Update: 2017-06-03 05:36 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page



UKT notes :
Ayurveda dosha
COPD : excess of {a.laip} 'phlegm'
Humorism : Theory of Humors
Manasa - the Bengali snake & poison goddess
Pachisi {pa.hsic}
Problem of Nya'gyi & Nya'l 
in Bur-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Pal-Myan
Stories of Somadeva - the human author

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कथान्तर [ kath‿antara ]
- n. conversation, talk.



कथापीठ [ kath-ptha ]
- n. T. of the 1st book of the Kathsaritsgara; -prabandha, m. legend; -prasaṅga, m. occasion of conversation: in., ab. = in the course of conversation, incidentally; -prastva, m. id.: -tas, in the course of conversation; -maya, a. consisting of tales; -mukha, n. introduction to a story; T. of the 2nd book of the Kathsaritsgara; -yoga, m. conversation.

The Kathāsaritsāgara कथासरित्सागर 'Ocean of the Streams of Stories' is a famous 11th-century collection of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales as retold in Sanskrit by a Shaiva Brahmin named Somadeva.
-- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 151026



कथालाप [ kath‿lpa ]
- m. conversation; narration; -‿val, f. collection of tales; -‿ava-sesha, m. survival in story only, i.e. death; a. dead: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -‿avasesh-bh, die.

कथालाप [kath‿lpa]
Skt: कथालाप [kath‿lpa] - m. conversation; narration -- Mac062c1
Pal: {ka.hta-al~la-pa.}
- UHS-PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: m. speech, lecture



कथाशेष [ kath-sesha ]
- a. dead: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -sandhi, m. junction in the narrative where it is interrupted by another; -saritsgara, m. ocean of streams of stories, T. of a collection of tales by Somadeva.

See my note on Stories of Somadeva or Kathsaritsgara
- a collection of Indian legends, fairy tales, and folk tales by a Saivite Brahmin named Somadeva (11th century).

कथिक kathika
Skt: कथिक kathika - adj. a narrator, relater, story-teller by profession -- SpkSkt
Pal: {ka.hti.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: mfn. one who lectures, m. lecturer

UKT 140212: My position for many years at the Myanmar universities was "Lecturer" aka {ka.hti.ka.}, which if I were to go by Skt meaning was a "mere story-teller". What an ego-buster!



कथित [ kath-ita ]
Skt: कथित [ kath-ita ] - (pp.) n. conversation, narrative. - Mac062c1
Pal: {ka.hti.ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: mfn. having said, lectured, stated. n. words that have been spoken



[kath-kri ]
- turn into a narrative: pp. dead



कथोदय [ kath‿udaya ]
- m. beginning of a story; statement; -‿udghta, m. beginning of a narrative.



कथ्य [ kath-ya ]
- fp. to be related; that may be mentioned.

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कद्् [ kd ]
- V. n. nm., ac. sg. of ka, what? = I hope? with neg. = I hope not? esp. with kid (kkkid); with kan and neg. in no way; --, bad, wretched, insignificant.



कदन [ kad-ana ]
Skt: कदन [ kad-ana ] - n. slaughter, destruction; torturing. - Mac062c1
Skt: कदन kadana - n. destruction, killing, havoc, slaughter - SpkSkt
See: √kad, 'destroy'. - Whit0016



कदन्न [ kad-anna ]
= क द न ् न
- n. bad food: -t, f. abst. ɴ.
Pal: {ka.dn~na.} - UHS PMD0288
  UKT from UHS: n. bad food



कदम्ब kadamba, ˚क [ -ka ]
- m. a tree bearing orange-coloured blossoms; n. multitude, plenty; swarm.



कदर्थ [ kd-artha ]
- a. for what purpose?



  कदर्थन [ kad-arth-ana ]
- n., , f. tormenting; -anya, fp. to be tormented; -aya, den. P. despise; torture, distress; surpass; -kri, disregard: -ti, f. torment.



कदर्य [ kad-arya ]
- a. avaricious, miserly: -t, f., -bhva, m. avarice.


कदल [ ka-dala ]
- m. plantain tree (symbol of frailty); i-k, f. plantain tree; flag, esp. on an elephant; , f. plantain tree: -garbha, m. pith of the plantain: , f. N.; -griha, n. plantain arbour; -sukham, ad. as easily as a plantain.

UKT151027, 170201: What is known as "plantain" is now called "banana". To the North Americans "plantain" is a weed. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_major 151027
The leaves, stirred-fried, can be eaten. The fresh leaves contain an antiseptic which is specific for ingrown nails.



कदा [ ka-d ]
- inter. when? -kana, some time, ever; -kid, some time or other; once; some times; perhaps; --‿api, at any time, always; na -kana, kid, or ‿api, never.



कद्रु [ kdru ]
- a. reddish brown; &usharp;, f. earth; N. of [Rishi] Kasyapa's wife, mother of the serpents.

See my note on Manasa (Bengali: মনসা, Manasha) is a Hindu folk goddess of snakes


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कन् [kan ] 
Skt: कन् [kan ] - i. p. be satisfied; be pleased with (ac.); shine - Mac062c1
Skt: चके { कन् } cake { kan } - v. be liked or wished for, be satisfied with, be satisfied or pleased - SpkSkt
See: √kan, kā, 'be pleased, enjoy'. - Whit0017



कनक [ kn-aka ]
- n. gold; m. thorn apple; N.; -kadal, f. species of plantain; -danda, m. royal umbrella; -pura, n., , f. N. of a city; -prabh, f. N. of a princess; -magar, f. N.; -maya, a. () golden; -rasa, m. fluid gold; -rekh, f. N.; -lat, f. golden creeper; -lekh, f. N. of a princess; -valaya, m. n. golden bracelet; -vhin, f. N. of a river; -sikharin, m. golden peaked, ep. of Meru; -stra, n. golden chain; -‿adri, m. ep. of Meru.


कनक [ kn-aka ]
Skt: कनक [ kn-aka ] - n. gold; m. thorn apple; N.; - Mac062c1
Pal: {ka.na.ka.}
- - UHS-PMD0289
  UKT from UHS: n. gold, gold ornament



कनकासन [ kanaka‿sana ]
- n. throne.



- m. pl. N. of certain mountains



कना [ kan ] :
  aks-to-aks transliteration gives {ka.na}.
Skt: कना  [ kan'] - f. girl. - Mac062c1
Skt: कना  kanā - f. maid - SpkSkt
Pal: {k~a} - UHS PMD0278

  UKT from UHS: f. bride, girl, Kanya rasi (Virgo = August-Sept)
Bur: {ka.a} - n. young maiden - MLC MED2006-002

See my note on The problem of Nya'gyi and Nya'le


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कनिक्रदत्् [ kn-i-kradat ]
- nm. sg. m. pr. pt. intv. of √krand.



- m. N. of an Indo-Scythic king (first century A.D.)



-- 3 sg. intv. of √skand



कनिष्ठ [ kn-ishth-a (or -) ]
- spv. smallest; lowest; least; youngest; younger; m. descending pail of water-wheel; , f. youngest wife; little finger; a-ka, a. (ik) smallest; -ik, f. little finger; obedience.



कनी [ kan&isharp; ]
- f. girl (V. only g. pl.).



कनीन [ kan-&isharp;na ]
- a. young, youthful: -k, m. boy, youth: , f. girl, virgin; (&isharp;na)-ka, m., a-k, i-k, f. pupil of the eye.



कनीयस्् [ kn-yas ]
- cpv. smaller, less; very little; younger; m. younger brother or son.



कन्त्व [ kan-tv ]
- n. welfare.



कन्था [ kanth ]
= क न ् थ ा 
Skt: कन्था kantha - f. patched garment.
Pal: {kn~hta} - UHS-PMD0290 
  UKT from UHS: f. an old cloth full of patches



कन्द [ kanda ]
= क न ् द --> {kn~da.}
Skt: कन्द kanda - m. bulbous root. - Mac062c2
Pal: {kn~da.} - UHS-PMD0290
  UKT from UHS: bulbs, tubers, name of a plant. - round yam, Amorphophallus campanulatus  Araceae - from {ya.}-row entry 54-1447 in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agri. Dept., Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000 , in Para-Medicine
- MP-Para-indx.htm > MP-LSR-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm (link chk 170201)
> {wa.} entry 54-1447 {wa.U.} Round yam Amorphophallus campanulatus Araceae



कन्दर [ kan-dara ]
- n. cave; ravine; elephant goad.



कन्दर्प [ kan-darpa ]
- m. Kma; love.



कन्दल [ kan-dal-a ]
- n. flower of the plantain; -, f. plantain tree; -ita, pp. produced in profusion; -in, a. covered with blossoms of the Kandal; full of (--).



- frying-pan; -ka , m. id.; ball (for playing with); pillow:  -lil , f. game of ball; -k-vati , f. N. of a princess



कन्धर [ kan-dhara ]
- m. neck.



कन्य [ kan-ya ]
- a. smallest: -ka, a. id., , f. = kan-y; -kubga, n. N. of a town, Kanauj.



कन्या [ kan-y ]
- f. girl, virgin; daughter; Virgo (in the Zodiac); -‿gra, n. women's apartments; -griha, n. id.; -tva, n. virginity; -dtri, m. man who gives a daughter in marriage; -dna, n. bestowal of a daughter in marriage; -dshin, a. deflowering a virgin; -pura, n. women's apartments; -bhva, m. virginity; -bhaiksha, n. begging for a girl; -maya, a. consisting of a maiden or daughter; -vat, a. having a daughter; m. father of a daughter; -vedin, m. son-in-law; -vrata, n. monthlies: -sth, f. menstruating woman.


कन्या [ kan-y ]
--> {ka.n~ya}
Skt: कन्या [ kan-y ] - f. girl, virgin; daughter; Virgo (in the Zodiac); - Mac062c2
Pal: {k~a} - UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: f. virgin, young girl. Astrology. Virgo or Kanya
Bur: {ka.a} - n. young maiden - MED2010-002

( end of old p062-1.htm )

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कप [ kapa ]
- m. pl. a species of gods



कपट [ kapata ]
- m. n. fraud: --, fictitious; -ntaka, m. N.; -prabandha, m. cunning device; -sata-maya, a. consisting of a hundred kinds of fraud; -‿svara, m. N. of a temple of Siva.



कपर्द [ kapard-a ]
- m. cowrie (small shell used as a coin or die); braid of hair in the form of a shell; -a-ka, m., -ik, f. cowrie; -n, a. having hair wound in the form of a shell; curly, shaggy; m. ep. of Siva.

UKT 140214: {krw-n ka.sa:} 'play game of cowries' is to gamble and the stakes can be set very high. The game involves not only chance but skill as well, and there can always be foul play when the stakes are high. See my note on the Indian gambling game Pachisi : Bur-Myan equivalent: {pa.hsic}.



कपल [ kapala ]
- n. half; part.



कपाट [ kapta ]
- m. n. fold of a door; -ka (ik), -- a. id.; -vakshas, a. broad-chested.



कपाल [ kapla ]
- n. dish, mendicant's bowl; plate; lid; potsherd; egg-shell; skull; -mlin, a. wearing a garland of skulls (Siva); -sandhi, m. treaty based on equal terms; -sphota, m. N. of a Rakshas.

UKT 170202: Some Shaivite {poaN~Na:} 'monks', used bowls made from human skulls. See also Wikipedia:
" ... The (currently) earliest directly dated skull cup at 14,700 BC [1] comes from Gough's Cave, Somerset, England. Skulls used as containers can be distinguished from plain skulls by exhibiting cut-marks from flesh removal and working to produce a regular lip. [2] "
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skull_cup 170202



कपालिका [ kapl-ik ]
- f. potsherd.



कपालिन्् [ kapl-in ]
- a. bearing a bowl or skulls; m. N. of Siva or of one of the eleven Rudras; kind of sectary.

sectary - n. pl. sectaries . A sectarian. . A dissenter from an established church, especially a Protestant nonconformist. [Medieval Latin sectārius from Latin secta sect; See sect ] - AHTD



कपि [ kap- ]
- m. monkey; -ketu, m. ep. of Arguna.



कपिञ्जल [ ka-pgala ]
- m. francoline partridge; N. of a man; N. of a sparrow: -nyya, in. after the fashion of the Kapigala topic (in the Prvammms) according to which the plural (kapigaln) means only three.

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कपित्थ [ kapi-ttha ]
- m. [monkey-stand], a tree; n. its fruit; -pati, m. ep. of Hanumat.



कपिल [ kapi-l ]
- a. (monkey-coloured), brownish, reddish; m. species of monkey; N. of an ancient sage; , f. brown or reddish cow; species of leech; -gata, m. N. of a sage; -dhsara, a. brownish grey; -‿rishi, m. the sage Kapila; -vastu, m. N. of Buddha's birth place; -sarman, m. N. of a Brhman.



कपिलीकृ  kapilīkṛ [kapil-kri ]
Skt: कपिलीकृ [kapil-kri ]  - colour brown or reddish -- Mac062c3
Skt: कपिली करोति { कपिलीकृ } kapilī karoti { kapilīkṛ } - verb color brown or reddish -- SpkSkt



कपिश [ kapi-sa ]
- a. (monkey-coloured), brownish, reddish; -bhr, f. N. of a woman.



कपिष्ठल [ kapi-shthala ]
- m. N. of a sage: pl. his descendants: -samhit, f. collected scriptures of the Kapishthalas.



- m. N. of various plants



कपीन्द्र [ kapi‿indra ]
- m. lord of the monkeys; ep. of Vishnu and of Hanumat; -‿svara, m. ep. of Sugrva.



कपुच्छल [ ka-pukkhala ]
- n. hair at the back of the head; scoop of the sacrificial spoon.



कपूय [ ka-pya ]
- a. stinking.



[k-prith ]
- -th , m. membrum virile [archaic penis ]



कपोत [ ka-pta ]
- m. pigeon; , f. female pigeon; -ka, m. little pigeon; -pl, f. dove-cot.



कपोतिका [ kapot-ik ]
- f. dove: -nyya, m. fashion of a dove (which did good even to an enemy).



कपोल [ kapola ]
- m. cheek; -ksha, m. object which rubs against the cheek; -pl, f. edge of the cheek; -phalaka, n., -bhitti, f., -mla, n. cheek-bone.

कपोलमूल kapolamūla
Skt: [ -mla] - n. cheek-bone -- Mac062c3
Skt: कपोलमूल kapolamūla - n. cheekbone -- SpkSkt

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कफ [ kapha ]
- m. phlegm (one of the 3 humours of the body); -ghna, a. anti-phlegmatic.

See my notes on Ayurvedic Doshas, COPD, and Humorism


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कबन्ध (?) [k-bandha]
Skt: [k-bandha] - v. k-vandha
Skt: कबन्ध kabandha - m. barrel. m.n. headless trunk  - SpkSkt



कबर [ kabara ]
- a. mottled, variegated; m., , f. braid of hair.

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कम्् [ . k-m ]
- (ac. sg.) pcl. well: emphasizes a preceding dative.



कम्् [ . ka-m ]
- pcl. indeed (after n, s, h).



[ . kam ]
- (no pres. base), wish, desire; love; pp. knta ; cs. kmaya , . (p.) id.; excite to love: pp. kmita , desired. anu , cs. desire. abhi , cs. be in love



कमठ [ kamatha ]
- m. tortoise.



कमण्डलु [ kamandalu ]
- m. ascetic's water-pot: -pni, a. having a water-pot in the hand.



कमन [ kam-ana ]
- a. () enamoured; -anya, fp. to be desired; lovely, charming.



कमल [ kam-ala ]
- m. n. lotus (called utpala at an earlier stage); , f. ep. of Lakshm; sg. & pl. riches; n. water; -ka, n. N. of a town; -garbha, -ga, m. ep. of Brahman; -dev, f. N. of a queen; -nayana, a. lotus-eyed; -nbha, m. ep. of Vishnu; -netra, n. lotus eyed; -bndhava, m. ep. of the sun; -bhavana, m. ep. of Brahman; -mati, m. N.; -maya, a. consisting entirely of lotuses; -lokana, a. lotus-eyed: , f. N.; -vat, f. N. of a princess; -vana, n. bed of lotuses: -maya, a. consisting of beds of lotuses; -vardhana, m. N. of a king; -varman, m. N. of a king; -sambhava, m. ep. of Brahman.



कमलाकर [ kamala‿kara ]
- m. bed of lotuses, lotus lake; N. of various men; -‿aksha, a. () lotus-eyed: -‿agrag, f. ep. of Alakshm; -kesava, m. N. of a temple; -hatta, m. N. of a market-place; -‿lay, f. ep. of Lakshm; -‿sana, n. lotus seat.

( end of old p062-2.htm )

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UKT notes

Ayurveda dosha

UKT 110902:

From: http://www.holistic-herbalist.com/ayurveda-doshas.html 110902

Ayurveda Doshas are the basis of health and disease in Ayurvedic Medicine. There are three Doshas or humors - Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Doshas are in turn dependent upon and represent the working of Five Primary Elements - earth, water, fire, air and ether.

These five elements are not what is meant literally. These are a set of five energy levels that are manifested from even subtler energies. When we are referring to Five Primary Elements, the reference should be at these subtler energies.

The three Ayurveda Dosha and five Primary Elements

There is a close interrelationship between Five Primary Elements and Ayurveda Doshas. This relationship is expressed in this manner. (Ashtanga Sangraha, Sutra Section, 20/3)

Vata humor: dominated by ether and air.
Pitta humor: dominated by fire element.
Kapha humor: dominated by water and earth element.

Body is defined in Ayurveda in several ways. One of the definition is given by Charaka (Charaka Samhita, Sharira Section, 6/3). Body is chracterized by three qualities.

The residence of Consciousness or Awareness principle.
Derived by five primary elements - tissues and body.
The internal and external processes are in homeostatic mode. Homeostasis is an state of dynamic equilibrium that is essential to our life. This principle is explained in Modern Physiology, Pathology and Medicine.

The foundation of our body in both structural and functional sense is based on the three group of substances. These are the derived form of five primary elements.

Three Humors: One that has the ability to vitiate the seven tissues is Ayurveda doshas or Humors like Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
Seven Tissues: One that maintains the retains the body is tissue like Plasma, Blood, Muscles, Fat, Bones, Marrow & Nerves, Semen or Ovum.
The Waste Or Excretory Substances: The substances that harm the body if they stay for longer than normal time in body e.g. Urine, Stool, Sweat.

All the three are essential for the body. Ayurveda doshas govern all the biological and metabolic processes of our body in health and in disease. Actually their vitiation causes derangement in tissues and that causes disease. Their equilibrium helps us to stay in healthy condition.

Seven tissues are essential because without them, there is no body or its processes or the ground over which Doshas act. Tissues are our body, its part, its organs, the organ system.

Excretion of waste material from the body is the sign that the whole processes are in proper place. Body is metabolizing appropriately. Excretory substances and their excretion are a sign of good health that is why Ayurveda gives them due importance.

UKT: End of article.

Go back Ayurveda-dosha-note-b

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COPD aka Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

- UKT 140214

Ask a Western doctor about phlegm (aka mucus), and he would laugh or at least smile at you for what he considers to be your ignorance without realizing that he himself is ignorant of the history of medicine.

{a.laip} - n. phlegm -- MLC MED2006-491

From: http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease 140214

Alternative names: COPD; Bronchitis - chronic; Chronic bronchitis; Emphysema


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. The disease is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response in the lungs and restricted airflow (documented by spirometry). The disease typically occurs after age 35.

Cigarette smoking remains the major cause of COPD, but it isn't the only cause. In most studies, smoking accounts for about 80% of COPD cases. Quitting smoking can improve lung function and help to prevent death from COPD. Other causes, such as genetic syndromes (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency) and exposures to pollutants such as dust, irritants and fumes are also involved in the development of the disease.

An overall treatment strategy may include one or several medications, lifestyle changes, education, pulmonary rehabilitation, oxygen therapy and perhaps surgery.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a condition in which there is reduced airflow in the lungs. The disease develops and worsens over time. COPD is not reversible, but therapy can slow its progress.

Although patients can breathe in normally, changes in the small airways cause the tubes to narrow during expiration, making it hard to breathe out. In many patients with COPD, the small sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged are destroyed, gradually depriving the body of enough oxygen.

COPD is associated with a set of breathing-related symptoms:

Being out of breath, at first when doing physical activities,
  but as lung function deteriorates, also at rest
Chronic cough
Spitting or coughing mucus (phlegm)

The ability to exhale (breathe out) gets worse over time.

UKT: More in the article.

Go back COPD-note-b

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Humorism : Theory of Humors

UKT: 110902

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism 110902

Humorism, or humoralism, is a now discredited theory of the makeup and workings of the human body adopted by Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers. From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Islamic physicians, and became the most commonly held view of the human body among European physicians until the advent of modern medical research in the nineteenth century.

The four humors of Hippocratic medicine were black bile (gr. melan chole), yellow bile (gr. chole), phlegm (gr. phlegma), and blood (lat. sanguis). A humor was also referred to as a cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums). [1]

Four humors

Essentially, this theory held that the human body was filled with four basic substances, called four humors, which are in balance when a person is healthy. All diseases and disabilities resulted from an excess or deficit of one of these four humors. These deficits could be caused by vapors that were inhaled or absorbed by the body. The four humors were black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. Greeks and Romans, and the later Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity. When a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one fluid, then his or her personality and physical health would be affected. This theory was closely related to the theory of the four elements: earth, fire, water and air; earth predominantly present in the black bile, fire in the yellow bile, water in the phlegm, and all four elements present in the blood. [2]

Paired qualities were associated with each humor and its season. The word humor is a translation of Greek χυμός, [3] chymos (literally juice or sap, metaphorically flavor). At around the same time, ancient Indian Ayurveda medicine had developed a theory of three humours, which they linked with the five Hindu elements. [4]

The four humors, their corresponding elements, seasons, sites of formation, and resulting temperaments alongside their modern equivalents are: [5]

See also: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MBTI 110902


Although modern medical science has thoroughly discredited humorism, the theory dominated medical thinking for more than 2,000 years. [6]

The concept of four humors may have origins in ancient Egypt [7] or Mesopotamia, [8] though it was not systemized until ancient Greek thinkers [9] around 400 BC who directly linked it with the popular theory of the four elements earth, fire, water and air (Empedocles).

Fhrus (1921), a Swedish physician who devised the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, suggested that the four humours were based upon the observation of blood clotting in a transparent container. When blood is drawn in a glass container and left undisturbed for about an hour, four different layers can be seen. A dark clot forms at the bottom (the "black bile"). Above the clot is a layer of red blood cells (the "blood"). Above this is a whitish layer of white blood cells (the "phlegm", now called the buffy coat). The top layer is clear yellow serum (the "yellow bile"). [10]

Greek medicine

Hippocrates is the one usually credited with applying this idea to medicine. Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries largely through the influence of the writings of Galen (131201 AD) and was decisively displaced only in 1858 by Rudolf Virchow's newly published theories of cellular pathology. While Galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile, while cold foods tended to produce phlegm. Seasons of the year, periods of life, geographic regions and occupations also influenced the nature of the humors formed.

The imbalance of humors, or dyscrasia, was thought to be the direct cause of all diseases. Health was associated with a balance of humors, or eucrasia. The qualities of the humors, in turn, influenced the nature of the diseases they caused. Yellow bile caused warm diseases and phlegm caused cold diseases.

In On the Temperaments, Galen further emphasized the importance of the qualities. An ideal temperament involved a balanced mixture of the four qualities. Galen identified four temperaments in which one of the qualities, warm, cold, moist or dry, predominated and four more in which a combination of two, warm and moist, warm and dry, cold and dry or cold and moist, dominated. These last four, named for the humors with which they were associated that is, sanguine, choleric, melancholic and phlegmatic, eventually became better known than the others. While the term temperament came to refer just to psychological dispositions, Galen used it to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person's susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioral and emotional inclinations.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Manasa : {ma.na.a}
- the snake & poison goddess

-- UKT 140212:

My first contact with Hinduism was through the Ramakrishna Society of Rangoon. We were living at #221 Thompson St., East Rangoon at the time. Now, the Thompson St. has been renamed Botahtaung Pagoda Rd. My cousin, U Saw Tun, and I were just children, just over the age 10. We volunteered our services in the library of the Society, and became friends of one whom we called Swamigyi, and the other Mr. K. C. Sen. Mr. Sen came in with the Indian forces of the British Fourteenth Army when the British Raj reoccupied Rangoon in May 1945. Both Swamigyi and Mr. Sen were very kind to us, and they both became our family friends. With the pix I am reproducing below, and my rendering of the name {ma.na.a}, I remember both Swamigyi and Mr. Sen well and pay my humble respects to both.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manasa 110901

Manasa (Bengali: মনসা = ম ন স া , Manasha) is a Hindu folk goddess of snakes, worshipped mainly in Bengal and other parts of northeastern India, chiefly for the prevention and cure of snakebite and also for fertility and prosperity. [UKT ]

UKT 140213: Whenever Bengali script is rendered, make sure that you use the correct rendering engine. Bengali, like Myanmar, has split-vowels. Arial Unicode gives the wrong result. It is preferable to use Lucida Sans Unicode . However, in the following aks-to-aks, the rendering is simple because no split vowel is involved.

Bengali: মনসা = ম Ma ন Na স Sa া Aa -->
Devanagari: म Ma न Na स Sa ा Aa = मनसा -->
Myanmar: {ma.} {na.} {a} = {ma.na.a}

Manasa is the sister of Vasuki, king of Nāgas (snakes) and wife of sage Jagatkāru (Jaratkāru). [1] She is also known as Vishahara (the destroyer of poison), Jagadgaurī, Nityā (eternal) and Padmavati. [2]

Her myths emphasize her bad temper and unhappiness, due to rejection by her father Shiva and her husband, and the hatred of her stepmother, Chandi (Shiva's wife, identified with Parvati in this context). [UKT ]

UKT 140212: Whenever, the name Shiva came in, I am beginning to take the story as a later addition, because of the 1028 hymns in Rig Veda, the number of hymns to Shiva is very small compared to those to Indra (the king), Agni (the messenger), and Soma (the entity to give rest and tranquility). Shiva was then identified with Rudra a mere "Storm" god. See Wikipedia articles: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigvedic_deities 140213, and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudra 140213

In some scriptures, Rishi sage Kashyapa is considered to be her father, rather than Shiva. Manasa is depicted as kind to her devotees, but harsh to people who refused to worship her. [3] Denied full godhead by her mixed parentage, Manasas aim was to fully establish her authority as a goddess and to acquire steadfast human devotees. [4]


Originally an Adivasi (tribal [mostly Tib-Burman speakers]) goddess, Manasa was accepted in the pantheon worshipped by Hindu lower caste groups [Sudras - the militarily defeated peoples who were considered to be "slaves"]. Later, Manasa was included in a higher caste Hindu pantheon, where she is now regarded as a Hindu goddess rather than a tribal one. [3] As a Hindu goddess, she was recognized as a daughter of sage Rishi Kashyapa and [wife] Kadru, the mother of all Nāgas. [UKT ]

UKT 140213: Those who took part in ancient wars in India were the original peoples of India, and might not have been the mythical creatures. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 140213

By the 14th century, Manasa was identified as the goddess of fertility and marriage rites and was assimilated into the Shaiva pantheon, related to the god, Shiva. Myths glorified her by describing that she saved Shiva after he drank the poison, and venerated her as the "remover of poison". [UKT ]

UKT 140213: Read how the Dvas cheated the Asuras of their fair-share of the items resulting from the Churning of The Cosmic Ocean. In the story, Shiva drank the poison. See Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_of_milk 140213

Her [Manasa] popularity grew and spread to southern India [the area of Dravidian speakers], and her followers began to rival Shaivism (the cult of Shiva). As a consequence, stories attributing Manasa's birth to Shiva emerged and ultimately Shaivism adopted this indigenous goddess into the Brahmanical tradition of mainstream Hinduism. [5]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

From: http://www.boldsky.com/yoga-spirituality/faith-mysticism/2013/story-of-manasa-devi-snake-goddess-036777.html#slide27015 140212

"According to the Puranas, Kashyapa Rashi [the father] married Goddess Manasa [the daughter] to Jaratkaru Rishi who married her on a condition. Jaratkaru said that if Manasa ever disobeys him, then he will desert her. Once Goddess Manasa awakened Jaratkaru [her husband] very late in the morning and he was late for his morning prayers. [probably to recite Gayatri Mantra.] He became furious at Manasa and deserted her. Later he came back and they had a son named Astika."

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Pachisi - the gambling game

- UKT 140214

I am familiar with the Bur-Myan game {pa.hsic} - the game of chance and skill during my childhood in Kungyangoan. Some women folk were addicted to it, and we could hear the rather sweet sound of the cowries thrown into a porcelain dish coming from a neighbour's house every day about noon. Six cowries were used instead of 2 dice. See my note in  - p002-4.htm (link chk 140214)

This little innocent game of {pa.hsic} and undoubtedly others ( {krw-n ka.sa:}) when played by ancient kings could be the cause of wars related in Buddhist and Hindu legends and histories. For example the Mahabharata war was fought after the game between the rival princes (and kings) - the Pandavas and Kauravas . Such a game was also the cause of the first Mon rebellion that finally led to the death of King Sawlu of Pagan.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachisi 140214

Pachisi (Hindi: पचीसी) is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India". [1] It is played on a board shaped like a symmetrical cross. A player's pieces move around the board based upon a throw of six or seven cowrie shells, with the number of shells resting with aperture upwards indicating the number of spaces to move.

The name of the game derives from the Hindi word pachis, meaning twenty-five, the largest score that can be thrown with the cowrie shells. Thus the game is also known by the name Twenty-Five. There are other versions of this game where the largest score that can be thrown is thirty.

There are other well known versions of the game, chausar, chaupar, chaupur or caupur. [2] [3] The word caupur derives from the Sanskrit catus pada meaning he who has four legs. [2] Parcheesi, Sorry! and Ludo are among the many Westernized commercial versions of the game.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Problem of Nya'gyi & Nya'le
in Bur-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Pal-Myan

UKT 140213, 151028, 170201:

Note: what follows is my analysis. It is not accepted by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission)

The word {ka.a} 'maiden' is a well-known Bur-Myan word. See MLC MED2006-002. Nya'gyi {a.} /ɲ/ is a phoneme in its own right in Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur). It is a Palatal approximant, similar to {ya.}/ {} , and could be placed under the virama {a.t} as {a.}/ {} /ɲă/ (palatal)  There are many Bur-Myan words which begins with Nya'gyi {a.}, the presence of which could not be explained if {a.} is just a conjunct.

If {a.} were a conjunct, it would break up under the virama {a.t} as: (under viram) --> ~ {~a.} accompanied by a frictional sound. Bur-Myan speech is relatively free of frictional sounds.

Nya'gyi {a.} is absent in all Indic languages. Skt-Dev (IE) has only Nya'le as Palatal affricate. Nya'le is present in Bur-Myan as Palatal plosive-stop. Because of these facts, Nya'gyi is considered to be a horizontal conjunct in Pal-Myan: {k~a} /kɪɲ'ɲa/. Remember, Pali - the artificial language was invented in Lanka from Magadhi (Tib-Bur) and Lanka (Aus-Asi) under the influence of Skt-Dev. (IE). In Skt-Dev, {ka.a} becomes {ka.nya]. I consider कना kanā to be derived from {ka.na}. कना [ kan ] 'girl' is also spelled कन्या [ kan-y ].

To look into this problem further, see Mon-Myan - MonMyan-indx.htm (link chk 170201)
1. Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, to which are added a few pages of phrases, etc., by Haswell, J.M., ABM Press (American Baptist Mission Press), Rangoon, 1874
- MonMyan-Haswell-gramm-notes-vocab<> (link chk 170201)
2. A vocabulary of English and Peguan, to which are added a few pages of geographical names , by Stevens, E.O., ABM Press, Rangoon, 1896
- MonMyan-Stevens-vocab<> (link chk 170201)
3. Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R. C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
- Mon-Myan-RCTemple-translit-Bur<> (link chk 170201).

To recap, {a.} is a horizontal conjunct in Pal-Myan. Under the viram it breaks down into two Nya'l {a.}/ {}. This gives rise to differences in pronunciation of the same word in two Myanmar languages.

Bur-Myan: {a.} (1 blk) , {a.} (2 blk),  {a:} (2 blk+ emphasis)
Mon-Myan: {a:.} (1/2 blk) , {a.} (1 blk) , {a.} (2 blk) - there is no emphatic in Mon-Myan

Bur-Myan: {ka.a} --> Pal-Myan: {k~a}
Notice how I have differentiated the two words using my Lakkwak -- lakkwak.gif (link chk 170201)
and its colour scheme.

Notice in the above, Skt-Dev कना kanā becomes Bur-Myan {ka.a}. Aks-to-aks transliteration shows the Skt-Dev कना kanā is {ka.na}. It is my conjecture that Nya'gyi {a.}/ {} is of pure Burmese origin. It is a Tibeto-Burman word which the Indo-Europeans cannot pronounce. They have to substitute {na.}/ {n} in its place. It is similar to the case of {nga.}/ {ng} being replaced by {na.}/ {n} in Gayatri Mantra - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

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Stories of Somadeva - the human author

UKT 170131: Be careful of Hindu names. Here Somadeva is the name of a human author of 11th century AD.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathasaritsagara 110901

Kathasaritsagara (Skt: कथासरित्सागर "ocean of the streams of stories") is a famous 11th-century collection of Indian legends, fairy tales and folk tales as retold by a Saivite Brahmin named Somadeva.

Nothing is known about the author other than that his father's name was Ramadevabatta. The work was compiled for the entertainment of the queen Suryamati, wife of king Anantadeva of Kashmir (r. 1063-81).

It consists of 18 books of 124 chapters and more than 21,000 verses in addition to prose sections. The principal tale is the narrative of the adventures of Naravahanadatta, son of the legendary king Udayana. A large number of tales are built around this central story, making it the largest existing collection of Indian tales. It notably also contains recensions of the Panchatantra in Book 10; and the Vetālapacaviṃśati, or Baital Pachisi, in Book 12.

The Katha-sarit-sagara is generally believed to derive from Gunadhya's Brhat-katha, written in Paisachi dialect from the south of India. [UKT ]

UKT 170201: "Paiśācī is a largely unattested literary language of the middle kingdoms of India mentioned in Prakrit [ BHS ?] and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity. It is found grouped with the Prakrit languages, with which it shares some linguistic familiarities, but is not considered a spoken Prakrit by the grammarians because it was purely a literary language, but also due to its archaicism. [3] " -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paisaci 170201

But the Kashmirian Brhat-katha from which Somadeva took inspiration may be quite different from the Paisachi one as there were two versions of the Brhat-katha extant in Kashmir, as well as the related Brhatkatha-sloka-samgraha of Buddhasvamin from Nepal. Like the Panchatantra, tales from this (or its main source book the Brhat-katha) travelled to many parts of the world.

The only complete translation into English [1] is by C. H. Tawney (18371922), published in two volumes (1300 pages in all) in 1880. This was greatly expanded, with additional notes and remarks comparing stories from different cultures, by N. M. Penzer, and published in ten volumes ("privately printed for subscribers only") in 1924.

Another translation was to be published in seven volumes by the Clay Sanskrit Library, translated by Sir James Mallinson, but it published only two volumes, reaching up to canto 6.8, before the publisher ended operations.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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