Update: 2019-06-24 07:03 PM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{kya.} : monosyllabic medial is probably only found in Bur-Myan.
{ka.ya.} : disyllabic

{ka.ra.} : disyllabic
{kar~} : short-vowel Repha - super R following short-vowel
  {kar~ka.} :
  {kar~sa.} - palatal
  {kar~Na.} - retroflex
  {kar~ta.} - dental
  Repha forms continued in following page.

UKT 151230: List of words of entries with Repha.
p063.htm , p082.htm ,
UKT 160303: Two rhotic sounds not present in Bur-Myan,
1. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good'
  What about "Lepha" ? : Lepha on short a , e.g. कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'
  - p063.htm  p082.htm  p092.htm 
2. Rhotic vowel-pair:  formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  - p072.htm  p085.htm  p095.htm

BHS entries: none on 190218

Skt Roots: entered below:
Whitney: none

UKT notes :
Medial sounds
  alt caption Checking vowels with killed-approximants
  The problem of Wathut {wa.t} from: {wa.}/ {w} or {O} //? -
  Refer to spelling of {pa.oO} 'a Myanmar ethnic group'.
Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India
Repha and Lepha - UKT151029: "Lepha" is my coined word.
Shaivism & Aghori sect : Human skulls & {auk-lm:}


Contents of this page

{kya.} monosyllabic

UKT 190226: Production of medial using an approximant, and Checking with killed-approximant are different as shown below. We meet this on , and .

कय  -->  क ् य  --> क्य 
------->  क य ्  --> कय् 

गय -->  ग ् य  --> ग्य 
------>  ग य ्  -->  गय् 

The difference is on the position of the viram as shown above. See my note on medial sounds (to be written)
One of the differences between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev is the checking of vowels in the syllables. In Bur-Myan (a typical Tib-Bur language), only the short vowel can be checked. However, in Skt-Dev (a typical IE language) both short and long vowels may be checked.

Contents of this page

{ka.ya.}/ {k~ya.} : disyllabic hanging consonant {hsw:by:} found in Mon-Myan.

UKT 181216: Native English speakers cannot pronounce the monosyllabic {kya.}: they always pronounce it as disyllabic {kaya.} (notice the mid-dot to show an intermediate between full monosyllabic and disyllabic.) which makes me to change my name from KYAW to JOE, and an official name change to Joe Kyaw Tun. This finally makes the Myanmar Immigration officials call me JO JAW "hilariously meaning fried dove"! What an ego buster!

Similarly the Hindi-Dev speakers cannot pronounce the monosyllabic {kya.}: they always pronounce it as disyllabic {k~ya.}. How the ancient Vdic speakers would pronounce is anybody's guess.

p063c1-b11/ not online

कयासुभीय [kay-subh-ya]
- n. RV.I.165
Skt: कयासुभीय [kay-subh-ya] - n. RV.I.165 - Mac063c1
Skt: कयाशुभीय kayāśubhīya - n. hymn - SpkSkt

UKT: In the Analysis of RV 1.165 : University of Human Unity 
you can see कया kyā (disyllabic) but not the monosyllabic medials {kya.} (vowel-duration 1 blink) & {kya} (2 blk).


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{ka.ra.} : disyllabic

p063c1-b12/ p051-074

कर [ . kar- ]
- a. (, rarely ) doing, making; causing, producing (generally --); m. hand; elephant's trunk.
74) कर (p. 51) 1. kar-


p063c1-b13/ p051-073 

कर [ . kar-a ]
- m. ray; duty, tax.
73) कर (p. 51) 2. kar-a


p063c1-b14/ p051-072

करक [ kara-ka ]
- m. water-pot; a tree.
72) करक (p. 51) kara-ka


p063c1-b15/ p051-071

करका [ kara-k ]
- f. hail: -‿abhighta, m. hail stroke.
71) करका (p. 51) kara-k


p063c1-b16/ p051-070

करकिसलय [ kara-kisalaya ]
- n. (hand-sprout), finger; -graha, m., -na, n. taking by the hand, wedding.
70) करकिसलय (p. 51) kara-kisalaya


Orphan / p.051-069

करनिवेशित [ kara-nivesita ]
  - pp. rendered tributary.
69) करनिवेशित (p. 51) kara-nivesita rendered tributary.


p063c1-b17/ p051-068

करङ्क [ karaṅka ]
- m. skull.
68) करङ्क (p. 51) karaṅka


p063c1-b18/ p051-067 

करज [ kara-ga ]
- m. finger-nail.
67) करज (p. 51) kara-ga


p063c1-b19/ not online

[kraga ]
- m. a tree


p063c1-b20/ p051-066

करट [ karat-a ]
- m. elephant's temple; crow: -ka, m. crow (Pr.); N. of a jackal; -in, m. elephant.
66) करट (p. 51) karat-a


p063c1-b21/ p051-062 

करण [ kr-ana ]
- a. () making, producing, performing (--); m. a certain mixed caste; tune; word (gr.); n. making, doing; performing; producing; action; deed; rite; business; organ of sense; body; instrument; legal document or evidence; notion of the instrumental case (gr.): -t, f., -tva, n. instrumentality (gr.): -rpa, a. having the form of an instrument (ph.); -ya, fp. to be done; n. business.
62) करण (p. 51) kr-ana


p063c1-b22/ p051-061

करण्ड [ karanda ]
- n. basket; little box of wicker work; -ka, n., i-k, f. id.
61) करण्ड (p. 51) karanda


p063c1-b23/ p051-095

करतल [ kara-tala ]
- n. palm of the hand: -gata, pp. held in the hand, -tla, clapping of the hands; -da, a. paying taxes, tributary; subordinate; -dhrita-sara, a. holding an arrow in his hand; -pattra, n. saw; -pallava, m. finger; -pda-danta, m. hand, foot, or tooth; -pla, m. receiver-general of taxes; -put, f. hollowed hand; -prpta, pp. held in the hand; -badara, n. jujube berry in the hand = perfectly obvious matter; -bha, m. elephant's trunk; camel; young elephant or camel; hand between wrist and fingers: -ka, m. N. of a messenger; -bhshana, n. bracelet; -bha‿ur, a. f. having thighs like an elephant's trunk.
95) करतल (p. 51) kara-tala

करतल [ kara-tala ]
Skt: करतल [ kara-tala ] - n. palm of the hand: - Mac063c1
Skt: करतल karatala - m. palm - SpkSkt
  alt spelling: तल tala - m.n. palm - SpkSkt

UKT 170821: "Cheiro" - the professional name of the 19th century Irish palmist and occultist William John Warner (1866 - 1936), is obviously related to the Skt-Dev करतल karatala.
See, The Language of the Hand - by Cheiro, first pub. 1894. See downloaded book in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries from Forgotten Books
- Cheiro-LanguageOfHand<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171204)

UKT 170821: Pix: Left-palm of 44th US President Barrack Hussein Obama on 2016Nov02 during campaigning. The major lines and shapes of hand and fingers are clearly visible for a prediction by a top palmist.


Contents of this page


p063c2-b01/ p051-094

करम्भ [ karambh ] = क र म ् भ
- m. pap, porridge; -ka, n. id.; m. N.; -bluk-tpa, m. pl. porridge of scorching sand (a torment of hell).
94) करम्भ (p. 51) karambh


p063c2-b02/ p051-093

कररुह [ kara-ruha ]
- m. finger-nail; -vra, n. fragrant oleander.
93) कररुह (p. 51) kara-ruha


p063c2-b03/ p051-092

करस्् [ kr-as ]
- n. deed.
92) करस्् (p. 51) kr-as


p063c2-b04/ p051-091

करस्थ [ kara-stha ]
- a. lying in the hand; -kri, place in the hand.
91) करस्थ (p. 51) kara-stha


p063c2-b05/ p051-090

करस्न [ kar-sna ]
- m. fore-arm.
90) करस्न (p. 51) kar-sna fore-arm.

Contents of this page


p063c2-b06/ p051-089

कराग्र [ kara‿agra ]
- n. tip of finger or ray; -‿ghta, m. blow of the hand; -‿aṅguli, f. finger of the hand.
89) कराग्र (p. 51) kara̮agra


p063c2-b07/ p051-088

करायिका [ karyik ]
- f. kind of crane.
88) करायिका (p. 51) karyik


p063c2-b08/ p051-087

कराल [ karla ]
- a. prominent; gaping; formidable; m. N. of a locality; , f. ep. of Durg; N.; -kesara, m. N. of a lion; -t, f. gaping condition; formidableness.
87) कराल (p. 51) karla


p063c2-b09/ p051-086

करालम्ब [ kara‿lamba ]
- m. support for the hand = sheet anchor.
86) करालम्ब (p. 51) kara̮lamba


p063c2-b10/ p051-085

करालवदन [ karla-vadana ]
- a. having a gaping or formidable mouth.
85) करालवदन (p. 51) karla-vadana


p063c2-b11/ not online

- . become formidable


p063c2-b12/ p051-084

करालित [ karl-ita ]
- pp. make formidable; increased.
84) करालित (p. 51) karl-ita


p063c2-b13/ p051-083

कराहति [ kara‿hati ]
- f. blow with the hand.
83) कराहति (p. 51) kara̮hati


p063c2-b14/ not online

करिक [kari-ka ]
- - = karin, m. elephant; -kumbha-pta , n. elephant's frontal bone


p063c2-b15/ p051-111

करिन्् [ kar-in ]
- a. making, fashioning; m. elephant; (n) , f. female elephant.
111) करिन्् (p. 51) kar-in


p063c2-b16/ p051-124

करिष्णु [ kar-ishnu ]
- a. doing, performing (--); -ishyat, ft. pt. future.
124) करिष्णु (p. 51) kar-ishnu


p063c2-b17/ not online

[karishya[h] ]
- 2 sg. ft. subj. √kri , RV. I. 165, 9

UKT 171205: See https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Rig_Veda/Mandala_1/Hymn_165 171205
"1. WITH what bright beauty are the Maruts jointly invested, peers in age, who dwell together?
  From what place have they come? With what intention? Sing they their strength through love of wealth, these Heroes? ..." See also p063c1-b11 above


p063c2-b18/ not online

- bring as a tribute


p063c2-b19/ p051-082

करीर [ karra ]
- m. n. shoot of a bamboo; m. a leafless plant; n. its fruit.
82) करीर (p. 51) karra


p063c2-b20/ p051-081

करीष [ krsha ]
- n. refuse, (dry) cow-dung.
81) करीष (p. 51) krsha


p063c2-b21/ p051-080

करुण [ karna ]
- a. doleful, pitiable: -m, ad.; m. a plant; , f. pity, compassion; -dhvani, m. wail; -vedi-t, f. compassionate disposition.
80) करुण (p. 51) karna


p063c2-b22/ p051-110

करेणु [ karenu ]
- m. f. elephant: -k, f. female elephant.
110) करेणु (p. 51) karenu


p063c2-b23/ p051-109

करोटि [ karoti ]
- f. basin, bowl; skull: -ka, (--, a.) skull, head.
109) करोटि (p. 51) karot

UKT 140216: Certain Hindu sadhus use the human skull as a bowl from which to take their food and drink. See my note on Shaivism & Aghori sect


p063c2-b24/ not online

[karoti ]
- 3 sg. pr. of √kri , do; -karman , a. having as an action = verb of making

( end of old p063-2.htm )

Contents of this page

{kar~} : Repha forms - super R

When a consonant such as {ka.} is checked by Killed-Ra {r}, two forms of representation arises: a form with a visible viram, and the next one without a visible form where R is in a raised position which prompts me to call Super R.

Visible viram: {kar} - similar in form to {k}
Super form: {kar~} - the Repha form similar in form to {kn-si:}



Repha {kr~} (no viram shown).

UKT 120124, 170205, 181216

Note different form: {kr} (with visible viram). When r occurs at the end of a word, the {kar} form is satisfactory. But when it occurs in the middle of a word, it has to be put in a repha-form similar to the Kin'si-form {kar~}, e.g. {ar~ka.} . See below :

कङ्क kanka : {kn~ka.}
Skt: कङ्क kanka - m. heron; N.: pl. a people. - Mac061
BPal: {kn~ka.} -
- UHS-PMD0276

The repha-form will be depicted in Romabama as {kar~} .

UKT 151028: Ref. Romabama Rule #07 in Romabama: introduction
- RBM-intro-indx.htm (link chk 170204)
"Sanskrit repha becomes a same-letter conjunct in Pali, e.g. धर्म dharma (= ध र ् म ) becoming धम्म dhamma (= ध म ् म). This change will be represented as {Dar~ma.} --> {Dm~ma.} . However, {r~} in the middle of a polysyllable is not conveniently shown, because of which Romabama has to use the {kn~si:}-form: {Dar~ma.}".

Skt: कर्क karka --> {kar~ka.} = Pal: {kak~ka.}


p063c2-b25/ p051-108

कर्क [ karka ]
Skt: कर्क [ karka ] - a. () white; m. white horse; , f. -- Mac063c2
108) कर्क (p. 51) karka
Skt: कर्क karka - adj. white, good, excellent. f. white mare. m. beauty, white horse, ... - SpkSkt
BPal: {kak~ka.} - UHS PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: . m. face powder. . m. a special yellow gem

UKT151029: If you refer to the BEPS vowel diagram shown in my note below on Repha and Lepha , you can expect a word with just the opposite meaning, कल्क kalka. See p064.htm
कल्क [ kalka ]
Skt: कल्क [ kalka ] - m. paste; foulness, baseness, guile, sin. - Mac064c3
Skt: कल्क kalka - adj. wicked, sinful. m. ordure, hypocrisy, ... - SpkSkt 


p063c2-b26/ p051-107

कर्कट [ kar-kat-a ]
- m., , f. crab; curved end of the beam of a balance; , f. drinking bowl: -ka, m., , f. crab; Cancer (in the Zodiac); -sriṅga, n. crab's claw; i-k, f. a plant; a‿sa, m. N. of a temple.
107) कर्कट (p. 51) kar-kat-a


p063c2-b27/ p051-106

कर्कन्धु [ karkndhu ]
Skt: कर्कन्धु karkndhu] - m. f. jujube tree; n. its fruit. -- Mac063c2
106) कर्कन्धु (p. 51) karkndhu
BPal: {kak~kn~Du.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: mf. {zi:pn} Zezyphus jujuba

UKT 140217: {zi:pn} /zi pɪŋ/ is the colloquial name for the official {hsi:pn} /sʰi pɪŋ/.


p063c2-b28/ p051-105

कर्कर [ kar-kar-a ]
- a. hard; m. leather strap (?); - or -&isharp;, f. kind of lute; -, f. water-jar.
105) कर्कर (p. 51) kar-kar-a hard; m. leather strap (?);



कर्करेटु [ karkaretu ]
- m. Numidian crane.
104) कर्करेटु (p. 51) karkaretu

UKT 170205: - a small crane (Anthropoides virgo) of Africa, Asia, and Europe
- http://www.memidex.com/numidian-crane 170205
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demoiselle_crane 170205
"It is the smallest species of crane."



कर्कश [ karkasa ]
- a. rough, hard (also fig.): -tva, n. hardness; harshness.
103) कर्कश (p. 51) karkasa



कर्कि karki, ˚न्् [ -n ]
- m. Cancer (in the Zodiac).
102) कर्कि (p. 51) -n Cancer



कर्कोट [ karkota ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; -k, m. N. of a snake; a plant; pl. N. of a people.
101) कर्कोट (p. 51) karkota


Contents of this page


{kar~sa.} - palatal

p063c3-b00/ p051-100

कर्चूर [ karkra ]
- n. orpiment. 
100) कर्चूर (p. 51) karkra

UKT 170205, 181216: Orpiment, a poisonous yellow mineral pigment As2S3 (Asenious sulphide). It takes its name from the Latin auripigmentum (aurum − gold + pigmentum − pigment) because of its deep-yellow color. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpiment 181216
See also Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realgar 181216

As a side note I should remark: notice the change of <aur> in Latin to <or> in English. It is a back vowel change of being very open /ɑ/ in Latin becoming more close /ɔ/ in English .

I'm still unsatisfied with the following rendition:

Bur-Myan: {au.}, {au}, {au:}
Pal-Myan:  {AU.} , {AU} ,  {AU:}

This in Romabama approximates to :
{au} /ɑ/ --> {AU} middle of /ɔ/ & /o/

It shows that I must eventually learn Roman-Latin, constantly comparing my Bur-Myan transcription with that of Mon-Myan.


Contents of this page


p063c3-b01/ p051-099

कर्ण [ krna ]
- m. (-- a., f. , ) ear; handle; rudder; N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; a. having ears or handles; long-eared (also ); -kuvalaya, n. lotus attached to the ear; -kmara, n. whisk adorning the ears of elephants; -gpa, m. tale-bearing; -t, f. condition of an ear; -tla, m. flapping of elephants' ears (--); -dhra, m. helmsman; sailor: -t, f. helmsmanship; - nlotpala, n. blue lotus attached to the ear; -pa, m. N.; -pattraka, m. flap of the ear (tragus); - patha, m. ear-shot, hearing: -m, -y, or upa‿i, come to the ears: -‿atithi, m. = come to the ears; -parampar, f. passing from ear to ear, gossip; - psa, m. beautiful ear; -pra, m. n. ear ornament, esp. flowers: -praka, m. N. of a chattering servant; -pr-kri, turn into an ear ornament; -bhaṅga, m. curve of the ears; - bhshana, n. ear ornament; -mla, n. root of the ear (where it is attached to the head); -vamsa, m. flat projecting bamboo roof; -vat, a. having ears; -vish, f. ear-wax; -visha, n. poison for the ears; -veshta, m. ear-ring: *-na, n. id.; -sirsha, n. Sirsha flower attached to the ear; -srava, a. audible; -subhaga, a. pleasant to the ear.
99) कर्ण (p. 51) krn

कर्ण karna
= क र ् ण   --> {kar~Na.}
Skt: - m. (-- a., f. , ) ear; handle; rudder [UKT: helm to steer a ship, or guide a person, a society, a movement, etc.]; N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; -- Mac063-c3
BPal: {kN~Na.}
- UHS-PMD028
  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, edge, corner

कर्ण karna
= क र ् ण   --> {kar~Na.}
Skt: N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kunt; -- Mac063-c3

UKT 190301: Karna कर्ण karṇa in Mahabharata War, was perhaps the greatest hero.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karna 190301
See my notes on Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India


p063c3-b02/ p051-126

कर्णाञ्जलि [ karna‿agali ]
- m. pointed ears.
126) कर्णाञ्जलि (p. 51) karna̮agali


p063c3-b03/ p051-125

कर्णाट [ karnta ]
- m. pl. N. of a people; , f. queen of Karnta.
125) कर्णाट (p. 51) karnta


p063c3-b04/ p051-098

कर्णान्तिकचर [ karna‿antika-kara ]
- a. flying about the ears; -‿bharana, n. ear ornament; -‿amrita, n. nectar for the ears; *-‿alamkarana, n., -kra, m., -kriti, f. ear ornament; -‿avatamsa, id.: -kri, turn into an ear ornament.
98) कर्णान्तिकचर (p. 51) karna̮antika-kara flying about the ears;


p063c3-b05/ p051-097

कर्णिका [ karn-ik ]
- f. ear ornament; pericarp of the lotus.
97) कर्णिका (p. 51) karn-ik

pericarp - n. . Botany The wall of a ripened ovary; fruit wall. -- AHTD
See my note on Sacred Lotus


p063c3-b06/ not online

- m. a tree; n. its fruit


p063c3-b07/ p051-096

कर्णिन्् [ karn-n ]
- a. having ears; barbed; m. helmsman.
96) कर्णिन्् (p. 51) karn-n


p063c3-b08/ p051-123

कर्णीरथ [ karn-ratha ]
- m. kind of litter; -suta, m. ep. of the author of a manual on stealing.
123) कर्णीरथ (p. 51) karn-ratha

litter - n. 4. An enclosed or curtained couch mounted on shafts and used to carry a single passenger.


p063c3-b09/ p051-122

कर्णोत्पल [ karna‿utpala ]
- n. lotus attached to the ear (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a king; -‿upakarnik, f. gossip.
122) कर्णोत्पल (p. 51) karna̮utpala

Contents of this page


p063c3-b10/ p051-121 

कर्त [ . karta ]
- m. separation, distinction.
121) कर्त (p. 51) 1. karta


p063c3-b11/ p051-120

कर्त [ . kart ]
- m. hole, pit ( = garta).
120) कर्त (p. 51) 2. kart


p063c3-b12/ p051-119

कर्तन [ kart-ana ]
- n. cutting off; -ari, -k, f. cutting instrument, scissors; -ar, f. id.
119) कर्तन (p. 51) kart-ana


p063c3-b13/ p051-118 

कर्तवे [ kr-tave ]
- V. d. inf. of √kri: -tvya (or ), fp. to be done, &c. (v. √kri); n. affair, business; what should be done, duty: -t, f. duty.
118) कर्तवे (p. 51) kr-tave


p063c3-b14/ p051-117  

कर्तुमनस्् [ kartu-manas ]
- a. intending to do.
117) कर्तुमनस्् (p. 51) kartu-manas intending to do.


p063c3-b15/ not online

[kar-tr ]
- m. doer, maker; worker; performer; founder; creator; author (of, g., -); agent, (logical) subject (may be in nm. in. ic. ps.; or g. w. vbl. ɴ.); used as ft. of √kri ; -ka , - = kartri , agent; -t , f. being an agent of an action (gr.), -tva , n. agency; -bhta , pp. being the agent (gr.) ; -rpa , a. having the form of an agent

कर्तृ kartṛ - adj. one who acts in a religious ceremony, maker, priest, agent, doing any particular action or business, applying one's self to any occupation, one who makes or does or acts or effects. m. subject of a sentence, doer, one who is about to do, creator of the world, author, one who will do, agent of an action. - SpkSkt


p063c3-b16/ p051-116

कर्तोस्् [ kar-tos ]
- V. (g.) inf. of √kri, do.
116) कर्तोस्् (p. 51) kar-tos


p063c3-b17/ p051-115 

कर्त्तव्य [ kart-tavya ]
- fp. to be destroyed.
115) कर्त्तव्य (p. 51) kart-tavya


p063c3-b18/ not online

[kart-tri ]
- m. . destroyer; . spinner


p063c3-b19/ p051-114

कर्त्तृका [ kart-tri-k ]
- f. hunter's knife.
114) कर्त्तृका (p. 51) kart-tri-k


p063c3-b20/ p051-113

कर्त्य [ kart-ya ]
- fp. to be cut off.
113) कर्त्य (p. 51) kart-ya


p063c3-b21/ p051-112

कर्त्व [ kr-tva ]
- a. to be done or performed; n. task.
112) कर्त्व (p. 51) kr-tva

( end of old p063-3.htm )
( end of new p063.htm )

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Medial sounds

alt caption: Checking vowels with killed-approximants
- Coda approximants

Refer to spelling of {pa.oO} 'a Myanmar ethnic group' , from which I might have to transcribe as {O}
Then I will have to spell the 'Taoist religion' as  {tauO}: at present it is being spelled as {tauk}.
Also, see {gaO} /

-- UKT 120725 , 140928, 170507, 190223, 190301, 190415

Medials in BEPS consonants are those that give coloration to the syllables. The syllables in Alphabet-Letter system are of CVC form, where there is no differentiation between the onset and coda consonants. However, in the Abugida-Akshara system the syllables are of the form CV where the coda = 0, 1, 2. Remember, the intermediate language, Romabama, follows the Abugida-Akshara system.

How to differentiate the two English words or syllables, <saw> and <sao>, and the confusion with Wathut {wa.t}, is not easy to solve. In Bur-Myan, the English w is represented by {wa.}/ {w}. So <saw> must be transliterated as {sw} from the word {s}. The alternative is not to use {wa.}/ {w} at all, but to use u , and <saw> will come out as {sau}.

Not so fast - I must add. The Eng-Lat cannot differentiate {sa.}/ {c} and {hsa.}/ {hs} for two reasons. First English cannot differentiate the tenuis voiceless from the ordinary voiceless, and secondly it cannot pronounce the Palatal stops. Bur-Myan Palatal stops become their Palatal affricates. Now, don't blame the Eng-Lat alone. Bur-Myan is also to be blamed. We do not have Dental fricatives such as the hisser {Sa.}/ {S} which the Eng-Lat has. Thus, I've no choice, but to come up innovations, such as , which I hate, and which I keep to a bare minimum.

Now, let's return to difference in the two systems: Alphabet-Letter system in which the syllables are of CVC form, and Abugida-Akshara system the syllables are of the form CV .

We first run into syllables with no coda, i.e. CV (coda = 0). There cannot be a consonant after CV, as in Tao (the religion).
   I propose to use {tauO} which is now spelled in Myanmarpr as {tauk}.

Next comes syllables with a single coda - a killed approximant (coda = 1): {}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, & {h} .

Third, loan-words with two codas ( = 2) : which are mostly from English.

First, we have to note that in Bur-Myan phonology with the exception of {a.}, the others {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, & {ha.} are medial formers. Medial sounds are monosyllabic, and are unique to Bur-Myan.

The most troublesome medial sound for non-indigenous Bur-Myan speakers and foreigners including the Hindi speakers is the {ya.pn.} sound represented by the glyph . These speakers when they tried to articulate this sound could produce the disyllabic conjunct only, which is known as {ya.hsw:} written as .

Hanging-Ya { ~ya.} is one of the Hanging-consonants {by:hsw:} in Mon-Myan. For these representations see
Basic Mon-Myanmar Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries - NaingMgToe-MonMyan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170507)
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 170507)

From the point of view of the syllable structure, CV, the approximant-coda is: {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, & {h}. Now that, I've confirmed that Nya-major {a.}/ {} is also an approximant, I'll have to extend the above list to include {}.

Now, look again into my IPA table of consonants (last revised on 160218). The Thibilant /θ/, and the Glottal /h/ (or Pharyngeal /ħ/) are grouped with Fricatives - Not with Approximants. It was I who have put the Bur-Myan {ha.}/ {h} with the Approximants. It calls for a revision of my table: moving {ha.}/ {h} to Fricatives. However, I'll have to wait for more evidence before revising my IPA table of 160218.

In Bur-Myan, the coda do influence the nuclear vowel V, resulting in a change from a to some other vowel effecting the pronunciation. In simple transliteration this problem does not arise and the rime is simply written as ay, ar, al, aw, a & ah. Remember the simple transliteration do not give the pronunciation.

Since Romabama is a transcription, a has to be changed (with some compromise for inclusion of English and Sanskrit) to reflect the Bur-Myan pronunciation. In some instances a would have to be changed to as in {} .

UKT 190228: we have been writing {} (2 eye-blnk} in {.} 'visitor' for a long time. Now, we will have:

Close: {.} (1 blnk}, {} (2 blnk}
Open: {.} (1 blnk}, {} (2 blnk}

With inclusion of Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev, the problem of rhoticity comes in. Remember, Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, and Pal-Myan is slightly rhotic. We have to deal with Skt-Dev words involving the repha. With plosive-stops of {wag}-consonants, the problem is solved when we note that a word such as karma or कर्मन् kar-man is changed to {km~ma.}, where the repha is changed to the onset of the second syllable. See p063.htm & p064.htm.

However, here with {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, we are meeting the {awag}-consonant. In Skt --> Pali, we are meeting:

Skt: {gar~wa.} --> {gar~ba.} --> Pal: {gb~ba.}

Here I was expecting a vertical conjuncts of two {wa.}, as {gw~wa.} implying a {wa.t}. Instead of which, I'm finding a change from {wa.} व  to {ba.} ब . Obviously, ancient Sanskrit-grammarians must have faced the same problem, and they had to improvised a new akshara:

व + diagonal line --> ब

Skt-Dev speakers seems to get confused between {wa.} and {ba.}, because there was no phoneme for {ba.} in their original speech. Moreover, they tend to use labial-dental {va.} instead of bilabial {ba.} and {wa.} which makes the problem worse.
See Grapheme-shape hypothesis .

This immediately poses the problem of Romabama vowel. Are we were to say, is {gaw~wa.} or {gw~wa.}? The first is unacceptable because of the confusion from English diphthong such as <cow>. So we will tentatively say {go}, or alternatively as {gw}. Checking with DJPD16-010 shows that <aeo> is realized in

/iˈɒ ((US)) iˈɑː/ <archaeology> /ˌɑː.kiˈɒl.ə.ʤi/ (US) /ˌɑːr.kiˈɑː.lə-/
/iəʊ ((US)) ioʊ, iə/ <palaeotype> /'pl.əʊ.taɪp/ (US) /'peɪ.li.oʊ-, -ɚ-/

This amounts to saying, {go} for {ga.wa.t}. Still it is unsatisfactory. Going back to a simple {gao} maybe preferable, or better still {gaO}. We now have {ga.} with killed-approximants tentatively with its tenuis-voiceless counterpart {ka.} as:

The Chinese religion Tao (present in Myanmarpr}
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taoism 120725
is presently spelled {tauk}, which is evidently wrong because of absence of  {ka.} sound in the coda. Romabama is now spelling it since 120725, as {tauO} .

UKT 120725: I do hope that my Taoist friend Daw Win (deceased) and her husband U Sai Latt would be satisfied.

From the above, we arrived at Skt {gar~wa.} --> Pal {gb~ba.}

Go back check-vow-approx-note-b

Contents of this page

Polyandry and paternity in Ancient India

-- UKT 120124, 140216 : It is still an incomplete article 

After going through Mahabharata, I have concluded that identifying a person with the father's name is not reliable: the natural (or genetic father) can be anyone other than the 'official' father. Thus, Queen Kunti's six sons, Karna, and the five Pandavas have different gods as fathers, who because of Kunti's mantra, had to 'impregnate' her. King Pandu the official father of the five Pandavas was not the natural father of any of his 'sons'. This reminds one of the Christian Virgin Mary and her immaculate conception.

From: Bheel Mahabharata: Kunti and the Birth of the Sun God's Child
by Satya Chaitanya,  http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1190 140216
"The tribal Bheels have a Mahabharata version of their own, episodes of which are narrated or sung during their festivals, usually accompanied by music and sometimes with dance a captivating version that never fails to thrill, one of the secrets of its allure being its truly enchanting folktale-like quality. This article tries to understand an episode from it, on its own and in relation to Vyasas epic. "

UKT 140216 : The Bheels were a militarily defeated people of Ancient India, and they are counted as Sudras 'the servants". They were the original Tib-Bur speakers of Ancient India.

Kunti's first son was Karna कर्ण karna {kar~Na.} 'ear'. His father - the one who impregnate his mother - was the Sun-god.

Skt: कर्ण karna = क र ् ण   --> {kar~Na.}
BPal: {kN~Na.} - UHS-PMD028

  UKT from UHS: m. ear, ear-lobe, border, angle

From this and other examples we can reliably say:

"Sanskrit repha is changed into a conjunct of two syllables in Pali.
"The onset of the second syllable has the same form as the consonant under the repha.
"The coda of the first syllable, which was  the repha, is the same as the onset of the second syllable."

This rule holds true for the {wag}-consonants. But for the {a.wag}-consonants, the rule breaks down. -- UKT120724

Go back Polyandry-note-b

Contents of this page

Repha and "Lepha" :
  Repha-forms: Short-vowel Repha & Long-vowel Repha

UKT 151029, 171210, 190307:

UKT 151029: In transliterating words like कल्क [ kalka ] which we will meet on page p064.htm, I have to keep in mind the presence of highly rhotic close-vowel, ऋ {iRi.}. This vowel is not present in Bur-Myan, and probably also in Pal-Myan.

UKT 190307: Now that we've recognized the presence of highly rhotic close-vowel, we must assume the presence of rhotic-open vowel with slightly less rhoticity. We find it in Repha-forms written with super-R. There are two kinds: Short-vowel Repha, and Long-vowel Repha. Examples are met in:
- p085.htm

Its opposite number on the lateral-rhotic scale* is the highly lateral vowel, ऌ {iLi.}. It is almost absent in Skt-Dev. If there had been an original language  from which Asokan and Myanmar akshara are derived, to have a balance in vowels, there would have been words with ऌ {iLi.}.

Lateral-Rhotic scale* : Rāhula {ra-hu.la.} is the form of the name we are accustomed to. I had never imagine that Lāghula {la-Gu.la.} is another form. Now I can cite this as evidence for pronunciations of Lateral (L-like) plane changing into those of Rhotic (R-like) plane.

Here we are not talking about ऋ {iRi.}, but the lesser rhotic Repha. Since it is a fact that there are a few words with ऌ {iLi.} in Skt-Dev, then there must be lesser lateral Lepha. Remember Lepha is my coined word which I will use in my transliteration work. Because of opposing pronunciation, we can expect opposing meanings, e.g. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good' , opposite of Lepha on short a ,  कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'.

I suspect Repha has come into our languages because of the IE speakers who are used to rhotic accents. Then the question which follows is the influence of speakers like the Chinese, who are used to lateral accents.

In Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary by Franklin Edgerton (1885-1963), Yale Univ., Sec.1.22, we find "Lāghula  = Rāhula  (fn003-09); l  for r  does indeed agree with Māgadhī, ...". He was referring to Ambalatthika-rahulovada Sutta (Instructions to Rahula at Mango Stone).
- BHS-indx.htm > i02original.htm (link chk 151029).

Also, it is a common joke in North America on the Chinese who are recent immigrants from China. In their eateries, "fried rice" becomes "flied lice". If the Indians from India has given us the Repha, then the Chinese from China should have give us "Lepha". I need to consider it how to transliterate words like कल्क [ kalka ] which we will meet page p064.

Go back Repha-Lepha-note-b

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The Sacred Lotus

UKT 170205:

There are two well-known types of aquatic flowers known as {kra pn:}. One opens in day-time and the other at night. They can comes in colours of red, blue, and white.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphaeaceae 170205

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelumbo_nucifera 170205

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. the national flower of India and Vietnam, is considered to be a sacred flower. The lotus plant is cited extensively within Vdic and Puranic literature, e.g.:

One who performs his duty without attachment, surrendering the results unto the Supreme Lord, is unaffected by sinful action, as the lotus is untouched by water. -  Bhagavad Gita 5.10:

In Chinese culture, Confucian scholar Zhou Dunyi wrote:

I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained.

Chinese: 予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染。 [12]

Many deities of Asian religions are depicted as seated on a lotus flower. In Buddhist symbolism, the lotus represents purity of the body, speech, and mind as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotus_Sutra 170205

The Lotus Sūtra  saddharma puṇḍarīka sūtra, literally Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma [1]) is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established. For many East Asian Buddhists, the Lotus Sūtra contains the ultimate and complete teaching of the Buddha and the recitation of the text is understood to bring auspicious fortune and eradicate ones accumulated negative karma. [2]

UKT: The lotus flower is associated with the seats of energy in the human body.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra 170205

The word Chakra (चक्र) derives from the Sanskrit word meaning "wheel," as well as "circle" and "cycle". [2] It's described by many as a spinning wheel of light . Of the 88,000 chakras within the human body, seven are considered of principle importance and are referred to as the "major chakras". [1]

M. N. Roy's review of tantric history says that the word chakra is used to mean several different things in the Sanskrit sources: [3]

1. "Circle," used in a variety of senses, symbolising endless rotation of shakti.

2. A circle of people. In rituals, there are different cakrasādhanās in which adherents assemble and perform rites. According to the Niruttaratantra, chakras in the sense of assemblies are of 5 types.

3. The term chakra is also used to denote Yantras { n: } 'mystic diagrams', variously known as trikoṇa-cakra , aṣṭakoṇa-cakra , etc.

4. Different nerve plexuses within the body.

In Buddhism, the Sanskrit term cakra (Pali cakka) is used in a different sense of "circle," referring to the conception of rebirth consisting of six states in which beings may be reborn. [4]

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Shaivism & Aghori sect

- UKT 140216, 170203

Shaivism, particularly the Aghori sect, because of its association with human-skulls might be called the Left-Hand Path or {auk-lm:} in Bur-Myan. Shiva's principal consort is Kali-Devi who is iconically depicted with jet-black skin, a hanging-tongue, and wearing a garland of human skulls. She is sometimes shown dancing naked over equally naked but dead Shiva.

The extremely "erotic" icon (in photograph) I have seen was naked Kali with the penis of naked but dead Shiva in her vagina. The pix given on the right were far from being erotic - it was supposed to show the female-energy being filled into the dead male to produce a perfect union of male-female elements.

It is said that Kali-Shiva union is the equivalent of Isis-Osiris union of ancient Egypt, Yin-Yan of flag of Korea, the two-triangles in the Star of David.

Whatever the case maybe, I do not view the Left-Hand Path as evil: it is one of the two methods to uplift the suffering humanity from its miseries. However, the non-axiomatic Theravada Buddhism would have none of it, but tolerates the Right-Hand or {a.hkak-lm:}

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaivism 140216

Shaivism or Saivism शैव पंथ, śaiva paṁtha ; lit. "associated with Shiva"), is one of the four most widely followed sects of Hinduism, which reveres the god Shiva as the Supreme Being. Followers of Shaivam, called "Shaivas," and also "Saivas" or "Shaivites," believe that Shiva is All and in all, the creator, preserver, destroyer, revealer and concealer of all that is. Shaivism is widespread throughout India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Areas notable for the practice of Shaivism include parts of Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.

Saivism is the Hindu sect that worships the god Shiva. Shiva is sometimes depicted as the fierce god Bhairava भैरव (aks-to-aks {B:ra.wa.}).

Wikipedia on:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhairava 140313, states:
   "He is one of the most important deities in Nepal, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand, who originated in Hindu mythology and is sacred to Hindus, Buddhists and Jains alike."

 UKT 140313, 170203: Bur-Myan elders (monks, nuns, and religious-minded laymen and women) must make an all out effort to clarify the above view on Buddhism. Bur-Myan Theravada Buddhism has nothing to do with Bhairava भैरव (aks-to-aks {B:ra.wa.}).

Though I have come to know a prominent Mon-Myan family which have become Hindu, Hinduism as a religion has not taken a firm foothold in Myanmarpr since the Pagan period. Even then some Hindu deities have been found in iconography, e.g. Sandi Dvi. Because of the Dwi has a Chinth 'lion' as a mount, I suspect the icon has been derived from the Bengali goddess Durga.

Saivists are more attracted to asceticism than adherents of other Hindu sects, and may be found wandering India with ashen faces performing self-purification rituals. [1] [2] [3] They worship in the temple and practice yoga, striving to be one with Siva within. [4]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aghori 140216

The Aghori अघोर aghōra charnel, [2] are ascetic Shaiva sadhus.

The Aghori are known to engage in post-mortem rituals. They often dwell in charnel grounds [cemetery] , have been witnessed smearing cremation ashes on their bodies, and have been known to use bones from human corpses for crafting skull bowls (which Shiva and other Hindu deities are often iconically depicted holding or using) and jewelry. Due to their practices that are contradictory to orthodox Hinduism, they are generally opposed. [3] [4]

Many Aghori gurus command great reverence from rural populations as they are supposed to possess healing powers gained through their intensely eremitic [ a religious recluse ] rites and practices of renunciation and tpasya. They are also known to meditate and perform worship in haunted houses.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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