Update: 2019-03-07 03:48 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  {kar~da.} : Repha form of short-vowel contd.
  {kar~pa.} - palatal
  p064c2 : the followings are approximants and fricatives
  {kar~wa.} - approximant (semi-consonant)
  {kar~sha.} - fricative (husher)
  {kar~Sa.} - fricative (hisser) 
  {kar~ha.} - fricative (pharyngeal)
  {kal~ka.} : Lepha form - Super L (compare: कल्क kalka & कर्क karka

See my note on Repha and Lepha on p063.htm
with example of Lepha on short a , कल्क kalka opposing Repha , कर्क karka 'white, good' .
BHS entries: none on 190218

UKT notes :
Kalinga kingdom
Number 60 : its multiples and fractions


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{kar~da.} : repha

p064c1-b00/ not online

[ kard-ana]
-- m. N. of a king


p064c1-b01/ p052-009

कर्दम [ kardama ]
- m. mud, dirt, impurity; dregs; -rga, m. N.
9) कर्दम (p. 52) kardama


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p064c1-b02/ p052-008 

कर्पट [ karpata ]
- n. rag.
8) कर्पट (p. 52) karpata


p064c1-b03/ p052-007 

कर्पण [ karp-ana ]
- kind of spear.
7) कर्पण (p. 52) karp-ana


p064c1-b04/ p052-006

कर्पर [ karpara ]
- m. bowl; pot; n. potsherd.
6) कर्पर (p. 52) karpara


p064c1-b05/ p052-005

कर्पास [ karpsa ]
- m. n. cotton-shrub; cotton.
5) कर्पास (p. 52) karpsa


p064c1-b06/ p052-004

कर्पूर [ karpra ]
- m. n. camphor; -keli, m. N. of a flamingo; -gaura, n. N. of a lake (whitish like camphor); -tilaka, m. N. of an elephant; -pata, m. N. of a dyer; -magar, f. N. of a princess; -flamingo; -drama; -maya, a. consisting of or like camphor; -vilsa, m. N.; -saras, n. N. of a lake.
4) कर्पूर (p. 52) karpra

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p064c1-b07/ p052-003 

कर्बु [ karbu ]
- a. spotted, variegated; -ra, a. id.: , f. species of poisonous leech; -ra, a. id.
3) कर्बु (p. 52) karbu

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कर्मत्  karman
- n. work, act [action], action - SpkSkt


p064c1-b08/ not online

- - = karman; -kara , a. (i) working for another; m. labourer, servant; artisan; -kartri , m. agent who is also the object of an action (in refl. verbs); -kra = kara ; m. smith; -krin , a. performing a work (-); -krt , a. laborious, skilful; m. workman, servant; -kahama, a. fitted for deeds (-); -kesht), f. labour, active exertion; -ga , a. arising from or caused by acts; -ganyt , f. being produced from works.


p064c1-b09/ p052-002

कर्मठ [ karma-tha ]
- a. fitted for, devoted to (lc., --).
2) कर्मठ (p. 52) karma-tha


p064c1-b10/ p052-001

कर्मण्य [ karman-y ] = क र ् म ण ् य
- a. skilful, industrious; fitted for the performance of sacred rites.
1) कर्मण्य (p. 52) karman-y


p064c1-b11/ p052-018

कर्मता [ karma-t ]
- f., -tva, n. effect; notion of karman; -danda, m. complete control of acts; -dushta, pp. acting badly; -dosha, m. sinful act; -dhraya, m. compound in which the first word (generally an a.) describes the second.
18) कर्मता (p. 52) karma-t


p064c1-b12/ p052-017 

कर्मन्् [ kr-man ]
- n. action, work, deed; function, business; rite; effect; direct object of an action (gr.); fate (result of an act done in a former birth).
17) कर्मन्् (p. 52) kr-man


p064c1-b13/ p052-016 

कर्मनामन्् [ karma-nmn ]
- n. name from an activity; participle; -ns, f. N. of a river; -nishtha, a. diligent in (holy) works; -nysa, m. cessation of work; -pka, m. ripening of works, retribution for works done in a former life; -ptaka, n. sinful deed; -pravakanya, m. (determining an action), designation of prepositions used with nouns and of some adverbs; -phala, n. result of actions: -hetu, a. to whom results of action are a motive; -bandha, m. bondage of action; -bhulya, n. hard work; -buddhi, a. believing in human exertion; -bhmi, f. land of works; sphere of action; -mya, a. () consisting of, produced by or having the nature of action; -mrga, m. road to action, thieves' slang for openings in walls &c.; -mmms, f. = prva-mmms; -yoga, m. activity; practice of holy works; connexion with a sacrifice; connexion with previous acts: ab. or  -tas, in consequence of fate; -vidhi, m. rules of action or duty; -viparyaya, m. perverse action; -vipka = karma-pka; -sampta, pp. having performed the sacred rites; -siddhi, f. success of an action; -sthna, n. administrative office.
16) कर्मनामन्् (p. 52) karma-nmn 


p064c1-b14/ p052-015 

कर्मात्मन्् [ karma‿tman ]
- a. whose nature is action; -‿anta, m. completion of work; business, public affairs, management; -‿antika, m. labourer, artisan: -loka, m. labourers; -‿abhysa, m. practice of a rite.
15) कर्मात्मन्् (p. 52) karma̮tman


p064c1-b15/ p052-014 

कर्मार [ karmra ]
- m. smith.
14) कर्मार (p. 52) karmaNra


p064c1-b16/ p052-013 

कर्मिन्् [ karm-in ]
- a. acting, working, performing; m. man of action.
13) कर्मिन्् (p. 52) karm-in


p064c1-b17/ p052-012 

कर्मेन्द्रिय [ karma‿indriya ]
- n. organ of action (ph.).
12) कर्मेन्द्रिय (p. 52) karma̮indriya

( end of old p064-1.htm )

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p064c2-b00/ p052-061 

कर्वट [ karvata ]
- n. market-place.
61) कर्वट (p. 52) karvata

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{kar~sha.} - husher

p064c2-b01/ p052-057

कर्शन [ kars-ana ]
- a. making lean; harassing (--); -ita, cs. pp. √kris.
57) कर्शन (p. 52) kars-ana

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{kar~Sa.} - hisser

p064c2-b02/ p052-011

कर्ष [ karsh-a ]
- m. dragging; ploughing; a weight ( = 16 mshas); -aka, a. dragging about, harassing (--); ploughing, cultivating; m. busbandman; -ana, a. = karshaka: n. bringing; driving out; pulling; tormenting; ploughing, agriculture; bending a bow; -in, a. dragging along; inviting; ploughing; m. cultivator; -&usharp;, f. furrow; trench; incision.
11) कर्ष (p. 52) karsh-a

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p064c2-b03/ not online 

[k-rhi ]
- when? with


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√kal, 'drive, produce', etc. - Whit0017


p064c2-b04/ not online

कल् [ kal ]
- x. p. (.) kalaya ; E. generally klaya , impel, urge, drive; hold, bear; do, perform, utter; attach, fasten; observe, regard; reflect; believe in; consider, recognise as (2 ac.): pp. kalita, furnished with (-), , shake, toss; hold fast; fasten; perceive; examine; reflect; believe in; regard as (2 ac.). prati‿ , count up, enumerate. ud , pp. utkalita , opened, flowering. pari , devour; regard as. sam , be of opinion. ut-sam , pp. urged, commissioned


p064c2-b05/ p052-010

कल [ kala ]
- a. dumb; indistinct; inarticulate; choked with tears (--); low, soft (note); uttering a soft sound: -m, ad.; -kanthik, f. female cuckoo; -kala, m. confused noise or cry: -rava, -‿rava, m. id., -vat, a. tinkling.
10) कल (p. 52) kala


p064c2-b06/ p052-037

कलङ्क [ kalaṅk-a ]
- m. spot, blemish, stain, rust: -lekh, f. streak of rust; -aya, den. P. stain, defile, disgrace: -in, a. defiled, disgraced.
37) कलङ्क (p. 52) kalaṅk-a


p064c2-b07/ not online

- m. a plant


p064c2-b08/ p052-036

कलत्र [ kala-tra ]
- n. wife; female animal; hip; loin: -t, f. wifehood; -vat, a. having a wife; united with his wife or wives.
36) कलत्र (p. 52) kala-tra


p064c2-b09/ not online

- a. id.


p064c2-b10/ p052-035

कलधौत [ kala-dhauta ]
- n. (sounding & bright), gold; silver.
35) कलधौत (p. 52) kala-dhauta


p064c2-b11/ p052-034

कलन [ kal-ana ]
- a. producing, effecting (--); , f. impelling; gesture; n. shaking, agitation.
34) कलन (p. 52) kal-ana


p064c2-b12/ p052-033

कलभ [ kala-bha ]
- m. young elephant or camel: -ka, m. id. (--).
33) कलभ (p. 52) kala-bha


p064c2-b13/ p052-032 

कलभाषिन्् [ kala-bhshin ]
- a. speaking softly.
32) कलभाषिन्् (p. 52) kala-bhshin


p064c2-b14/ p052-031 

कलम [ kalama ]
- m. species of rice: -gopavadh, f. female rice-watcher.
31) कलम (p. 52) kalama

See my note on Kalama Sutta {ka-la-ma. oat}


p064c2-b15/ p052-030 

कलरव [ kala-rava ]
- m. soft note.
30) कलरव (p. 52) kala-rava


p064c2-b16/ p052-029

कलविङ्क [ kala-vṅka ]
- m. sparrow; Indian cuckoo.
29) कलविङ्क (p. 52) kala-vṅka


p064c2-b17/ p052-028

कलश [ kalsa ]
- m. pot, jar; bowl, cup (also ); tub; dome-shaped roof: -yoni, m. ep. of Agastya & of Drona.
28) कलश (p. 52) kalsa

कलश [ kalsa ]
Skt: कलश [ kalsa ]  - m. pot, jar; bowl, cup (also ); tub; dome-shaped roof - Mac064c2
Skt: कलश kalaśa - m. churn [UKT: butter churn?] - SpkSkt
BPal: {ka.la.a.} - UHS PMD0300
  UKT from UHS: m. water-pot, woman-breast (mammary gland)


p064c2-b18/ p052-027

कलशि [ kalas-i ]
- f. churn.
27) कलशि (p. 52) kalas-i


p064c2-b19/ p052-026

कलशोदक [ kalasa‿udaka ]
- n. water in a jar.
26) कलशोदक (p. 52) kalasa̮udaka


p064c2-b20/ p052-025

कलह [ kalaha ]
- m. dispute, quarrel.
25) कलह (p. 52) kalaha


p064c2-b21/ p052-024

कलहंस [ kala-hamsa ]
- m., , f. kind of duck, goose or swan; -ka, m. id. dim.; -t, f. abst. ɴ.
24) कलहंस (p. 52) kala-hamsa


p064c2-b22/ p052-023

कलहकण्टक [ kalaha-kantaka ]
- m. N.; -kra, a. () quarrelsome; -priya, a. id.; -vat, a. quarrelling with (saha).
23) कलहकण्टक (p. 52) kalaha-kantaka


p064c2-b23/ p052-022

कलहाय [ kalahya ]
- den. . dispute, quarrel.
22) कलहाय (p. 52) kalahya 


p064c2-b24/ p052-021

कलहिन्् [ kalah-in ]
- a. quarrelsome.
21) कलहिन्् (p. 52) kalah-in

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p064c2-b25/ p052-020 

कला [ kal ]
- f. small part, esp. one-sixteenth; sixteenth part of the moon's disc; interest on capital; small division of time (ranging between 8 seconds and about 2 1/2 minutes according to different statements); artistic skill; art (of which there are 64); -keli, a. practising an art as an amusement; -ga, a. understanding an art or the arts; m. artist; -dhara, a. possessing an art or the arts; m. moon; -ntha, m. moon; -nidhi, m. id.
20) कला (p. 52) kalaN

See my note on Number-60 : its multiples and fractions


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p064c3-b01/ p052-019

कलान्तर [ kal‿antara ]
- n. interest (on capital).
19) कलान्तर (p. 52) kal̮antara


p064c3-b02/ p052-056

कलाप [ kal-pa ]
- m. (what holds together the parts), band; bundle; quiver; peacock's tail; ornament; totality: -ka, m. string, band, -varman, m. N.; -pin, m. peacock.
56) कलाप (p. 52) kal-pa 


p064c3-b03/ p052-055 

कलाभर [ kal-bhara ]
- m. artist; -bhrit, m. id.; -vat, m. moon; -vid, a. = kal-ga .
55) कलाभर (p. 52) kal-bhara


p064c3-b04/ p052-054 

कलालाप [ kala‿lpa ]
- m. gentle tone of voice.
54) कलालाप (p. 52) kala̮lpa

Contents of this page


p064c3-b05/ p052-053

कलि [ kli ]
- m. die or side of a die marked with one point (also personified); the fourth and worst age of the world; dissension, strife (also personified).
53) कलि (p. 52) kli


कलियुग kaliyuga
Skt: कलियुग kaliyuga [kaliyuga] - n. the fourth or Kali age - SktDic:Macdonell
BPal: {ka.li.yu.ga.} - UHS-PMD0301

  UKT from UHS: n. evil time-period, {ka.li.yoag}

UKT 140219, 181218: In this world cycle, we are supposed to go into four periods of Time. The fourth and the worst is the Kali Yuga कलियुग kaliyuga {ka.li.yu.ga.} --> {ka.li.yoag} . See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kali_Yuga 181218
"Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali (not to be confused with the goddess Kālī). The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention".   According to Puranic sources, [2] Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102  BCE. [3]"
UKT personal note: I remember, during the WWII, my father's Burmese-Buddhist friends [who believed in Kali Yoag], making the remark that "we were in the Kali Age" - to the amusement of my father.


p064c3-b06/ p052-052

कलिका [ kal-ik ]
- f. sixteenth part of the moon's disc; bud.
52) कलिका (p. 52) kal-ik


p064c3-b07/ p052-051

कलिकाता [ kalikt ]
- f. Calcutta.
51) कलिकाता (p. 52) kalikt

UKT 140220: The present-day English spelling is 'Kolkata'. However from the Dev-to-IPA we get /ka li ka ta/ - made up of 4 syllables. I wonder if the second has been made into a super-L (which I would like to call  'lepha') similar to repha (or super-R). If it were so, following the {kn:si:} type of writing we should write {kal~ka-ta}-lepha. In the process we note that /li/ has been changed to /la/ and then into /l/. The traditional way would be . We used to spell it as {ka.la.kt~ta:} .

p064c3-b08/ p052-050

कलिङ्ग [ kaliṅga ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; country of the Kaliṅgas; -ka, -desa, m. country of the Kaliṅgas.
50) कलिङ्ग (p. 52) kaliṅga

See my note on Kalinga kingdom and Magadha kingdom at the time of Kalinga War which converted King Asoka from Jainism to Buddhism.


p064c3-b09/ not online

- m. N. of a king; N. of a locality


p064c3-b10/ p052-049

कलितचरण [ kalita-karana ]
- a. broken-legged.
49) कलितचरण (p. 52) kalita-karana


p064c3-b11/ p052-048 

कलिद्रुम [ kali-druma ]
- m. tree of strife; N. of a tree.
48) कलिद्रुम (p. 52) kali-druma


p064c3-b12/ p052-047 

कलिन्द [ kalinda ]
- m. N. of a mountain on which the Yamun rises; -kany, f. the Yamun; -‿tmag, f. id.
47) कलिन्द (p. 52) kalinda


p064c3-b13/ p052-046 

कलियुग kaliyuga [kali-yuga] 
Skt: कलियुग [kali-yuga] - n. the fourth or Kali age. -- Mac064c3
  46) कलियुग (p. 52) kali-yuga
Skt: कलियुग kaliyuga - n. kali age aka कर्मज karmaja -- SpkSkt
BPal: {ka.li.yu.ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0301
  UKT from UHS: n. a time-period that is evil, evil era, {ka.li.yoag}


p064c3-b14/ p052-045 

कलिल [ kal-ila ]
- a. filled with, full of (in., --); m. confusion.
45) कलिल (p. 52) kal-ila

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p064c3-b15/ p052-044

कलुष [ kal-usha ]
- a. dirty; impure; turbid, dim; husky, choked; --, unable; n. dirt, impurity; -ketas, -mati, a. impure-minded.
44) कलुष (p. 52) kal-usha


p064c3-b16/ p052-043

कलुषाय [ kalush-ya ]
- den. . grow dim.
43) कलुषाय (p. 52) kalush-ya


p064c3-b17/ not online

[kalush-kri ]
- dim, dirty, pollute; -bh , become dirty or polluted


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p064c3-b18/ p052-042

कलेवर [ kalevara ]
Skt: कलेवर [ kalevara ] - (m.) n. body. - Mac151029
  42) कलेवर (p. 52) kalevara
BPal: {ka.l-wa.ra.} - UHS PMD0301
   UKT from UHS: m.n. rotting corpse 

( end of old p064-2.htm )

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{kal~ka.} : Lepha

UKT 151029: As stated in my note on Repha and "Lepha" on p063.htm , I am in a quandary as to how to represent the word कल्क [ kalka ] in Myanmar akshara. Aks-to-aks transliteration gives {kal~ka.} from which I have arrived at "Lepha" {kal~ka.}. However, we have a word in Pali {kal~la.} (UHS PMD0302). It seems that the same-letter conjunct rule breaks down in the case of {la.}.


p064c3-b19/ p052-041

कल्क [ kalka ]
Skt: कल्क [ kalka ] - m. paste; foulness, baseness, guile, sin. - Mac064c3
  41) कल्क (p. 52) kalka
Skt: कल्क kalka - adj. wicked, sinful. m. ordure [excrement, dung - AHTD], hypocrisy, ... - SpkSkt

UKT151029: If you refer to the BEPS vowel diagram shown in my note on Repha and Lepha on p063.htm, you can expect a word with just the opposite meaning, in कर्क karka 'white, good'. It's equivalent in Pal: {kak~ka.} - UHS PMD0275: UKT from UHS: . m. face powder. . m. a special yellow gem. 


p064c3-b20/ p052-040

  कल्कि kalki, ˚न्् [ -n ]
- m. N. of a future deliverer of the world, the tenth Avatr of Vishnu.
40) कल्कि (p. 52) -n Vishnu.

UKT 140220, 170208: The belief in the coming of a godly deliver from all the worldly and next-worldly sufferings, such as poverty & slavery, physical disability & disease, death & separation from loved ones, is common to all axiomatic religions - the religions based on the belief of a Creator. It is present in YHWH, Christianity and Islam. It is also present in Hinduism, specifically Vishnuvism (with male dominance) as opposed to Shaivism (with male dominance). The third Hindu-faith is Shaktism (with female dominance: probably derived from Tib-Bur speakers). I am not certain whether there is a belief of the coming of a deliver is present in Shaktism or not. See my note on the Three Faiths within Hinduism and Second Coming of Christ.


p064c3-b21/ not online

- become paste

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{kal~pa.} : Lepha form

p064c3-b22/ not online

क्लप् [ kalp ]
- v. कॢप् [ klip ]


p064c3-b23/ p052-039 

कल्प [klp-a] = क ल ् प
Skt: कल्प [klp-a] - a. feasible, possible; able to, fit for (g., lc., inf., --); nearly equal to, like (--); after an a. --, almost; m. precept, rule, usage, manner; body of rules on ritual (one of the six Vedṅgas); cosmic period (=a day of Brahma =1000 Yugas). prathamah kalpah, chief rule, original law. -- Mac064c3
  39) कल्प (p. 52) klp-a
Skt: कल्प kalpa - m. idea. adj. equal to, feasible, fit, early, proper, possible, preceptive, prime, almost resembling, competent, ritual, relating to a period called kalpa , able, practicable. adverb. all but. m. most complete of the six Vedṅga , similar to, epoch -- SpkSkt
BPal: {kp~pa.}
- - UHS-PMD0291
  UKT from UHS: mfn. suitable, capable. m. {kp~pa. bain~du.} 'ritual dots at one corner of the monk's robe', method, treatise of sacrificial methods, sections, periods of time, {a-yu.kp}, world.


कल्प [ klp-a ]
Skt: कल्प [ klp-a ] - m. cosmic period (=a day of Brahma=1000 Yugas) - Mac064c3
BPal: {kp~pa.} - UHS PMD0291
  UKT from UHS: m. {a-yu.kp} 'aeon (time-period of living things' - the biosphere) 

UKT 151030: According to MLC MED2006-023, the Bur-Myan word {km~Ba} has two meanings:
{km~Ba} - n. . earth, world. . aeon [Pali: {kp~pa.}]
The first meaning is commonly used. The second is rarely used. It is found only in religious texts discussing cosmic events and previous lives of the Buddha and the Arahats.


p064c3-b24/ p052-038

कल्पक [ klpa-ka ]
- a. standard; m. precept, rule; -kshaya, m. end of a Kalpa, destruction of the world; -taru, -druma, m. fabulous wishing tree; -dhenu, f. fabulous wishing cow.
38) कल्पक (p. 52) klpa-ka


p064c3-b25/ p052-60

कल्पन [ kalp-ana ]
- n. inventing; , f. fashioning; performance; invention, fiction; hypothesis; caparisoning an elephant; fixing, determination; work, deed, act; formation, form.
60) कल्पन (p. 52) kalp-ana


p064c3-b26/ p052-059

कल्पपाल [ kalpa-pla ]
- m. guardian of order, king; -lat, f. creeper yielding all wishes; -latik, f. id.; -vall, f. id.; -vitapin, -vriksha, m. = Kalpa tree; -satya, den. . appear as long as 100 Kalpas; -skhin, m. Kalpa tree; -sundar, f. N.; -stra, n. Stra on ritual.
59) कल्पपाल (p. 52) kalpa-pla


p064c3-b27/ p052-058

कल्पाग्नि [ kalpa‿agni ]
- m. world conflagration at the end of a Kalpa: -‿anta, m. end of a Kalpa, destruction of the world; --, till the end of the world.
58) कल्पाग्नि (p. 52) kalpa̮agni


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UKT notes

Kalama Sutta

UKT 151030:

Kalama Sutta {ka-la-ma. oat} is an important doctrine in Buddhism, in which the Buddha addressed to the rice growers of Kalama village. It is contained in the Aṅguttara Nikaya of the Tipiṭaka. [1] It is often cited by those of the Theravada and Mahayana traditions alike as the Buddha's "charter of free inquiry." [2]
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalama_Sutta 151030

See Kalama Sutta - translation - by SomaThera in PDF libraries
- SomaThera-KalamaSutta<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171206)

See also http://www.buddha-vacana.org/wbw.html 171206
for word by word Pali and English translation go online first. You'll read:

Alahi vo, kālāmā, kaṅkhituṃ alaṃ vicikicchituṃ. Kaṅkhanīyeva pana vo ṭhāne vicikicchā uppannā. ...
Of course, Kālāmas, you are perplexed, of course you are doubting. Vicikicchā has arisen in you on account of a perplexing matter.

Etha tumhe kālāmā anussavena, {1} paramparāya, {2} itikirāya, {3} piṭakasampadānena, {4} takkahetu, {5} nayahetu, {6} ākāraparivitakkena, {7} diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, {8} bhabbarūpatāya, {9} samaṇo no garūti.
Do not go, you Kālāmas, by what you have heard said, nor by what has been transmitted [by a tradition], nor by the general consensus, nor by what has been handed down in a collection of texts, nor on the basis of logical reasoning, nor on the basis of inference, nor by reflection on appearances, nor by agreement after pondering views, nor by what seems probable, nor by [the thought:] 'The samaṇa is our revered teacher'.

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Kalinga kingdom

UKT 110903, 140220, 170207:

Kalinga is the name of a country in southern part of Ancient India, invaded by the Maurya Emperor Asoka in 261 BC. Its modern name is Orissa. It was the death and destruction in the Kalinga War, which he himself had caused, that led Emperor Asoka to become a Buddhist, and his issue of his famous Edicts (recorded in the oldest stone inscriptions found in the Indian sub-continent). The script, which could not be deciphered by the Braahmin Poannar {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} when they were called on to do so by their emperor, is presently known as the Brahmi. However, I object the use of the word instead of which I propose to call it Asokan or Magadhi, because the script had nothing to do with the Brahmanism or Hinduism whether it be Vaishnavism (Brahma as Creator) or Shaivism (Shiva as Creator) .

The Kingdom of Mauriya was in the Magadha Mahajanapada in northern part of India. Mauriya was essentially landlocked, and King Asoka evidently would like to see his authority expand to its southern neighbour - Kingdom of Kalinga. See sixteen Mahajanapada महाजनपद  in Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapada 170207

Kanlinga was a maritime power and its trading ships were dominant in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean. See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime_history_of_Odisha 170207

" The Maritime history of Odisha (Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଶା, Oriya pronunciation:  [oˑɽisaˑ]), known as Kalinga in ancient times, started before 350 BC according to early sources. The people of this region of eastern India along the coast of the Bay of Bengal sailed up and down the Indian coast, and travelled to Indo China and throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, introducing elements of their culture to the people with whom they traded. [UKT ]

The 6th century Manjusrimulakalpa mentions the Bay of Bengal as Kalingodra (Kalinga Sea), indicating the importance of Kalinga in the maritime trade. [1] The old traditions are still celebrated in the annual Bali Jatra, or Boita-Bandana festival held for five days in October / November. [2]"

UKT 170207: I cannot accept everything in the following excerpt, also from the above Wikipedia article, but since it contains information on Burma some of which have been related to me by my father U Tun Pe such as the discovery of a sea-anchor at Ddanaw village near Kungyangon along the road from Twant (spelled wrong in the article as "Tante" ) to Kungyangon, I have reproduced it here.

"Burma went by the name of Kalingarat (Kalinga Rastra) in the 7th century BC, and there is evidence of very early settlement in the southern Mon portion. By the 2nd century AD, the Kalingans were ruling Kalaymyo [obvious spelling mistake], the Arakan River valley and Pegu, around the gulf of Martaban. The remains of a ship excavated at Tante, near Yangon is thought to have belonged to Kalingan traders. Place names and similarities in architecture also indicate close contacts across the gulf of Bengal. [16] The Buddhagat [unknown to me], the sacred scripture of Burma, describes trade with the Buddhist merchants of Kalinga, leading to missionaries coming to propagate the faith, and then to political domination [the Mons of southern Myanmarpr have never been under the political domination of anyone from India and Ceylon whom they despised as Kalar or "blacks" ] of parts of coastal Burma by Kalinga during the 4th to 7th centuries AD. Coins with Hindu symbols found in Pegu confirm this contact. [17]

UKT 170207: King Asoka was never a Hindu. His religion was Jainism from which he converted to Buddhism after the Kalinga War.

Asokan and Myanmar script have 33-percent commonality between them. I claim that Myanmar script is the direct descendant of Asokan, and not through a South Indian script as it is presently accepted.

It is interesting to note that the circularly rounded forms in scripts are not only unique to Myanmarpr. They are also found in the country of Georgia. With the background knowledge that King Asoka's Buddhist missionaries went even to Rome in Europe, I suggest that among them might have been monks from the Kingdom of Tagaung of northern Myanmarpr. And the Myanmar script might have traveled with them to Central Asia. I base my conjecture  on the presence of the circularly rounded script in Georgia, bordered by Russia in the north, and Turkey in the south. In the Georgian letters, there are definitely two from the Myanmar script.

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Number 60 : its multiples and fractions

Divisions of Day {n.}, Hour {na-ri}, Minutes {mi.nic}, and Seconds {sak~kn.}
The word {n.} is obviously derived from Sun {n}
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 170207

UKT 140218, 170206:

The number 60 is very important in Astronomy-astrology. A circle is divided into 360 degrees of arc. Here 360 = 60 x 6. A day is divided in the traditional way into 60 "M-hours" (Myanmar-hours), and each "M-hour" is divided into 60 divisions or "M-minutes", and each 60th-division is further divided into 60 parts or "M-seconds". The "hour" of 24-hour day is known as {sak-na-ri} literally meaning "mechanical hour" to be differentiated from the "hours" of the Sun-dial or water-clock.

The days of the lunar month is given by the fullness of the Moon-orb, divided it into 15 parts (not as 16 as given by Macdonell). Here, it is  60 = 15 x 4. We measure the fullness of the Moon by the 15th-division. Each Bur-Myan lunar is either 30 or 29 days, which gives rise to two kinds of months: {rak son} 'full-month' or 'month with even number of days' and {rak ma.son} 'non-full month' or 'month with odd number of days'. The Bur-Myan Lunar calendar begins with {tn-ku: la.}. The suffix {la.} 'lunar month' is dropped when there can be no controversy between 'lunar month' and 'luminary Moon'. As children, we have to memorise after copying the text crouching on the wooden floor without a mat:

tn-ku: rak-ma.son nhic-hsak-ko: /
ka.hsoan rak-son on:hs //

Usually, the days of the lunar month and the degree of fullness do not correspond closely. Thus, according to the lunar calendar, I was born on the 1st day of waning of {ta.po.tw: la.}-moon, usually shortened to {ta.po.tw:}. However, the luminary Moon was not even full at the exact time of my birth in hours and minutes: the exact time of birth is taken to be the exact time of the cutting off of the umbilical cord. However, some astrologers take it as the first cry of the new-born.

And therefore for astrological calculations the day of my birth could be taken as the full-moon day of the {ta.po.tw:} and thus I am under the protection and guidance of Goddess Thurawati {u-ra~a.ti} or Saraswati - the goddess of learning. That is the astrological reasoning of why I am a life-long student and educator.

UKT 181218: I remember what U Pe Aung, who later became the Professor of Psychology (tenure: 1975-77), Rangoon Univ., who on my first visit to his home in April or May of 1950 told me. I had just passed my 15th birthday and had matriculated (official regulation at that time would not allow me into Rangoon Univ. for being too young, which I had to bypass by simply cheating: that I had passed my 16th birthday). U Pe Aung was well known among his friends as a top palmist, and he looking at my palms said, "My younger brother, you are born to be an educator. Never think of becoming any other professional - you'll always be a teacher! I now, after studying Palmistry and Astrology, know on which lines of my open palms that he had relied on to make that prediction. But at that time, I didn't know. With this little note, I remember Professor U Pe Aung, who was my brother U Boon Shein's close friend.

Secondly, I have been asking my mathematical friends why the ancients had used the number 60 to divide the circle in terms of degrees of arc. And the day into 60 Bur-Myan "hours".  So far, none have given me a satisfactory explanation.

My explanation from Astrological-Astronomical point of view is that the number 60 is the common multiple of 12 (the average duration in years for the planet Jupiter to complete one circle around the Celestial Sphere), and 30 (the average duration in years for the planet Saturn).

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Three Faiths within Hinduism and the Second Coming of Christ

-- UKT 140220, 170208

The belief in the coming of a godly deliverer is common to all axiomatic religions - the religions based on the belief in a Creator. It is present in (alphabetical order), Christianity (God), Islam (Allah), and Judaism (YHWH). In Christianity it is known as the Second Coming of Christ.

This belief based on the belief in a long-past Golden Age under the just rule of the Creator. It is natural for the people to expect the return of the Golden Age under a reagent of the Creator. The Expected Return is present not only in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, but also present in at least in two sects of Hinduism - Vaishnavism (Vishnu - male dominance) and Shaivism (Siva - male dominance).

The third Hindu-faith is Shaktism (Shakti - the Supreme Mother aka Mother Goddess was borrowed from the Tibeto-Burman). Shaktism is probably an off-shoot of Shaivism with the story of Mother-goddess Shakti committing suicide out of her carnal love for Shiva - the Creator in Shaivism. Either a reincarnation or a stand-in for the Mother-goddess Shakti, in the form of Parvati (common meaning "flax plant") or Durga ("fortress") - a goddess of the Tib-Burmans came to take the place Shakti. And ever since Siva and Parvati have been in perpetual sexual union inside Mount Kailas aka Kailash कैलास kailāsaḥ , guarded by their two sons, Skanda (derived from Alexander the Great who wrought havoc in India) aka Kartikeya and Ganesha. I am not certain whether there is the belief of the coming of a deliverer in Shaktism or not.

The belief in Mother Goddess by the ancient Pyus of Myanmarpr may be the same as that of original Mother-goddess Shakti before being made the wife of Shiva by the Shaivite-Poannas {i-wa. poaN~Na:}. The Bur-Myan culture is maternal. The Bur-Myan speakers refer to their country as Mother Myanmar {a.mi. mrn-ma} - not as our Fatherland.

UKT based on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu_denominations 140220

Hinduism is the dominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. It comprises three major traditions, Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism, [1] whose followers considered Shiva, Vishnu and Shakti (also called as Devi) to be the supreme deity respectively. Most of the other deities were either related to them or different forms (incarnations) of these deities. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and many practitioners refer to Hinduism as "the eternal law". (Sanātana Dharma). [2]

UKT 140303: Just as we differentiate Buddhism into: Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Vajrayana Buddhism , we are justified to differentiate Hinduism into: Shaivite Hinduism, Vaishnavite Hinduism, and Shaktic Hinduism.

Hindus are persons that believe they may obtain moksha "deliverance from suffering by the union with Brahman) by practicing either good karma, bhakti, or jnana. According to another classification the main denominations of Hinduism are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism. These four denominations may share rituals, beliefs, and traditions, but each denomination has a different philosophy on how to achieve life's ultimate goal, Atma Jnana (self-realization). There are also smaller denominations, and newer movements. Cross-denominational influences are the Bhakti-movement, and the six orthodox schools of thought.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

The Second Coming or the Second Coming of Christ that has been mentioned above is common to all religion including Myanmar Theravada, which believes that a fifth and last Buddha, known as Maitreya Buddha will come in the present World Order. The historical Buddha, the Gautama Buddha was the fourth.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Coming 140221

In Christianity, the Second Coming of Christ, the second advent, sometimes called the parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus to Earth. [UKT ]

UKT 140221: The above sentence is not entirely correct because Christ and Jesus are not the same. Jesus was the son of Mary and only when he was baptized by John the Baptist, the Holy Ghost (now the Holy Spirit) descended from above in the form of a dove and entered the person of Jesus. Only then Jesus the son of Mary should be referred to as Christ.

The Second Coming belief is based on prophecies found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian eschatologies. Christians generally believe the anticipated event is predicted in biblical messianic prophecies. Views about the nature of Jesus' Second Coming vary among Christian denominations and sometimes among individual Christians.

Most English versions of the Nicene Creed in current use include the following beliefs about Jesus: "...he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. ... We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maitreya 140221

Maitreya (Skt) , Metteyya (Pal), {a.ri.mt~t-yya.} (Pal-Myan), Maithree (Sinhala), Jampa (Tibetan) or Di-Lặc in Vietnamese, is regarded by Buddhists as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist [Mahayana] literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva.

Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the historic Śākyamuni Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya refers to a time when the Dharma will have been forgotten by most on Jambudvipa. It is found in the canonical literature of all major Buddhist schools (Theravāda, Mahāy 57;na, Vajrayāna), and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when the Dharma will have been mostly forgotten on Earth.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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