(Bible)   170211
"... The altar could not be carved using utensils made of iron or of bronze (Exodus 20:25), nor were any allowed on or near it, because iron and bronze were used for implements of war. ..."

Remember the hardness scale: 
   (soft) copper (Cu) {kr:ni} > brass {kr:wa} > bronze {kr:o} > iron {n} (hard)
Note: By hardness scale is meant the ability to scratch to make a mark. Thus, an iron needle can be used to scratch a bronze plate, whilst a brass needle can scratch copper. Thus we use an iron stylus to write on palm leaves, copper and its alloys, and silver & gold substrates.

The English language of Old Britain (before the Viking invasion), known as Old English the language of Alfred the Great (849 -  899)

From Wikipedia on timeline in Myanmarpr: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history 170211.
832 AD - Pyu city-states destroyed by Nanzhao raids; and
849 AD - King Pyinbya founds Pagan (Bagan)]

For esoteric beliefs (religion) I will have to go into a time before the Roman general (later Emperor) Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) invasion of the British Isles, and the time of his invasion of Britain in (55-54 BC), and to the time of Caradoc, chief of the Catuvellauni (called Caractacus by the Romans) and the Celtic war-chieftainess Boudicca aka Boadicea.

The Celtic beliefs have many similarities to those of Myanmarpr. I found the Burmese-Celtic parallels from my study the esoteric beliefs in the legends of King Arthur and Wizard Merlin. Caveat : My study of esoteric beliefs are from "shady" sources, who do not want to reveal themselves in public and must be taken only as hear-say.

From Wikipedia on timeline in Myanmarpr: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Burmese_history 170211.
1500s BC - Earliest evidence of copper and bronze works, rice growing, domesticating chickens and pigs in Irrawaddy valley;
1500 BC - Iron-working settlements south of present-day Mandalay;
180 BC - Beikthano city fortified by Pyu people who had entered the Irrawaddy valley from north and beginning of Pyu city-states; and
70 AD - Pyu city of Halin in existence. 

UKT 170211: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Arthur 170211
" King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD. [Timeline Myanmarpr - The Pyu of Sri Ksetra Kingdom launch the Burmese calendar with the start date of 22 March 638. King Arthur would have lived at a time of Pyu period.] The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians. [2]

UKT 170210: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merlin 170210
"Merlin (Welsh: Myrddin) is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend and medieval Welsh poetry. The standard depiction of the character first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written c. 1136, and is based on an amalgamation of previous historical and legendary figures. ... Merlin's traditional biography casts him as a cambion: born of a mortal woman, sired by an incubus (f. succubus), the non-human from whom he inherits his supernatural powers and abilities. [2]"

The greatest achievement for a wizard to attain is the ability to make a dead body animate by introducing a soul Ka (Egypt) aka Bardo (Tibet) from a dead person - usually an evil entity. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_concept_of_the_soul 170208
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_the_Dead 170208
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardo_Thodol 170208

The wizard (f. witch) has to attain Rank#12 to do this. This is the same in Myanmar belief. Rank#12 is known as one who can wear 12 strings: {hs. nhic kro: tt}. He or she is known as a {ka.w} and the esoteric science is known as {mhau p~a}. If you would like to know more about {ka.w} and {mhau p~a}, in Tibetan religion, read about Milarepa - the sorcerer who became a Buddhist Buddha. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa 170208

Those who want to know more about, occult, black magic and similar topics should read the works of Dennis Wheatley (1897 - 1977)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Wheatley 170210
"... During the Second World War, Wheatley was a member of the London Controlling Section, which secretly coordinated strategic military deception and cover plans. His literary talents led to his working with planning staffs for the War Office. He wrote numerous papers for them, including suggestions for dealing with a possible Nazi invasion of Britain (recounted in his works Stranger than Fiction and The Deception Planners). The most famous of his submissions to the Joint Planning Staff of the war cabinet was on "Total War". ..."

Bur-Myan: {wa.} (Tib-Bur) (bilabial-rounded) --> {ba.} (Tib-Myan) (bilabial)
Skt-Dev:   व va (IE) (labio-dental) + diagonal -->  ब ba (IE) (bilabial)


Case#2: Skt-Dev in need of dental-fricative hisser ष has to borrow प by adding a vertical line.


Case#3 : The Bur-Myan grapheme {hya.} for phoneme /ʃ/ is unsatisfactory in Romabama. The problem has been due to Bur-Myan lacking the necessary dental-frication hisser grapheme. What we have is only the palatal-plosive stop. Since to adopt a new grapheme would play havoc in the usual transcription between Burmese and English, I have the adopt the following scheme:

Palatal-plosive stop: {sa.}/ {c}
Dental-fricative hisser: {Sa.} ष/ {S} ष्
Dental-fricative husher: {Sha.} श / {Sh} श्

Palatal-approximant Nya'gyi : {a.}/ {} - unique to Bur-Myan
Palatal-plosive stop Nya'l ;    {a.}/ {} - present in both Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan
Note: Pal-Myan made a mess of Nya'gyi : {a.} by making it into a horizontal-conjunct
  which breaks up under Virama:

The nasals c5, as a group presents an un-surmountable problem because of the lack of graphemes and phonemes in Eng-Lat. For 5 of Bur-Myan, Eng-Lat has only 2. In particular r1c5, the velar nasal /ŋ/ which has some /g/ very prominent in Mon-Myan, was the problem until I change the nuclear vowel V in CV by adopting the convention shown below:


Case#4 : In BEPS as a group, to meet the one-to-one grapheme to phoneme, it is imperative to get rid of all the "digraphs", and to get rid of ideas of "aspiration", "allophones" and "glottal stop /ʔ/". Note: the glottal stop /ʔ/ is presented as / ' / by MLC. We have to introduce the idea of tenuis letters in Eng-Lat.

Another reason for getting rid of the digraph is because of its mix-up with diphthong. Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan has no diphthongs. I presume it is also the case with Mon-Myan. What the western phoneticians thought to be diphthongs are really monothongs written in two English letters, such as <th> for /θ/. The English <th> is transliterated in IAST for [tʰ]. As for the absence of coda sounds in Bur-Myan as promoted by the MLC (Myanmar Language Commission), I would have to say that it is only true for the Mandalay and Yangon (Irrawaddy valley) Burmese accents.

There are at least 3 digraphs (consonants) to get rid of in Myanmar script, and their replacements in BEPS which are all ASCII compatible.

In fact by Myanmar language we mean the languages of all indigenous ethnics who write in the Myanmar script, e.g. Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan are different languages. Bur-Myan is the dialect of the Irrawaddy valley, but the so-called Rakhine and Tavoyan are dialects of Bur-Myan. Yet they are all Myanmar languages because they use the Myanmar script (except Chin and Kachin which write in Latin script.).

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Dhutanga robe

- UKT 140223

The word <clean> can mean many things. However what none would consider "clean" may mean what is clean or free from human failings of Greed, Anger and Pride. The following is taken from a Thai website and is within the Theravada Buddhist practice.

From: Dhutanga connected with robes, Dhamma Centre http://www.dhammacenter.org/content/view/154 140223

Pamsukulikanga is the Dhutanga practice of using only rag-robes, generally called Pamsukulikanga-dhutanga. A monk who undertakes Pamsukulikanga is called Pamsukulika or a Pamsukulika-bhikkhu. This means he only uses a rag-robe.

The word Pamsukula means a rag or ugly cloth stained with dust. A rag abandoned on the road, in the cemetery or on a trash pile is without owner and nobody wants it. This is the piece of cloth a monk will sew together, clean and dye with natural colors from bark or leaves, then he claims it as his robe. This is called Pamsukula or forest cloth. This is the meaning most people understand. In fact, the true meaning was cloth from the shroud of a dead body or cloth left in the cemetery.

UKT: More in the article.

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Kakshivat - Buddha's birth

-- UKT 110904, 170213

Being by birth and practice a Theravada Buddhist, particularly with a modern material science background, I have never delved into the Mahayana texts. Below is an excerpt of the birth of Gautama Buddha from the English translation of The Buddha-karita of Asvaghosha by E. B. Cowell, F. Max Mller and J. Takakusu - taken from http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe49/

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%C5%9Bvagho%E1%B9%A3a 170213
" Aśvaghoṣa अश्वघोष) (c.80 - c.150 CE) was an Indian philosopher-poet, born in Saketa in northern India to a Brahmin family. [1] He is believed to have been the first Sanskrit dramatist, and is considered the greatest Indian poet prior to Kālidāsa [most probably Shaivite Hindu]. He was the most famous in a group of Buddhist court writers, whose epics rivalled the contemporary Ramayana [Hindu epic]. [2] Whereas much of Buddhist literature prior to the time of Aśvaghoṣa had been composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Aśvaghoṣa wrote in Classical Sanskrit. [3]

Buddhacaritam, बुद्धचरितम्
From: http://www.ishwar.com/buddhism/holy_mahayana_texts/buddha_karita_of_asvaghosha/texts01.html 110904

1. That Arhat is here saluted, who has no counterpart, -- who, as bestowing the supreme happiness, surpasses (Brahman) the Creator, -- who, as driving away darkness, vanquishes the sun, -- and, as dispelling all burning heat, surpasses the beautiful moon.

2. There was a city, the dwelling-place of the great saint Kapila, having its sides surrounded by the beauty of a lofty broad table-land as by a line of clouds, and itself, with its high-soaring palaces, immersed in the sky.

... ... ...

9. A king, by name Suddhodana, of the kindred of the Sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth's monarchs, -- ruling over the city, adorned it, as a bee-inmate a full-blown lotus.

--- --- ---

15. To him there was a queen, named My, as if free from all deceit (my) -- an effulgence proceeding from his effulgence, like the splendour of the Sun when it is free from all the influence of darkness, -- a chief queen in the united assembly of all queens.

--- --- ---

19. Then falling from the host of beings in the Tushita heaven, and illumining the three worlds, the most excellent of Bodhisattvas suddenly entered at a thought into her womb, like the Nga-king entering the cave of Nand.

--- --- ---

23. Then one day by the king's permission the queen, having a great longing in her mind, went with the inmates of the gynaeceum into the garden Lumbin.

24. As the queen supported herself by a bough which hung laden with a weight of flowers, the Bodhisattva suddenly came forth, cleaving open her womb.

--- --- ---

27. As soon as he was born the thousand-eyed (Indra) well-pleased took him gently, bright like a golden pillar; and two pure streams of water fell down from heaven upon his head with piles of Mandra flowers.

28. Carried about by the chief suras, and delighting them with the rays that streamed from his body, he surpassed in beauty the new moon as it rests on a mass of evening clouds.

29. As was Aurva's birth from the thigh, and Prithu's from the hand, and Mndhtri's, who was like Indra himself, from the forehead, and Kakshvat's from the upper end of the arm, -- thus too was his birth (miraculous).

--- --- ---

33. Unflurried, with the lotus-sign in high relief, far-striding, set down with a stamp, -- seven such firm footsteps did he then take, -- he who was like the constellation of the seven rishis.

34. 'I am born for supreme knowledge, for the welfare of the world, -- thus this is my last birth,' -- thus did he of lion gait, gazing at the four quarters, utter a voice full of auspicious meaning.

UKT: More in the article.

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Kanabhuti the Cyclops

"Cyclops" is singular, plural is "Cyclopes" -- AHTD

UKT 140225, 170214:

Folklores and stories told as history about Greece and India can be all mixed up. We must remember Alexander the Great military campaign to India, and the Buddhist cultural missions from India, probably with peoples from northern Myanmarpr, even to Rome itself and to the eastern parts of the Roman Empire. Even if you doubt this, remember that the Myanmar akshara {ta.} is still present in the name of the country of Georgia, both as a glyph and in pronunciation /t/. Now you will under stand why I am mixing up Kanabhuti from India and Cyclopes from Greece.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclops 170214
Also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysiaca 170214
to the "the main subject of which is the life of Dionysus, his expedition to India, and his triumphant return to the west."

The story of Kanabhuti - the Yaksha {yak-hka.} [taken by common Bur-Myan as "giant" or "ogre"], with one-eye appeared in a collection of legends, fairy tales and folktales by Somadeva (fl. 11 century A.D.) in katha sarit sagara  कथासरित्सागर or "Ocean of the Streams of Story". The original work was translated by C.H. Tawney (18371922)  in 1880. The story appeared in Book 1, Chapter 2, p6-7. Because Kanabhuti has only one eye, I will refer him as "Kana the Cyclops". The downloaded pdf is in the TIL library.
- CHTawney-SomadevaKathaSaritSagar-1880<> bkp<> (link chk 170214)

The myths about a giant race or races of humans, dubbed as {yak-hka.} 'giant' of the East, or Cyclopes of the West, are probably true if you take into consideration the remains of gigantic structures, known as Cyclopean stones of Mycenaean culture (ca.1600- ca.1100 BCE). - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece 170214
and lost civilizations which had built structures with massive stones such as
- pyramids of Egypt: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza 170214
- Stonehenge of Britain - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonehenge 170214
- Incas and the ancient peoples of Americas
  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pre-Columbian_cultures 170214

The human-author of the story, Somadeva (fl. 11 century A.D.), was a Shaivite-Hindu, one of those who supposes that Siva-dva is the Supreme-God 'Creator-Destroyer-Everything' instead of believing in Hindu-Trinity with Brahma being the Creator, Vishnu the Administrator, and Siva the Destroyer. Thus, Somadeva calls Siva the MahaDeva. The Shaivites believes all the Mother-goddesses of the original inhabitants of the Indian-subcontinent, the Tib-Bur speakers, to be the wives of Siva, thereby making him the most sex-hungry god always engaging in sex with Parvati - the flax plant representing the common peoples. The Shaivites worship Siva just as a Linga (Siva's penis) ever stuck in the Yoni (Parvati's vagina).
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 140225

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Katantra Vyakaranam

Kātantra Vyākaraṇa {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.}

-- UKT 140226, 170220

The Sanskrit following the Panini's Aṣṭādhyāyī   grammar is known as the the Classical Sanskrit. What goes before Panini is usually described as "Vdic-Sanskrit" - a term which I dispute.

UKT 170220: Here's another question. We know that {d~da} 'sound'. It is translated as English word "grammar". Can it be right? A. W. Lonsdale in his Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899
- BG1899-indx.htm - update 160930
has described the Burmese Grammar  in in two parts: Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and orthography (spelling); and Part 2. Accidence and syntax. Since, 'sound' is given as {d~da}, it deals only with Orthoepy (an uncommon word) and Orthography (a more familiar word). What we miss in teaching Grammar in Myanmarpr is teaching Accidence (another unfamiliar word), and Syntax (a word which has no clear-cut equivalent in Burmese: there are other similar cases which necessitates me - a half-baked "grammarian", to coin my own definitions for which I beg you to understand.). Describing Grammar as {d~da} 'sound' seems to be misleading. Is there another Pali word which is more comprehensive? Read the following trying to solve my question?

Vdic and its various dialects was the language of the original inhabitants of the Bronze Age of the Indian subcontinent: Magadhi being the most prominent. Most of these dialects, in particular Nwari, the extant language of the blood relatives of Gautama Buddha living in the Kathmandu valley of Npal, is Tib-Bur. There are many similarities between Nwari and Bur-Myan, in particular words beginning with the phoneme {nga.} /ŋ/ which are absent in Skt-Dev.

Sanskrit, on the other hand was the language of the intruders into India wielding iron weapons who conquered the Tib-Bur speakers, bringing India into the Iron Age. Panini and other ancient linguists of the time adapted Vdic into Sanskrit. I hold that the ancient Vdic was Tib-Bur, whereas Panini's Sanskrit is IE.

UKT 170220: Sanskrit is speech: I am not sure of what script it went with. Certainly, it was not Devanagari, because it's older name was Nagari. Moreover, there have been changes in the shape of the aksharas as can be seen in the difference used by A. A. Macdonell, and the present. What then was the script of the intruders - those with their male gods of juvenile bed-time stories? Was it Cuniform, since they came through Persia? Or, did they even has a script?

I was, and is still, very weak in grammar, and do not know the difference between {d~da} and  {bya-ka.ra.Na.}. I search in the Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627. For {d~da}, on p352-353, and for {bya-ka.ra.Na.} on p207.

At present my understanding (as of 170219) is: Byakarana {bya-ka.ra.Na.} is a Vdinga {w-dn~ga.} "a limb or branch" of Vda, and is made up of two parts: relation of {d~da} 'sound or speech' to 'script', and the how the words are built formed in the script - by joining - resulting in more "speech-words'. "How words are built" can be glossed as "morphology".

UKT 170219: Vda is collective Knowledge and was in existence in Vdic language long before the intruders with their male Hindu-gods Vishnu and Siva - minor gods in RigVda, appeared on the scene. "The Vedanga वेदाङ्ग vedāṅga "limbs of the Veda", are six auxiliary disciplines of Knowledge in Hinduism that developed in ancient times, and has been connected with the study of the Vedas. [1] [2] ..."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanga 170219

I still have to look into Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts.  Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and Orthography (spelling); Part 2. Accidence and syntax - BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 170220) .

accidence - n. Grammar . The section of morphology that deals with the inflections of words. - AHTD

Now what is Morphology?

From Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphology_linguistics 170218
"In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. [2] [3]. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning."  Wikipedia on Panini:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81%E1%B9%87ini 170219 states:
"The Aṣṭādhyāyī [the monumental work of Panini] was not the first description of Sanskrit grammar, but it is the earliest that has survived in full. The Aṣṭādhyāyī became the foundation of Vyākaraṇa, a Vedanga. [46] "

Based on the above, I must conclude that Vyākaraṇa is "Grammar" - both the relation of sound to script, and how words are formed based on script. The rules on how the words are formed is Sandhi.
"Sandhi  {Di.} संधिः sandh [1] "joining")] is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries (thus belonging to morphophonology). - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhi 170218 

UKT 170219: My rendition {n-Di.} संधिः sandh is not a mistake as far as the Visarga {wc~sa.pauk} विसर्गः visarga is concerned. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visarga 170219

I became aware of this problem while reciting Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev in the last line - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

" धियो॒ यो ः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त् ॥
dhyo y naḥ prachodayāt "

Going through Mon-Myan, I found its equivalent in {na:.} .

Based on this finding, I have arrived at "aksharas (both vowels and consonants) with varying duration of vowel sounds in terms of eye-blinks":

{na:.} (1/2 blnk), {na.} (1 blnk), {na} (2 blnk), {na:} (2 blnk +emphasis), {naa.} (1/2 blnk)

Note: {na:.} (1/2 blnk), {na.} (1 blnk), {na} (2 blnk) - present in Mon-Myan
and, {na.} (1 blnk), {na} (2 blnk), {na:} (2 blnk +emphasis), {naa.} (1/2 blnk) - present in Bur-Myan.
The terms "short vowel" & "long vowel" are very uncertain and I have stopped using them.

The story of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.} is about Sandhi - a special system known as {ka-tn~tra.}. It belongs to a school of Grammar known as the Aindra {ain~dra.} school.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aindra_School_of_Grammar 140225

UKT 170220 based on above: The Aindra school of Sanskrit grammar is one of the eleven schools of Sanskrit grammar mentioned in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi. Although it is named after the celestial king Aindra {ain~dra.} [who exists only in the imaginations of the humans], I am sure it was the work of human linguists.

Arthur Coke Burnell, author of On the Aindra school of Sanskrit grammars , 1875, points out that most non-Pāṇinian systems of Sanskrit grammar were traceable to this school of grammar. Since Aindra {ain~dra.} is the foremost god in RigVda - far superior to Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Siva - the name suggests that it was the oldest grammar.

The whole story of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.}, is about teaching Skt-Dev to a Telugu king in as little as 6 months, especially the Sanskrit Sandhi. The king seems to have some knowledge of Sanskrit. He would already have knowledge of Telugu his mother-tongue, and some knowledge of Magadhi, the dominant Prakrit of his time.

We also note that since Telugu and Mon-Myan belong to Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) languages, teaching the Telugu king would be comparable to teaching a Mon-Myan who already knows Pali which is derived from Magadhi speech the script of which is Asokan, found on many inscriptions of Buddhist king Asoka.

There is a fascinating story behind the writing of this great Sanskrit grammar...

Some 2200 years ago, the great King Sātavāhana ruled the Andhra Pradesh.

UKT 170217: I am not certain who King Sātavāhana was, because of which I am quoting Wikipedia on Satavahana dynasty (1st century BCE2nd century CE):
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty 170217
"... They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain [northern India] to the southern tip of India. They supported Brahmanism as well as Buddhism, and patronised Prakrit language* instead of Sanskrit."

* Note: "Prakrit" of the Jains is known as Ardhamāgadhī 'Half-Magadhi'. It is written in Gujarati, whilst that of the Buddhists in Magadha is Magadhi written in Asokan script.

Composed by Sarvavarma in the second CE of the Common Era, the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa was a game changer as far Sanskrit grammars were concerned. Also known as the Kalāpa or the Kaumāra Vyākaraṇa, legend says that it was created in response to a very unique demand by a King to teach him Sanskrit in a very short time.

From: कातन्त्र-व्याकरणम्  Katantra-Vyakaram, by Sarvavarma, edited by Dr RS Saini, 1987 
- http://www.navelgazing.net/2013/12/kantantra-vyakaranam.html 170219 (not accessible)
and, https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/ROZ-EK-SHER/ikCdYQZtan4 140226


*modakaṃ dehī deva = mā udakaṃ dehī deva
(Lord, please do not splash me with water)

Once, while he was relaxing in his water pond with his many queens; one of them, tiring of this sport, asked him in Sanskrit to stop splashing her with water by saying, "modakaṃ dehī deva". The brave King, unfamiliar with Sanskrit sandhis, incorrectly assumed that she wanted "modakas", a special kind of sweet, and asked his servants to fetch the vaunted sweet. The queen laughed at him and playfully rebuked him for his lack of proficiency at Sanskrit.

A suitably chastised King asked two of his learned courtiers to instruct him in the intricacies of Sanskrit asap. He asked them how much time it would take to master Sanskrit. The first scholar, Guṇāḍhya [says 6 yr], explained that it normally took about 12 years to gain mastery of Sanskrit grammar, but boasted that he would teach the King in only 6 years. The second scholar, Sarvavarma [says 6 month], claimed that Sanskrit grammar could be taught in 6 months.

In the ensuing unscholarly debate between the two masters, Guṇāḍhya [6-yr] claimed that if Sarvavarma [6 month] could make the King an expert in Sanskrit in 6 months flat, he would never, ever write a book in Sanskrit or Prakrit [UKT: Maghadi?] ! To do one better, Sarvavarma proclaimed that if he could not make the King an expert in Sanskrit in 6 months, he would carry Guṇāḍhyas footwear on his head for the next 12 years!

After the tall claim, Sarvavarma found it difficult to match it in deed, and hence sought the blessings, help and guidance of Svāmī Kārtikeya, the Jain monk.  Under his tutelage, Sarvavarma learned and composed the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa in a very short period of time.

UKT 170215: Since Jain literature is in Ardhamāgadhī 'Half-Magadhi', I presume it was to Magadhi-Prakrit roots that Sarvavarma went.

Presumably, King Sātavāhana was blessed with peaceful neighbours and peace-loving countrymen, for within the stipulated time frame of 6 months, he devoted himself to studying and mastering Sanskrit grammar following the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa method.


Salient Features of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa

UKT 170221: Since the following text contains many Sanskrit words, I must wait for another time to understand what it is really about!

1. It is also known as Kātantra; Kalāpa; Kalāpaka; Kaumāra; Sarvavarmika; Daurgasiṃha, Durgasiṃhīya

2. Created to teach Sanskrit to King Sātavāhana in a very short period of time.

3. Kātantra uses the traditional sequence of words in a sentence placing subject in the first case object in the second case and instrumental cause in the seventh case.

4. Uses a simpler scheme of suffixes than Pāṇinian grammar.

5. Uses 14 svaras [vowels] to Pāṇinis 9.

UKT 170220: See below Indic Models of Description in Tibetan Grammar, by P.C. Verhagen, J. Bronkhorst, 2001 for Katantra vowels.

6. Recognises 52 varṇas to Pāṇini's 42.

7. Kātantra samanvaya follows loka vyavahāra, as opposed to Pāṇini samanvaya, which does not follow loka vyavahāra but is designed to facilitate the pratyāhāras. Hence Kātantra is more practical as it covers classical as well as laukika (general) usage.

8. Since Kātantra does not use pratyāhāras, the brevity of sūtras is sometimes compromised. But the student is saved from the pains of mastering the pratyāhāra system!

9. Kātantra renders a very practical and realistic grammar and states that wherever there is no sutra in his vyākaraṇa, the user must follow the general spoken convention.

lokopacārād grahaṇasiddhiḥ'
Kātantra Vyākaraṇa 1.1.23

10. Brevity can be attained in two ways:

śabdakṛta lāghava : Using the barest minimum of words:
Plus point - very few words required, makes for elegant writing
Minus point - cryptic style; the meaning is not always quickly grasped

arthakṛta lāghava : Explaining the concept in a clear and lucid style.
Plus point - is obvious
Minus point - more words are required, to illustrate the meaning clearly and to facilitate immediate comprehension.

Kātantra uses arthakṛta lāghava, while Pāṇini uses śabdakṛta lāghava. Hence Kātantra is more user-friendly!

11. Kātantra Vyākaraṇa was used widely in India from Bengal to Kashmir, and from Andhra to Orissa and Central India. It was also used in neighbouring Tibet, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

12. As proofs of Kātantra's enduring and widespread popularity, many grammatical works were written on the Kātantra system, in different scripts such as Śāradā, Vaṅga, Utkala, Grantha and Devanāgarī. There are more than 40 separate works on the Kātantra Rūpamālā. There exist more than 23 ṭīkās in Tibetan on the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa.

13. Both Jains and Buddhists claim authorship of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa - strong evidence of of its excellence, practicality and the fascination it commands.

UKT 170220: Indic Models of Description in Tibetan Grammar, by P.C. Verhagen, J. Bronkhorst, 2001 seems to be a good read on Katantra. I could only get a book-preview. On p.260 it is written:



This is a good introductory work on Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. It is a must-buy for students and scholars of Sanskrit and Indologists. It is compulsory reading for the Jain and Buddhist scholar.

PS Sorry, this reviewer believes in arthakṛta lāghava not śabdakṛta lāghava! Hence the long review.

This and other books on Sanskrit, Prakrit, Hindi, Pali and English and Urdu language and literature are available at our bookstore and through mail order.

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Kanva Rishi : Origin of Tantra ?

-- UKT 140225, 170215

Proper nouns, such as the names of places and peoples, are a mine-field in any language. For example, the word Myanmar {mrn-ma}, can be a country, a script, or an ethnicity. Thus it is imperative to include the suffix {pr}, {sa}, and {lu-myo:}.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanva 140225

Kanva  कण्‍व kṇva  was an ancient Hindu Veda rishi, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed. He was called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas. He is sometimes included in the list of the seven sages (the Saptarishis).

UKT 170215: Because of the Hindu Poannars {poaN~Na:}, both {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} & {i-wa. poaN~Na:} pretending to be the mouth-piece of the Creator (whoever he may be: Mahabrahma of Vaishnavite-Hindu, or Siva of the Shaivite-Hindu) rewriting the old-beliefs (up to 18th century AD) of the original Vdas, I am always suspicious of the terms "Hindu" and "Vda".

Rig-Vda is a collection of Mantras {mn~tn} the so-called hymns to various celestial beings, males & females, Dva {d-wa.}, Asura {a.u.ra}, even Aspira (the celestial dancers in the employ of Celestial King Indra: Skt-Dev: अप्सराः  apsarāḥ, Pali-IAST accharā, {d-wc~hsa.ra} as the goddesses of gambling-luck or fortune), and lower beings right down to Man'es {nt-saim:} and ghosts {a.r:} {c~hs} all having "powers of various degree" due to their "births" without material bodies. These immaterial entities can affect the lives of humans of flesh and blood.

Inset pix: A Cambodian dancer dancing the Aspira dance.

To the Myanmar-Buddhists the Mantras {mn~tn} are esoteric formulas discovered by human Rishis {ra..} (to be recited meticulously without music) to make these celestial and earth-bound immaterial beings serve them. These human Rishis {ra..} must be of of high "discipline" aka "austerities" {a.kyn. i-la.} to empower the {mn~tn} or its material instrument {yn~ta.ra:} known as Inn { n:} in Bur-Myan and Yan in Cambodian and Thai languages .

Indra, the king of the dvas is always afraid of these Mantra-wielding {ra..} who might dethrone him. He, therefore, would send of his celestial dancers {d-wc~hsa.ra} to seduce sexually the human {ra..}. A human Rishi {ra..} loses his esoteric power by having sex with the {d-wc~hsa.ra}. We note here that a human {ra..} is of flesh and blood, whereas a {d-wc~hsa.ra} is an entity without a material body. As an explanation for having sex, {d-wc~hsa.ra} is supposed to have the power to create a body of flesh and blood.

An inferior novice {ra..} can acquire esoteric powers by becoming a {zau-gyi} who not having a {d-wc~hsa.ra} for sex, has to have the service of a fruit-maiden {u-yan m}.

All these beliefs are of the Tib-Bur speakers - the Bronze Age indigenous peoples - under the rubric of Tantric practices, and I opine that the Hindu Poannars {poaN~Na:} of IE speakers - the Iron Age intruders had adopted.

Now let's continue with Kanva  कण्‍व kṇva the rishi:

Kanva is also the name of a founder of a Vedic shakha [see below],
Kanva is also the name of several princes and founders of dynasties and several authors.
The Kanvas are the descendants of king Vasudeva Kanva (1st century BCE).
The Kanvas are also a class of evil spirits, against whom hymn 2.25 of the Atharva Veda is used as a charm.

The kanva was a great rishi in Treta Yug. He was the founder of Mahrshi kanva ashrama.

Maharshi Kanva Ashram is located in a well-grown village called "Kanalda". KANALDA is 12 km north of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra, India. More details can be found on http://www.maharshikanvaashram.com/

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakha 140225

A shakha śākhā "branch" or "limb", is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. [3] [4] An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin. [5] The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system. [6]

A related term caraṇa, ("conduct of life" or "behavior") is also used to refer to such a Vedic school: [7] "although the words caraṇa and śākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, and śākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, ("he recites a particular version of the Veda")". [4] The schools have different points of view, described as "difference of (Vedic) school" (śākhābhedaḥ). Each school would learn a specific Vedic Saṃhita (one of the "four Vedas" properly so-called), as well as its associated Brahmana, Aranyakas, Shrautasutras, Grhyasutras and Upanishads. [3] [4]

In traditional Hindu society affiliation with a specific school is an important aspect of class identity. By the end of the Rig Vedic period the term Brāhmaṇa had come to be applied to all members of the priestly class, but there were subdivisions within this order based both on caste and on the shakha (branch) with which they were affiliated. [8] A Brāhmaṇa who changed school would be called "a traitor to his śākhā" (śākhāraṇḍaḥ). [3]

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Kashyapa Rishi : कश्यप kaśyapa

-- UKT 140223, 170212

It is my belief that many folk-tales and religious stories are based on historical events told by professional story-tellers who were quite common in our parts of the world. As such each story is changed slightly to suit the times and the common beliefs of the listeners. Of course there might be pure fabrications just to bring forth a current event to tell the rulers how to behave, or to introduce a new idea or a new religion.

UKT 170212: Most of the Myanmar Theravada-Buddhists would be horrified at the idea of a Rishi having a wife or wives and children. The Rishi of this note Kashyapa Rishi has 4 wives: Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi, and have many children. Some [children of Diti] remain religious [Hinduism: Shaivism may include Vaishnavism] (Deities {d-wa.}) and other [children of Aditi] became irreligious [non-Hindus] (Demons {a.u-ra}). [11] . I haven't found out about the children of Banita & Kadru.

As a scientist I do not place much importance to the stories about {d-wa.} & {a.u-ra}. I pay attention to how the humans (you & I) interpret these "stories". A group of people very much like the Bur-Myan speakers are the still extent relatives of Gautama Buddha living in Kathmandu valley of Nepal. We are of the same Tib-Bur stock, and what they think of the wives of the rishis are interesting. For this see Digital Himalaya: Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, 1976, in which the anthropologist Lynn Bennett wrote about the Wives of the Rishis. See the downloaded pdf paper in TIL library:
- 03Bennet-Wives-Rishi<> bkp<> (link chk 170212)
Pdf from: http://www.digitalhimalaya.com/collections/journals/kailash/nonjavascript.php 170212
p186-Kailash : "3. The original rishis are traditionally seven. According to one village priest they are: Atre, Kaysap, Biswamitra, Bharadwaj, Gautam, Basista, and Jam adagni. However, their numbers increase in certain contexts. ... "

The story of Kasyapa Rishi is connected with the history of Kashmir, an area completely surrounded by the hills of the Himalayas.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyap 140223

Kashyapa कश्यप kaśyapa was an ancient sage (rishis) {ra..}, who is one of the Saptarshis in the present Manvantara: others being Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja. [1] According to the Vedic Knowledge, he is the son of Marichi, one of the ten sons (Manasa-putras) of the Creator Brahma.

The Rishi {ra..} are seers who know and by their knowledge are the makers of shastra and "see" all mantras. The word comes from the root rish Rishati-prapnoti sarvvang mantrang jnanena pashyati sangsaraparangva, etc. The seven great Rishi or saptarshi of the first manvantara are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. In other manvantara there are other sapta-rshi. [UKT ]

In the present manvantara the seven are: Kashyap, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvaj. [UKT ]

To the Rishi the Vedas were revealed. Vyasa taught the Rigveda so revealed to Paila, the Yajurveda to Vaishampayana, the Samaveda to Jaimini, Atharvaveda to Samantu, and Itihasa and Purana to Suta. The three chief classes of Rishi are the Brah-marshi, born of the mind of Brahma, the Devarshi of lower rank, and Rajarshi or Kings who became Rishis through their knowledge and austerities, such as Janaka, Ritaparna, etc. Thc Shrutarshi are makers of Shastras, as Sushruta. The Kandarshi are of the Karmakanda, such as Jaimini.

He was also the author of the treatise Kashyap Samhita, or Jivakiya Tantra, which is considered a classical reference book on Ayurveda especially in the fields of Ayurvedic pediatrics, gynecology and obstetrics. [2]

It can be safely assumed that there were many Kashyaps and the name indicates a status and not just one individual.

Kashyap in Sikhism

In Brahm Avtar composition present in Dasam Granth, Second Scripture of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned Rishi Kashyap, as second avtar of Brahma. [9] According to him, Rishi Kashyap had great knowledge of Vedas and interpreted it very thoughtfully to whole world which bring them internal relief. [10] He married with four wives, Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi and have many children out of them some remain religious (Deities) and other became irreligious (Demons). [11]

UKT 140223: It is usual to mention the goddesses Diti and Aditi - one is always the opponent of the other. Diti represents the Earth and Aditi the Sky.


Kashyap and Kashmir

The Valley of Kashmir got its name from Kashyap Rishi. [12] According to the Vedic Knowledge, the Kashmir valley was a vast lake called Satisaras, named after Sati  or Parvati the consort of Shiva. The lake was inhabited by the demon Jalodbhav. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the region being inhabited by two tribes the Nagas and the Pisachas. The lake was drained off by leader of the Nagas called Ananta (Anantnag region of Kashmir is named after him) to capture and kill the demon. Ananta later names the valley as Kashyap-mira after his father Kashyap. Kalhana in Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) also mentions Prajapati Kashyap killing Jalodbhava with the help of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The lake was then drained and comes to be known as Kash-mira after the Rishi Kashyap. [13]

UKT: I have left out one section from the Wikipedia article.

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Two-three tone problem and its resolution

-- UKT 120202, 140207, 170212

Though English has short vowels and long vowels it did not come to my notice until I started to learn phonetics a couple of decades ago. However, when I took up BEPS, it came to me with a vengence.

The two-three tone problem is present between Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan. Yet the Bur-Myan speakers are so used to it that they do not even notice its existence. The above two figures show the problem for the allophones of /ka./ of the velar POA (Place Of Articulation): the tenuis consonant {ka.} and its counterpart voiced consonant {ga.}.

I wonder how the monks from Sri Lanka who were used to Sanskrit pronunciation had managed to solve this problem when religious interchange between Lanka and Pagan was almost routine in the Pagan era. -- UKT 120202

Then to improve my listening skill to Skt-Dev I started listening to Hindi speakers singing mantras and songs in Skt-Dev. I also listened to Tamil speakers, but I realized there is quite a difference between the two sets of speakers singing and talking the same Sanskrit. The first noticeable opening was when I listened to Anuradha Paudwal singing the Gayatri Mantra - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

Captivated by her voice, and beginning to understand the explanations, I downloaded the lyrics and analysed the words one by one. I then transcribed them in Romabama, and then into Sanskrit (Skt-Myan). I immediately noticed the word {na:.} which is not present in Bur-Myan. The syllable {na:.} has a very short vowel - only 1/2 eye-blink, compared to {na.} with a vowel length of one full eye-blink. From the meaning I understand it to be equivalent to {ngaa.}. When I looked into Mon-Myan I find such words. Then I realized that my two-three tone problem is resolved when this very short vowel is introduced.

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