Update: 2018-12-29 02:49 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  {kal~pa.} : Lepha
   {kal~la.} : may also be written in non-Lepha form as
{ka.sha.} कश kaśa :  IAST: श ś /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ /s/; स s /θ/
{ka.Sa.} कष kaṣa : don't be led astray by of Macdonell transliteration [ kash ], it is [ṣ] not [sh]
{ka.a.} कस kasa: Skt-Dev speakers pronounce स as /s/, Bur-Myan speakers and IPA pronounce it /θ/.

{ka} - long vowel ending with 2 eye-blinks compare to p060-3.htm for {ka.} with 1 blnk
{ka-kSa.} - mispronunciation of {ka-hka.} : Pseudo Kha being a conjunct can break up giving {kaak~Sa.}
{kn-} : Kinsi

UKT notes :
See my note on Repha and Lepha on p063.htm
Danu Asura - female Asura: a mother-goddess {m-tau} of  Folk religion of Celts.
Dhutanga robe
Kakshivat - Buddha's birth
Katantra Vyakaranam : {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.}
  - Sanskrit for a Telugu king
Kanabhuti the Cyclop :
Kanva Rishi : Origin of Tantra ?
Kashyapa Rishi : कश्यप kaśyapa
Two-three tone problem
Wa-Va-Ba : change in pronunciation


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p065c1-b00/ p053-012 

कल्पाय [ kalpya ]
- den. . become or seem a Kalpa: pp. i-ta.
12) कल्पाय ( p. 53) kalpya


p065c1-b01/ p053-011

कल्पितार्घ [ kalpita‿argha ]
- a. to whom an offering of (--) has been made.
11) कल्पितार्घ (p. 53) kalpita̮argha


p065c1-b02/ p053-010

कल्प्य [ kalp-ya ]
- fp. to be assigned; to be imagined.
10) कल्प्य (p. 53) kalp-ya


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p065c1-b03/ p053-009

कल्मष [ kalmasha ]
- n. dirt; taint; guilt; sin.
9) कल्मष (p. 53) kalmasha


p065c1-b04/ p053-008

कल्माष [ kalmsha ]
- a. () having black spots (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a Nga; n. spot.
8) कल्माष (p. 53) kalmaNsha


p065c1-b05/ p053-007

कल्माषित [ kalmsh-ita ]
- pp. spotted, variegated with (in.).
7) कल्माषित (p. 53) kalmsh-ita

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p065c1-b06/ p053-006

कल्य [ kal-ya ]
- a. healthy, vigorous; ready (for, lc. or inf.); clever; n. health; day-break (-m, lc., --, at day-break); intoxicating liquor: -t, f. health.
6) कल्य (p. 53) kal-ya


p065c1-b07/ p053-005

कल्यवर्त [ kalya-varta ]
- n. breakfast; trifle.
5) कल्यवर्त (p. 53) kalya-varta


p065c1-b08/ p053-004

कल्याण [ kalyna ]
- a. (&isharp;) beautiful, lovely; good, excellent, noble; blessed, auspicious, prosperous; m. N. of a king; n. the good; virtue, merit; welfare, prosperity; festival; , f. kind of pulse; -kataka, N. of a locality; -kara, a. () propitious; -kra, a. productive of utility; -krit, a. performing good deeds; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -parampar, f. continuous good fortune; -pura, n. N. of a town; -prakriti, a. noble-natured; -lakshana, a. having auspicious marks; -vartman, m. N. of a king; -svmi-kesava, m. N. of a statue of Vishnu; -‿abhinivesin, a. benevolent; m. patron.
4) कल्याण (p. 53) kalyaNna


p065c1-b09/ p053-003

कल्याणिन्् [ kalyn-in ]
- a. virtuous; prosperous.
3) कल्याणिन्् (p. 53) kalyn-in

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UKT151030, 170208: UHS-PMD lists two Pal-Myan words involving one {ka.} and two {la.}. The English translations are mine:
{ka.la.la.} - n. mud, semen, body [fetus] formed from {ka.la.la.}-fluid 'male semen'  - UHS-PMD0300c2
{kal~la.} - . mfn. appropriate, fitting, respectability, proper. m. freedom from disease. n. dawn of the day.
. mn. ash - UHS-PMD0302c2

p065c1-b10/ p053-002

कल्लोल [ kallola ]
- m. wave.
2) कल्लोल (p. 53) kallola

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{kal~ha.}/ not online


कल्हण "Kalhana"

Kalhana (sometimes spelled Kalhan or Kalhan'a) (c. 12th century), a Kashmiri, was the author of Rajatarangini (River of Kings), an account of the history of Kashmir. He wrote the work in Sanskrit between 1148 and 1149. [1]
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalhana 120222, 151030
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajatarangini 120222
See translation in 2 vol. by M. A. Stein,1900, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- MAStein-Rajatarangini01<> / Bkp01<> (link chk 181219)
- MAStein-Rajatarangini02<> / Bkp02<> (link chk 181219)

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See my note on Pronunciation change from Pali to Sanskrit:
Wa-Va-Ba {wa.} > {va.} > {ba.}

p065c1-b12/ not online

कव [kava]
= - = ka-, kad-, k-, ku- , bad


p065c1-b13/ p053-001

कवक [ kavaka ]
- n. mushroom.
1) कवक (p. 53) kavaka


p065c1-b14/ p053-028

कवच [ kvaka ] "
- m. n. armour, mail; jacket; bark; - dhara, a. wearing armour = youth.
28) कवच (p. 53) kvaka


p065c1-b15/ p053-027 

कवचिन्् [ kavak-n ]
- a. clad in mail.
27) कवचिन्् (p. 53) kavak-n


p065c1-b16/ p053-026 

कवन्ध [ kvandha ]
- m. n. barrel; cloud; belly; trunk (of the body); ep. of the demon Danu [female Asura], whose head and thighs were thrust into her his trunk by Indra.
26) कवन्ध (p. 53) kvandha 

UKT 170209, 171210: See my note on Danu Asura


p065c1-b17/ p053-025 

कवय [ kavaya ]
- den. P. compose poetry.
25) कवय (p. 53) kavaya


p065c1-b18/ p053-024 

कवल [ kavala ]
- m. mouthful, morsel: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -na, a. swallowing; -ya, den. P. swallow: pp. kavalita, devoured by mouthfuls.
24) कवल (p. 53) kavala


p065c1-b19/ p053-023 

कवष [ kvasha ]
- a. (&isharp;) wide apart; m. N.
23) कवष (p. 53) kvasha


p065c1-b20/ not online 

- fold of a door; -ka , id. (-)


p065c1-b21/ p053-022 

कवि [ kav- ]
- a. wise; m. wise man, sage, seer; poet; planet Venus.
22) कवि (p. 53) kav-


p065c1-b22/ p053-021

कविका [ kav-k ]
- f. bit (on a bridle).
21) कविका (p. 53) kav-k


p065c1-b23/ p053-020 

  कविता [ kavi-t ]
- f., -tv, n. poetic art or gift; -putra, m. N. of a dramatist; -rga, m. king of poets; N. of a poet; ()-sasta (or ), pp. spoken or praised by sages.
20) कविता (p. 53) kavi-t


p065c1-b24/ p053-019 

कवोष्ण [ kava‿ushna ]
- a. lukewarm: -t, f. -ness.
19) कवोष्ण (p. 53) kava̮ushna


p065c1-b25/ not online

कव्य [kav-y] = [kav]
- m. pl. kind of Ma'nes; n. offerings to these Ma'nes (generally whavya ); -vhana , a. conveying the offerings to the Ma'nes (Agn);  -havya-bhug , m. ep. of Agni -- Mac065c1
Skt: कव्य kavya - adj. sacrificial priest, a sacrificer -- SpkSkt

( end of old p065-1.htm )

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{ka.sha.}/ {kish}

p065c1-b26/ p053-018 

कश [ ksa ]
- m. kind of rodent; whip; , f. whip; bridle; -‿ghta, m. stroke of the whip.
18) कश (p. 53) ksa

कशा [ks] = क श ा --> {ka.sha}
Skt: कशा [ks] - f. whip; bridle -- Mac065c1
BPal: {ka.a} - UHS-PMD0303
  UKT from UHS: f. rattan cane (used as cattle goad - different from whip used in the West).


p065c1-b27/ p053-135 

कशिपु [ kasip ]
- m. n. mat, cushion.
135) कशिपु (p. 53) kasip


p065c1-b28/ p053-017 

कश्मल [ kasmala ]
- a. (, ) dirty; n. dirt; pusillanimity; despair.
17) कश्मल (p. 53) kasmala

pusillanimity - n. . The state or quality of being pusillanimous; cowardice.


p065c1-b29/ p053-016

कश्मीर [ kasmra ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; sg. N. of a country (Cashmere).
16) कश्मीर (p. 53) kasmra (Cashmere).


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p065c2-b00/ p053-015

कश्यप [ kasypa ]
- a. black-toothed; m. tortoise; a divine being; N. of various Rishis.
15) कश्यप (p. 53) kasypa

See my note on Kashyapa Rishi कश्यप kaśyapa Rishi 


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√kaṣ, {kaS} 'scratch' - Whit018.

See: कषति { कष् } kaṣati { kaṣ } - v1. exterminate, rub, eradicate, scrape, scratch, ... - SpkSkt


p065c2-b01/ not online 

कष् [ kash] {kaSS} : Macdonell [sh] should have [ṣ]
--. kasha , rub, scrape, scratch


p065c2-b02/ p053-014 

कष [ kash-a ]
- a. scraping (--); m. touchstone: -na, n. rubbing, scraping, friction; -pattik, f., -pshna, m. touchstone.
14) कष (p. 53) kash-a


कषति { कष् } kaṣati { kaṣ }
- v.1 rub, scratch, exterminate, scrape, rub or scratch oneself, test or try - SpkSkt


p065c2-b03/ p053-013

कषाय [ kashya ]
- a. astringent (taste); fragrant; red, yellowish red; m. red colour; passion; m. n. astringent juice; decoction; medicinal potion; ointment; dirt; taint; deterioration, moral decline; n. yellow garment; -ya, den. P. dirty; molest; i-ta, pp. coloured red; dirtied, stained; penetrated w., full of (--).
13) कषाय (p. 53) kashya

कषाय --> {ka.Sa-ya.}
Skt: कषाय [kashya] - a. astringent (taste); fragrant; red, yellowish red; m. red colour; passion; m. n. astringent juice; decoction; medicinal potion; ointment; dirt; taint; deterioration, moral decline; n. yellow garment -- Mac065c2
BPal: {ka.a-ya.} - UHS-PMD0303
  UKT from UHS: mfn. astringent. m. tannin solution [which is mildly antiseptic], golden-red color

See my clip on tannin solution in my note on Dhutanga Robe


p065c2-b04/ p053-041  

कष्ट [ kash-ta ]
- pp. bad; heavy, severe; miserable; forced, unnatural; pernicious, dangerous; n. evil, misfortune, misery (kashtt kashtataram, worst of all evils): -m, in., ab., --, with difficulty, only just; -m, ij. woe! often w. dhik or h dhik; -tapas, a. doing severe penance; -tara, cpv. most dangerous or pernicious; -labhya, fp. hard to obtain; -‿adhika, a. worse.
41) कष्ट (p. 53) kash-ta

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UKT 171211, 181219: Always think of the possibility of formation of {ka}, from which {kaS} can be derived. {kaS} can be written in Kin'si form {kaS~} if you will remember that it is , and NOT  a POA change from dental-fricative to palatal-stop. This will be further transformed to {ka.S~} from which words like {ka.Sta.}, कस्तम्भी ka-stambh can be formed. The Romaba-transcription will now be modified to {ka.Sta.} -> {ka.sta.}. 

√kas, {k} 'open'. - Whit018


p065c2-b05/ not online

कस् [ kas ] i.
- beam. nis, cs. -nishksaya drive out. vi burst, open, blossom; beam (with joy); ...


p065c2-b06/ p053-040

कसुन् [ k-as-un ] = क स ु न ् --> {ka.oan}
Skt: - inf. suffix as (gr.). -- Mac065-c2
  40) कसुन्् (p. 53) k-as-un as (gr.).
Skt: - kasun the kṛt suffix as forming in the Veda an indeclinable (avyaya Pāṇ. 1-1, 40) infinitive with abl. sense Pāṇ. 3-4, 13 and 17 (cf. vi-sṛ́pas, ā-tṛ́das.) -- MonWill266-c1

UKT 120202: कसुन् k-as-un {ka.oan} is not given in UHS-PMD. Skt-Myan transcription is mine.


p065c2-b07/ p053-039

कस्तम्भी [ ka-stambh ]
- f. support of a carriage pole.
39) कस्तम्भी (p. 53) ka-stambh


p065c2-b08/ p053-038

कस्तूरिका [ kastrik ]
- f. musk; -kuraṅga, m. musk-deer [Himalayan musk deer: Moschus leucogaster ]; -mrig, f. female of the musk deer.
38) कस्तूरिका (p. 53) kastrik


p065c2-b09/ p053-037

कस्तूरी [ kastr ]
- f. musk: -mriga, m. musk deer.
37) कस्तूरी (p. 53) kastr


p065c2-b10/ p053-036

कस्मात्् [ k-smt ]
- ab. of kim; ad. whence? why? on what account?
36) कस्मात्् (p. 53) k-smt


p065c2-b11/ p053-035

कल्हार [ kahlra ]
- n. white esculent water-lily.
35) कल्हार (p. 53) kahlra

UKT 140313:
According to http://sanskritdictionary.com/?q=kumuda, 140313, Monier-Williams gives:
kumuda कुमुद {ku.mu.da.} - n. "exciting what joy", the esculent white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta).
According to http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?415799 140313,
Nymphaea esculenta Roxb. is the synonym of Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
"Esculent" means 'edible' -- AHTD

( end of old p065-2.htm )

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{ka} : Refer to p060-3.htm for comparison with {ka.}

See my note on Two-three tone problem, and its resolution when Mon-Myan, which is similar to Skt-Dev, is taken into account.

√kā, see kan - Whit018

√kākṣ, 'desire' - Whit018

p065c2-b12/ not online

का [k]
- - = ka- , kad- , kava- , ku- , bad

UKT 170222: का [k] , the Skt-Dev interrogative, is also the name of God.

See Allah, The Unique Name of God, 'research into the names of God in over 150 languages of the world' by Maulana Abdul Haq Vidyarthi , 2007. The downloaded book is in the TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF librairies
- AHVidyarthi-Allah<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180406)
Inset pix: p.092 of the above book:


p065c2-b13/ p053-034

कांशि [ kmsi ]
- m. goblet, cup.
34) कांशि (p. 53) kmsi


p065c2-b14/ p053-033

कांस्य [ kmsya ]
- a. brazen; n. brass; -kra, m. bell-founder; -tla, m. cymbal; -ptra, n., , f. brazen vessel.
33) कांस्य (p. 53) kmsya

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p065c2-b15/ p053-032

काक [ kka ]
- m. crow: , f. female crow; -t, f. state of a crow; -tlya, a. accidental as the fall of the fruit in the story concerning the crow and the date, i.e. as accidental as the fall of the date at the moment of the crow's alighting on the palm-tree = post hoc, non propter hoc: -m or -vat, ad. suddenly, unexpectedly; -paksha, m. crow's wing; curl on the temples of boys or youths: -ka, --, a. id.; -yava, m. pl. grainless barley; -rava, a. cawing like a crow, cowardly; -rka, a. cowardly.
32) काक (p. 53) kka


p065c2-b16/ p053-031

काकलि [ kkali ]
- f. low, sweet tone; , f. id.; musical instrument with a low note used to test whether one is asleep.
31) काकलि (p. 53) kkali


p065c2-b17/ p053-030

काकाक्षिन्याय [ kka‿akshi-nyya ]
- m.: in., ab. after the manner of the crow's eye, i.e. in opposite directions, with reference both to what precedes and what follows; -‿akshi-golanyya, m. id.
30) काकाक्षिन्याय (p. 53) kka̮akshi-nyya


p065c2-b18/ p053-029

काकिणी kâkin, ˚नी [ -n ]
- f. cowrie, small coin = 1/4 pana.
29) काकिणी (p. 53) -n 


p065c2-b19/ p053-061

काकु [ kku ]
- f. cry of grief, wail; change of voice, emphasis.
61) काकु (p. 53) kku


p065c2-b20/ p053-060 

काकुत्स्थ [ kkutstha ]
- m. descendant of Kakutstha (ep. of Aga, Dasaratha, Rma, Lakshmana).
60) काकुत्स्थ (p. 53) kkutstha

UKT 170213: Kakutstha was a king of the Solar dynasty, the son of Bhageeratha, and an ancestor of Rama. His son is Raghu. - http://www.apamnapat.com/entities/Kakutstha.html 110903
See detail in Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suryavansha 170213
"Suryavansha {u.ri.ya. wn-a.} (Suryavam(n)sham aka Solar Dynasty) is a mythological dynasty of ancient India. The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to Suryvansha dynasty. ... Ikshvaku: the first prominent monarch of this dynasty, ..."  King Ikshvaku 'Sugar-cane' is known as "Okkaka" {auk~ka-ka. mn:} in Bur-Myan.


p065c2-b21/ p053-059

काकुद्् [ kkud ]
- f. palate.
59) काकुद्् (p. 53) kkud


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p065c3-b00/ p053-058

काकोल [ kkola ]
- m. raven; n. kind of poison; a certain hell.
58) काकोल (p. 53) kkola


p065c3-b01/ p053-057

काकोलूकीय [ kka‿ulk-ya ]
- n. story of the crows and the owls.
57) काकोलूकीय (p. 53) kka̮ulk-ya

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{ka-kSa.} : Pseudo Kha

UKT 181220: is the mispronunciation of {ka-hka.} : Pseudo Kha being a conjunct can break up giving {kaak~Sa.}

p065c3-b02/ p053-056

काक्षीवती [ kkshvat ] = (क ा) (क ् ष) ी व त ी
- f. daughter of Kakshvat.
56) काक्षीवती (p. 53) kkshvat

See my note on Kakshivat - persons of miraculous birth: my first introduction (110904) to Mahayana Buddhist texts. As a down-to-earth scientist, I am sceptical of miracles: my interest is only in their linguistic content.


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{kn-} : Kinsi    

p065c3-b03/ not online

कङ्क्ष् [kāṅkśa]
Skt: कङ्क्ष् [kāṅkśa] - desire, long for, strive after; expect, wait for (ac.): pp. -ita. abhi, long for: pp. wished for, desired.  , desire, want; strive for; wait for (ac.), seek (g.), turn towards (ac.); require as a complement (gr.) - Mac065
Skt: काङ्क्षा kāṅkṣā - f. wish, desire, hankering, inclination, etc. - SpkSkt


p065c3-b04/ p053-055

काङ्क्षणीय [ kṅksh-anya ]
- fp. desirable; -, f. desire for (--); -in, a. desirous of, longing for, waiting for (ac. or --).
55) काङ्क्षणीय (p. 53) kṅksh-anya

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√kā, 'appear, make a show'. - Whit018



p065c3-b05/ p053-054

काच [ kk ]
- m. glass: -mani, m. crystal; -ra, a. made of glass.
54) काच (p. 53) kk

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p065c3-b06/ p053-053 

काज [ kga ]
- n. mallet.
53) काज (p. 53) kga

UKT 140225: A Myanmar male child about to be novitiated into the Theravada Buddhist order sometimes spends a few days in the monastery learning the elements of Buddhist prayers. Known as a Master Novice-to-be or Master Holiness {hpo:u-tau}, he has his prayer beads around his neck and in his hands he holds a brass triangular gong {kr:s} by its single string, and in his right hand he holds a wooden mallet {lak-hkt} with which he is about to strike at a corner of the triangular gong to make it spin while producing a sweet note that goes up and down.


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p065c3-b07/ p053-052

काञ्चन [ kkana ] = क ा ञ ् च न
- n. gold; money; a. () golden; - giri, m. gold mtn., ep. of Meru; -prabha, a. shining like gold; -maya, a. () golden; -ml, f. N. of various women; -varman, m. N. of a king; -‿akala, -‿adri, m. ep. of Mount Meru.
52) काञ्चन (p. 53) kkana

काञ्चन [ kkana ]
= क ा ञ ् च न --> {kaa~sa.na.}
Skt: काञ्चन [ kkana ] - n. gold; money; a. () golden; - MC065c3
Pal: {ki~sa.na.} - UHS PMD0277
  UKT from UHS: n. gold

UKT 151031: Notice the vowel change in going from Pal-Myan: {ki~sa.na.} to Skt-Myan: {kaa~sa.na.}.

p065c3-b08/ p053-051

काञ्चनीय [ kkan-ya ]
- a. golden.
51) काञ्चनीय (p. 53) kkan-ya


p065c3-b09/ p053-050

काञ्ची [ kk ]
- f. small girdle generally adorned with bells; -kalpa, m. id.; -guna, m. girdle-band; - sthna, n. hips.
50) काञ्ची (p. 53) kk


p065c3-b10/ p053-049

काञ्जिक [ kgika ]
- n. sour gruel.
49) काञ्जिक (p. 53) kgika

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p065c3-b11/ p053-048 

काट [ kt ]
- m. depth, bottom.
48) काट (p. 53) kt


p065c3-b12/ not online

- m. N. of a commentator


p065c3-b13/ p053-047 

काटव [ ktava ]
- n. sharpness.
47) काटव (p. 53) ktava


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p065c3-b14/ p053-046 

काठ [ ktha ] --> {ka-HTa.}
- a. derived from Katha; -ka, a. () relating to Katha; n. N. of a Veda: -‿upanishad = katha‿upanishad.
46) काठ (p. 53) ktha

UKT note 170214 : See also p061.htm > note: Katha Upanishad
- from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katha_Upanishad 170214
"The Katha Upanishad कठोपनिषद् kaṭhopaniṣad aka Kāṭhaka Upanishad is one of the mukhya (primary) Upanishads, embedded in the last short eight sections of the Kaṭha school of the Yajurveda. [1] [2] ... The Upanishad is the legendary story of a little boy, Nachiketa the son of Sage Vajasravasa, who meets Yama (the Indian deity of Death [and Justice]). [Yama in popular Myanmar Buddhism is King of the Hell.] Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge, Atman (Soul, Self) and moksha (liberation). [2] "


p065c3-b15/ p053-045 

काठिन्य [ kthin-ya ]
- n. hardness, stiffness; firmness, austerity.
45) काठिन्य (p. 53) kthin-ya

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p065c3-b16/ p053-044 

काण [ kn ] :
- a. one-eyed; blind (eye); perforated; one-handled; -tva, n. one-eyedness; -bhti, m. N. of a Yaksha.
44) काण (p. 53) kn

UKT 170214: Don't mix up with Karna {kar~Na.} कर्ण, karṇa of Mahabharata.

काण [ kn ] --> {ka-Na.}
Skt: काण [ kn ] - a. one-eyed; blind (eye); perforated; one-handled; - Mac65c3
BPal: {ka-Na.} - UHS-PMD0306
  UKT from UHS: mfn. blinded in one eye

UKT 171213: The story of {ka-Na.} काण [ kn ] reminds me of the "Cyclops the one-eyed giants" of Greek mythology. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclops 170214
Also: The epic poem - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysiaca 171213
and on Greek god of wine and harvest: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysus 171213
See the epic poem in Greek by Nonnos with English translation by W H D Rouse,
- WHDRouse-NonnosDionysiaca<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181228)

See my note on Kanabhuti the Cyclops


p065c3-b17/ not online

[knel-mtri ]
- m. bastard


p065c3-b18/ p053-043 

काण्टक [ kntaka ]
- a. () consisting of thorns.
43) काण्टक (p. 53) kntaka


p065c3-b19/ p053-042

काण्ड [ knda (or ) ]
Skt:  काण्ड [ knda (or )] - m. n. piece; section of a plant (from joint to joint); slip; blade, stalk; arrow; tube (of bone); section (in a book); -pata: -ka, m. curtain. - Mac065c3
42) काण्ड (p. 53) kaNnda (or )


काण्ड [ knda (or ) ]
Skt:  काण्ड [ knda (or )] - m. n. piece; section of a plant (from joint to joint); slip; blade, stalk; arrow; tube (of bone); section (in a book) - Mac065c3
Skt: काण्ड kāṇḍa - adj. part of trunk of tree with branches, praise, opportunity, quantity, separate department or subject, kind of square measure, cluster, flattery - SpkSkt
BPal: {kN~a.} - UHS PMD0281
  UKT from UHS: mn. arrow, section (in a book), division, part, trunk (bearing branches of a tree)


p065c3-b20/ not online

- m. a certain mixed caste 


p065c3-b21/ p053-079 

काण्डी [ knd ]
- f. little blade.
79) काण्डी (p. 53) knd


p065c3-b22/ p053-078  

काण्डीर [ knd-ra ]
- a. armed with arrows.
78) काण्डीर (p. 53) knd-ra


p065c3-b23/ p053-077  

काण्व [ knv ]
- m. pat. descendant of Kanva: pl. the school of Kanva.
77) काण्व (p. 53) knv

Kanva (Skt: कण्‍व kṇva) was an ancient Hindu rishi, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed. He was called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas. He is sometimes included in the list of the seven sages (the Saptarishis). - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanvas 110904
See my note on Kanva Rishi

( end of old p065-3.htm )

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p065c3-b24/ not online

कातन्त्र [k-tantra] = क ा त न ् त ् र --> {ka-tn~tra.}
-- n. T. of a grammar; m. pl. its followers

UKT 140225, 170218: Grammar is {d~da} 'sound' of the human voice. However {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Nm} कातन्त्र-व्याकरणम्  is morphology. Note the visible virama which shows that {bya-ka.ra.Nm} is Skt-Myan.  Katantra Vyakaranam {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Nm} कातन्त्र-व्याकरणम् belongs to Aindra School of Grammar. See my note on Katantra Vyakaranam .


p065c3-b25/ p053-076  

कातर [ ktara ]
- a. cowardly; timid, faint-hearted, despondent; afraid of (lc., inf., --): -t, f., -tva, n. fear.
76) कातर (p. 53) ktara

कातर [ ktara ] --> {ka-ta.ra.}
Skt: कातर [ ktara ] - a. cowardly; timid, faint-hearted, despondent; afraid of (lc., inf., --): - Mac065c3
BPal: {ka-ta.ra.} - UHS-PMD0306
  UKT from UHS: m. a person unstable in mind and character


p065c3-b26/ p053-075  

कातर्य [ ktar-ya ]
- n. apprehension, faint-heartedness, cowardice.
75) कातर्य (p. 53) ktar-ya


p065c3-b27/ not online

[kt-kri ]
- mock, deride


p065c3-b28/ p053-074  

कात्यायन [ ktya‿ayana ]
- m. pat. N. of a celebrated sage; &isharp;, f. N. of Ygavalkya's wife; a. () derived from Ktyyana; -ya, m. pl. school of Ktyyana; n. T. of various works.
74) कात्यायन (p. 53) ktya̮ayana

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p065c3-b29/ p053-073 

कादम्ब [ kdamba ]
- m. kind of goose with dark-grey wings; n. flower of the Kadamba tree.
73) कादम्ब (p. 53) kdamba


p065c3-b30/ p053-072

कादम्बर [ kdambara ]
- n. sour cream; , f. kind of intoxicating liquor; T. of a romance & its heroine: -lokana‿nanda, m. ep. of  the moon; -sagdhik, f. common carouse.
72) कादम्बर (p. 53) kdambara

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UKT notes

Danu Asura 

-- UKT 110903, 170209, 171210, 181219

The first time I looked into this entry in 110903, I came to know that Danu was a female Asura goddess. Originally, in Rigvda, Asuras were not demonized, and Indra {ain~dra.} [different from Buddhist {i.kra:mn:}] was the chief god, the king of the celestial deities. From the number of hymns directed to the deities we know that the present-day Trimūrti त्रिमूर्ति trimūrti - the Mahabrahma, Vishnu, and Siva, were minor gods. Moreover Siva who was also known as Rudra was just a storm god. The Wikipedia article that I looked into shows that "Indra a male god had not only killed a female but had mutilated her body - an unworthy act for a king.

I hold that the original Vda including the Rigvda was the source of knowledge of the Tibeto-Burmans (Tib-Bur) of the Bronze Age. The Tib-Bur were easily defeated by the invading Indo-Europeans (IE) of the Iron Age. The Tib-Bur were made into slaves and servants, and IE made themselves the masters of the First-Caste (or top-class) comprising the Ponnars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'. The Bramins portrayed themselves as the First-Caste - the mouthpiece of the Creator or 'the teachers', the Second-Caste the Ksatriya {hkt~ti.ya.} 'rulers and soldiers', and Third-Caste the Vaisya 'traders, craftsmen, agriculturalists, and herders'. Finally the defeated indigenous peoples as Fourth-Caste the Sudra 'slaves to serve the top castes': everything as commanded by the Creator (Mahabrahma - to the Vaishnavite, and Siva to the Shaivite) . What a self-serving arrangement!

There are two kinds of Brahmins: Braahmana Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}, and the Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:}, who were at each other's throats - until today Shaivites got the upper hand.

Gautama Buddha would have none of the Caste system and made himself the enemy of the Ponnars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin'.

Today, the Braahmana Poannar   {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} of the northern Indian Hinduism, speak Hindi as their home speech and write in Devanagari script with the first akshara क ka. The Shaivite Ponnar {i-wa. poaN~Na:} of the southern Indian Hinduism, speak the Dravadian languages, mostly Tamil with script க ka and Telugu with క ka.

The Shaivite Brahmins {i-wa. poaN~Na:} were responsible for the final destruction of Buddhism in India the land of its birth.

The Buddha names the following as "early sages" of Vedic verses, "Atthaka (either Astaka or Atri), Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta (Visvamitra) {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..}, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha (Vashistha), Kassapa (Kashyapa) and Bhagu (Bhrigu) {Ba.gu. ra..}" - Long Discourse of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya, by Maurice Welshe, Simon and Schuster, 2005, p188-189 .

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danu_(Asura) - 110903, 171210
  Goddess Danu is also a Celtic or Irish water goddess.
See A Celtic Invocation by E F Tonsing, 2012, in TIL PDF libraries. On p16, we see the name "goddess Danu":
- EFTonsing-CelticInvoc<> / Bkp<>

Dānu, a Hindu primordial goddess, is mentioned in the Rigveda, mother of the Danavas. The word Danu described the primeval waters which this deity perhaps embodied. In the Rigveda (I.32.9), she is identified as the mother of Vrtra, the demonic serpent [Naga ?] slain by Indra [1]. In later Hinduism, she becomes the daughter of Daksha and the consort of [Rishi] Kasyapa {ka.a.hpa. ra..}. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 170209

As a word for "rain" or "liquid", dānu is compared to Avestan dānu "river", and further to river names like Don, Danube, Dneiper, Dniestr, etc. There is also a Danu river in Nepal. The "liquid" word is mostly neuter, but appears as feminine in RV 1.54.

As a Hindu goddess, Dānu has 2 temples in Bali, Indonesia: Pura Ulun Danu Temple on Lake Bratan, Bali and Ulun Danu Batur, near Penelokan.

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub.

-- UKT 140222
I looked again and found that the word "Kabandha" (कबन्ध =  क ब न ् ध ) lit. "headless torso").

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabandha 140222

In Hindu mythology, Kabandha (कबन्ध = क ब न ् ध {ka.bn~Da.} Kabandha, lit. "headless torso") is a Rakshasa (demon) who is killed and freed from a curse by the god Rama an Avatar of Vishnu and his [half-] brother Lakshmana.  [UKT ]

UKT 140222: Rama was a human hero king who was later deified. Raksha could also mean a guardian. I have struck through such misleading words. My additions are in [...].

Kabandha's legend appears in the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as in later Ramayana adaptations.

Kabandha was a gandharva (celestial musician) [Gandharva are not Dvas. They belonged to a separate kingdom. Being musically minded the males were employed by Indra as musicians, and the females as dancers.]  named Vishvavasu or Danu, who was cursed and made into an ugly, carnivorous demon by Indra, the king of the Dva gods, and/or a sage. In an encounter with Rama and Lakshmana, the brothers sever his arms and proceed to cremate his corpse. Upon his death, Kabandha resumes his gandharva form and directs Rama to the Rsyamukha mountain, where the exiled monkey-chief Sugriva is hiding. Kabandha advises Rama to form an alliance with Sugriva, who would be of assistance in the search for Rama's wife Sita, who had been kidnapped by Ravana, the demon-king of Lanka. Following Kabandha's instructions, Rama befriends Sugriva and rescues Sita with his help.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danu_Irish_goddess 140222, 180412 
"Danu has no myths or legends associated with her in any surviving medieval Irish texts, but she has possible parallels with the Welsh literary figure ... gender is never specified ... a man by some medieval Welsh antiquarians."
UKT 180412: Danu may have a parallel in Hindu mythology with Danu Asura. Dva and Asura divinities were worshipped equally in earlier Rig Vda. The later Ponnars {poaN~Na:} 'bramin' who worshipped the Dvas, made the Asuras into enemies of the Dvas and demonized them. From my study, I came to understand that the Ancients looked up into sky and came to believe there were inhabitants in the Sky, just as they were the inhabitants on the surface of the Earth. They further imagined that there must be inhabitants below the dry land and the sea - the Nagas. To them the rulers of the Sky were Dvas forever battling the Asuras .

In Irish mythology, Danu ([ˈdanu]; modern Irish Dana [ˈd̪ˠanˠə]) is the mother goddess of the Tuatha D Danann (Old Irish: "The peoples of the goddess Danu"). Though primarily seen as an ancestral figure, some Victorian sources also associate her with the land. [1]

UKT 180411: Notice the Yantra the Irish {m-tau} is holding. It is triangular. Notice the line of the Yan showing the beginning-less and endless nature of herself. The triangular Yans are also present in the Esoteric Buddhism of Myanmarpr. See also:
Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 180411)

The theonym is of PIE (Proto-Indo-European) age, and seems to have denoted a water goddess in origin. A goddess Dānu is attested in the Rigveda, and also the river names Danube (Latin: Danuvius), Dniestr, Dniepr and Don derive from the name.

The Rigvedic Danu was the mother of a race of Asuras called the Danavas. A shortened form of the name appears to have been . The Greek goddess Demeter (Da-mater), is also associated with water several times. [2] Julius Pokorny reconstructs the name from the PIE root da:-: "flow, river", da:-nu: "any moving liquid, drops", da: navo "people living by the river, Skyth. nomadic people (in Rigveda water-demons), fem.Da:nu primordial goddess , in Greek Danaoi (Danaans, Greek tribe, Egypt. Danuna). [3] [4]

UKT 170209, 171210, 181221]: A solution to my finding that Myanmar script may have reached as far as the country of Georgia on the basis of {ta.} [Georgian: თ Tan] & {ti.} [Georgian თი Tan+In], etc. in the Georgian script, and the mention of a dragon-killer known in the West as St. George. The western hero is similar to our dragon-killer of Tagaung in northern Myanmarpr.

The solution might also be found in the PIE roots by Julius Pokorny - a scholar of Celtic languages. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Pokorny 170209
"Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist [1] and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism. He held academic posts in Austrian and German universities."

The genitive form of Old Irish Danu is Danann, and the dative Danainn. Irish Danu is not identical with Vedic Dānu but rather descends from a Proto-Celtic *Danona, which may contain the suffix -on- also found in other theonyms such as Matrona, Maqonos/Maponos and Catona. [5] [6]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Danu-note-b

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Dhutanga robe

- UKT 140223, 171211

The word <clean> can mean many things. However what none would consider "clean" may mean what is clean or free from human failings of Greed, Anger, Sexual-misconduct, and Pride. The following is taken from a Thai website and is within the Theravada Buddhist practice.

From: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhutanga 171211

Dhutanga, Pali dhutaṅga "renunciation", [1] known in Thai as "Thudong"; Sinhalese: ධුතාඞ්ග is a group of thirteen austerities or ascetic practices most commonly observed by the practitioners of the Thai Forest Tradition of Theravada Buddhism. While the Buddha did not require these practices, they were recommended for those wanting to practice greater asceticism.

All Forest Monks will observe at least one of the dhutanga austerities. The dhutanga austerities are meant to deepen the practice of meditation and assist in living the Holy Life. Their aim is to help the practitioner to develop detachment with material things including the body.

UKT: In Myanmarpr, the late Webu Sayadaw (17 Feb 1896 26 Jun 1977) is a modern Forest Monk.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webu_Sayadaw 171211


From: Dhutanga connected with robes, Dhamma Centre
- http://www.dhammacenter.org/content/view/154 140223

Pamsukulikanga is the Dhutanga practice of using only rag-robes, generally called Pamsukulikanga-dhutanga. A monk who undertakes Pamsukulikanga is called Pamsukulika or a Pamsukulika-bhikkhu. This means he only uses a rag-robe.

The word Pamsukula means a rag or ugly cloth stained with dust. A rag abandoned on the road, in the cemetery or on a trash pile is without owner and nobody wants it. This is the piece of cloth a monk will sew together, clean and dye with natural colors from bark or leaves, then he claims it as his robe. This is called Pamsukula or forest cloth. This is the meaning most people understand. In fact, the true meaning was cloth from the shroud of a dead body or cloth left in the cemetery.

UKT 140223, 171211: The shroud from a dead and decaying body, as well as rags and dirty clothes from a rubbish heap are disinfected with Tannic acid, a constituent of tea, is an example. However, the monks at the time of Gautama Buddha, including the Buddha himself, would recover a stained shroud (infested with maggots) from a badly decomposed corpse, washed it in a running stream, and disinfect it by boiling with barks from certain trees. The disinfected cloth was then used as a robe. Similar robes would also be made from discarded rags from the garbage dump. Such a robe is the freest from Greed, Anger, and Ignorance (which I split up into Sexual misconduct, and Pride) and is the most "clean".

UKT: More in the article.

Go back Dhutanga-robe-note-b

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Kakshivat - Buddha's birth

-- UKT 110904, 170213

Being by birth and practice a Theravada Buddhist, particularly with a modern material science background, I have never delved into the Mahayana texts. Below is an excerpt of the birth of Gautama Buddha from the English translation of The Buddha-karita of Asvaghosha by E. B. Cowell, F. Max Mller and J. Takakusu - taken from http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe49/ . See downloaded pdf in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
Text in Skt-Dev - EBCowell-BuddhaKarita<> / Bkp<>  (link chk 171212)
Text in Skt-Lat with translation - EBCowell-BuddhaCaritaSkt<> / Bkp<>   (link chk 171212)
UKT 171212: There are several drawbacks in the above. Firstly, the Devanagari script is in older form used by early Indologists. Secondly, compound-words such as Buddhacaritam, बुद्धचरितम् should be split into smaller units, such as बुद्ध buddha and चरितम्  caritam. Thirdly, Devanagari sentences and words like those of Myanmar are in need of white spaces. Fourthy, another drawback is IAST which uses upper-case letters at the beginning of sentences and for proper names.)

Book I: [Bhagavatprasūtiḥ] - [The Birth of the Holy One]

śriyaṁ pa nudannidāghaṁ jitacārucaṁdramāḥ sa vaṁdyate rhanniha yasya nopamā || 1.1*

1. That Arhat is here saluted, who has no counterpart, who, as bestowing the supreme happiness, surpasses (Brahman) the Creator, who, as driving away darkness, vanquishes the sun, and, as dispelling all burning heat, surpasses the beautiful moon.

āsīdviśālonnatasānulakṣmyā payodapaṁktyeva parītapārśvam | udagradhiṣṇyaṁ gagaṇe vagāḍhaṁ puraṁ maharṣeḥ kapilasya vastu || 1.2*

2. There was a city, the dwelling-place of the great saint Kapila, having its sides surrounded by the beauty of a lofty broad table-land as by a line of clouds, and itself, with its high-soaring palaces, 4 immersed in the sky.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%C5%9Bvagho%E1%B9%A3a 170213
" Aśvaghoṣa अश्वघोष) (c.80 - c.150 CE) was an Indian philosopher-poet, born in Saketa in northern India to a Brahmin family. [1] He is believed to have been the first Sanskrit dramatist, and is considered the greatest Indian poet prior to Kālidāsa [most probably Shaivite Hindu]. He was the most famous in a group of Buddhist court writers, whose epics rivalled the contemporary Ramayana [Hindu epic]. [2] Whereas much of Buddhist literature prior to the time of Aśvaghoṣa had been composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Aśvaghoṣa wrote in Classical Sanskrit. [3]

From: http://www.ishwar.com/buddhism/holy_mahayana_texts/buddha_karita_of_asvaghosha/texts01.html 110904
Note: Website http://www.ishwar.com/buddhism/holy_mahayana_texts/ 171212 has other texts which can be downloaded:
The Amityus Dhyna Stra
The Buddha-karita of Asvaghosha
The Larger Prag Pramit Hridaya Stra
The Smaller Prag Pramit Hridaya Stra
The Larger Sukhvat Vyha
The Smaller Sukhvat Vyha
The Vagrakkhedik (Diamond-Cutter)

1. That Arhat is here saluted, who has no counterpart, -- who, as bestowing the supreme happiness, surpasses (Brahman) the Creator, -- who, as driving away darkness, vanquishes the sun, -- and, as dispelling all burning heat, surpasses the beautiful moon.

2. There was a city, the dwelling-place of the great saint Kapila, having its sides surrounded by the beauty of a lofty broad table-land as by a line of clouds, and itself, with its high-soaring palaces, immersed in the sky.

... ... ...

9. A king, by name Suddhodana, of the kindred of the Sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth's monarchs, -- ruling over the city, adorned it, as a bee-inmate a full-blown lotus.

--- --- ---

15. To him there was a queen, named My, as if free from all deceit (my) -- an effulgence proceeding from his effulgence, like the splendour of the Sun when it is free from all the influence of darkness, -- a chief queen in the united assembly of all queens.

--- --- ---

19. Then falling from the host of beings in the Tushita heaven, and illumining the three worlds, the most excellent of Bodhisattvas suddenly entered at a thought into her womb, like the Nga-king entering the cave of Nand.

--- --- ---

23. Then one day by the king's permission the queen, having a great longing in her mind, went with the inmates of the gynaeceum into the garden Lumbin.

24. As the queen supported herself by a bough which hung laden with a weight of flowers, the Bodhisattva suddenly came forth, cleaving open her womb.

--- --- ---

27. As soon as he was born the thousand-eyed (Indra) well-pleased took him gently, bright like a golden pillar; and two pure streams of water fell down from heaven upon his head with piles of Mandra flowers.

28. Carried about by the chief suras, and delighting them with the rays that streamed from his body, he surpassed in beauty the new moon as it rests on a mass of evening clouds.

29. As was Aurva's birth from the thigh, and Prithu's from the hand, and Mndhtri's, who was like Indra himself, from the forehead, and Kakshvat's from the upper end of the arm, -- thus too was his birth (miraculous).

--- --- ---

33. Unflurried, with the lotus-sign in high relief, far-striding, set down with a stamp, -- seven such firm footsteps did he then take, -- he who was like the constellation of the seven rishis.

34. 'I am born for supreme knowledge, for the welfare of the world, -- thus this is my last birth,' -- thus did he of lion gait, gazing at the four quarters, utter a voice full of auspicious meaning.

UKT: More in the article.

Go back Kakshivat-note-b

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Kanabhuti the Cyclops

"Cyclops" is singular, plural is "Cyclopes" -- AHTD

UKT 140225, 170214, 181222:

Folklores and stories told as history about Greece and India can be all mixed up. We must remember Alexander the Great's military campaign to India, and the Buddhist cultural missions from India, probably with peoples from northern Myanmarpr, even to Rome itself and to the eastern parts of the Roman Empire. Even if you doubt this, remember that the Myanmar akshara {ta.} [თ Tan] is still present in the name of the country of Georgia, both as a glyph and in pronunciation /t/. Now you will under stand why I am mixing up Kanabhuti from India and Cyclopes from Greece.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclops 170214
Also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysiaca 170214
to the "the main subject of which is the life of Dionysus, his expedition to India, and his triumphant return to the west."

UKT 181222: I'd thought that Dionysus was a human, but it appears that he might be just the God of Wine, merriment and debauchery of the Greeks in particular or Indo-Aryan peoples wielding iron-weapons infiltrating into the area of Tib-Burmans in India who had only bronze-weapons to defend themselves. From the relief on the handle of a silver-plate, you can see Dionysus on the chariot drawn by lions, followed by the Greek-god Pan . See downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- CAlexander-IndianDionysus<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181222)

The story of Kanabhuti - the Yaksha {yak-hka.} [taken by common Bur-Myan as "giant" or "ogre"], with one-eye appeared in a collection of legends, fairy tales and folktales by Somadeva (fl. 11 century A.D.) in katha sarit sagara  कथासरित्सागर or "Ocean of the Streams of Story". The original work was translated by C.H. Tawney (18371922)  in 1880. The story appeared in Book 1, Chapter 2, p6-7. Because Kanabhuti has only one eye, I will refer him as "Kana the Cyclops". The downloaded pdf is in the TIL library.
- CHTawney-SomadevaKathaSaritSagar-1880<> bkp<> (link chk 170214)

The myths about a giant race or races of humans, dubbed as {yak-hka.} 'giant' of the East, or Cyclopes of the West, are probably true if you take into consideration the remains of gigantic structures, known as Cyclopean stones of Mycenaean culture (ca.1600- ca.1100 BCE). - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece 170214
and lost civilizations which had built structures with massive stones such as
- pyramids of Egypt: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza 170214
- Stonehenge of Britain - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonehenge 170214
- Incas and the ancient peoples of Americas
  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pre-Columbian_cultures 170214

The human-author of the story, Somadeva (fl. 11 century A.D.), was a Shaivite-Hindu, one of those who supposes that Siva-dva is the Supreme-God 'Creator-Destroyer-Everything' instead of believing in Hindu-Trinity with Brahma being the Creator, Vishnu the Administrator, and Siva the Destroyer. Thus, Somadeva calls Siva the MahaDeva. The Shaivites believes all the Mother-goddesses of the original inhabitants of the Indian-subcontinent, the Tib-Bur speakers, to be the wives of Siva, thereby making him the most sex-hungry god always engaging in sex with Parvati - the flax plant representing the common peoples. The Shaivites worship Siva just as a Linga (Siva's penis) ever stuck in the Yoni (Parvati's vagina).
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 140225

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Katantra Vyakaranam

Kātantra Vyākaraṇa {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.}

-- UKT 140226, 170220, 181222

The Sanskrit following the Panini's Aṣṭādhyāyī   grammar is known as the the Classical Sanskrit. What goes before Panini is usually described as "Vdic-Sanskrit" - a term which I dispute.

UKT 170220: Here's another question. We know that {d~da} 'sound'. It is translated as English word "grammar". Can it be right? A. W. Lonsdale in his Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899
- BG1899-indx.htm - update 160930
has described the Burmese Grammar  in in two parts: Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and orthography (spelling); and Part 2. Accidence and syntax. Since, 'sound' is given as {d~da}, it deals only with Orthoepy (an uncommon word) and Orthography (a more familiar word). What we miss in teaching Grammar in Myanmarpr is teaching Accidence (another unfamiliar word), and Syntax (a word which has no clear-cut equivalent in Burmese: there are other similar cases which necessitates me - a half-baked "grammarian", to coin my own definitions for which I beg you to understand.). Describing Grammar as {d~da} 'sound' seems to be misleading. Is there another Pali word which is more comprehensive? Read the following trying to solve my question?

Vdic and its various dialects was the language of the original inhabitants of the Bronze Age of the Indian subcontinent: Magadhi being the most prominent. Most of these dialects, in particular Nwari, the extant language of the blood relatives of Gautama Buddha living in the Kathmandu valley of Npal, is Tib-Bur. There are many similarities between Nwari and Bur-Myan, in particular words beginning with the phoneme {nga.} /ŋ/ which are absent in Skt-Dev.

Sanskrit, on the other hand was the language of the intruders into India wielding iron weapons who conquered the Tib-Bur speakers, bringing India into the Iron Age. Panini and other ancient linguists of the time adapted Vdic into Sanskrit. I hold that the ancient Vdic was Tib-Bur, whereas Panini's Sanskrit is IE.

UKT 170220: Sanskrit is speech: I am not sure of what script it went with. Certainly, it was not Devanagari, because it's older name was Nagari. Moreover, there have been changes in the shape of the aksharas as can be seen in the difference used by A. A. Macdonell, and the present. What then was the script of the intruders - those with their male gods of juvenile bed-time stories? Was it Cuniform, since they came through Persia? Or, did they even has a script?

I was, and is still, very weak in grammar, and do not know the difference between {d~da} and  {bya-ka.ra.Na.}. I search in the Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627. For {d~da}, on p352-353, and for {bya-ka.ra.Na.} on p207.

At present my understanding (as of 170219) is: Byakarana {bya-ka.ra.Na.} is a Vdinga {w-dn~ga.} "a limb or branch" of Vda, and is made up of two parts: relation of {d~da} 'sound or speech' to 'script', and the how the words are built formed in the script - by joining - resulting in more "speech-words'. "How words are built" can be glossed as "morphology".

UKT 170219: Vda is collective Knowledge and was in existence in Vdic language long before the intruders with their male Hindu-gods Vishnu and Siva - minor gods in RigVda, appeared on the scene. "The Vedanga वेदाङ्ग vedāṅga "limbs of the Veda", are six auxiliary disciplines of Knowledge in Hinduism that developed in ancient times, and has been connected with the study of the Vedas. [1] [2] ..."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanga 170219

I still have to look into Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts.  Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and Orthography (spelling); Part 2. Accidence and syntax - BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 181222) .

accidence - n. Grammar . The section of morphology that deals with the inflections of words. - AHTD

Now what is Morphology?

From Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphology_linguistics 170218
"In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. [2] [3]. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning."  Wikipedia on Panini:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81%E1%B9%87ini 170219 states:
"The Aṣṭādhyāyī [the monumental work of Panini] was not the first description of Sanskrit grammar, but it is the earliest that has survived in full. The Aṣṭādhyāyī became the foundation of Vyākaraṇa, a Vedanga. [46] "

Based on the above, I must conclude that Vyākaraṇa is "Grammar" - both the relation of sound to script, and how words are formed based on script. The rules on how the words are formed is Sandhi.
"Sandhi  {nDi.} संधिः sandh [1] "joining")] is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries (thus belonging to morphophonology). - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandhi 170218 

UKT 170219: My rendition {n-Di.} संधिः sandh is not a mistake as far as the Visarga {wc~sa.pauk} विसर्गः visarga is concerned. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visarga 170219

I became aware of this problem while reciting Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev in the last line - bk-cndl-gayatri<))  

" धियो॒ यो ः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त् ॥
dhyo y naḥ prachodayāt "

Going through Mon-Myan, I found the equivalent of ः॑ in {na:.} .

Based on this finding, I have arrived at "aksharas (both vowels and consonants) with varying duration of vowel sounds in terms of eye-blinks":

{na:.} (1/2 blnk), {na.} (1 blnk), {na} (2 blnk), {na:} (2 blnk +emphasis), {naa.} (1/2 blnk)

Bur-Myan: {na.} (1 blnk), {na} (2 blnk), {na:} (2 blnk +emphasis), {naa.} (1/2 blnk)
Mon-Myan: {na:.} (1/2 blnk), {na.} (1 blnk), {na} (2 blnk) - present in Mon-Myan

The terms "short vowel" & "long vowel" are very uncertain and I have stopped using them.

The story of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.} is about Sandhi - a special system known as {ka-tn~tra.}. It belongs to a school of Grammar known as the Aindra {ain~dra.} school.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aindra_School_of_Grammar 140225

UKT 170220 based on above: The Aindra school of Sanskrit grammar is one of the eleven schools of Sanskrit grammar mentioned in Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi. Although it is named after the celestial king Aindra {ain~dra.} [who exists only in the imaginations of the humans], I am sure it was the work of human linguists.

Arthur Coke Burnell, author of On the Aindra school of Sanskrit grammars , 1875, points out that most non-Pāṇinian systems of Sanskrit grammar were traceable to this school of grammar. Since Aindra {ain~dra.} is the foremost god in RigVda - far superior to Mahabrahma, Vishnu and Siva - the name suggests that it was the oldest grammar.
See downloaded text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF librariess
- ACBurnell-AindraGramm<> / Bkp <> (link chk 181222)

The whole story of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa {ka-tn~tra. bya-ka.ra.Na.}, is about teaching Skt-Dev to a Telugu king in as little as 6 months, especially the Sanskrit Sandhi. The king seems to have some knowledge of Sanskrit. He would already have knowledge of Telugu his mother-tongue, and some knowledge of Magadhi, the dominant Prakrit of his time.

We also note that since Telugu and Mon-Myan belong to Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) languages, teaching the Telugu king would be comparable to teaching a Mon-Myan who already knows Pali which is derived from Magadhi speech the script of which is Asokan, found on many inscriptions of Buddhist king Asoka.

There is a fascinating story behind the writing of this great Sanskrit grammar...

Some 2200 years ago, the great King Sātavāhana ruled the Andhra Pradesh.

UKT 170217: I am not certain who King Sātavāhana was, because of which I am quoting Wikipedia on Satavahana dynasty (1st century BCE2nd century CE):
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satavahana_dynasty 170217
"... They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain [northern India] to the southern tip of India. They supported Brahmanism as well as Buddhism, and patronised Prakrit language* instead of Sanskrit."

* Note: "Prakrit" of the Jains is known as Ardhamāgadhī 'Half-Magadhi'. It is written in Gujarati, whilst that of the Buddhists in Magadha is Magadhi written in Asokan script.

Composed by Sarvavarma in the second CE of the Common Era, the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa was a game changer as far Sanskrit grammars were concerned. Also known as the Kalāpa or the Kaumāra Vyākaraṇa, legend says that it was created in response to a very unique demand by a King to teach him Sanskrit in a very short time.

From: कातन्त्र-व्याकरणम्  Katantra-Vyakaram, by Sarvavarma, edited by Dr RS Saini, 1987 
- http://www.navelgazing.net/2013/12/kantantra-vyakaranam.html 170219 (not accessible)
and, https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/ROZ-EK-SHER/ikCdYQZtan4 140226


*modakaṃ dehī deva = mā udakaṃ dehī deva
(Lord, please do not splash me with water)

Once, while he was relaxing in his water pond with his many queens; one of them, tiring of this sport, asked him in Sanskrit to stop splashing her with water by saying, "modakaṃ dehī deva". The brave King, unfamiliar with Sanskrit sandhis, incorrectly assumed that she wanted "modakas", a special kind of sweet, and asked his servants to fetch the vaunted sweet. The queen laughed at him and playfully rebuked him for his lack of proficiency at Sanskrit.

A suitably chastised King asked two of his learned courtiers to instruct him in the intricacies of Sanskrit asap. He asked them how much time it would take to master Sanskrit. The first scholar, Guṇāḍhya [says 6 yr], explained that it normally took about 12 years to gain mastery of Sanskrit grammar, but boasted that he would teach the King in only 6 years. The second scholar, Sarvavarma [says 6 month], claimed that Sanskrit grammar could be taught in 6 months.

In the ensuing unscholarly debate between the two masters, Guṇāḍhya [6-yr] claimed that if Sarvavarma [6 month] could make the King an expert in Sanskrit in 6 months flat, he would never, ever write a book in Sanskrit or Prakrit [UKT: Maghadi?] ! To do one better, Sarvavarma proclaimed that if he could not make the King an expert in Sanskrit in 6 months, he would carry Guṇāḍhyas footwear on his head for the next 12 years!

After the tall claim, Sarvavarma found it difficult to match it in deed, and hence sought the blessings, help and guidance of Svāmī Kārtikeya, the Jain monk.  Under his tutelage, Sarvavarma learned and composed the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa in a very short period of time.

UKT 170215: Since Jain literature is in Ardhamāgadhī 'Half-Magadhi', I presume it was to Magadhi-Prakrit roots that Sarvavarma went.

Presumably, King Sātavāhana was blessed with peaceful neighbours and peace-loving countrymen, for within the stipulated time frame of 6 months, he devoted himself to studying and mastering Sanskrit grammar following the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa method.


Salient Features of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa

UKT 170221: Since the following text contains many Sanskrit words, I must wait for another time to understand what it is really about!

1. It is also known as Kātantra; Kalāpa; Kalāpaka; Kaumāra; Sarvavarmika; Daurgasiṃha, Durgasiṃhīya

2. Created to teach Sanskrit to King Sātavāhana in a very short period of time.

3. Kātantra uses the traditional sequence of words in a sentence placing subject in the first case object in the second case and instrumental cause in the seventh case.

4. Uses a simpler scheme of suffixes than Pāṇinian grammar.

5. Uses 14 svaras [vowels] to Pāṇinis 9.

UKT 170220: See below Indic Models of Description in Tibetan Grammar, by P.C. Verhagen, J. Bronkhorst, 2001 for Katantra vowels.

6. Recognises 52 varṇas to Pāṇini's 42.

7. Kātantra samanvaya follows loka vyavahāra, as opposed to Pāṇini samanvaya, which does not follow loka vyavahāra but is designed to facilitate the pratyāhāras. Hence Kātantra is more practical as it covers classical as well as laukika (general) usage.

8. Since Kātantra does not use pratyāhāras, the brevity of sūtras is sometimes compromised. But the student is saved from the pains of mastering the pratyāhāra system!

9. Kātantra renders a very practical and realistic grammar and states that wherever there is no sutra in his vyākaraṇa, the user must follow the general spoken convention.

lokopacārād grahaṇasiddhiḥ'
Kātantra Vyākaraṇa 1.1.23

10. Brevity can be attained in two ways:

śabdakṛta lāghava : Using the barest minimum of words:
Plus point - very few words required, makes for elegant writing
Minus point - cryptic style; the meaning is not always quickly grasped

arthakṛta lāghava : Explaining the concept in a clear and lucid style.
Plus point - is obvious
Minus point - more words are required, to illustrate the meaning clearly and to facilitate immediate comprehension.

Kātantra uses arthakṛta lāghava, while Pāṇini uses śabdakṛta lāghava. Hence Kātantra is more user-friendly!

11. Kātantra Vyākaraṇa was used widely in India from Bengal to Kashmir, and from Andhra to Orissa and Central India. It was also used in neighbouring Tibet, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

12. As proofs of Kātantra's enduring and widespread popularity, many grammatical works were written on the Kātantra system, in different scripts such as Śāradā, Vaṅga, Utkala, Grantha and Devanāgarī. There are more than 40 separate works on the Kātantra Rūpamālā. There exist more than 23 ṭīkās in Tibetan on the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa.

13. Both Jains and Buddhists claim authorship of Kātantra Vyākaraṇa - strong evidence of of its excellence, practicality and the fascination it commands.

UKT 170220: Indic Models of Description in Tibetan Grammar, by P.C. Verhagen, J. Bronkhorst, 2001 seems to be a good read on Katantra. I could only get a book-preview. On p.260 it is written:



This is a good introductory work on Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. It is a must-buy for students and scholars of Sanskrit and Indologists. It is compulsory reading for the Jain and Buddhist scholar.

PS Sorry, this reviewer believes in arthakṛta lāghava not śabdakṛta lāghava! Hence the long review.

This and other books on Sanskrit, Prakrit, Hindi, Pali and English and Urdu language and literature are available at our bookstore and through mail order.

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Kanva Rishi : Origin of Tantra ?

-- UKT 140225, 170215, 171214

Proper nouns, such as the names of places and peoples, are a mine-field in any language. For example, the word "Myanmar" {mrn-ma} (or more properly {mɹn-ma} spelled with a non-rhotic /ɹ/ *), can be a country, a script, or an ethnicity. Thus it is imperative to include the suffix {pr} /pɹ/, {sa}, and {lu-myo:}.

* non-rhotic /ɹ/ as in British accent - not as in American which is more rhotic

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanva 140225

Kanva  कण्‍व kṇva  was an ancient Hindu Veda rishi, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed. He was called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas. He is sometimes included in the list of the seven sages (the Saptarishis).

UKT 170215: Because of the Hindu Poannars {poaN~Na:}, both {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} & {i-wa. poaN~Na:} pretending to be the mouth-piece of the Creator (whoever he may be: Mahabrahma of Vaishnavite-Hindu, or Siva of the Shaivite-Hindu) rewriting the old-beliefs (up to 18th century AD) of the original Vdas, I am always suspicious of the terms "Hindu" and "Vda".

Rig-Vda is a collection of Mantras {mn~tn} the so-called hymns to various celestial beings, males & females, Dva {d-wa.}, Asura {a.u.ra}, even Aspira (the celestial dancers in the employ of Celestial King Indra: Skt-Dev: अप्सराः  apsarāḥ, Pali-IAST accharā, {d-wc~hsa.ra} as the goddesses of gambling-luck or fortune), and lower beings right down to Man'es {nt-saim:} and ghosts {a.r:} {tc~hs} all having "powers of various degree" due to their "births" without material bodies. These immaterial entities can affect the lives of humans of flesh and blood.

Inset pix: A Cambodian dancer dancing the Aspira dance.

To the Myanmar-Buddhists the Mantras {mn~tn} are esoteric formulas discovered by human Rishis {ra..} (to be recited meticulously without music) to make these celestial and earth-bound immaterial beings serve them. These human Rishis {ra..} must be of of high "discipline" aka "austerities" {a.kyn. i-la.} to empower the {mn~tn} or its material instrument {yn~ta.ra:} known as Inn { n:} in Bur-Myan and Yan in Cambodian and Thai languages .

Indra {ain~dra.}, the king of the dvas is always afraid of these Mantra-wielding {ra..} who might dethrone him. He, therefore, would send of his celestial dancers {d-wc~hsa.ra} to seduce sexually the human {ra..}. A human Rishi {ra..} loses his esoteric power by having sex with the {d-wc~hsa.ra}. We note here that a human {ra..} is of flesh and blood, whereas a {d-wc~hsa.ra} is an entity without a material body. As an explanation for having sex, {d-wc~hsa.ra} is supposed to have the power to create a body of flesh and blood.

An inferior novice {ra..} can acquire esoteric powers by becoming a {zau-gyi} who not having a {d-wc~hsa.ra} for sex, has to have the service of a fruit-maiden {u-yan m}.

All these beliefs are of the Tib-Bur speakers - the Bronze Age indigenous peoples - under the rubric of Tantric practices, and I opine that the Hindu Poannars {poaN~Na:} of IE speakers - the Iron Age intruders had adopted.

Now let's continue with Kanva  कण्‍व kṇva the rishi:

Kanva is also the name of a founder of a Vedic shakha [see below],
Kanva is also the name of several princes and founders of dynasties and several authors.
The Kanvas are the descendants of king Vasudeva Kanva (1st century BCE).
The Kanvas are also a class of evil spirits, against whom hymn 2.25 of the Atharva Veda is used as a charm.

The kanva was a great rishi in Treta Yug. He was the founder of Mahrshi kanva ashrama.

Maharshi Kanva Ashram is located in a well-grown village called "Kanalda". KANALDA is 12 km north of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra, India. More details can be found on http://www.maharshikanvaashram.com/

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakha 140225

A shakha śākhā "branch" or "limb", is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. [3] [4] An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a śākhin. [5] The term is also used in Hindu philosophy to refer to an adherent of a particular orthodox system. [6]

A related term caraṇa, ("conduct of life" or "behavior") is also used to refer to such a Vedic school: [7] "although the words caraṇa and śākhā are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, and śākhā to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhite, ("he recites a particular version of the Veda")". [4] The schools have different points of view, described as "difference of (Vedic) school" (śākhābhedaḥ). Each school would learn a specific Vedic Saṃhita (one of the "four Vedas" properly so-called), as well as its associated Brahmana, Aranyakas, Shrautasutras, Grhyasutras and Upanishads. [3] [4]

In traditional Hindu society affiliation with a specific school is an important aspect of class identity. By the end of the Rig Vedic period the term Brāhmaṇa {poaN~Na:} had come to be applied to all members of the priestly class, but there were subdivisions within this order based both on caste and on the shakha (branch) with which they were affiliated. [8] A Brāhmaṇa who changed school would be called "a traitor to his śākhā" (śākhāraṇḍaḥ). [3]

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Kashyapa Rishi : कश्यप kaśyapa

-- UKT 140223, 170212

It is my belief that many folk-tales and religious stories are based on historical events told by professional story-tellers who were quite common in our parts of the world. As such each story is changed slightly to suit the times and the common beliefs of the listeners. Of course there might be pure fabrications just to bring forth a current event to tell the rulers how to behave, or to introduce a new idea or a new religion.

Most of the Myanmar Theravada-Buddhists would be horrified at the idea of a Rishi having a wife or wives and children. The Rishi of this note Rishi Kashyapa {ka~a.pa. ra.e.} had 4 wives: Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi, and have many children.

Some [children of Diti - the Sky goddess] remain religious [Hinduism: Shaivism and Vaishnavism] (Deities {d-wa.}). Some others [children of Aditi - the Earth goddess] became irreligious [non-Hindus] (Demons {a.u-ra}). [11] . I haven't found out about the children of Banita & Kadru. It should be noted that this particular Rishi Kashyapa {ka~a.pa. ra.e.}, because he has goddesses as wives, is a mythical entity. He was different from the {ka~a.pa. ra.e.} mentioned in UHS-PMD0304c1. This second rishi because of his connection to Kashmir (geographical) was evidently human. Note Kashmir, is an area completely surrounded by the hills of the Himalayas.

As a scientist I do not place much importance to the stories about {d-wa.} & {a.u-ra}. I pay attention to how the humans (you & I) interpret these "stories". A group of people very much like the Bur-Myan speakers are the still extent relatives of Gautama Buddha living in Kathmandu valley of Nepal. We are of the same Tib-Bur stock, and what they think of the wives of the rishis are interesting. For this see Digital Himalaya: Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, 1976, in which the anthropologist Lynn Bennett wrote about the Wives of the Rishis. See the downloaded pdf paper in TIL library:
- 03Bennet-Wives-Rishi<> / bkp<> (link chk 171211)
Pdf from: http://www.digitalhimalaya.com/collections/journals/kailash/nonjavascript.php 170212
p186-Kailash : "3. The original rishis are traditionally seven. According to one village priest they are: Atre, Kaysap, Biswamitra, Bharadwaj, Gautam, Basista, and Jam adagni. However, their numbers increase in certain contexts. ... "


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyap 140223

Kashyapa कश्यप kaśyapa was an ancient sage (rishis) {ra..}, who is one of the Saptarshis in the present Manvantara: others being Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja. [1] According to the Vedic Knowledge, he is the son of Marichi, one of the ten sons (Manasa-putras) of the Creator Brahma.

The Rishi {ra..} are seers who know and by their knowledge are the makers of shastra and "see" all mantras. The word comes from the root rish Rishati-prapnoti sarvvang mantrang jnanena pashyati sangsaraparangva, etc. The seven great Rishi or saptarshi of the first manvantara are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. In other manvantara there are other sapta-rshi. [UKT ]

In the present manvantara the seven are: Kashyap, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvaj. [UKT ]

To the Rishi the Vedas were revealed. Vyasa taught the Rigveda so revealed to Paila, the Yajurveda to Vaishampayana, the Samaveda to Jaimini, Atharvaveda to Samantu, and Itihasa and Purana to Suta. The three chief classes of Rishi are the Brah-marshi, born of the mind of Brahma, the Devarshi of lower rank, and Rajarshi or Kings who became Rishis through their knowledge and austerities, such as Janaka, Ritaparna, etc. Thc Shrutarshi are makers of Shastras, as Sushruta. The Kandarshi are of the Karmakanda, such as Jaimini.

He was also the author of the treatise Kashyap Samhita, or Jivakiya Tantra, which is considered a classical reference book on Ayurveda especially in the fields of Ayurvedic pediatrics, gynecology and obstetrics. [2]

It can be safely assumed that there were many Kashyaps and the name indicates a status and not just one individual.

Kashyap in Sikhism

In Brahm Avtar composition present in Dasam Granth, Second Scripture of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned Rishi Kashyap, as second avtar of Brahma. [9] According to him, Rishi Kashyap had great knowledge of Vedas and interpreted it very thoughtfully to whole world which bring them internal relief. [10] He married with four wives, Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi and have many children out of them some remain religious (Deities) and other became irreligious (Demons). [11]

UKT 140223: It is usual to mention the goddesses Diti and Aditi - one is always the opponent of the other. Diti represents the Earth and Aditi the Sky.


Kashyap and Kashmir

The Valley of Kashmir got its name from Kashyap Rishi. [12] According to the Vedic Knowledge, the Kashmir valley was a vast lake called Satisaras, named after Sati  or Parvati the consort of Shiva. The lake was inhabited by the demon Jalodbhav. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the region being inhabited by two tribes the Nagas and the Pisachas. The lake was drained off by leader of the Nagas called Ananta (Anantnag region of Kashmir is named after him) to capture and kill the demon. Ananta later names the valley as Kashyap-mira after his father Kashyap. Kalhana in Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) also mentions Prajapati Kashyap killing Jalodbhava with the help of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The lake was then drained and comes to be known as Kash-mira after the Rishi Kashyap. [13]

UKT: I have left out one section from the Wikipedia article.

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Two-three tone problem and its resolution

-- UKT 120202, 140207, 170212, 181220

Though English has short vowels and long vowels it did not come to my notice until I started to learn phonetics a couple of decades ago. However, when I took up Binpathak {bn~pa.ak} aka BEPS, it came to me with a vengence.

The two-three tone problem is present between Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan. Yet the Bur-Myan speakers are so used to it that they do not even notice its existence. The problem for the allophones of /na./ is illustrated with 

------------------ ना

{na.} --- {na} --- {na:}

I wonder how the monks from Sri Lanka who were used to Sanskrit pronunciation had managed to solve this problem when religious interchange between Lanka and Pagan was almost routine in the Pagan era. -- UKT 120202

Then to improve my listening skill to Skt-Dev I started listening to Hindi speakers singing mantras and songs in Skt-Dev. I also listened to Tamil speakers, but I realized there is quite a difference between the two sets of speakers singing and speaking the same Sanskrit. The first noticeable opening was when I listened to Anuradha Paudwal singing the Gayatri Mantra - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

In the above illustration, she was singing the same verse twice. I looked into the lyrics and found she had emphasized /n/ of the 4th line:

om bhur bhuvah svaha
  tat savitur varenyam
bhargo devasya dhimahi
  dhiyo yo nah prachodayat

nah when directly transliterated into Myanmar gives नः , which is found in Mon-Myan as . It is not present in Bur-Myan. Now, I find myself in another problem: the visarga {wic~sa.pauk} is used differently in Burmese and Mon. I solve this problem by the Bur-Myan usage in BEPS, I borrow the usage for Mon-Myan from Tamil which uses 3 dots. Thus, {na:.}.

Captivated by her voice, and beginning to understand the explanations, I downloaded the lyrics and analysed the words one by one. I then transcribed them in Romabama, and then into Sanskrit (Skt-Myan). I immediately noticed the word {na:.} which is not present in Bur-Myan. The syllable {na:.} has a very short vowel - only 1/2 eye-blink, compared to {na.} with a vowel length of one full eye-blink. From the meaning I understand it to be equivalent to {gna.} becoming {gnaa.}. When I looked into Mon-Myan I find such words. Then I realized that my two-three tone problem is resolved when this very short vowel is introduced.

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Pronunciation change from Pali to Sanskrit: {wa.} > {va.} > {ba.}

UKT: 120222, 170208, 171210, 181219: {bya.}

In a one-to-one phonetic writing systems script such as Abugida-Akshara system (e.g. Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev), script must match the pronunciation. However it is not so in Alphabet-Letter system (e.g. English-Latin). It is one reason why there are less graphemes in English (IE) compared to Burmese (Tib-Bur). Sanskrit being an IE suffers this drawback to some extent. For example, Skt-Dev lacks {ba.} - the bilabial, which they pronounce as {va.} - labio-dental. {va.} itself is missing, and so they modify the {wa.}:

{wa.} + diagonal --> {ba.}

Because of this association, whenever we come across {wa.} followed by {ya.}, we need to look into the possibility that it might be {bya.}. A clue from Bur-Myan is {ka.bya} 'poetry' which can be recited or sung to music. Since the Poannar way-to-sacrifice is singing praises to their gods and goddesses, a Poannar-sacrificer is a singer of hymns set to music. It is similar to singing of hymns in Christian churches which I know so well as a child. I used to attend church every Sunday with Aunty Eva, my mother's best friend who was living with us.

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος (hymnos), which means "a song of praise". - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hymn 171210
Watch or just listen to Lenten hymn in ~~HD-VIDEO : Forty days and forty nights 
- FortyDaysNights<> / FortyDaysNights<)) (links chk 180406)
UKT 171211: There are slightly different versions: yet they all have the same number of verses.

1. "Forty days and forty nights / Thou wast fasting in the wild;
Forty days and forty nights / Tempted, and yet undefiled.

2. "Sunbeams scorching all the day; / Chilly dew-drops nightly shed;
Prowling beasts about Thy way; / Stones Thy pillow; earth Thy bed.

3. "Should not we Thy sorrow share / And from worldly joys abstain,
Fasting with unceasing prayer, / Strong with Thee to suffer pain?

4. "And if Satan vexing sore, / Flesh or spirit should assail,
Thou, his Vanquisher before, / Grant we may not faint or fail.

5. "So shall we have peace divine: / Holier gladness ours shall be;
Round us, too, shall angels shine, / Such as ministered to Thee.

"Keep, O keep us, Savior dear, / Ever constant by Thy side;
That with Thee we may appear / At the eternal Eastertide."

It is not so in Burmese Theravada way of reciting Paritta. Compare Theravada Mingun Sayadaw's Mora Paritta and its equivalent the Hindu Gayatri mantra (sacred to both Vaishnavites and Shaivites) :
- bk-cndl-Mingun<)) and bk-cndl-gayatri<))
Or, listen to recitation of Bhagava Gita (in Skt-Dev - sacred only to Vaishnavites) :
- bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))

श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said'
काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire' /
  कर्मणां karmaṇāṁ 'of activities'
न्यासं nyāsaṁ 'renunciation' /
  सन्न्यासं sannyāsaṁ 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो kavayaḥ 'the learned' /
  विदु: viduḥ 'know'
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं sarva 'of all'
------------------ karma 'activities'
------------------ phala 'of results'
------------------ tyāgam 'renunciation'
प्राहुस्त्यागं prāhuḥ 'call'
------------ tyāgam 'renunciation' /
  विचक्षणा: vicakṣaṇāḥ 'the experienced'.

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