Update: 2019-02-18 06:54 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{ka.nya} - spelled with Na-minor conjunct {na.gn ya.pn.}

BHS entries: none on 190218

UKT notes
Ayurveda dosha
COPD : excess of {a.laip} 'phlegm'
Humorism : Theory of Humors
Manasa - the Bengali snake & poison goddess
Pachisi {pa.hsic}
Problem of Nya-major & Nya-minor 
in Bur-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Pal-Myan
Stories of Somadeva - the human author
कथासरित्सागर kathasaritsagara 'ocean of the streams of stories'

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{ka.hta} कथा


p062c1-b00/ p051-010

कथान्तर [ kath‿antara ]
Skt: कथान्तर [ kath‿antara ] - n. conversation, talk - Mac062c1
  10) कथान्तर (p. 51) katḫantara
IPal: {katha} - f. speech, discourse, conversation, story, account - UPMT-PED065


p062c1-b01/ p051-009

कथापीठ [ kath-ptha ]
- n. T. of the 1st book of the Kathsaritsgara; -prabandha, m. legend; -prasaṅga, m. occasion of conversation: in., ab. = in the course of conversation, incidentally; -prastva, m. id.: -tas, in the course of conversation; -maya, a. consisting of tales; -mukha, n. introduction to a story; T. of the 2nd book of the Kathsaritsgara; -yoga, m. conversation.
9) कथापीठ (p. 51) kath-ptha


p062c1-b02/ p051-008

कथालाप [ kath‿lpa ]
- m. conversation; narration; -‿val, f. collection of tales; -‿ava-sesha, m. survival in story only, i.e. death; a. dead: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -‿avasesh-bh, die.
8) कथालाप (p. 51) katḫlpa

कथालाप [kath‿lpa]
Skt: कथालाप [kath‿lpa] - m. conversation; narration -- Mac062c1
BPal: {ka.hta-al~la-pa.}
- UHS-PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: m. speech, lecture


p062c1-b03/ p051-007

कथाशेष [ kath-sesha ]
- a. dead: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -sandhi, m. junction in the narrative where it is interrupted by another; -saritsgara, m. ocean of streams of stories, T. of a collection of tales by Somadeva.
7) कथाशेष (p. 51) kath-sesha

UKT171201: See my note on Stories of Somadeva or कथासरित्सागर kathāsaritsāgara 'Ocean of the Streams of Stories' - a collection of Indian legends, fairy tales, and folk tales by a Saivite Brahmin {i-wa. poaN~Na:} named Somadeva (11th century).

कथिक kathika
Skt: कथिक kathika - adj. a narrator, relater, story-teller by profession -- SpkSkt
BPal: {ka.hti.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: mfn. one who lectures, m. lecturer

UKT 140212: My position for many years at the Myanmar universities was "Lecturer" aka {ka.hti.ka.}, which if I were to go by Skt meaning was a mere "story-teller". What an ego-buster!


p062c1-b04/ p050-006

कथित [ kath-ita ]
Skt: कथित [ kath-ita ] - (pp.) n. conversation, narrative. - Mac062c1
6) कथित (p. 51) kath-ita
BPal: {ka.hti.ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: mfn. having said, lectured, stated. n. words that have been spoken


p062c1-b05/ not online

[kath-kri ]
- turn into a narrative: pp. dead


p062c1-b06/ p051-005

कथोदय [ kath‿udaya ]
- m. beginning of a story; statement; -‿udghta, m. beginning of a narrative.
5) कथोदय (p. 51) katḫudaya


p062c1-b07/ p051-004

कथ्य [ kath-ya ]
- fp. to be related; that may be mentioned.
4) कथ्य (p. 51) kath-ya to be related; that may be mentioned.

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Skt: √kad, 'destroy'. - Whit0016


p062c1-b08/ p051-003

कद्् [ kd ]
- V. n. nm., ac. sg. of ka, what? = I hope? with neg. = I hope not? esp. with kid (kkkid); with kan and neg. in no way; --, bad, wretched, insignificant.
3) कद्् (p. 51) kd


p062c1-b09/ p051-002

कदन [ kad-ana ]
Skt: कदन [ kad-ana ] - n. slaughter, destruction; torturing. - Mac062c1
2) कदन (p. 51) kad-ana
Skt: कदन kadana - n. destruction, killing, havoc, slaughter - SpkSkt


p062c1-b10/ p051-001

कदन्न [ kad-anna ] = क द न ् न
- n. bad food: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
1) कदन्न (p. 51) kad-anna
Pal: {ka.dn~na.} - UHS PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: n. bad food


p062c1-b11/ p051-022

कदम्ब kadamba, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. a tree bearing orange-coloured blossoms; n. multitude, plenty; swarm.
22) कदम्ब (p. 51) -ka


p062c1-b12/ p051-127

कदर्थ [ kd-artha ]
- a. for what purpose?
127) कदर्थ (p. 51) kd-artha


p062c1-b13/ p051-021

  कदर्थन [ kad-arth-ana ]
- n., , f. tormenting; -anya, fp. to be tormented; -aya, den. P. despise; torture, distress; surpass; -kri, disregard: -ti, f. torment.
21) कदर्थन (p. 51) kad-arth-ana


p062c1-b14/ p051-020

कदर्य [ kad-arya ]
- a. avaricious, miserly: -t, f., -bhva, m. avarice.
20) कदर्य (p. 51) kad-arya 


p062c1-b15/ p051-019 

कदल [ ka-dala ]
- m. plantain tree (symbol of frailty); i-k, f. plantain tree; flag, esp. on an elephant; , f. plantain tree: -garbha, m. pith of the plantain: , f. N.; -griha, n. plantain arbour; -sukham, ad. as easily as a plantain.
19) कदल (p. 51) ka-dala

UKT151027, 170201: What is known as "plantain" is now called "banana". To the North Americans "plantain" is a weed. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_major 151027
The leaves, stirred-fried, can be eaten. The fresh leaves contain an antiseptic which is specific for ingrown nails.
See: Section 9: Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} - MP-Para-indx.htm (link chk 181213)
and Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance -- MP-LSR-indx.htm
> Agri2000-indx.htm > {a.}
Entry no. 63-1681, 
{a.krau:tic-htan pn} {Ba:krau:} {hs:kyau-kri:} , Plantago major , fam. Plantaginaceae


p062c1-b16/ p051-018

कदा [ ka-d ]
- inter. when? -kana, some time, ever; -kid, some time or other; once; some times; perhaps; --‿api, at any time, always; na -kana, kid, or ‿api, never.
18) कदा (p. 51) ka-daN


p062c1-b17/ p051-017

कद्रु [ kdru ] = क द ् र ु : 2nd phoneme spelled with {ra.ric}
- a. reddish brown; &usharp;, f. earth; N. of [Rishi] Kasyapa's wife, mother of the serpents.
17) कद्रु (p. 51) kdru

See my note on Manasa (Bengali: মনসা, Manasha {ma.na.a d-wi}) is a Hindu folk goddess of snakes and scorpions


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p062c1-b18/ not online 

कन् [kan ] --> {kn}
Skt: कन् [kan ] - i. p. be satisfied; be pleased with (ac.); shine - Mac062c1
Skt: चके { कन् } cake { kan } - v. be liked or wished for, be satisfied with, be satisfied or pleased - SpkSkt
See: √kan, kā, 'be pleased, enjoy'. - Whit0017

UKT 171130: It is noteworthy that the Bur-Myan word {ka.na:} means to "hold a feast" - with wild dancing by the mediums - for the Ma'nes {nt} loosely translated into English as "spirits". The combined word is: {nt ka.na:} - MLC MED2006-236


p062c1-b19/ p051-016

कनक [ kn-aka ]
- n. gold; m. thorn apple; N.; -kadal, f. species of plantain; -danda, m. royal umbrella; -pura, n., , f. N. of a city; -prabh, f. N. of a princess; -magar, f. N.; -maya, a. () golden; -rasa, m. fluid gold; -rekh, f. N.; -lat, f. golden creeper; -lekh, f. N. of a princess; -valaya, m. n. golden bracelet; -vhin, f. N. of a river; -sikharin, m. golden peaked, ep. of Meru; -stra, n. golden chain; -‿adri, m. ep. of Meru.
16) कनक (p. 51) kn-aka


कनक [ kn-aka ]
Skt: कनक [ kn-aka ] - n. gold; m. thorn apple; N.; - Mac062c1
BPal: {ka.na.ka.} - UHS-PMD0289
  UKT from UHS: n. gold, gold ornament


p062c1-b20/ p051-015

कनकासन [ kanaka‿sana ]
- n. throne. [UKT: literally 'golden throne'
15) कनकासन (p. 51) kanaka̮sana


p062c1-b21/ not online

- m. pl. N. of certain mountains

UKT 171129: You can trace the above word from [khala]
khalaḥ - खलः लम् [खल्-अच्] . a threshing floor; खले न पर्षान् प्रति हन्मि भूरि Rv.1.48.7; Ms.11.17,115; Y.2.282. ...
- Apte:SktDict
khalatikaḥ - खलतिकः a mountain. - Apte:SktDic


p062c1-b22/ p051-014

कना [ kan ] : UKT: aks-to-aks transliteration, without English-transcription, gives {ka.na}.
Skt: कना  [ kan'] - f. girl. - Mac062c1
14) कना (p. 51) kanaN
Skt: कना  kanā - f. maid - SpkSkt
BPal: {k~a} - UHS PMD0278

  UKT from UHS: f. bride, girl, Kanya rasi (Virgo = August-Sept)
Bur: {ka.a} - n. young maiden - MLC MED2006-002

See my note on The problem of Nya-major & Nya-minor, and the absence of palatal nasal in English


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p062c2-b00/ p051-013

कनिक्रदत्् [ kn-i-kradat ]
- nm. sg. m. pr. pt. intv. of √krand.
13) कनिक्रदत्् (p. 51) kn-i-kradat


p062c2-b01/ not online

- m. N. of an Indo-Scythic king (first century A.D.)

See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Scythians 171129
"Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra) from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD."
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saka 171129
"The Saka or Saca (Old Persian: Sakā,; Sanskrit: Śaka; Bur-Myan:ak-to-ak from Skt श ś -> स s /θ/ {a.ka.} - not to be confused with {a.kya.}) was the term used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages".


p062c2-b02/ not online 

-- 3 sg. intv. of √skand


p062c2-b03/ p051-012

कनिष्ठ [ kn-ishth-a (or -) ] = क न ि ष ् ठ
- spv. smallest; lowest; least; youngest; younger; m. descending pail of water-wheel; , f. youngest wife; little finger; a-ka, a. (ik) smallest; -ik, f. little finger; obedience.
12) कनिष्ठ (p. 51) kn-ishth-a (or -)


p062c2-b04/ p051-011

कनी [ kan  ]
- f. girl (V. only g. pl.).
11) कनी (p. 51) kan


p062c2-b05/ p051-037

कनीन [ kan-na ]
- a. young, youthful: -k, m. boy, youth: , f. girl, virgin; (&isharp;na)-ka, m., a-k, i-k, f. pupil of the eye.
37) कनीन (p. 51) kan-na


p062c2-b06/ p051-036

कनीयस्् [ kn-yas ]
- cpv. smaller, less; very little; younger; m. younger brother or son.
36) कनीयस्् (p. 51) kn-yas

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UKT 171203: Compare p062.htm {kn} to p063.htm: {km}

√kan, kā, 'be pleased, enjoy'. - Whit0017 


p062c2-b07/ p051-035

कन्त्व [ kan-tv ]
- n. welfare.
35) कन्त्व (p. 51) kan-tv


p062c2-b08/ p051-034

कन्था [ kanth ] = क न ् थ ा 
Skt: कन्था [ kanth ] - f. patched garment. - Mac062c2
34) कन्था (p. 51) kanth
BPal: {kn~hta} - UHS-PMD0290 
  UKT from UHS: f. an old cloth full of patches


p062c2-b09/ p051-033

कन्द [ kanda ] = क न ् द --> {kn~da.}
Skt: कन्द [ kanda ] - m. bulbous root. - Mac062c2
33) कन्द (p. 51) kanda bulbous root.
BPal: {kn~da.} - UHS-PMD0290
  UKT from UHS: bulbs, tubers, name of a plant {wa.U.}.

UKT 171130: {wa.U.} - round yam, Amorphophallus campanulatus  Araceae
See Section 9, Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} -- MP-Para-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm > {wa.} (link chk 181214)
- entry 54-1447 {wa.U.} Round yam Amorphophallus campanulatus  Araceae


p062c2-b10/ p051-032

कन्दर [ kan-dara ]
- n. cave; ravine; elephant goad.
32) कन्दर (p. 51) kan-dara


p062c2-b11/ p051-031

कन्दर्प [ kan-darpa ]
- m. Kma; [carnal] love.
31) कन्दर्प (p. 51) kan-darpa


p062c2-b12/ p051-030 

कन्दल [ kan-dal-a ]
- n. flower of the plantain; -, f. plantain tree; -ita, pp. produced in profusion; -in, a. covered with blossoms of the Kandal; full of (--).
30) कन्दल (p. 51) kan-dal-a


p062c2-b13/ not online

कन्दु [kandu]
- frying-pan; -ka , m. id.; ball (for playing with); pillow:  -lil , f. game of ball; -k-vati , f. N. of a princess
Skt: कन्दुः kanduḥ - m., f. a boiler, oven - Apte:SktDic


p062c2-b14/ p050-029

कन्धर [ kan-dhara ]
- m. neck.
29) कन्धर (p. 51) kan-dhara


p062c2-b15/ p050-028

कन्य [ kan-ya ]
- a. smallest: -ka, a. id., , f. = kan-y; -kubga, n. N. of a town, Kanauj.
28) कन्य (p. 51) kan-ya

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{ka.nya} :

UKT 181213: - spelled with Na-minor conjunct {na.gn ya.pn.}. It is not {ka.a} which in Pal/Myan is {ki~a}. See the Problem of Nya-major aka Nya'gyi. Also, from its spelling in Devanagari, कन्या [ kan-y ] = क न ् य ा , you can see that it is not {ka.a} which is not present in Skt/Dev. However, from the meanings given, it appears that the entry is {ka.a}. I suspect it might refer to menstrual blood of some mammalian species such as humans, or blood issuing from the vagina of females of all mammals such as dogs due to disease.

p062c2-b16/ p050-027

कन्या [ kan-y ] = क न ् य ा
- f. girl, virgin; daughter; Virgo (in the Zodiac); -‿gra, n. women's apartments; -griha, n. id.; -tva, n. virginity; -dtri, m. man who gives a daughter in marriage; -dna, n. bestowal of a daughter in marriage; -dshin, a. deflowering a virgin; -pura, n. women's apartments; -bhva, m. virginity; -bhaiksha, n. begging for a girl; -maya, a. consisting of a maiden or daughter; -vat, a. having a daughter; m. father of a daughter; -vedin, m. son-in-law; -vrata, n. monthlies: -sth, f. menstruating woman.
27) कन्या (p. 51) kan-y 


कन्या [ kan-y ] --> {ka.n~ya}
Skt: कन्या [ kan-y ] - f. girl, virgin; daughter; Virgo (in the Zodiac); - Mac062c2
BPal: {k~a} - UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: f. virgin, young girl. Astrology. Virgo or Kanya
Bur: {ka.a} - n. young maiden - MED2010-002

(end of old p062-1.htm )

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p062c2-b17/ not online

कप [ kapa ]
Skt: कप [ kapa ] - m. pl. a species of gods - Mac062c2
Skt: कप kapa . N. of वरुण. . a class of demons - Apte:SktDict


p062c2-b18/ p051-026

कपट [ kapata ]
- m. N. fraud: --, fictitious; -ntaka, m. N.; -prabandha, m. cunning device; -sata-maya, a. consisting of a hundred kinds of fraud; -‿svara, m. N. of a temple of Siva.
26) कपट (p. 51) kapata

कपट [ kapata ]
Skt: कपट [ kapata ] - m. N. fraud: - Mac062c2
BPal: {ka.pa.Ta.} - UHS-PMD0290c1
  UKT from UHS: m.n. fraud


p062c2-b19/ p051-025

कपर्द [ kapard-a ]
- m. cowrie (small shell used as a coin or die); braid of hair in the form of a shell; -a-ka, m., -ik, f. cowrie; -n, a. having hair wound in the form of a shell; curly, shaggy; m. ep. of Siva.
25) कपर्द (p. 51) kapard-a

UKT 140214: {krw-n ka.sa:} 'play game of cowries' is to gamble and the stakes can be set very high. The game involves not only chance but skill as well, and there can always be foul play when the stakes are high. See my note on the Indian gambling game Pachisi : Bur-Myan equivalent: {pa.hsic}.


p062c2-b20/ p051-024

कपल [ kapala ]
- n. half; part.
24) कपल (p. 51) kapala


p062c2-b21/ p051-023

कपाट [ kapta ]
- m. n. fold of a door; -ka (ik), -- a. id.; -vakshas, a. broad-chested.
23) कपाट (p. 51) kapta


p062c2-b22/ p051-045

कपाल [ kapla ]
- n. dish, mendicant's bowl; plate; lid; potsherd; egg-shell; skull; -mlin, a. wearing a garland of skulls (Siva); -sandhi, m. treaty based on equal terms; -sphota, m. N. of a Rakshas.
45) कपाल (p. 51) kapaNla

UKT 170202: Some Shaivite {i-wa. poaN~Na:} 'monks', used bowls made from human skulls. See also Wikipedia:
" ... The (currently) earliest directly dated skull cup at 14,700 BC [1] comes from Gough's Cave, Somerset, England. Skulls used as containers can be distinguished from plain skulls by exhibiting cut-marks from flesh removal and working to produce a regular lip. [2] "
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skull_cup 170202


p062c2-b23/ p051-044

कपालिका [ kapl-ik ]
- f. potsherd.
44) कपालिका (p. 51) kapl-ik


p062c2-b24/ p051-043

कपालिन्् [ kapl-in ]
- a. bearing a bowl or skulls; m. N. of Siva or of one of the eleven Rudras; kind of sectary.
43) कपालिन्् (p. 51) kapl-in

sectary - n. pl. sectaries . A sectarian. . A dissenter from an established church, especially a Protestant nonconformist. [Medieval Latin sectārius from Latin secta sect; See sect ] - AHTD
See also:
Dissent and protest in the ancient Indian Buddhism - Buddh-sch-indx.htm (link chk 181213)
- by Ven. Tran Dong Nhat (b.1968), Univ. of Delhi, 2008. Ph.D. thesis. The first schism of note in Myanmarpr occurred in 18th century known as {a.ron}-{a.tn} controversy in which the leader of {a.tn geiN:} who was a very learned monk and his close associates were disrobed.
UKT 181115: Because of the sensitive nature of the subject, I'm working on this paper only to serve as a reference.


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p062c2-b25/ p051-042

कपि [ kap- ]
- m. monkey; -ketu, m. ep. of Arguna.
42) कपि (p. 51) kap-


p062c2-b26/ p051-041 

कपिञ्जल [ ka-pgala ]
- m. francoline partridge; N. of a man; N. of a sparrow: -nyya, in. after the fashion of the Kapigala topic (in the Prvammms) according to which the plural (kapigaln) means only three.
41) कपिञ्जल (p. 51) ka-pgala

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p062c3-b01/ p051-040

कपित्थ [ kapi-ttha ]
- m. [monkey-stand], a tree; n. its fruit; -pati, m. ep. of Hanumat.
40) कपित्थ (p. 51) kapi-ttha


p062c3-b02/ p051-039

कपिल [ kapi-l ]
- a. (monkey-coloured), brownish, reddish; m. species of monkey; N. of an ancient sage; , f. brown or reddish cow; species of leech; -gata, m. N. of a sage; -dhsara, a. brownish grey; -‿rishi, m. the sage Kapila; -vastu, m. N. of Buddha's birth place; -sarman, m. N. of a Brhman.
39) कपिल (p. 51) kapi-l

UKT 171213: See p066.htm > entry p066c1-b17/ p053-090 
There seems to be another person with a similar name: 90) कापिल (p. 53) kpil-a


p062c3-b03/ not online

कपिलीकृ  kapilīkṛ [kapil-kri ]
Skt: कपिलीकृ [kapil-kri ]  - colour brown or reddish -- Mac062c3
Skt: कपिली करोति { कपिलीकृ } kapilī karoti { kapilīkṛ } - verb color brown or reddish -- SpkSkt


p062c3-b04/ p051-040 

कपिश [ kapi-sa ]
- a. (monkey-coloured), brownish, reddish; -bhr, f. N. of a woman.
38) कपिश (p. 51) kapi-sa


p062c3-b05/ p051-065

कपिष्ठल [ kapi-shthala ] kapiṣṭhala
- m. N. of a sage: pl. his descendants: -samhit, f. collected scriptures of the Kapishthalas
65) कपिष्ठल (p. 51) kapi-shthala


p062c3-b06/ not online

- m. N. of various plants


p062c3-b07/ p051-064

कपीन्द्र [ kapi‿indra ]
- m. lord of the monkeys; ep. of Vishnu and of Hanumat; -‿svara, m. ep. of Sugrva.
64) कपीन्द्र (p. 51) kapi̮indra


p062c3-b08/ p051-063

कपुच्छल [ ka-pukkhala ]
- n. hair at the back of the head; scoop of the sacrificial spoon.
63) कपुच्छल (p. 51) ka-pukkhala


p062c3-b09/ p051-128 

कपूय [ ka-pya ]
- a. stinking.
128) कपूय (p. 51) ka-pya


p062c3-b10/ not online

[k-prith ]
- -th , m. membrum virile [archaic penis ]


p062c3-b11/ p051-051 

कपोत [ ka-pta ]
- m. pigeon; , f. female pigeon; -ka, m. little pigeon; -pl, f. dove-cot.
51) कपोत (p. 51) ka-pta


p062c3-b12/ p051-050

कपोतिका [ kapot-ik ]
- f. dove: -nyya, m. fashion of a dove (which did good even to an enemy).
50) कपोतिका (p. 51) kapot-ik


p062c3-b13/ p051-060

कपोल [ kapola ]
- m. cheek; -ksha, m. object which rubs against the cheek; -pl, f. edge of the cheek; -phalaka, n., -bhitti, f., -mla, n. cheek-bone.
60) कपोल (p. 51) kapola

कपोलमूल kapolamūla
Skt: [ -mla] - n. cheek-bone -- Mac062c3
Skt: कपोलमूल kapolamūla - n. cheekbone -- SpkSkt

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p062c3-b14/ p051-059

कफ [ kapha ]
- m. phlegm (one of the 3 humours of the body); -ghna, a. anti-phlegmatic.
59) कफ (p. 51) kapha

कफ [ kapha ]
Skt: कफ [ kapha ] - m. phlegm (one of the 3 humours of the body); - Mac062c3
BPal: {ka.hpa.} - UHS-PMD0292c2
  UKT from UHS: m. phlegm {a.laip}

See my notes on Ayurvedic Doshas, COPD, and Humorism
Three Humors: One that has the ability to vitiate the seven tissues is Ayurveda doshas or Humors:
1. Vata {l} वात vāta; 2. Pitta पित्त pitta; 3. Kapha {a.laip}


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p062c3-b15/ not online

कबन्ध (?) [k-bandha]
Skt: [k-bandha] - v. k-vandha
Skt: कबन्ध kabandha - m. barrel. m.n. headless trunk  - SpkSkt


p062c3-b16/ p051-058

कबर [ kabara ]
- a. mottled, variegated; m., , f. braid of hair.
58) कबर (p. 51) kabara

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√kam , 'love' - Whit0017


p062c3-b17/ p051-057

कम्् [ . k-m ]
- (ac. sg.) pcl. well: emphasizes a preceding dative.
57) कम्् (p. 51) 1. k-m


p062c3-b18/ p051-056

कम्् [ . ka-m ]
- pcl. indeed (after n, s, h).
56) कम्् (p. 51) 2. ka-m


p062c3-b19/ not online

[ . kam ]
- (no pres. base), wish, desire; love; pp. knta ; cs. kmaya , . (p.) id.; excite to love: pp. kmita , desired. anu , cs. desire. abhi , cs. be in love


p062c3-b20/ p051-055 

कमठ [ kamatha ]
- m. tortoise.
55) कमठ (p. 51) kamatha


p062c3-b21/ p051-054

कमण्डलु [ kamandalu ]
- m. ascetic's water-pot: -pni, a. having a water-pot in the hand.
54) कमण्डलु (p. 51) kamandalu


p062c3-b22/ p051-053

कमन [ kam-ana ]
- a. () enamoured; -anya, fp. to be desired; lovely, charming.
53) कमन (p. 51) kam-ana


p062c3-b23/ p051-052 

कमल [ kam-ala ]
- m. n. lotus (called utpala at an earlier stage); , f. ep. of Lakshm; sg. & pl. riches; n. water; -ka, n. N. of a town; -garbha, -ga, m. ep. of Brahman; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -nayana, a. lotus-eyed; -nbha, m. ep. of Vishnu; -netra, n. lotus eyed; -bndhava, m. ep. of the sun; -bhavana, m. ep. of Brahman; -mati, m. N.; -maya, a. consisting entirely of lotuses; -lokana, a. lotus-eyed: , f. N.; -vat, f. N. of a princess; -vana, n. bed of lotuses: -maya, a. consisting of beds of lotuses; -vardhana, m. N. of a king; -varman, m. N. of a king; -sambhava, m. ep. of Brahman.
52) कमल (p. 51) kam-ala


p062c3-b24/ p051-049

कमलाकर [ kamala‿kara ]
- m. bed of lotuses, lotus lake; N. of various men; -‿aksha, a. () lotus-eyed: -‿agrag, f. ep. of Alakshm; -kesava, m. N. of a temple; -hatta, m. N. of a market-place; -‿lay, f. ep. of Lakshm; -‿sana, n. lotus seat.
49) कमलाकर (p. 51) kamala̮kara

( end of old p062-2.htm )

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UKT notes

Ayurveda dosha

UKT 110902:

From: http://www.holistic-herbalist.com/ayurveda-doshas.html 110902

Ayurveda Doshas are the basis of health and disease in Ayurvedic Medicine. There are three Doshas or humors - Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Doshas are in turn dependent upon and represent the working of Five Primary Elements - earth, water, fire, air and ether.

These five elements are not what is meant literally. These are a set of five energy levels that are manifested from even subtler energies. When we are referring to Five Primary Elements, the reference should be at these subtler energies.

The three Ayurveda Dosha and five Primary Elements

There is a close interrelationship between Five Primary Elements and Ayurveda Doshas. This relationship is expressed in this manner. (Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Section, 20/3)

Vata humor: dominated by ether and air.
Pitta humor: dominated by fire element.
Kapha humor: dominated by water and earth element.

Body is defined in Ayurveda in several ways. One of the definition is given by Charaka (Charaka Samhita, Sharira Section, 6/3). Body is chracterized by three qualities.

The residence of Consciousness or Awareness principle.
Derived by five primary elements - tissues and body.
The internal and external processes are in homeostatic mode. Homeostasis is an state of dynamic equilibrium that is essential to our life. This principle is explained in Modern Physiology, Pathology and Medicine.

The foundation of our body in both structural and functional sense is based on the three group of substances. These are the derived form of five primary elements.

Three Humors: One that has the ability to vitiate the seven tissues is Ayurveda doshas or Humors like Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
Seven Tissues: One that maintains the retains the body is tissue like Plasma, Blood, Muscles, Fat, Bones, Marrow & Nerves, Semen or Ovum.
The Waste Or Excretory Substances: The substances that harm the body if they stay for longer than normal time in body e.g. Urine, Stool, Sweat.

All the three are essential for the body. Ayurveda doshas govern all the biological and metabolic processes of our body in health and in disease. Actually their vitiation causes derangement in tissues and that causes disease. Their equilibrium helps us to stay in healthy condition.

Seven tissues are essential because without them, there is no body or its processes or the ground over which Doshas act. Tissues are our body, its part, its organs, the organ system.

Excretion of waste material from the body is the sign that the whole processes are in proper place. Body is metabolizing appropriately. Excretory substances and their excretion are a sign of good health that is why Ayurveda gives them due importance.

UKT: End of article.

Go back Ayurveda-dosha-note-b

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COPD aka Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

- UKT 140214

Ask a Western doctor about phlegm (aka mucus), and he would laugh or at least smile at you for what he considers to be your ignorance without realizing that he himself is ignorant of the history of medicine.

{a.laip} - n. phlegm -- MLC MED2006-491

From: http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease 140214

Alternative names: COPD; Bronchitis - chronic; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. The disease is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response in the lungs and restricted airflow (documented by spirometry). The disease typically occurs after age 35.

Cigarette smoking remains the major cause of COPD, but it isn't the only cause. In most studies, smoking accounts for about 80% of COPD cases. Quitting smoking can improve lung function and help to prevent death from COPD. Other causes, such as genetic syndromes (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency) and exposures to pollutants such as dust, irritants and fumes are also involved in the development of the disease.

An overall treatment strategy may include one or several medications, lifestyle changes, education, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy and perhaps surgery.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition in which there is reduced airflow in the lungs. The disease develops and worsens over time. COPD is not reversible, but therapy can slow its progress.

Although patients can breathe in normally, changes in the small airways cause the tubes to narrow during expiration, making it hard to breathe out. In many patients with COPD, the small sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged are destroyed, gradually depriving the body of enough oxygen.

COPD is associated with a set of breathing-related symptoms:

Being out of breath, at first when doing physical activities,
  but as lung function deteriorates, also at rest
Chronic cough
Spitting or coughing mucus (phlegm)

The ability to exhale (breathe out) gets worse over time.

UKT: More in the article.

Go back COPD-note-b

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Humorism: Theory of Humors

UKT: 110902, 171204

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism 110902

 Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers. From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Islamic physicians, and became the most commonly held view of the human body among European physicians until the advent of modern medical research in the nineteenth century.

The four humors of Hippocratic medicine were black bile (gr. melan chole), yellow bile (gr. chole), phlegm (gr. phlegma), and blood (lat. sanguis). A humor was also referred to as a cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums). [1]


Four humors

Essentially, this theory held that the human body was filled with four basic substances, called four humors,* which are in balance when a person is healthy. All diseases and disabilities resulted from an excess or deficit of one of these four humors. These deficits could be caused by vapors that were inhaled or absorbed by the body. The four humors were black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. [UKT

Greeks and Romans, and the later Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity. When a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one fluid, then his or her personality and physical health would be affected. [UKT ] 

 UKT 171204: (I've rewritten this passage based on [2], and my own knowledge.) The Four Humor Theory * is closely related to the Theory of the Four Elements {ma.ha-Boat}, but not the same. The Four Humors are: Black bile, Phlegm, Yellow bile, and, Blood. The Four Elements {ma.ha-Boat} are: Earth {pa.hta.wi}, Water {a-pau:}, Fire {t-zau:}, Wind {wa-yau:}.

The relation between the two theories are: Earth predominantly present in the Black bile, Water in the Phlegm, Fire in the Yellow bile, and all four elements present in the Blood. [2]. Note: The Four Elements are not what we commonly understand, e.g. Water is not H2O, but something that is cold and fluid, and Wind or Air is not a mixture of N2 and O2.

I've rearranged the {ma.ha-Boat} in the traditional order: {pa.hta.wi}, {a-pau:}, {t-zau:},  {wa-yau:}. See: Matikar Kyam by Seindamani U Chit Maung in TIL library
- BMBI-indx.htm (link chk 171204).

Paired qualities were associated with each humor and its season. The word Humor is a translation of Greek χυμός, [3] chymos (literally juice or sap, metaphorically flavor). At around the same time, ancient Indian Ayurveda {a-yu.b-da.} medicine had developed a theory of three Humours, which they linked with the five Hindu elements. [4]

UKT 171204: The Fifth Element is Space {a-ka-a.} ākāsa-dhātu - which I interpret as Energy. The first  Four are Matter. A dead body is made up of four material elements from which the Space element has been removed. See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81bh%C5%ABta 171204

The four humours, their corresponding elements, seasons, sites of formation, and resulting temperaments alongside their modern equivalents are: [5]

See also: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MBTI 110902


Although modern medical science has thoroughly discredited humorism, the theory dominated medical thinking for more than 2,000 years. [6]

The concept of four humors may have origins in ancient Egypt [7] or Mesopotamia, [8] though it was not systemized until ancient Greek thinkers [9] around 400 BC who directly linked it with the popular theory of the four elements earth, fire, water and air ( Empedocles).

Fhrus (1921), a Swedish physician who devised the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, suggested that the four humours were based upon the observation of blood clotting in a transparent container. When blood is drawn in a glass container and left undisturbed for about an hour, four different layers can be seen. A dark clot forms at the bottom (the "black bile"). Above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the "blood"). Above this is a whitish layer of white blood cells (the "phlegm", now called the buffy coat). The top layer is clear yellow serum (the "yellow bile"). [10]

Greek medicine

Hippocrates (460?-377? B.C. - AHTD) is the one usually credited with applying this idea to medicine. Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries largely through the influence of the writings of Galen (131201 AD) and was decisively displaced only in 1858 by Rudolf Virchow's newly published theories of cellular pathology. While Galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile, while cold foods tended to produce phlegm. Seasons of the year, periods of life, geographic regions and occupations also influenced the nature of the humors formed.

The imbalance of humors, or dyscrasia, was thought to be the direct cause of all diseases. Health was associated with a balance of humors, or eucrasia. The qualities of the humors, in turn, influenced the nature of the diseases they caused. Yellow bile caused warm diseases and phlegm caused cold diseases.

In On the Temperaments, Galen further emphasized the importance of the qualities. An ideal temperament involved a balanced mixture of the four qualities. Galen identified four temperaments in which one of the qualities, warm, cold, moist or dry, predominated and four more in which a combination of two, warm and moist, warm and dry, cold and dry or cold and moist, dominated. These last four, named for the humors with which they were associated that is, sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic, eventually became better known than the others. While the term temperament came to refer just to psychological dispositions, Galen used it to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person's susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioral and emotional inclinations.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Humorism-note-b

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Manasa : {ma.na.a}
- the snake & poison goddess

-- UKT 140212, 171202:

My first contact with Hinduism was through the Ramakrishna Society of Rangoon. We were living at #221 Thompson St., East Rangoon at the time. Now, the Thompson St. has been renamed Botahtaung Pagoda Rd. My cousin, U Saw Tun, and I were just children, just over the age 10. We volunteered our services in the library of the Society, and became friends of one whom we called Swamigyi, and the other Mr. K. C. Sen. Mr. Sen came in with the Indian forces of the British Fourteenth Army when the British Raj reoccupied Rangoon in May 1945. Both Swamigyi and Mr. Sen were very kind to us, and they both became our family friends. With the pix I am reproducing below, and my rendering of the name {ma.na.a}, I remember both Swamigyi and Mr. Sen well and pay my humble respects to both.

From: http://www.manasadevi.net/manasadevi.html - 171129
UKT 171129: I've given Bur-Myan names, and my personal - unsubstantiated - views as a Tib-Bur, a Theravada Buddhist, and a born-native of Myanmarpr which adjoins Bengal separated by relatively low ranges of Arakan Yoma. Notice how similar is the figurine of the inset-pix to the paintings and frescos of Pagan.

Manasa Devi {ma.na.a d-wi} मनसादेवी  aka Padmavati is a Hindu cobra (serpent) Tantric Goddess, Queen of the Nagas. The story of her birth starts when Lord Shiva was sexually aroused on the banks of the Kalidaha pool, a pond in West Bengal in Rajnagar (a town). The Manasa's vahana (vehicle) is either the swan or snake. Swan is also a vahana of Saraswati. This connection gives her the same attribute - Wisdom and Knowledge. Snake symbolizes immortality. The Sij plant (Euphorbia Hguhria called Sehund or Sij in Hindi), of the cactus family, is sacred to her, as it can cure poisons. Naaga Kanya {na-ga. ka.a} is the Buddhist form of Manasa.

Manasa is also known as a one-eyed goddess, because the Lord Shiva's wife [Siva-dva the most promiscuous male of the Iron Age intruders into India, has had sex with Mother Goddesses of Bronze Age India: his wife in this instance was probably Chandi] was jealous of her and burned her two eyes. Shiva's children have three eyes and Manasa, with her one eye only, was sent down into the underground (Patala). [UKT ]

In addition to Manasamangal Kavya, texts from the Brahma Vaivarta Purana are used in worshipping her. The said texts belong to Prakriti khanda (the second part of the Brahma Vaivarta Purana). This Purana is one of the 18 major Puranas and it is divided into four parts. It also deals with goddesses - Shaktis - the manifestations of Prakriti, the essential nature of intelligence. Prakriti khanda, the second part, celebrates the greatness of Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati and Savitri during the creation of the world. During the Manasa puja ceremony people bath the statues of Manasa Devi with milk and recite the hymns taken from Prakriti khanda.

Nag Panchami is a snake festival for celebration of the Nagas (both deities and cobras). It takes place on the fifth day after Amavasya (dark moon) of the month of Shraavana (July/August). Nag Panchami is also the day of Manasa.

Manasa Devi has more names: Jagatkaru Priya, Jagat Gauri, Mansa Devi, Sidh Yogini, Padmavati, Naag Bhaamini, Shaivi, Jaratkaaru, Aastik Mata, Maha Gyaan Yuktaa, Naageshwari, Vish Haar, Monosha, Maa Monosha, and probably a few more.

Manasa is a folk goddess [a Mother goddess of the militarily defeated Bronze Age natives became inferior similar to her worshippers who were made into "slaves" of the conquerors] only because her worship reflects a caste conflict, as the orthodox Bhrahmanism deprived lower castes of the right to have access to Brahmanical learning. Manasamangal Kavya (a Bengali Hindu religious text) narrates a story about her and how she renewed her worship in Bengal. It was written sometimes around or after 13th Century AD.

Astika, an ancient Hindu Rishi (a sage), is the Manasa's son she conceived with Jaratkaru, a mythological sage. The Jaratkaru's or Astika's name therefore sometimes appear in variations of the Manasa's name. Astika was a great sage that helped to prevent the genocide of the Nagas, the ancient serpent people of India.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manasa 110901

Manasa (Bengali: মনসা = ম ন স া , Manasha) is a Hindu folk goddess of snakes, worshipped mainly in Bengal and other parts of northeastern India, chiefly for the prevention and cure of snakebite and also for fertility and prosperity. [UKT ]

UKT 140213: Whenever Bengali script is rendered, make sure that you use the correct rendering engine. Bengali, like Myanmar, has split-vowels. Arial Unicode gives the wrong result. It is preferable to use Lucida Sans Unicode . However, in the following aks-to-aks, the rendering is simple because no split vowel is involved.

Bengali: মনসা = ম Ma ন Na স Sa া Aa -->
Devanagari: म Ma न Na स Sa ा Aa = मनसा -->
Myanmar: {ma.} {na.} {a} = {ma.na.a}

Manasa is the sister of Vasuki, king of Nāgas {na.ga:} ([rulers of] snakes) and wife of Rishi sage Jagatkāru (Jaratkāru). [1] She is also known as Vishahara (the destroyer of poison), Jagadgaurī, Nityā (eternal) and Padmavati. [2]

Her myths emphasize her bad temper and unhappiness, due to rejection by her father Shiva and her husband, and the hatred of her stepmother, Chandi (Shiva's wife, identified with Parvati in this context). [UKT ]

UKT 140212: Whenever, the name Shiva came in, I am beginning to take the story as a later addition, because of the 1028 hymns in Rig Veda, the number of hymns to Shiva is very small compared to those to Indra (the king), Agni (the messenger), and Soma (the entity to give rest and tranquility). Shiva was then identified with Rudra a mere "Storm" god. See Wikipedia articles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140213, and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudra 140213

In some scriptures, Rishi sage Kashyapa is considered to be her father, rather than Shiva. Manasa is depicted as kind to her devotees, but harsh to people who refused to worship her. [3] Denied full godhead by her mixed parentage, Manasas aim was to fully establish her authority as a goddess and to acquire steadfast human devotees. [4]


Originally an Adivasi (tribal [mostly Tib-Burman speakers]) goddess, Manasa was accepted in the pantheon worshipped by Hindu lower caste groups [Sudras - the militarily defeated peoples who were considered to be "slaves"]. Later, Manasa was included in a higher caste Hindu pantheon, where she is now regarded as a Hindu goddess rather than a tribal one. [3] As a Hindu goddess, she was recognized as a daughter of sage Rishi Kashyapa and [wife] Kadru, the mother of all Nāgas. [UKT ]

UKT 140213: Those who took part in ancient wars in India were the original peoples of India, and might not have been the mythical creatures. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 140213

By the 14th century, Manasa was identified as the goddess of fertility and marriage rites and was assimilated into the Shaiva pantheon, related to the god, Shiva. Myths glorified her by describing that she saved Shiva after he drank the poison, and venerated her as the "remover of poison". [UKT ]

UKT 140213: Read how the Dvas cheated the Asuras of their fair-share of the items resulting from the Churning of The Cosmic Ocean. In the story, Shiva drank the poison. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_of_milk 140213

Her [Manasa] popularity grew and spread to southern India [the area of Dravidian speakers], and her followers began to rival Shaivism (the cult of Shiva). As a consequence, stories attributing Manasa's birth to Shiva emerged and ultimately Shaivism adopted this indigenous goddess into the Brahmanical tradition of mainstream Hinduism. [5]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article. 

From: http://www.boldsky.com/yoga-spirituality/faith-mysticism/2013/story-of-manasa-devi-snake-goddess-036777.html#slide27015 140212
UKT 171202: I maintain that the English word Goddess is uninformative. Manasa was a Mother-goddess of the bronze-age peoples of Bengal. She was Mata Manasa, just like our present-day Bharat-Mata 'Mother India' - a sexless icon. It was the iron-age Brahmins {poaN~Na:}, who made her into a female Dvi so that she could be given into marriage. In the case of Mata Manasa, she was not made a full-dvi of Brahmanical tradition of mainstream Hinduism, but only a half-dvi because of which she was said to be very angry.

"According to the Puranas, Kashyapa Rashi [the father] married Dvi Goddess Manasa [the daughter] to Jaratkaru Rishi who married her on a condition. Jaratkaru said that if Manasa ever disobeys him, then he will desert her. Once Goddess Manasa awakened Jaratkaru [her husband] very late in the morning and he was late for his morning prayers. [probably to recite Gayatri Mantra.] He became furious at Manasa and deserted her. Later he came back and they had a son named Astika."

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Pachisi - the gambling game

- UKT 140214

I am familiar with the Bur-Myan game {pa.hsic} - the game of chance and skill during my childhood in Kungyangoan. Some women folk were addicted to it, and we could hear the rather sweet sound of the cowries thrown into a porcelain dish coming from a neighbour's house every day about noon. Six cowries were used instead of 2 dice. See my note in  - p002-4.htm (link chk 140214)

This little innocent game of {pa.hsic} and undoubtedly others ( {krw-n ka.sa:}) when played by ancient kings could be the cause of wars related in Buddhist and Hindu legends and histories. For example the Mahabharata war was fought after the game between the rival princes (and kings) - the Pandavas and Kauravas . Such a game was also the cause of the first Mon rebellion that finally led to the death of King Sawlu of Pagan.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachisi 140214

Pachisi (Hindi: पचीसी) is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". [1] It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross. A player's pieces move around the board based upon a throw of six or seven cowrie shells, with the number of shells resting with aperture upwards indicating the number of spaces to move.

The name of the game derives from the Hindi word pachis, meaning twenty-five, the largest score that can be thrown with the cowrie shells. Thus the game is also known by the name Twenty-Five. There are other versions of this game where the largest score that can be thrown is thirty.

There are other well known versions of the game, chausar, chaupar, chaupur or caupur. [2] [3] The word caupur derives from the Sanskrit catus pada meaning he who has four legs. [2] Parcheesi, Sorry! and Ludo are among the many Westernized commercial versions of the game.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Pachisi-note-b

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Problem of Nya-major & Nya-minor, and the absence of palatal nasal in English

UKT: 140213, 151028, 170201, 180411, 181214

I've been on this problem for many years. Not finding any satisfactory solution, I've no choice but to make a few bold assumptions.
"... fools rush in where angels fear to tread ... was first written by Alexander Pope in his 1711 poem An Essay on Criticism. ... It has since entered the general English lexicon as an idiom." - https://en.../Fools_rush_in_where_angels_fear_to_tread (180411)

What follows is my analysis. It is not accepted by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission)

There is a possibility that the word {ka.a.} is a pure Bur-Myan word of Tib-Bur origin. We have to consider this possibility because {a.}/ {} does not belong to Palatal plosive-stop r2c5 cell. Based on its ability to stand undivided under Virama { }, and also on the presence of pure Bur-Myan words like {a.} 'night', it could be very well be an Approximant - a neighbour of {ya.}/ {}. Nya-major {a.}is like {ya.} a basic akshara. We can explain why the word for "maid" is pronounced differently in Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan.

  -  : the pronunciation is shown by color scheme

In Pali-Myan, which had been adulterated by Pali-Lanka which itself has been influenced by Sanskrit, {a.} is a conjunct which breaks up as soon as it is placed under a viram, {~a.}. 

If we accept that {a.} is a basic akshara, we can easily transliterate words, especially proper nouns, like
- Shin Kic'si {shn kic~s:} aka {rhn kic-s:}
- Nay'pyi'taw {n-pr-tau},
- U Khin Aung Kyi {U: hkn-an-kr},
- Daw AungSan SuKyi {dau an-hsn: su.kr}, and
- Daw KyiKyi Ng {dau kr-kr gn}.

Summing up I contend that:

The word {ka.a} 'maiden' , a well-known word is pure Bur-Myan. See MLC MED2006-002. Nya-major aka Nya'gyi {a.} /ɲ/ is a phoneme in its own right in Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur). It is a Palatal approximant, similar to {ya.}/ {} , and could be placed under the virama {a.t} as {a.}/ {} /ɲă/ (palatal)  There are many Bur-Myan words which begins with Nya-major, the presence of which could not be explained if {a.} were a conjunct.

Nya-major aka Nya'gyi {a.} is absent in all Indic languages. Skt-Dev (IE) has only Nya-minor aka Nya'le as Palatal affricate. On the other hand, Nya-minor was introduced into Bur-Myan only when Pali-Lanka which became Pali-Myan only when Theravada Buddhism was introduced into Ceylon aka Lanka. Remember, Pali was an artificial language, invented in Lanka from Magadhi (Tib-Bur) and Lanka (Aus-Asi) under the influence of Skt-Dev. (IE). The word {ka.a} 'maiden' became corrupted further probably due to Western influence and became कना [ kan ] {ka.nya} which is actually tri-syllabic and should be properly spelled as {ka.n~ya}.

To look into this problem further, see Mon-Myan - MonMyan-indx.htm (link chk 180411)
1. Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, to which are added a few pages of phrases, etc., by Haswell, J.M., ABM Press (American Baptist Mission Press), Rangoon, 1874
- JMHaswell-Peguan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180411)
2. A vocabulary of English and Peguan, to which are added a few pages of geographical names , by Stevens, E.O., ABM Press, Rangoon, 1896
- EOStevens-PeguanVocab<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180411)
3. Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R. C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
- RCTemple-TranslitBurPeguan<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180411).

 When I tried to include Mon language in Binpathak aka BEPS, I found that my dream of transcription is a failure because Mon-Myan has a different phonology from Bur-Myan. I've to accept differences in pronunciation of the same word in two Myanmar languages.

  eye-blinks:  (1/2 blk) -- (1 blk) -- (2 blk) -- (2 blk with emphasis)
Bur-Myan: ---------------- {a.} -- {a.} -- {a:} 
Mon-Myan:  {a:.} -- {a.} -- {a.} -there is no emphatic in Mon-Myan 

Notice how I sculpt and differentiate the words using my Lakkwak and colour scheme.

I must now put in a word of thanks to prayers like Gayatri Mantra - bk-cndl-gayatri<))
It was in the Mantra the presence of vowels with 1/2 eye-blinks: {na:.}

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Stories of Somadeva - the human author

UKT 170131, 171201: Be careful of Hindu names. Here Somadeva is the name of a human author {i-wa. poaN~Na:} of 11th century AD. See its connection to Panchatantra Tales पञ्चतन्त्र   'Five Principles or Techniques'  = प ञ ् च त न ् त ् र in p060-3.htm

Stories of Somadeva is a famous 11th-century collection of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales See: The translation by C H Tawney, 1880, are in 10 vols. See TIL PDF libraries: (link chk 171201)
- CHTawney-SomadevKathaSaritSagara01<> / Bkp<>
- CHTawney-SomadevKathaSaritSagara07<> / Bkp<>
- CHTawney-SomazdevKathaSaritSagara10Indx<> / Bkp<>
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 151026


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 110901

Kathasaritsagara (Skt: कथासरित्सागर "ocean of the streams of stories") is a famous 11th-century collection of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales as retold by a Saivite Brahmin named Somadeva.

Nothing is known about the author other than that his father's name was Ramadevabatta. The work was compiled for the entertainment of the queen Suryamati, wife of king Anantadeva of Kashmir (r. 1063-81).

It consists of 18 books of 124 chapters and more than 21,000 verses in addition to prose sections. The principal tale is the narrative of the adventures of Naravahanadatta, son of the legendary king Udayana. A large number of tales are built around this central story, making it the largest existing collection of Indian tales. It notably also contains recensions of the Panchatantra in Book 10; and the Vetālapacaviṃśati, or Baital Pachisi, in Book 12.

The Katha-sarit-sagara is generally believed to derive from Gunadhya's Brhat-katha, written in Paisachi dialect from the south of India. [UKT ]

UKT 170201: "Paiśācī is a largely unattested literary language of the middle kingdoms of India mentioned in Prakrit [ BHS ?] and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. It is found grouped with the Prakrit languages, with which it shares some linguistic familiarities, but is not considered a spoken Prakrit by the grammarians because it was purely a literary language, but also due to its archaicism. [3] " -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paisaci 170201

But the Kashmirian Brhat-katha from which Somadeva took inspiration may be quite different from the Paisachi one as there were two versions of the Brhat-katha extant in Kashmir, as well as the related Brhatkatha-sloka-samgraha of Buddhasvamin from Nepal. Like the Panchatantra, tales from this (or its main source book the Brhat-katha) travelled to many parts of the world.

The only complete translation into English [1] is by C. H. Tawney (18371922), published in two volumes (1300 pages in all) in 1880. This was greatly expanded, with additional notes and remarks comparing stories from different cultures, by N. M. Penzer, and published in ten volumes ("privately printed for subscribers only") in 1924.

Another translation was to be published in seven volumes by the Clay Sanskrit Library, translated by Sir James Mallinson, but it published only two volumes, reaching up to canto 6.8, before the publisher ended operations.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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