Update: 2017-06-04 09:53 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

  {kar~ka.} : from {kr~} (no viram shown). Note different form: {kr} (with visible viram)
  {kar~sa.} - palatal

UKT 151230: List of words of entries with Repha.
p063.htm , p082.htm ,
UKT 160303: Two rhotic sounds not present in Bur-Myan,
1. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good'
  What about "Lepha" ? : Lepha on short a , e.g. कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'
  - p063.htm  p082.htm  p092.htm 
2. Rhotic vowel-pair:  formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  - p072.htm  p085.htm  p095.htm

करनिवेशित kara-nivesita
- pp. rendered tributary.
कपर्द kapard-a
- m. cowrie (small shell used as a coin or die); braid of hair in the form of a shell;
m., -ik, f. cowrie; -n, a. having hair wound in the form of a shell; curly, shaggy; m. ep. of Siva.
करनिवेशित [ kara-nivesita ]
  - pp. rendered tributary.

UKT notes :
Kamboja : the land of Apsara {d-wic~hsa.ra}
Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India
Repha and Lepha - UKT151029: "Lepha" is my coined word.
Shaivism & Aghori sect : Human skulls & {auk-lm:}


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कमलिनी [ kamal-in ]
- f. lotus plant; lotus bed, lotus pond: -k, f. dim. small bed or lake of lotuses; -dala, n. lotus leaf (Pr.).



कमलेक्षण [ kamala‿kshana ]
- a. lotus-eyed; -‿udaya, m. N.; -‿udbhava, m. ep. of Brahman.



कमि [ kam-i ]
- the root kam (gr.).



[ kamp ], I. . (P.)
-- kmpa, tremble; cs. kampaya , cause to tremble, shake. anu , sympathise wtih (ac., lc.); cs. id. samanu , id., , quiver; cs. cause to tremble; pp. agitated. ud , tremble. vi, tremble, quiver; cs. cause to tremble; agitate.



कम्प [ kamp-a ]
- m. tremor, quivering; earth quake; quavered svarita accent; -ana, a. trembling; shaking; agitating; m. N. of a country; n. shaking, waving; a-vat, a. trembling; -ita, (pp.) trembling; shaken; n. tremor; -in, a. trembling; --, shaking.



कम्पोत्तर [ kampa‿uttara ]
- a. trembling violently.



कम्बल [ kambal ]
- m. (n.) woollen cloth, cover, or garment; -‿svara-grma, m. N. of a village.



कम्बु [ kambu ]
- m. shell; bracelet of shells; -ka, n. N. of a town; -kantha, a. () having a shell-like neck, i. e. with three folds; -gr va, m. N. of a tortoise.



कम्बोज, kamboja [kamboga]
-- m. pl. N. of a people.

See my note on Kamboja {km~Bau:za.}



कम्र [ kam-ra ]
- a. charming, beautiful.

( end of old p063-1.htm )

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कयासुभीय [kay-subh-ya]
- n. RV.I.165
Skt: कयासुभीय [kay-subh-ya] - n. RV.I.165 - Mac063c1
Skt: कयाशुभीय kayāśubhīya - n. hymn - SpkSkt

UKT: In the Analisys of RV 1.165 
you can see कया kyā (disyllabic) but not the monosyllabic medials {kya.} & {kya}.



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कर [ . kar- ]
- a. (, rarely ) doing, making; causing, producing (generally --); m. hand; elephant's trunk.



कर [ . kar-a ]
- m. ray; duty, tax.



करक [ kara-ka ]
- m. water-pot; a tree.



करका [ kara-k ]
- f. hail: -‿abhighta, m. hail stroke.



करकिसलय [ kara-kisalaya ]
- n. (hand-sprout), finger; -graha, m., -na, n. taking by the hand, wedding.



करङ्क [ karaṅka ]
- m. skull.



करज [ kara-ga ]
- m. finger-nail.



[kraga ]
- m. a tree



करट [ karat-a ]
- m. elephant's temple; crow: -ka, m. crow (Pr.); N. of a jackal; -in, m. elephant.



करण [ kr-ana ]
- a. () making, producing, performing (--); m. a certain mixed caste; tune; word (gr.); n. making, doing; performing; producing; action; deed; rite; business; organ of sense; body; instrument; legal document or evidence; notion of the instrumental case (gr.): -t, f., -tva, n. instrumentality (gr.): -rpa, a. having the form of an instrument (ph.); -ya, fp. to be done; n. business.



करण्ड [ karanda ]
- n. basket; little box of wicker work; -ka, n., i-k, f. id.



करतल [ kara-tala ]
- n. palm of the hand: -gata, pp. held in the hand, -tla, clapping of the hands; -da, a. paying taxes, tributary; subordinate; -dhrita-sara, a. holding an arrow in his hand; -pattra, n. saw; -pallava, m. finger; -pda-danta, m. hand, foot, or tooth; -pla, m. receiver-general of taxes; -put, f. hollowed hand; -prpta, pp. held in the hand; -badara, n. jujube berry in the hand = perfectly obvious matter; -bha, m. elephant's trunk; camel; young elephant or camel; hand between wrist and fingers: -ka, m. N. of a messenger; -bhshana, n. bracelet; -bha‿ur, a. f. having thighs like an elephant's trunk.


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करम्भ [ karambh ]
= क र म ् भ
- m. pap, porridge; -ka, n. id.; m. N.; -bluk-tpa, m. pl. porridge of scorching sand (a torment of hell).



कररुह [ kara-ruha ]
- m. finger-nail; -vra, n. fragrant oleander.



करस्् [ kr-as ]
- n. deed.



करस्थ [ kara-stha ]
- a. lying in the hand; -kri, place in the hand.



करस्न [ kar-sna ]
- m. fore-arm.

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कराग्र [ kara‿agra ]
- n. tip of finger or ray; -‿ghta, m. blow of the hand; -‿aṅguli, f. finger of the hand.



करायिका [ karyik ]
- f. kind of crane.



कराल [ karla ]
- a. prominent; gaping; formidable; m. N. of a locality; , f. ep. of Durg; N.; -kesara, m. N. of a lion; -t, f. gaping condition; formidableness.



करालम्ब [ kara‿lamba ]
- m. support for the hand = sheet anchor.



करालवदन [ karla-vadana ]
- a. having a gaping or formidable mouth.



- . become formidable



करालित [ karl-ita ]
- pp. make formidable; increased.



कराहति [ kara‿hati ]
- f. blow with the hand.



करिक [kari-ka ]
- - = karin, m. elephant; -kumbha-pta , n. elephant's frontal bone



करिन्् [ kar-in ]
- a. making, fashioning; m. elephant; (n) , f. female elephant.



करिष्णु [ kar-ishnu ]
- a. doing, performing (--); -ishyat, ft. pt. future.



[karishya[h] ]
- 2 sg. ft. subj. √kri , RV. I. 165, 9



- bring as a tribute



करीर [ kar&isharp;ra ]
- m. n. shoot of a bamboo; m. a leafless plant; n. its fruit.



करीष [ krsha ]
- n. refuse, (dry) cow-dung.



करुण [ karna ]
- a. doleful, pitiable: -m, ad.; m. a plant; , f. pity, compassion; -dhvani, m. wail; -vedi-t, f. compassionate disposition.



करेणु [ karenu ]
- m. f. elephant: -k, f. female elephant.



करोटि [ karoti ]
- f. basin, bowl; skull: -ka, (--, a.) skull, head.

UKT 140216: Certain Hindu sadhus use the human skull as a bowl from which to take their food and drink. See my note on Shaivism & Aghori sect



[karoti ]
- 3 sg. pr. of √kri , do; -karman , a. having as an action = verb of making

( end of old p063-2.htm )


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{kar~ka.} : Repha on short a

UKT 120124, 170205 : When the phoneme occurs at the end of a word, the {kar} form is satisfactory. But when it occurs in the middle of a word, it has to be put in a repha-form similar to the Kin'si-form {kr~}, e.g. {kar~ka.} . See below :

कङ्क kanka : {kn~ka.}
Skt: कङ्क kanka - m. heron; N.: pl. a people. - Mac061
Pal: {kn~ka.} -
- UHS-PMD0276

The repha-form will be depicted in Romabama as {kar~} .

UKT 151028: Ref. Romabama Rule #07 in Romabama: introduction
- RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 170204)
"Sanskrit repha becomes a same-letter conjunct in Pali, e.g. धर्म dharma (= ध र ् म ) becoming धम्म dhamma (= ध म ् म). This change will be represented as {Dar~ma.} --> {Dm~ma.} . However, {r~} in the middle of a polysyllable is not conveniently shown, because of which Romabama has to use the {kn~si:}-form: {Dar~ma.}".

Skt: कर्क karka --> {kar~ka.} = Pal: {kak~ka.}



कर्क [ karka ]
Skt: कर्क [ karka ] - a. () white; m. white horse; , f. -- Mac063c2
Skt: कर्क karka - adj. white, good, excellent. f. white mare. m. beauty, white horse, ... - SpkSkt
Pal: {kak~ka.} - UHS PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: . m. face powder. . m. a special yellow gem

UKT151029: If you refer to the BEPS vowel diagram shown in my note below on Repha and Lepha , you can expect a word with just the opposite meaning, कल्क kalka. See p064.htm
कल्क [ kalka ]
Skt: कल्क [ kalka ] - m. paste; foulness, baseness, guile, sin. - Mac064c3
Skt: कल्क kalka - adj. wicked, sinful. m. ordure, hypocrisy, ... - SpkSkt 



कर्कट [ kar-kat-a ]
- m., , f. crab; curved end of the beam of a balance; , f. drinking bowl: -ka, m., , f. crab; Cancer (in the Zodiac); -sriṅga, n. crab's claw; i-k, f. a plant; a‿sa, m. N. of a temple.



कर्कन्धु [ karkndhu ]
Skt: कर्कन्धु karkndhu] - m. f. jujube tree; n. its fruit. -- Mac063c2
Pal: {kak~kn~Du.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: mf. {zi:pn} Zezyphus jujuba

UKT 140217: {zi:pn} /zi pɪŋ/ is the colloquial name for the official {hsi:pn} /sʰi pɪŋ/.



कर्कर [ kar-kar-a ]
- a. hard; m. leather strap (?); - or -&isharp;, f. kind of lute; -, f. water-jar.


कर्करेटु [ karkaretu ]
- m. Numidian crane.

UKT 170205: - a small crane (Anthropoides virgo) of Africa, Asia, and Europe
- http://www.memidex.com/numidian-crane 170205
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demoiselle_crane 170205
"It is the smallest species of crane."



कर्कश [ karkasa ]
- a. rough, hard (also fig.): -tva, n. hardness; harshness.



कर्कि karki, ˚न्् [ -n ]
- m. Cancer (in the Zodiac).



कर्कोट [ karkota ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; -k, m. N. of a snake; a plant; pl. N. of a people.


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{kar~sa.} - palatal


कर्चूर [ karkra ]
- n. orpiment. 

UKT 170205: a poisonous yellow mineral pigment As2S3 (Asenious sulphide). It takes its name from the Latin auripigmentum (aurum − gold + pigmentum − pigment) because of its deep-yellow color. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpiment 170205

UKT 170205: As a side note I should remark: notice the change of <aur> in Latin to <or> in English. It is a back vowel change of being very open /ɑ/ in Latin becoming more close /ɔ/ in English . This in Romabama approximates to :
   {au} /ɑ/ --> {AU} middle of /ɔ/ & /o/
It shows that I must eventually learn Roman-Latin, constantly comparing my Bur-Myan transcription with that of Mon-Myan.


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कर्ण [ krna ]
- m. (-- a., f. , ) ear; handle; rudder; N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; a. having ears or handles; long-eared (also ); -kuvalaya, n. lotus attached to the ear; -kmara, n. whisk adorning the ears of elephants; -gpa, m. tale-bearing; -t, f. condition of an ear; -tla, m. flapping of elephants' ears (--); -dhra, m. helmsman; sailor: -t, f. helmsmanship; - nlotpala, n. blue lotus attached to the ear; -pa, m. N.; -pattraka, m. flap of the ear (tragus); - patha, m. ear-shot, hearing: -m, -y, or upa‿i, come to the ears: -‿atithi, m. = come to the ears; -parampar, f. passing from ear to ear, gossip; - psa, m. beautiful ear; -pra, m. n. ear ornament, esp. flowers: -praka, m. N. of a chattering servant; -pr-kri, turn into an ear ornament; -bhaṅga, m. curve of the ears; - bhshana, n. ear ornament; -mla, n. root of the ear (where it is attached to the head); -vamsa, m. flat projecting bamboo roof; -vat, a. having ears; -vish, f. ear-wax; -visha, n. poison for the ears; -veshta, m. ear-ring: *-na, n. id.; -sirsha, n. Sirsha flower attached to the ear; -srava, a. audible; -subhaga, a. pleasant to the ear.


कर्ण karna
= क र ् ण   --> {kar~Na.}
Skt: - m. (-- a., f. , ) ear; handle; rudder [UKT: helm to steer a ship, or guide a person, a society, a movement, etc.]; N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; -- Mac063-c3
Pal: {kN~Na.}
- UHS-PMD028
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner



कर्णाञ्जलि [ karna‿agali ]
- m. pointed ears.



कर्णाट [ karnta ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; , f. queen of Karnta.



कर्णान्तिकचर [ karna‿antika-kara ]
- a. flying about the ears; -‿bharana, n. ear ornament; -‿amrita, n. nectar for the ears; *-‿alamkarana, n., -kra, m., -kriti, f. ear ornament; -‿avatamsa, id.: -kri, turn into an ear ornament.



कर्णिका [ karn-ik ]
- f. ear ornament; pericarp of the lotus.

pericarp - n. . Botany The wall of a ripened ovary; fruit wall. -- AHTD
See my note on Sacred Lotus



- m. a tree; n. its fruit



कर्णिन्् [ karn-n ]
- a. having ears; barbed; m. helmsman.



कर्णीरथ [ karn-ratha ]
- m. kind of litter; -suta, m. ep. of the author of a manual on stealing.



कर्णोत्पल [ karna‿utpala ]
- n. lotus attached to the ear (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a king; -‿upakarnik, f. gossip.


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कर्त [ . karta ]
- m. separation, distinction.



कर्त [ . kart ]
- m. hole, pit ( = garta).



कर्तन [ kart-ana ]
- n. cutting off; -ari, -k, f. cutting instrument, scissors; -ar, f. id.



कर्तवे [ kr-tave ]
- V. d. inf. of √kri: -tvya (or ), fp. to be done, &c. (v. √kri); n. affair, business; what should be done, duty: -t, f. duty.



कर्तुमनस्् [ kartu-manas ]
- a. intending to do.



[kar-tr ]
- m. doer, maker; worker; performer; founder; creator; author (of, g., -); agent, (logical) subject (may be in nm. in. ic. ps.; or g. w. vbl. ɴ.); used as ft. of √kri ; -ka , - = kartri , agent; -t , f. being an agent of an action (gr.), -tva , n. agency; -bhta , pp. being the agent (gr.) ; -rpa , a. having the form of an agent



कर्तोस्् [ kar-tos ]
- V. (g.) inf. of √kri, do.



कर्त्तव्य [ kart-tavya ]
- fp. to be destroyed.



[kart-tri ]
- m. . destroyer; . spinner



कर्त्तृका [ kart-tri-k ]
- f. hunter's knife.



कर्त्य [ kart-ya ]
- fp. to be cut off.



कर्त्व [ kr-tva ]
- a. to be done or performed; n. task.

( end of old p063-3.htm )
( end of new p063.htm )

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UKT notes

Kamboja : the land of Apsara {d-wic~hsa.ra}

- UKT 120725, 140216, 170202 

The name {km~Bau:za.} is well known to most Bur-Myan. There are two contenders to this name and place, one in India, and one in SE Asia.

UKT 170202: From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapada#Kamboja 170202
" ... Ancient Kamboja is known to have comprised regions on either side of the Hindukush. The original Kamboja was located in eastern Oxus country as neighbor to Bahlika, but with time, some clans of the Kambojas appear to have crossed the Hindukush and planted colonies on its southern side also. ... The cis-Hindukush [south] region from Nurestan up to Rajauri in southwest of Kashmir sharing borders with the Daradas and the Gandharas constituted the Kamboja country. [31]... The Kamboja Mahajanapada of the Buddhist traditions refers to this cis-Hindukush branch of ancient Kambojas.[32] ... The trans-Hindukush [north] region including the Pamirs and Badakhshan which shared borders with the Bahlikas (Bactria) in the west and the Lohas and Rishikas of Sogdiana/Fergana in the north, constituted the Parama-Kamboja country. [33]  ..."
UKT 170202: Since Mekong River has its source in the highlands of Tibet, the northern-Kamboja tribes could have spread into Cambodia.

It is worthwhile to note that since the religionists have been guilty of rewriting the original legends to suit their own purposes, we cannot rely on what they call their "ancient literatures" and also on their inscriptions. I am relying on the words found in the modern languages such as Bur-Myan & Eng-Latin, and ancient (dead) languages Pal-Myan & Skt-Dev. There are a few words I would like to concentrate on at the present:
Kshatriya {hkt~ti.ya.} - the warrior class who are the rulers of the land.
  - See UTM-PDD-027
Apsara {d-wic~hsa.ra} - the female celestial dancer at the court of
   Indra the dva-king. They belong to the 'race' of {gn~Db~ba.}
   - See UTM-PDD-105 
Gandava {gn~Db~ba.} - the celestial musicians at Indra's court.
  - See UTM-PMD-041
I still have to go into more, but for the present see:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kambojas 120725

The Kambojas कम्बोज, kamboja {km~Bau:za.} ; Persian: کمبوہ ‎, Kambūh) were a kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature. Modern scholars conclude that the Kambojas were an Avestan speaking Eastern Iranian tribe at the boundary of the Indo-Aryans and the Iranians, and appear to have moved from the Iranian into the Indo-Aryan sphere over time.

The Kambojas migrated into India during the Indo-Scythian invasion from the 2nd century BCE to 5th century CE. Their descendants controlled various principalities in Medieval India.

UKT: More in the above Wikipedia article. The question now remains: are Indian Kamboja and South-east Asian Cambodia related? My answer is Yes!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Cambodia 120725

The name of Cambodia, in Khmer "Kampuchea" (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា Preăh Racha Nachk Kmpŭchea), derives from Sanskrit Kambujadeśa (कम्बोजदेश; "land of Kambuja"). It is not unique to the modern kingdom of Cambodia: the same name (i.e. Kamboja/Kambuja) is also found in Burmese and Thai chronicles referring to regions within those kingdoms. [UKT ]

UKT: Does the last statement mean that {kn-Bau:za.} was within Burma/Myanmar? I need to check with my historian friends. -- UKT120725

In the Indian chronicles the Kambuja {kn-Bau:za.} were a barbarian (in the sense of non-Indian) people in the area of modern Afghanistan. "The application to Southeast Asia has no ethnic content and does not imply any migration of peoples from the original Kambuja; the most likely explanation is that, when Indian traders and Brahmins came into contact with local populations some two thousand years ago, they gave them the names of regions which, in their view, were similarly marginal and remote: the peoples of Southeast Asia, like the barbarian Kamboja, had no castes, did not observe proper food prohibitions and had different rules for marriage." [1] [UKT ]

UKT 120725, 140216, 170202:
We, of the modern age have a very low opinion of the caste system of the Brahmin-Poanna {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} religion. They consider, any people without the caste system to be "barbarians".

Since the religion and subsequently the customs of a people can change the above reference to caste, food prohibitions, and marriage rules is without relevance. No one would take the custom of performing Ramayana dances in South-east Asia to be an indication of the Brahmins originating from Cambodia.

An origin-myth recorded in the Baksei Chamkrong inscription, dated AD 947, derives Kambuja from Svayambhuva Kambu, a legendary Indian sage who reached the Indochina peninsula and married a naga {na.ga:}-princess named Mera, thus uniting the Indian and local races. In this story Kambuja derives from Kambu+ja, and means "descendants of Kambu."[2]

From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baksei_Chamkrong 140216 

Baksei Chamkrong (Khmer: ប្រាសាទបក្សីចាំក្រុង) is a small Hindu temple located in the Angkor complex (Siem Reap, Cambodia). It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and used to hold a golden image of him. The temple can be seen on the left side when entering Angkor Thom at the southern gate. It was dedicated to Yasovarman by his son, King Harshavarman I. The temple was completed by Rajendravarman II (944-968). [1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Kamboja-note-b

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Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India

-- UKT 120124, 140216 : It is still an incomplete article 

After going through Mahabharata, I have concluded that identifying a person with the father's name is not reliable: the natural (or genetic father) can be anyone other than the 'official' father. Thus, Queen Kunti's six sons, Karna, and the five Pandavas have different gods as fathers, who because of Kunti's mantra, had to 'impregnate' her. King Pandu the official father of the five Pandavas was not the natural father of any of his 'sons'. This reminds one of the Christian Virgin Mary and her immaculate conception.

From: Bheel Mahabharata: Kunti and the Birth of the Sun God's Child
by Satya Chaitanya,  http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1190 140216
"The tribal Bheels have a Mahabharata version of their own, episodes of which are narrated or sung during their festivals, usually accompanied by music and sometimes with dance a captivating version that never fails to thrill, one of the secrets of its allure being its truly enchanting folktale-like quality. This article tries to understand an episode from it, on its own and in relation to Vyasas epic. "
UKT 140216 : The Bheels were a militarily defeated people of Ancient India, and they are counted as Sudras 'the servants". They were the original Tib-Bur speakers of Ancient India.

Kunti's first son was Karna कर्ण karna {kar~Na.} 'ear'. His father - the one who impregnate his mother - was the Sun-god.

Skt: कर्ण karna = क र ् ण   --> {kar~Na.}
Pal: {kN~Na.}
- UHS-PMD028

UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, border, angle

From this and other examples we can reliably say:

"Sanskrit repha is changed into a conjunct of two syllables in Pali.
"The onset of the second syllable has the same form as the consonant under the repha.
"The coda of the first syllable, which was  the repha, is the same as the onset of the second syllable."

This rule holds true for the {wag}-consonants. But for the {a.wag}-consonants, the rule breaks down. -- UKT120724

Go back Polyandry-paternity-note-b

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Repha and "Lepha"

UKT 151029:

UKT 151029: In transliterating words like कल्क [ kalka ] which we will meet on page p064, I have to keep in mind the presence of highly rhotic vowel, ऋ {iRi.}. This vowel is not present in Bur-Myan. Its opposite number the highly lateral vowel, ऌ {iLi.}, is almost absent in Skt-Dev. If there had been an original language  from which Asokan and Myanmar akshara are derived, to have a balance in vowels, there would have been words with ऌ {iLi.}.

Here we are not talking about ऋ {iRi.}, but the lesser rhotic Repha. Since it is a fact that there are a few words with ऌ {iLi.} in Skt-Dev, then there must be lesser lateral Lepha. Remember Lepha is my coined word which I will use in my transliteration work. Because of opposing pronunciation, we can expect opposing meanings, e.g. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good' , opposite of Lepha on short a ,  कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'

I suspect Repha has come into our languages because of the IE speakers who are used to rhotic accents. Then the question which follows is the influence of speakers like the Chinese, who are used to lateral accents.

In Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary by Franklin Edgerton (1885-1963), Yale Univ., Sec.1.22, we find "Lāghula  = Rāhula  ( fn003-09); l  for r  does indeed agree with Māgadhī, ...". He was referring to Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta (Instructions to Rahula at Mango Stone).
- BHS-indx.htm > i02original.htm (link chk 151029).

Also, it is a common joke in North America on the Chinese who are recent immigrants from China. In their eateries, "fried rice" becomes "flied lice". If the Indians from India has given us the Repha, then the Chinese from China should have give us "Lepha". I need to consider it how to transliterate words like कल्क [ kalka ] which we will meet page p064.

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The Sacred Lotus

UKT 170205:

There are two well-known types of aquatic flowers known as {kra pn:}. One opens in day-time and the other at night. They can comes in colours of red, blue, and white.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphaeaceae 170205

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera 170205

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. the national flower of India and Vietnam, is considered to be a sacred flower. The lotus plant is cited extensively within Vdic and Puranic literature, e.g.:

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water. -  Bhagavad Gita 5.10:

In Chinese culture, Confusian scholar Zhou Dunyi wrote:

I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained.

Chinese: 予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染。 [12]

Many deities of Asian religions are depicted as seated on a lotus flower. In Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra 170205

The Lotus Sūtra  saddharma puṇḍarīka sūtra, literally Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma [1]) is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established. For many East Asian Buddhists, the Lotus Sūtra contains the ultimate and complete teaching of the Buddha and the recitation of the text is understood to bring auspicious fortune and eradicate ones accumulated negative karma. [2]

UKT: The lotus flower is associated with the seats of energy in the human body.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra 170205

The word Chakra (चक्र) derives from the Sanskrit word meaning "wheel," as well as "circle" and "cycle". [2] It's described by many as a spinning wheel of light . Of the 88,000 chakras within the human body, seven are considered of principle importance and are referred to as the "major chakras". [1]

M. N. Roy's review of tantric history says that the word chakra is used to mean several different things in the Sanskrit sources: [3]

1. "Circle," used in a variety of senses, symbolising endless rotation of shakti.

2. A circle of people. In rituals, there are different cakrasādhanās in which adherents assemble and perform rites. According to the Niruttaratantra, chakras in the sense of assemblies are of 5 types.

3. The term chakra is also used to denote Yantras { n: } 'mystic diagrams', variously known as trikoṇa-cakra , aṣṭakoṇa-cakra , etc.

4. Different nerve plexuses within the body.

In Buddhism, the Sanskrit term cakra (Pali cakka) is used in a different sense of "circle," referring to the conception of rebirth consisting of six states in which beings may be reborn. [4]

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Shaivism & Aghori sect

- UKT 140216, 170203

Shaivism, particularly the Aghori sect, because of its association with human-skulls might be called the Left-Hand Path or {auk-lm:} in Bur-Myan. Shiva's principal consort is Kali-Devi who is iconically depicted with jet-black skin, a hanging-tongue, and wearing a garland of human skulls. She is sometimes shown dancing naked over equally naked but dead Shiva.

The extremely "erotic" icon (in photograph) I have seen was naked Kali with the penis of naked but dead Shiva in her vagina. The pix given on the right were far from being erotic - it was supposed to show the female-energy being filled into the dead male to produce a perfect union of male-female elements.

It is said that Kali-Shiva union is the equivalent of Isis-Osiris union of ancient Egypt, Yin-Yan of flag of Korea, the two-triangles in the Star of David.

Whatever the case maybe, I do not view the Left-Hand Path as evil: it is one of the two methods to uplift the suffering humanity from its miseries. However, the non-axiomatic Theravada Buddhism would have none of it, but tolerates the Right-Hand or {a.hkak-lm:}

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaivism 140216

Shaivism or Saivism शैव पंथ, śaiva paṁtha ; lit. "associated with Shiva"), is one of the four most widely followed sects of Hinduism, which reveres the god Shiva as the Supreme Being. Followers of Shaivam, called "Shaivas," and also "Saivas" or "Shaivites," believe that Shiva is All and in all, the creator, preserver, destroyer, revealer and concealer of all that is. Shaivism is widespread throughout India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Areas notable for the practice of Shaivism include parts of Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.

Saivism is the Hindu sect that worships the god Shiva. Shiva is sometimes depicted as the fierce god Bhairava भैरव (aks-to-aks {B:ra.wa.}).

Wikipedia on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhairava 140313, states:
   "He is one of the most important deities in Nepal, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand, who originated in Hindu mythology and is sacred to Hindus, Buddhists and Jains alike."
UKT 140313, 170203: Bur-Myan elders (monks, nuns, and religious-minded laymen and women) must make an all out effort to clarify the above view on Buddhism. Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhism has nothing to do with Bhairava भैरव (aks-to-aks {B:ra.wa.}). Though I have come to know a prominent Mon-Myan family which have become Hindu, Hinduism as a religion has not taken a firm foothold in Myanmarpr since the Pagan period. Even then some Hindu deities have been found in iconography, e.g. Sandi Dvi. Because of the Dwi has a Chinth 'lion' as a mount, I suspect the icon has been derived from the Bengali goddess Durga.

Saivists are more attracted to asceticism than adherents of other Hindu sects, and may be found wandering India with ashen faces performing self-purification rituals. [1] [2] [3] They worship in the temple and practice yoga, striving to be one with Siva within. [4]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aghori 140216

The Aghori अघोर aghōracharnel, [2] are ascetic Shaiva sadhus.

The Aghori are known to engage in post-mortem rituals. They often dwell in charnel grounds [cemetery] , have been witnessed smearing cremation ashes on their bodies, and have been known to use bones from human corpses for crafting skull bowls (which Shiva and other Hindu deities are often iconically depicted holding or using) and jewelry. Due to their practices that are contradictory to orthodox Hinduism, they are generally opposed. [3] [4]

Many Aghori gurus command great reverence from rural populations as they are supposed to possess healing powers gained through their intensely eremitic [ a religious recluse ] rites and practices of renunciation and tpasya. They are also known to meditate and perform worship in haunted houses.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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