Update: 2017-01-31 05:23 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{ka.} क ka: the first consonantal akshara in BEPS
{ ka.kSa.} : Pseudo-Kha
{ka.nga.} : Kin'si - for ref. see {ta.} with Pseudo-Kha & Kinsi - p105.htm

{ ka.sa.} कच
{ ka.za.} कज
{ka.a.} : Nya'le:

{ka.Ta.} कट

{kt} : - for ref. see {ta.} - p105.htm


UKT notes :
Brihaspati - Planet Jupiter
Danava Asura
Dvipa : Jambu Dvipa surrounded by salty oceans.
Hungry ghost : {prait~ta} or {a.u-ra.kaa}
Kanada Rishi & Atomic Theory
Kathina {ka.HTi.na.}
Vaisheshika philosophy and my personal view 


Contents of this page

{ka.} क ka: the first consonantal akshara in BEPS.
{hka.} ख kha: the second consonantal akshara, called Regular-Kha used in Pali.
{kSa.} क्ष ksa: Pseudo-Kha used in Sanskrit preferably in place of Regular-Kha




कक्षीवत्् [ kaksh&isharp;-vat ]
= क क ् ष ी व त ्
- m. N. of a Rishi.

UKT 141006: Ambassador O. P. Gupta, IFS, wrote on 2003Jun10, in an article on Caste and Bhagawat Gita in Mombu Cultural Forum -  http://www.mombu.com/culture/united-kingdom/t-caste-and-the-bhagavad-gita-1002157.html 110819 : "(iii) Rishi Kaksivat was son of Rishi Dirghatamas by a Shoodr maid servant (Brihaddevata IV.24.25). Rishi Kaksivat was revealed many richas ऋचा in RV (I.119 to 125). "

UKT 170126: "In Sanskrit [ऋचा = ऋ च ा ] the pronunciation varies based on the geography and native language of the speakers. ... In Maharashtra and Karnataka, the letter ऋ is pronounced 'Ru', whereas it is pronounced 'Ri' by speakers of Hindi. The Hindi script is identical to the Sanskrit script. " -- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richa 170126



कक्ष्या [ kakshytilda; ]
= क क ् ष ् य ा
Skt: कक्ष्या [ kakshytilda; ] - f. girdle, girth; circular wall, enclosure; orbit of a planet; balance, scale (also a, n.). - Mac061c1
Skt: कक्ष्या कक्ष्या - f. girth, wall, orbit of a planet, scale of a balance [UKT: range of load that can be weighed], class, enclosure ... - SpkSkt.

UKT 170126: To me who has studied Thermodynamics, कक्ष्या , means the "system under study": everything outside is the "surroundings". 
"The system is the part of the universe being studied, while the surroundings are the rest of the universe that interacts with the system. A system and its surroundings can be as large as the rain forests in South America or as small as the contents of a beaker in a chemistry laboratory." - Google

kṣatra = kṣetra
BHS: - field -- FE-BHS198
Pal: {hkt~ta.} -- UHS-PMD0351
   UKT from UHS: n. field, cultivated field, wife, own physical-body


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{ka.nga.} : Kin'si

UKT 170126: Words with Nga {nga.} ङ as onset are not found in Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev. Killed Nga with visible virama {ng} ङ् in the coda are present in Skt-Dev, and in knsi-form {ng} in Pal-Myan. Words with Nga {nga.} ङ as onset are found in both Nwari-Dev and Bur-Myan, which has led me to suggest that Pal-Myan in the original form used by Arigyis was Magadhi. After the persecution of the Arigyi by King Anawrahta and the introduction of Pali-Lanka, Pali-Myan has become heavily influenced by Sanskrit.


कङ्क [ kaṅk ]
Skt: कङ्क [ kaṅk ] - m. heron; N.: pl. a people. - Mac061c1
Pal:  {kn~ka.} - UHS PMD0276
- UHS-PMD0276
  UKT from UHS: m. 3 local names of a large bird given. See my note on Heron



कङ्कट [ kaṅka-ta ]
-- > {kn~ka.Ta.}
Skt: कङ्कट kankata - m. armour, mail; a Dnava. - Mac061
Pal: {kn~ka.Ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0276
  UKT from UHS: m. elephant harness, mail 

See my note on Danava Asura



कङ्कण [ kaṅ-kan-a ]
- n. ring, ring-shaped ornament, bracelet; wedding band: -dhara, m. bridegroom, , f. bride; -pura, n. N. of a town; -varsha, a. raining bracelets: m. man's N.; -varsh-in, a. id.: (i)-t, f. abst. ɴ.

कङ्कण kan-ka-na : {kn-ka.Na.}
Skt: कङ्कण kan-ka-na - n. ring, ring-shaped ornament, bracelet; wedding band:- Mac061c1
Pal: {kn-ka.Na.}
- - UHS- PMD0276
  UKT from UHS: n. bracelet, armlet



कङ्कणिन्् [ kaṅkan-in ]
- a. wearing a bracelet.



कङ्कत [ kaṅkat-a ]
- m. comb; -ik, f. id.



कङ्कपत्‍त्र [ kaṅka-pattra ]
- n. heron's feather (on arrow); a. having herons' feathers; m. such an arrow: -pattrin, a. having herons' feathers; -vadana, n. (heron-faced), tongs, pincers.



कङ्काल [ kaṅkl-a ]
Skt: कङ्काल [ kaṅkl-a ] - m. n. skeleton; -in, f. a form of Durg. -- Mac061c1
Pal: {kn~ka.la.} - UHS-PMD276c2
  UKT from UHS: m. heap of bones, skeleton


BHS: Kaṅklī - (cf. Skt. Kaṅklin , n. of a yakṣa; linī - a form of Durgā), n. of a yoginī ; ... - BHS163c2



कङ्केल्लि [ kaṅkelli ]
- m. Asoka-tree; , f. id.

See my note on Asoka-tree



-- m. a plant

( end of old p061-1.htm )

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{ka.sa.} कच


कच [ kaka ]
- m. hair; N. of a son of Brihaspati; -graha, m., -na, n. seizing by the hair.

कच [ kaka ]
Skt: कच [ kaka ] - m. hair; N. of a son of Brihaspati; - Mac061c1
BHS: kaca - m., Mvy 5870, acc. to Tib. srin bal = cotton or raw silk ... - FE-BHS163c2
Pal: {ka.sa.} - UHS PMD0276

  UKT from UHS: m. head hair

See my note on Brihaspati
बृहस्पति bṛhaspati - m. lord of prayer or devotion name of a deity - SpkSkt



कचटतपगजडदब kacaṭatapagajaḍadaba
- n. example of a meaningless word.

See Wikipedia in German - http://wiki.yoga-vidya.de/Kachatatapagajadadaba 150927
"Kachatatapagajadadaba , Sanskrit कचटतपगजडदब kacaṭatapagajaḍadaba, Beispiel fr eine sinnlose Rede. Kachatatapagajadadaba ist ein Sanskrit Substantiv schlichen Geschlechts und wird bersetzt mit Beispiel fr eine sinnlose Rede."
Google translation:
"Kachatatapagajadadaba , कचटतपगजडदब kacaṭatapagajaḍadaba, example of a meaningless speech . Kachatatapagajadadaba is a Sanskrit noun neuter gender and is translated as an example of a meaningless speech".



कचभार [ kaka-bhra ]
- m. wealth of hair.



कचाकचि [ kak-kaki ]
- ad. seizing one another by the hair.



-- v. kad



कच्छ [ kakkha ]
= क च ् छ --> {kic~hsa.}
- m. bank; marshy land; *m., , f. edge, border; -pa, m. tortoise; N. of a Nga; N. of a country (Cutch).

कच्छ [ kakkha ]
Skt: - m. bank; marshy land; -- Mac061c1
BHS: kaccha - ... . arm-pit: ... . hem of (lower) garment: ... . ... possibly edge (of a needle)? ... - FE-BHS164c1
Pal: {kic~hsa.} - UHS-PMD0277c1
  UKT frm UHS: . m. marshy land, land near bank of a river or creek. Cedrela toona . reed, arrow made from reed. . mfn. what is to be said. . armpit

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{ka.za.} कज


कज [ ka-ga ]
- n. lotus.



कज्जल [ kag-gala ]
= क ज ् ज ल
Skt: कज्जल kajjala [kag-gala] - n. lamp-black; collyrium prepared from it. -- Mac061c1
Pal: {kiz~za.la.} - UHS-PMD0277
  UKT from UHS: n. soot, eye salve

UKT 120820: As a chemist, I must note that the "soot" from different fires (or fuels) would have differing chemicals included. Of course, the main ingredient would be elemental carbon, but the other extraneous chemicals can give unwanted results.


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कञ्चुक [ kakuk-a ]
- m.n. () jacket, doublet; mail; skin of a snake (a. --, f. ); -ita, pp. wearing a coat of mail; -in, a. wrapped in (--); m. chamberlain; -a‿upnahin, n. wearing a doublet and shoes.

  कञ्चुक kancuka [kakuk-a] {ki~su.ka.}
= क ञ ् च ु क
Skt: कञ्चुक kancuka - m.n. () jacket, doublet; mail; skin of a snake -- Mac061c1
BHS: kacuka - m., or , f. (doubtless = Skt. kacuka, also fem. , bodice; coat of armor; covering, sheath; skin of a snake), covering, downy coat (of flowers) ... - FE-BHS164c1
Pal: {ki~su.ka.} - UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: m. tunic, slough of snake, armour, shirt.

slough n. . The dead outer skin shed by a reptile or an amphibian. . Medicine A layer or mass of dead tissue separated from surrounding living tissue, as in a wound, a sore, or an inflammation. . An outer layer or covering that is shed. -- AHTD



-- f. a plant


कञ्ञा = क ञ ् ञ ा ka~a
= क ञ ् ञ ा   --> {ki~a} /kɪɲ'ɲa/
Pal: {ka.a}
- UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: f. bride, young maiden, the Kanyā कन्या Rasi aka the Virgo Zodiacal Constellation, the rasi where the full-moon of {tau-a.ling:} resides.

UKT 140213, 170127:
   note #1. The Virgo Zodiac is represented in the West by the symbol: ♍ 'the Virgin'. It is between Leo ♌ 'the Lion', and Libra ♎ 'the scales aka balance'.
   note #2. The phoneme Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}  /ɲ/ is present only in Bur-Myan. It is not present in Pal-Myan where it is considered to be a horizontal conjunct. Bur-Myan {a.}/ {} and {ya.}/ {} have many similarities in pronunciation as codas. However, in Pal-Myan, {a.} is taken as the conjunct that under the viram breaks up into Nya'l {~a.}. Because of these effects the name of the Pali-grammarian {kic~s:} (approx pronunciation: <kic-si:>) has become "Kachchayano" {kic~si-a.} in SriLanka.
   Note #3. In Bur-Myan, we find many words beginning and/or ending with Nya'gyi {a.}/ {}  /ɲ/, such as {a.} 'night' (MLC MED2006-156), and {:} 'complain' (MLC MED2006-158). Because of the these findings, I maintain that the presence of Nya'gyi shows that the word including proper nouns is of Bur-Myan origin. This has led me to suggest that the noted Pali-grammarian Shin Kicsi {kic~s:} was Burmese. Moreover, the finding of {ta.} in the name of Tbilisi the capital of the country of Georgia shows that there were Burmese monks in the Buddhist missions sent to the West by King Asoka and others.


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{ka.Ta.} कट


कट [ kta ]
- m. mat; elephant's temple; a certain throw in a game of dice; corpse; -ka, m. mat; m. n. rope; bracelet; valley; royal camp; caravan; collection; -karana, n., -kriy, f. platting of mats.

कट kata : {ka.Ta.}
Skt: कट kata - m. mat; elephant's temple; a certain throw in a game of dice; corpse - Mac061c1
BHS: kaṭa - m. ... . (in specialized application of Skt. matting, possibly paralleled in Skt. itself), matting-screen or partition ... - FE-BHS164c1
Pal: {ka.Ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0278 
  UKT from UHS: . m. mat, reed mat, side of hip. . mfn. what is proper to do. n. success

UKT 170129: the multiple meanings given can be explained on the basis of culture:
# mat - I have seem houses in Shan State which looks like built with brick, mortar, and plaster. Actually those were built with bamboo or reed matting in wooden frames. The matting is plastered with cement and covered with lime. In India, instead of cement, a plaster of cow-dung and clay is used.

# side of hip : In our part of the world a mother can be seen carrying a child who can easily walk. The pix shows: A village woman dressed for a temple ceremony walks along a village path with a young boy carried on her hip. The woman wears a sarong. The boy's legs straddle her waist from the side.

# corpse : Sleeping on a newly made reed mat in hot season is actually pleasure in itself. You get the sweet smell of the reed, and the moisture in the mat cools your body. In bygone days the body of the person who had died lying down on a mat, is rolled up in the mat and a rope tied in the middle.



कटकटाय [ kata-katya ]
- den. P. gnash (tr. & int.).



-- m. ep. of Siva



कटपूतन [kata-ptana]
Skt: कटपूतन [kata-ptana] - m., , f. kind of demon - Mac061
Skt: कटपूतन kaṭapūtana - m.f. kind of preta or demon - SpkSkt

UKT 150928, 170129: See my note on Hungry ghost
See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preta 170129


कटाक्ष [ kata‿aksha ]
- m. side-glance: i-ta, pp. looked at with a side-glance; -‿kshepa, m. side-glance.

  कटाक्ष kataksa 
= क ट ा क ् ष = क ट ा क्ष
Skt: कटाक्ष [ kata‿aksha ] - m. side-glance:  - Mac061c1
Pal: {ka.Tak~hka.} - UHS-PMD0278
  UKT from UHS: m. side-glance



कटाग्नि [ kata‿agni ]
- m. fire of dry grass.



कटाह [ katha ] kaṭāha dvīpa
- m. pan, pan-shaped object (e.g. elephant's temple); N. of a Dvpa.

Skt-Dev: द्वीप dvīpa - {di-pa.} - UHS PMD0474
See Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipa 150928
"... There are 7 dvipas. [1] The list of seven (sapta-dvipa) is [given in] (e.g. Mahabharata 6.604 )"
See my note on Dvipa : Jambu Dvipa surrounded by salty oceans.


कटि [kati], कटी [ kat ]
- f. hip; (i)-karpata, n. rag round the loins; ()-nivasana, n., -pata, m. loin-cloth.
Pali: {ka.Ti.} - UHS-PMD278
  UKT from UHS: f. buttock, waist



[katiraka], n. (?) hip.



कटु [ katu] : {ka.Tu.}
Skt: कटु katu
- a. sharp; pungent; n. ad.; -ka, a. id.; violent, severe: -t, f., -tva, n. sharpness, pungency.

Skt: कटु [ katu ]
Skt: कटु [katu] - a. sharp; pungent; n. ad.;
Pal: {ka.Tu.} - UHS-PMD0279
  UKT from UHS: mfn. bitter-hot, acute-sharp. {hsan:m-hka:} m. Black hallebore, Helleborus niger Ranumculaceae

UKT 140210: {hsan:m-hka:} is m. Black hallebore, Helleborus niger Ranumculaceae. It is a well-known febrifuge used in Bur-Myan traditional medicine, official recipe #25 . It is an ingredient of "Marucidin" - a flu medication manufactured by Chemics Laboratories, 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon.
See: Botanical names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, Agri.Dept., Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000, 22-0555, -- MP-LSR-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm (link chk 170129)
click on -row {hsa.} and go to entry 22-0555



कटुकित [ katuk-ita ]
- pp. sharply addressed (Pr.).



कटुता [ katu-t ]
- f. sharpness; pungency; austerity.



  क्ट्ट् [katt]
- x.p. kattaya , heap (corn) (end p061c1-end )


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कट््टारक [ kattra-ka ]
- m., ik, f. dagger.



कट््फल [ kat-phala ]
- m. a tree with aromatic fruit and rind.



[katu‿aṅga ]
- m. a tree; n. its fruit

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कठ [katha]
Skt: कठ [katha] - m. N. of a sage, founder of a school of the YV. यजुर्वेद yajurveda; pupil or follower of Katha. - Mac061c2
Pal: {ka.HTa.} - UHS PMD0280
- - UHS-PMD0280
  UKT from UHS: m. Kahta rishi, {ka.HTa. ra..}, one who holds Katha Upanishad.

UKT 170130: Adi Shankara - the follower of Katha
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara 170130

UKT 170130: YV. यजुर्वेद yajurveda
Skt: यजुर्वेद yajurveda - m. collective body of sacred mantras or texts which constitute the yajur-veda - SpkSkt
  कृष्णयजुर्वेद kṛṣṇayajurveda - m. black yajurveda - SpkSkt
Pal: {ya.zoab~b-da.} - UHS PMD0791
  UKT from UHS: m. Vedic treatise on sacrifice offerings.

UKT 151107: See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katha_Upanishad 151107
"The Katha Upanishad , कठोपनिषद् kaṭhopaniṣad, is one of the mukhya (primary) Upanishads, embedded in the last short eight sections of the Kaṭha school of the Yajurveda. [1] [2] It is also known as Kāṭhaka Upanishad, and is listed as number 3 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads."

UKT 140210: The person referred to is Adi Shankara (fl. early 8th century CE). a Hindu philosopher. Timeline in Myanmarpr: late Pyu period and beginning of Pagan period. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara 140211
Watch a Sanskirt movie on his life: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoIomFriTwM 140210
It is a regular movie presented by Gnana Sankeerthanam movement. The movie begins with the Hindu devotees reciting the Gayatri Mantra -- to the rising Sun, while half immersed in water.
See my note on Katha Upanishad - What Yama, God of Death [and Justice?] , taught Nachiketa .



कठिन [ kathina ]
- a. hard, firm, solid; severe; cruel, hard-hearted.

कठिन kathina : {ka.HTi.na.}
Skt: कठिन kathina - a. hard, firm, solid; severe; cruel, hard-hearted.
Pal: {ka.HTi.na.} - UHS-PMD0280
  UKT from UHS: mfn. difficult, tense, hard, rigid. n. partition, bund or embankment of a water tank or reservoir, Kathina robes for Buddhist monk.

See my note on Kathina



कठिनय [ kathina-ya ]
- den. P. harden.



कठिनी [ kathin- ]
- f. chalk.



[kathin-kri ]
- harden



कठुर [ kathura ]
- a. harsh (= kathora).



- f. N. of an Upanishad



कठोर [ kathora ]
- a. hard, firm, solid; sharp, cutting (wind); piercing (cry); hard-hearted; luxuriant: -m, ad.; -kitta, a. hard-hearted: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -t, f. hardness; -trdhipa, m. full moon.


कठोर [ kathora ]
- a. hard, firm, solid; sharp, cutting (wind); piercing (cry); hard-hearted; luxuriant: -- Mac061c2
Pal: {ka.HTau:ra.} - UHS-PMD0280
  UKT from UHS: mfn. hard, sharp, rough



कठोरय [ kathora-ya ]
- den. P. make luxuriant.

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कड [ kad ]
- a. dumb.



कडार [ kadra ]
- a. tan-coloured.

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कण [ kn-a ]
- m. a grain; drop; flake, spark; little bit; -pa, m. kind of spear; -vhin, a. wafting drops, moist; -sas, ad. in minute portions.


कण [ kn-a ]
Skt: कण [ kn-a ] - m. a grain; drop; flake, spark; little bit; -- Mac061c2
BHS: kaṇa - m. (= Pal id.; app. not in this sense in Skt., where mg. is kernel etc.), the red coating between the kernel and the husk of rice : -- FE-BHS165c2
Pal: {ka.Na.}  - UHS-PMD0280
  UKT from UHS: m. rice bran, broken rice. mfn. what is made of bran, minute



कणाटीर [ kantra ]
- m. wagtail.



कणाद kanda
- m. N. of the founder of the Vaiseshika or atomic school of philosophy.

See my notes on Kanada कणाद Kanada Rishi & Atomic Theory
 Vaisheshika or वैशॆषिक vaiśeṣika {w-sh-Si.ka.} 



कणान्न [ kana‿anna ]
- a. subsisting on grains: -t, f. abst. ɴ.



कणिक [ kan-ika ]
- m. little drop; , f. id.; little bit.



कणिश [ kanisa ]
Skt: कणिश [ kanisa ] - m. ear (of corn). - Mac061c2
Pal: {ka.Ni.a.}
- - UHS-PMD0280
  UKT from UHS: rice stalks or sheaves of rice stalks



कणूकय [ kankaya ]
- den. P. be in distress.

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कण्टक [ knta-ka ]
= क ण ् ट क
Skt: कण्टक kantaka - m. thorn; fish-bone; social pest, enemy; obstacle; N. of an Agrahra [UKT: अग्रहार agra-hara 'land-grant to Brhmans' ]; -bhug, m. camel.


कण्टक [ knta-ka ]
Skt: कण्टक [ knta-ka ] - m. thorn; fish-bone; social pest, enemy; obstacle; N. of an Agrahra -- Mac061c2
Pal: {kN~Ta.ka.} - UHS-PMD0281
  UKT from UHS: m. thorn, obstacle, barrier, enemy, hair-raising fright



कण्टकित [ kantak-ita ]
- pp. thorny; w. bristling hair; -in, a. thorny.



कण्टकिद्रुम [ kantaki-druma ]
- m. a tree; -vriksha, m. kind of thorny tree.



- m. N. of an Agrahra

UKT 140211: Agrahra is a Brahmin village. 



कण्ठ [ kanth ]
- m. neck, throat; proximity (a. -- , f. , ); -ka, m. necklace; -ga, a. reaching to the neck; -gata, pp. attached to the neck; being in the throat = about to escape (breath); -graha, m., -na, n. embrace.



कण्ठनाल [ kantha-nla ]
- n. stalk-like neck; -prvrita, n. neck covering; -bhshana, n., -bhsh, f. necklace; -vartin, a. being in the throat = about to escape (breath); -stra, n. kind of embrace; -sthal, f. neck.



- travelling bag



कण्ठाश्््लेष [ kantha‿slesha ]
- m. embrace.



कण्ठिका [ kanth-ik ]
- f. necklace.



कण्ठीरव [ kanth-rava ]
- m. lion.



कण्ठय [ knth-ya ]
- a. being on or in the throat; good for the throat; guttural.



कण्डन [ kand-ana ]
- n. shelling, husking; -an, f. mortar.



- f., generally  kand- . f. itching, scratching; violent desire for (-); -ura , -ula , a. itching; -ti , f. itching, tickling; wantonness (p061c2end)


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कण्डूय [ kand-ya ]
- den. P. scratch: . itch; -yana, n. itching, scratching: -ka, a. titillating; -yitri, m. scratcher.



कण्डूल [ kand-la ]
Skt: कण्डूल kandula - a. itching. - Mac061c3
Pal: {kN~du.la.} - UHS-PMD0281
  UKT from UHS: m. [kind of bamboo?], Dalbergia ovata  - MED2006-335



कण्डोल [ kandola ]
- m. reed basket.



कण्व [ knva ]
- m. N. of a Rishi: pl. his descendants; -vt, ad. like Kanva.

UKT 110831, 170130: "Kanva कण्व kṇva was an ancient Hindu rishi of the Treta yuga, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed. ... " - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanva 170130

Rishi Kanva was also the rhisi who found Shakuntala शकुन्तला
(= श क ु न ् त ल ा  {sha.koan~ta.la}) in the forest protected by Shakunta birds शकुन्त, śakunta. Therefore he named her Shakuntala 'Shakunta-protected'.
-- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shakuntala 110831


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कतक [kataka]  
Skt: कतक [kataka] - m. a tree, the nut of which is used for clarifying water. - Mac061c3
Pal: {ka.ta.ka.} - UHS-PMD0283 
  UKT: the plant given by UHS {hka.pan:} can be either 
  Strychnos nux-blanda Loganiaceae, or Strychnos nux-vomica Loganiaceae .

See: Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
-- MP-LSR-indx.htm > Agri2000-indx.htm > {hka.} (link chk 170130)
entry 11-0270 {hka.pan:} Strychnine tree, and entry 11-0271 {hka.pan:} Poison nut tree, Nux-vomica tree.
UKT 170131: The active poison in the nut is the alkaloid Strychnine. It is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strychnine 170131



कतम [ ka-tam ]
Skt: कतम katama - inter. prn. who? what? which? (of many); -tar, inter. prn. who? which? (of two).

कतम [ ka-tam ]
Skt: कतम [ ka-tam ] - inter. prn. who? what? which? (of many); - Mac061c3
Pal: {ka.ta.ma.} - UHS-PMD0284
  UKT from UHS: mfn. what?



कति [ k-ti ]
- inter. prn. how many? indef. some: usually with kid and api.
Pal: {ka.ti.} - UHS-PMD0285
  UKT from UHS: . how much? . f. what is done



कतिपय [ kati-pay ]
- a. () some, a few: *in., ab. (with pp.) with some trouble, only just; -kusuma, a. having a few blossoms; -rtram, ad. some days (lit. nights); -‿aha: g. after some days; in. some days (before or after).



कतिविध [ kati-vidha ]
- a. of how many kinds? - saṅkhya, a. of what number?



कतीमुष [ kat-musha ]
- m. N. of an Agrahara [UKT: a Brahmin village]


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= क त ् थ ्
- i. . (p.) boast; praise; blame, disparage. vi , boast (of, in. ); disparage, humble with (in.); cs. humble; boast



कत्थन [ katth-ana ]
- a. boasting; n. boasting.



कत्पयम्् [ kat-paym ]
- ad. somehow.

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कथंरूप [ katham-rpa ]
- a. of what appearance?



कथक [ katha-ka ]
- a. telling; m. narrator.



कथंजातीयक [ katham-gtya-ka ]
- a. of what kind?



कथन [ kath-ana ]
- n. narration, communication, mention, report; -anya, fp. to be related; worthy of mention.



कथम्् [ ka-thm ]
- ad. how? whence? why? with pot. or impv. (sts. ind.) how could, would, or should ? with m and aor. how should not --? sts. exclamation, what! sts. weakened to a simple interrogative = nonne or num? with n, how, I wonder? how much more? with neg. how much less? with iva, how so? why pray? with nma, svid, how pray? why I wonder? with kana, by no means: generally strengthened by preceding negative; with kid and api (not till Klidsa) indef. in some way, by some means, somehow or other, by accident; with difficulty, only just, scarcely
(katham often repeated); a. little, somewhat; with neg. in no manner, by no means; yath katham kid, in whatever manner; in any way.



कथंभूत [ katham-bhta ]
- pp. of what kind?



कथय [ katha-ya ]
- den. P. (.) converse, with (in. saha); relate, tell, report; speak of; declare, state; announce, betray; command; assume, lay down; ps. be called, pass for. vi, talk idly. sam, relate, report; explain.



कथयितव्य [ kathay-itavya ]
- fp. to be told.

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कथा [ 1. ka-th&asharp; ]
- inter. ad. how? whence? why? yth kath ka, howsoever.



कथा [ 2. kath- ]
- f. conversation, talk, discussion about (lc., --); story, tale (about, g. or -- ); mention, statement; Story (personified); k kath, it is not a question of --, -is out of the question, to say nothing of (g., lc., or prati); k‿esh kath, how could there be a question about it? = it is out of the question.



कथाक्रम [ kath-krama ]
- m. continuous conversation; discourse; story, tale.



कथानक [ kathna-ka ]
- n. short story, tale. (end p061c3end)

( end of old p064-4.htm )

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UKT notes

Brihaspati - Planet Jupiter

- UKT 120820, 151108, 170127

My first view of clear skies was in Mandalay. In Kungyangon in the Irrawaddy Delta, where I was born, for more than half the year the night skies were cloudy. It wasn't better in Yangon. Even before my transfer to Mandalay I had studied Hindu Astrology. And so I became acquainted with Jupiter the Astrological Planet {groh} 'seizer - one who holds a human in bondage'. Then after my arrival in Mandalay, I started looking at the night sky. I learned how to identify the fixed stars and the moving planets. The Astronomical Planet Jupiter is not as prominent as Venus, nor as Mars the ruddy planet. According to Wikipedia, it appears on the average the third brightest object after the Moon and Venus in the night sky.

Now with my study of Sanskrit written in Devanagari script, I am learning about the Hindu god Jupiter - the teacher of the Deva-gods named बृहस्पति {kra-a.pa.t: groh-mn:} who teaches Deva-gods. In Indigenous Bur-Myan Astrology {ma.ha-Boat}, he is not a Deva-god. He rules over peoples' lives from the West riding on a mouse. You should refer to the following:
Nine Gods in Folk Elements in Buddhism
  -- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch02.htm (link chk 170127)
Astronomical Planet Jupiter - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter 151108

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%E1%B9%9Bhaspati 151108

Bṛhaspati , बृहस्पति {kra-a.pa.t: groh-mn:}, often written as Brihaspati or Bruhaspati, is a Hindu god described as being of yellow or golden color and holding the following divine attributes: a stick, a lotus and beads. He presides over Thursday. [1]


My training in Hindu Astrology aka Vedic Astrology has introduced me to many Sanskrit terms. My interest in Skt-Dev is due not only to the Hindu religion (which is the worship of Devas and Mahadevas, and which should be called "Devaism"), but also to Hindu astrology. Now an added interest is its linguistic relation to Pal-Myan and to Bur-Myan. Hindu astrology is quite popular in Myanmarpr where the population -- be they Buddhists, Christians and even Muslims -- are steeped in various forms of astrology. I was earning a side-income as an astrologer and palmist at one time. My specialization is Astakavarga - loosely translated as the "strengths of eight planets".

Based on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brihaspati 120820

In Jyotisha - the Hindu astrology - Bṛhaspati, the guru of the Dvas, is the name for the Planet Jupiter, which is one of the Navagraha (the nine Planets). In astrology, by "planet" is meant the guardian or god, and not necessarily the astronomical planet, because of which I usually capitalize the P in planet. It is also known as Guru, Cura and Devaguru. Bṛhaspati is considered to be the greatest benefic of any of the planets. Guru rules over the Rasi signs Dhanu (Sagittarius) and Meena (Pisces). He is exalted in Karka (Cancer) and is debilitated fall in Makara (Capricorn). The Sun, Moon and Mars are considered friendly to Bṛhaspati, Mercury is hostile and Saturn is neutral. Shukra शुक्र śukra is the guru of the Asuras

UKT: Much more in the Wikipedia article.

My conclusion as of the present (120820, 170127): The Hindu astrology is a discipline independent of the worship of devas and asuras. In Myanmarpr, we have another astrological discipline, the Mahaboat, which had probably belonged to the Tibeto-Burmans, the original natives of the Indic continent extending into Myanmarpr. Though common terms are used, there is no connection between the astrology of Indo-Aryans and Tib-Bur. Of course, the Hindu-religionists with their Grab-God policy would not agree with me -- they would seize a language term and say it is related somehow to their Devas and Asuras who are always at war with each other. The Asuras got the upper-hand in Persia, and the Devas got the upper-hand in India. In Myanmarpr they are just {nt} - the equivalents of Greek-Roman "man'es".

There are another group of worship-ables, Thirty-seven Nats and their worship is quite wide-spread in Myanmarpr. Their priests and priestesses also tell the "future", and their practice usually got mixed up with other forms of astrology. Their "holiest sites" are at Mount Popa {poap~pa:} and village of Taungbyon {tan-pron}. The worship of Nat {nt} is "reluctantly" condoned by the Buddhist clergy, because it is alleged that they are Theravada Buddhists, and that some of them kept Sabbath. This observation has made me suspect that the religion of the Brahmins aka Poonas was imported from the outside into the area of Tib-Bur speaking people who were living just south of the Himalayas extending into the present-day Myanmarpr.

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Danava Asura

-- UKT 110819:

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danava_Hinduism  110819

In Vedic mythology the Danavas were a race of the Asuras.

The Danavas were the sons of Danu, who in turn was a daughter of Daksha. Danu is connected with the waters of heavens and she is probably asocciated with the formless, primordial waters that existed prior to the creation. The name is connected with the PIE [Proto-Indo-European] root *danu, "river" or "any flowing liquid". The Danavas revolted against the gods [Deva] under the leadership of Bali [1] and others, but were defeated. [2] In the Rig Veda, nearly all the demons [non-Deva] described as being defeated by the Devas are Danavas.

After their defeat, the Danavas were cast into the deepest oceans and locked there forever by Indra, [1] or sometimes Rudra. [3]

In Buddhism where they are known as the "bow-wielding" Dānaveghasa Asuras.

Historical basis

Some argue for an historical basis for the Vedic stories, and that the Danavas, and other defeated beings (Rakshasas, Gandharvas, Nagas, et cetera) were non-Aryan tribes. This is supported by non-Vedic legends and mythologies, for example Naga legends. [4] [3] [5] [6] Rightly or wrongly, some scholars identified the Danavas in the Mahabharata with the Indus Valley Civilization, the builders of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. [7]

UKT 110819, 141006: My interest in the builders of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, are because they were supposed to be a people without writing skill or script - yet they were able to build huge cities some of which were larger than those of the cotemporary civilization of the Euphrates-Tigris and Nile valleys. My conjecture is that they do have writing skills, but they use ideographs instead of our familiar abugidas and alphabets. My interest is aroused because of the similarity of Bur-Myan In { n:} 'Yantra' such as {sa.Da.ba.wa. n:} which I have interpreted as "the way of perfection from an imperfect beginning".
   Read also a Wikipedia article:
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India  110819,
   particularly on  Naga .

Now compare the story of the "illiterate" builders of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, to what is now accepted by the "scholars" (Western as well as Western-trained Myanmar) as the Burmese who had to get their writing skill from the Mons of the south who had got their writing skill earlier from some south Indian peoples. If so, my question is how come Myanmar akshara {ta.} has gone to the country of Georgia and has become a part of the name Tbilisi - the capital of Georgia.

I urge our Western-trained Myanmars to come up with a better explanation than what they have been told by the Colonial British historians who I accused had a self-interest to make our forefathers barbarians only fit to be slaves -- Sudras -- to the British Raj.

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-- UKT 110830, 170129

In various searches on Google, I came across
- kaṭāha dvīpa 'copper or cauldron island ?'
- yāvaka dvīpa 'barley island' - the island of Java: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java 170129
See also:  Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipa 150928


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvipa 110830

In Indian mythology, dvīpa (Skt: द्वीप "peninsula, island"; also mahadvipa "great island") is the term for the major divisions of the terrestrial sphere, sometimes translated as "continents". There are either 7, 4 or 13 or 18 dvipas. The list of seven (sapta-dvipa) is (e.g. Mahabharata 6.604 = Bhagavad Gita 5.20.3-42):

1. Jambu ("rose apple tree")
2. Plaksha ("fig tree")
3. Go-medaka (a gem)
4. Shalmali (a river of the infernal region)
5. Kusha ("grass")
6. Kraunca ("of curlews")
7. Shaka ("power", also "of the Saka")
8. Pushkara ("lotus")

Seven intermediate oceans consist of salt-water, sugarcane juice, wine, ghee, curd, milk and water respectively.[1],[2]

The list of four is (e.g. Mahabharata 6.208)

1. Bhadrashva
2. Ketumalla
3. Jambudvipa
4. Uttara Kurava

The list of 13 adds nine to the four above: Indra-dvipa, Kaseru-mat, Tamra-varna, Gabhasti-mat, Naga-dvipa, Saumya, Gandharva, Varuna and Bharata (Vishnu Purana 2.3.6f.)

They are situated round the Mount Meru, and separated from each other by distinct concentric circumambient oceans. The intermediate oceans consist of salt-water, sugarcane juice, wine, ghee, curd, milk and water respectively.[1],[2]

See also:
"The land of Jambu Dvipa is surrounded by the salty waters of the ocean." See the downloaded page rendered into HTML. - www.ipsgeneva.com/Esoteric%20Studies/Vishnu%20Purana/Vishnu47.rtf  110830

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-- UKT 110819

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heron 110819

The herons are long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the Ardeidae family. There are 64 recognised species in this family. Some are called egrets or bitterns instead of herons. Within the family, all members of the genera Botaurus and Ixobrychus are referred to as bitterns, andincluding the Zigzag Heron or Zigzag Bitternare a monophyletic group within the Ardeidae. However, egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons, and tend to be named differently because they are mainly white and/or have decorative plumes. Although egrets have the same build as the larger herons, they tend to be smaller.

The classification of the individual heron/egret species is fraught with difficulty, and there is still no clear consensus about the correct placement of many species into either of the two major genera, Ardea and Egretta. Similarly, the relationship of the genera in the family is not completely resolved. However, one species formerly considered to constitute a separate monotypic family Cochlearidae, the Boat-billed Heron, is now regarded as a member of the Ardeidae.

Although herons resemble birds in some other families, such as the storks, ibises and spoonbills, they differ from these in flying with their necks retracted, not outstretched. They are also one of the bird groups that have powder down.

Some members of this group nest colonially in trees; others, notably the bitterns, use reedbeds.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

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Hungry ghost

- UKT 150928

We have heard of the Chinese demons known as Hungry Ghosts. How are they depicted in Bur-Myan mythology? R.C. Temple describes them as {prait~ta} {a.u-ra.kaa}. However it must be noted that {prait~ta} and {a.u-ra.kaa} are two different beings. {prait~ta} is a hungry ghost, whereas {a.u-ra.kaa} are of higher status. They enjoy royal lives at night, but are tormented in day-time. They are like stage-players who played kings and queens on the stage at night, but find themselves struggling with low income in real life.

Another entity is an ancestor or parent who had been, while living, the guardian of his or her children, and who died with a desire to guard the progeny even from a next life - remember, as a scientist I regard the "next life" just an axiom, or something which cannot be proven by modern science.

These guardian spirits cannot be described as "evil". Belief in them seems to be pre-Buddhist of the Tib-Bur speakers. The comparison should be to the Roman Man'es or Bur-Myan house-hold tutelary gods known as Nats {nt}. Of course, to the Christian preachers and their likes who believe unproven axioms themselves, they are "devils".

See Roman man'es Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manes 150928

"In ancient Roman religion, the Manes /ˈmeɪniːz/ or Di Manes are chthonic deities sometimes thought to represent souls of deceased loved ones. ... The Manes were honored during the Parentalia ["ancestral days" was a nine-day festival held in honor of family ancestors, beginning February 13] and Feralia [celebrated on 21 February] in February."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preta 150928

Preta is the Sanskrit name for a type of supernatural being described in some Indian religions as undergoing suffering greater than that of humans, particularly an extreme level of hunger and thirst. Preta is often translated into English as "hungry ghost" from the Chinese adaptation. In early sources such as the Petavatthu, they are much more varied. The descriptions below apply mainly in this narrower context.

Pretas are believed to have been false, corrupted, compulsive, deceitful, jealous or greedy people in a previous life. As a result of their karma, they are afflicted with an insatiable hunger for a particular substance or object. Traditionally, this is something repugnant or humiliating, such as cadavers or feces, though in more recent stories, it can be anything, however bizarre. [1]

The Sanskrit term preta means "departed, deceased, a dead person", from pra-ita, literally "gone forth, departed". In Classical Sanskrit, the term refers to the spirit of any dead person, but especially before the obsequial rites are performed, but also more narrowly to a ghost or evil being. [2] The Sanskrit term was taken up in Buddhism to describe one of six possible states of rebirth. The Chinese term egui (餓鬼), literally "starving ghost", is thus not a literal translation of the Sanskrit term.

Pretas are invisible to the human eye, but some believe they can be discerned by humans in certain mental states. They are described as human-like, but with sunken, mummified skin, narrow limbs, enormously distended bellies and long, thin necks. This appearance is a metaphor for their mental situation: they have enormous appetites, signified by their gigantic bellies, but a very limited ability to satisfy those appetites, symbolized by their slender necks.

Pretas are often depicted in Japanese art (particularly that from the Heian period) as emaciated human beings with bulging stomachs and inhumanly small mouths and throats. They are frequently shown licking up spilled water in temples or accompanied by demons representing their personal agony. Otherwise they may be shown as balls of smoke or fire.

Pretas dwell in the waste and desert places of the earth, and vary in situation according to their past karma. Some of them can eat a little, but find it very difficult to find food or drink. Others can find food and drink, but find it very difficult to swallow. Others find that the food they eat seems to burst into flames as they swallow it. Others see something edible or drinkable and desire it but it withers or dries up before their eyes. As a result, they are always hungry.

In addition to hunger, pretas suffer from immoderate heat and cold; they find that even the moon scorches them in the summer, while the sun freezes them in the winter.

The sufferings of the pretas often resemble those of the dwellers in hell, and the two types of being are easily confused. The simplest distinction is that beings in hell are confined to their subterranean world, while pretas are free to move about.

Pretas are generally seen as little more than nuisances to mortals unless their longing is directed toward something vital, such as blood. However, in some traditions, pretas try to prevent others from satisfying their own desires by means of magic, illusions, or disguises. They can also turn invisible or change their faces to frighten mortals.

Generally, however, pretas are seen as beings to be pitied. Thus, in some Buddhist monasteries, monks leave "offerings" of food, money, or flowers to them before meals.

UKT 170129: The word "offerings" is inappropriate. These offertories are given not to supplicate in form of prayer. These are "given" out of pity.

In Japan, preta is translated as gaki (Japanese: 餓鬼, "hungry ghost"), a borrowing from Chinese e gui (Chinese: 餓鬼 , "hungry ghost").

Since 657, some Japanese Buddhists have observed a special day in mid-August to remember the gaki. Through such offerings and remembrances (segaki), it is believed that the hungry ghosts may be released from their torment.

In the modern Japanese language, the word gaki is often used to mean spoiled child, or brat. In a game of tag, the person who is "it" may be known as the gaki.

In Hinduism Pretas are very real beings. They are a form, a body consisting only of air and Akaash (Sky or Black matter or space), two of the five elements which constitutes a body on Earth or any other planet i.e. Air, Water, Dark Matter (Space) Energy, Fire and Earth.

UKT 170129: I interpret Akaash as Energy or photons. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_element 170129

There are other forms as per the Karma or actions of previous lives where a soul takes birth in bodies resembling human forms or forms of the main intelligent entity in a planet, but with a unique difference that is absence of one to three elements. In Hinduism an Atma or Soul is bound to take rebirth after death in a body composed of five or more elements. A soul in transient mode is pure and its existence is comparable to that of a Deva (divine being) but in the last form of physical birth. The elements except Akaash or Sky or Black matter as defined is the common constituent throughout the Universe and the balance four are common to the properties of the planets or stars or places of birth. This is the reason that Pretas cannot eat or drink as the rest of the three elements (Earth, Fire, and Water) are missing hence no digestion or physical intake is possible for them.

In Thailand Pret (Thai: เปรต) are hungry ghosts of the Buddhist tradition that have become part of the Thai folklore, but are described as being abnormally tall. [3]

UKT: End of Wiki article

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Kanada Rishi & Atomic Theory

-- UKT 110831, 170130
As a young chemistry lecturer, while presenting the Dalton's Atomic Theory (18th century AD) and others to my students, I usually cite the case of Democritus (c. 460 c. 370 BC) to emphasize that the ancients even though lacking the present-day (stretching back into the 18th century) instruments had developed many interesting theories using what was at hand: keen observation, concentrated mind and logic. The emphasis is always on the concentrated mind which could be developed using yogic methods of Thamahta and Wipathana whether they be Buddhists, Hindus, or believers of Axiomatic religions.

Inset: Gautama Buddha preaching to Kasibharadvaja: 1. 4 Kasībhāradvājasuttaṃ : To the Plowing Bharadvaja.
- http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.1.04.than.html 140211
- See PTS: Sn 76-82 140211

I urged them to get into the habit of observing keenly of what surrounds us. To think on a subject without any distraction. And to use logic. Set aside what they have already heard from respected persons, get rid of ideas just because they appeal to you. However, my advice is usually not heeded: they just memorise everything that was taught - just to pass the exam. The result is they are as ignorant as before: they just use the passing certificate to get a job!

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanada 110831

It has been claimed that [Rishi] Kashyapa, later known as Kanada (Skt: कणाद; also transliterated as Canada as well as other forms) was a Hindu sage and philosopher who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. [1] He talked of Dvyanuka (biatomic molecule) and tryanuka (triatomic molecule). He probably lived around the 2nd century BCE, [2] while other sources claim he lived in the 6th Century BC. [3] [4] It is believed that he was born in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India.

His primary area of study was Rasavādam, considered to be a type of alchemy. He is said to have believed that all living beings are composed of five elements: water, fire, earth, air, ether. Vegetables have only water, insects have water and fire, birds have water, fire, earth and air, and Humans, the top of the creation, have ether - the sense of discrimination (time, space, mind) are one. He theorized that Gurutva was responsible for the falling of objects on the Earth.

Many believe that Kanada originated the concept of atom. An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand. As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence. He called that indivisible matter as ' Anu ' .i.e. atom.

Adherents of the school of philosophy founded by Kanada considered the atom to be indestructible, and hence eternal. They believed atoms to be minute objects invisible to the naked eye which come into being and vanish in an instant. This Indian concept of the atom was developed independently [5] and possibly prior (depending on which dates one accepts for the life of Kanada) to the development of the idea in the Greco-Roman world. Indian theories about the atom are greatly abstract and enmeshed in philosophy as they were based on logic and not on personal experience or experimentation. Thus the Indian theories lacked an empirical base, but in the words of A.L. Basham, the veteran Australian Indologist they were brilliant imaginative explanations of the physical structure of the world, and in a large measure, agreed with the discoveries of modern physics. [6]

According to author Dilip M. Salwi, "if Kanadas sutras are analysed, one would find that his atomic theory was far more advanced than those forwarded later by the Greek philosophers, Leucippus and Democritus." [7]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Katha Upanishad

-- UKT 110831, 140210

Many months ago, when I downloaded Katha Upanishad कठ उपनिषद्  = क ठ उ प न ि ष द ् --> {ka.Hta.}  {U.pa.ni.Sd} , I was not prepared to give its akshara-to-akshara rendition in Skt-Myan. I have dealt with Skt-Myan {U.pa.ni.Sd} or Pal-Myan {U.pa.ni.a} in -- MC-v09-indx.htm

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katha_Upanishad 110831

The Katha Upanishad (कठ उपनिषद्) (Kaṭhopaniṣad , also Kāṭhaka), also titled "Death as Teacher", is one of the mukhya ("primary") Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. [UKT ]

UKT 140210: See a movie on Shankara: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoIomFriTwM 140210

It is associated with the Cāraka-Kaṭha school of the Black Yajurveda, and is grouped with the Sutra period of Vedic Sanskrit. It is a middle Upanishad. It contains passages that suggest contact with Buddhist ideas, so was likely composed after the fifth century BCE. [1] [2] It figures as number 3 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. It consists of two chapters (adhyāyas), each divided into three sections (vallis) that contain between 15 and 29 verses (ślokas) apiece. The Katha has some passages in common with the Gita. According to modern scholars, it propounds a dualistic philosophy. [3]

Katha may be the most widely known amongst all the Upanishads; its early Persian translations first found their way into Europe. Max Mller translated it 1879, Edwin Arnold rendered it in verse, as "The Secret of Death" and Ralph Waldo Emerson gave the central story at the end of his essay, Immortality. Central to the text is the story of Nachiketa, son of sage Vajasravasa, and his encounter with Yama, Hindu God of death [4]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Kahtina aka Kathina : {ka.HTi.na.}

-- UKT 120123:

The transcription <thi> is misleading because <th> stands for phoneme /θ/ not for the allophone of /t/, and I am obliged to change the spelling to "Kahtina".

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathina 120123

Kathina [{ka.HTi.na.} is a Buddhist festival which comes at the end of Vassa, the three-month rainy season retreat for Theravada Buddhists. [1] The season during which a monastery may hold a Kathina festival is one month long, beginning after the full moon of the eleventh month in the Lunar calendar (usually October).

It is a time of giving, for the laity to express gratitude to monks. [2] [3] Lay Buddhists bring donations to temples, especially new robes for the monks. [2] [3] [1]


UKT: I dispute the following from Wikipedia.

"As the legend goes, thirty bhikkhus were journeying with the intention of spending Vassa with Gautama Buddha. [1] However, Vassa began before they reached their destination and they had to stop. [1] [4] According to Buddha's guidelines for Vassa, mendicant monks shouldn't travel during the rainy season as they may unintentionally harm crops and/or insects during their journey. [5] As such, the monks had to stop. [1] [4].

"Afterwards, the Buddha rewarded the monks by demonstrating a way to practice sharing and generosity. A lay disciple had previously donated cloth to the Buddha, so the Buddha now gave that cloth to the group of monks and told them to make it into a robe and then offer it as a gift to one of them. A frame, called a Kathina, was used to spread the robe while it was being made [1] [4]."

UKT: The origin as told in Myanmar is as follows. [I hope to confirm it later.]

A group of monks came to see the Buddha at the end of the Buddhist Lent. On the way, they were in a thunderstorm and their robes were torn and fully soaked. Buddha's step mother, with her attendants, made robes for them over night. Their labour involved dying and spinning the cotton, making threads, and weaving the cloth. They cut it up into individual robes, cut into smaller pieces as prescribed the Viniya rules and sewed them together. It had to be done in one single night. Individual robes are offered at dawn to the monks.

This procedure (a very difficult and strenuous one) is repeated every year by village girls on their hand looms. A competition is held every year on the platform of the Shwdagon Pagoda by five groups of girls. The finished robes, five in number, are ceremoniously carried around the platform and offered to the five Buddha images.

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-- UKT 110831

Just because you see the word "Atomic", don't think it is a scientific theory. Its conclusions are based on logic which as we all know depend on the axioms on which it is based. Vaiśeṣika, वैशॆषिक {w-sh-Si.ka} is just philosophy.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaisheshika 110831

Vaisheshika, or Vaiśeṣika, (Skt: वैशॆषिक) is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. Historically, it has been closely associated with the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya.

Vaisheshika espouses a form of atomism and postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms. Originally proposed by the sage Kaṇāda (or Kana-bhuk, literally, atom-eater) around the 2nd century BC.[1]


Although the Vaisheshika system developed independently from the Nyaya, the two eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories. In its classical form, however, the Vaishesika school differed from the Nyaya in one crucial respect: where Nyaya accepted four sources of valid knowledge, the Vaishesika accepted only perception and inference. Although not among Kanada's original philosophies,[2] later Vaishesika atomism also differs from the atomic theory of modern science by claiming the functioning of atoms (or their characterization because of which they function in their way) was guided or directed by the will of the Supreme Being. This is therefore a theistic form of atomism.

An alternative view would qualify the above in that the holism evident in the ancient texts mandate the identification of six separate traditional environments of philosophy, consisting of three sets of two pairs.

Literature of Vaisheshika

The earliest systematic exposition of the Vaisheshika is found in the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra of Kaṇāda (or Kaṇabhaksha). This treatise is divided into ten books. The two commentaries on the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, Rāvaṇabhāṣya and Bhāradvājavṛtti are no more extant. Praśastapādas Padārthadharmasaṁgraha (c. 4th century) is the next important work of this school. Though commonly known as bhāṣya of Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, this treatise is basically an independent work on the subject. The next Vaisheshika treatise, Candras Daśapadārthaśāstra (648) based on Praśastapādas treatise is available only in Chinese translation. The earliest commentary available on Praśastapādas treatise is Vyomaśivas Vyomavatī (8th century). The other three commentaries are Śridharas Nyāyakandalī (991), Udayanas Kiranāvali (10th century) and Śrivatsas Līlāvatī (11th century). Śivādityas Saptapadārthī which also belongs to the same period, presents the Nyāya and the Vaiśeṣika principles as a part of one whole. Śaṁkarā Miśras Upaskāra on Vaiśeṣika Sūtra is also an important work. [3]

The categories of Padārtha

According to the Vaisheshika school, all things which exist, which can be cognised, and which can be named are padārthas (literal meaning: the meaning of a word), the objects of experience. All objects of experience can be classified into six categories, [UKT ]

#1. dravya (substance), #2. guṇa (quality), #3. karma (activity),
#4. sāmānya (generality), #5. viśeṣa (particularity), and, #6. samavāya (inherence).

Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhāva (non-existence). The first three categories are defined as artha (which can perceived) and they have real objective existence. The last three categories are defined as budhyapekṣam (product of intellectual discrimination) and they are logical categories. [4]

1. Dravya (substance):

UKT personal note: Is this what we call {drp} 'Matter' in modern Chemistry and Physics?
   English was the medium of instruction in the university in the 1950s. Rangoon University was the only university when I started teaching as an assistant lecturer in Chemistry: Mandalay was still a college.
   Burma had regained her independence from the British, and there was movement to change the medium of instruction from English to Bur-Myanmar. We in the Chemistry department had a hand in the change: we even had an assistant lecturer and a demonstrator working full time for the change.
   The assistant lecturer was U Khin Maung Myint and the demonstrator was his wife Daw Than Than (1) aka Rosie Thein. Incidentally, my wife was also a demonstrator in Chemistry, and as she also named Daw Than Than, numeral #2 was suffixed to her name because she was junior in service. My wife, before we were married was also a "Rosie" - Rosie Maung Gyi, and there was always confusion between the two because both the husbands were Assistant lecturers in Chemistry. In order to prevent a mix up Mrs. Khin Maung Myint was called Daw Than Than (1) aka Daw Rosie Thein, and my wife was Daw Than Than (2) aka Daw Rosie Maung Gyi.
   We usually go back to Pali-Myan to look for words, and {drb} was the one we picked for 'Matter'. Eventually, it has been changed into {drp}.

{drp} - n matter; substance. MED2010-CD

Matter in the modern sense must have 'mass'. And between two bodies of mass we have gravitational attraction, because of which we can 'weigh' a body of mass on Earth. The measured quantity is known as 'weight'. All modern school children know the difference between 'mass' and 'weight'. - UKT110831

The substances are conceived as 9 in number. They are, [UKT ]

#1. pṛthvī (earth),
#2. ap (water),
#3. tejas (fire),
#4. vāyu (air),
#5. ākaśa (ether),
   UKT: Philogistan and its theory (postulated in 1667 by Johann Joachim Becher), probably originated from this word. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlogiston_theory 110831

#6. kāla (time),
#7. dik (space),
#8. ātman (self) and
#9. manas (mind).

The first five are called bhūtas, the substances having some specific qualities so that they could be perceived by one or the other external senses. [5]

UKT personal view : We can view the first four as 'matter', and the fifth as 'energy'. Matter has not only mass but occupies space. And Time (in the modern sense) must be added to describe the location of subatomic particles such as an electron. This is the fundamental of modern Relativity Theory. It is interesting that the ancients have added the sixth kāla  'time'. This is what I understand by 'Reality'. To perceive this 'Reality', an entity such as U Kyaw Tun must have an #8. ātman (self) and #9. manas (mind). To me both #8 and #9 are changing all the time, and I cannot find a 'permanent Atta'. And therefore I am a Theravada Buddhist - a perceiver of 'Anatta'. - UKT110831.

2. Guṇa (quality):
The Vaiśeṣika Sūtra mentions 17 guṇas (qualities), to which Praśastapāda added another 7. While a substance is capable of existing independently by itself, a guṇa (quality) cannot exist so. The original 17 guṇas (qualities) are, [UKT ]

#01. rūpa (colour), #02. rasa (taste), #03. gandha (smell),
#04. sparśa (touch), #05. saṁkhyā (number), #06.  parimāṇa (size/dimension/quantity),
#07. pṛthaktva (inidividuality), #08. saṁyoga (conjunction/ accompaniments),
#09. vibhāga (disjunction), #10. paratva (priority), #11. aparatva (posteriority),
#12. buddhi (knowledge), #13. sukha (pleasure), #14. duḥkha (pain),
#15. icchā (desire), #16. dveṣa (aversion), and #17.  prayatna (effort).

To these Praśastapāda added gurutva (heaviness), dravatva (fluidity), sneha (viscosity), dharma (merit), adharma (demerit), śabda (sound) and saṁkāsra (faculty).[6]

3. Karma (activity):
The karmas (activities) like guṇas (qualities) have no separate existence, they belong to the substances. But while a quality is a permanent feature of a substance, an activity is a transient one. Ākaśa (ether), kāla (time), dik (space) and ātman (self), though substances, are devoid of karma (activity).[7]

4. Sāmānya (generality):
Since there are plurality of substances, there will be relations among them. When a property is found common to many substances, it is called sāmānya.[8]

5. Viśeṣa (particularity):
By means of viśeṣa , we are able to perceive substances as different from one another. As the ultimate atoms are innumerable so are the viśeṣas.[9]

6. Samavāya (inherence):
Kaṇāda defined samavāya as the relation between the cause and the effect. Praśastapāda defined it as the relationship existing between the substances that are inseparable, standing to one another in the relation of the container and the contained. The relation of samavāya is not perceivable but only inferable from the inseparable connection of the substances. [10]

Epistemology and syllogism

The early vaiśeṣika epistemology considered only pratyaksha (perception) and anumāna (inference) as the pramaṇas (means of valid knowledge). The other two means of valid knowledge accepted by the Nyaya school, upamāna (comparison) and śabda (verbal testimony) were considered as included in anumāna.[11] The syllogism of the vaiśeṣika school was similar to that of the Nyaya, but the names given by Praśastapāda to the 5 members of syllogism are different.[12]

The Atomic Theory

The early vaiśeṣika texts presented the following syllogism to prove that all objects i.e. the four bhūtas, pṛthvī (earth), ap (water), tejas (fire) and vāyu (air) are made of indivisible paramāṇus (atoms): Assume that the matter is not made of indivisible atoms, and that it is continuous. Take a stone. One can divide this up into infinitely many pieces (since matter is continuous). Now, the Himalayan mountain range also has infinitely many pieces, so one may build another Himalayan mountain range with the infinite number of pieces that one has. One begins with a stone and ends up with the Himalayas, which is a paradox - so the original assumption that matter is continuous must be wrong, and so all objects must be made up of a finite number of paramāṇus (atoms).

According to the vaiśeṣika school, the trasareṇu (dust particles visible in the sunbeam coming through a small window hole) are the smallest mahat (perceivable) particles and defined as tryaṇukas (triads). [UKT ]

The smallest particles that could be seen by the ancients were the 'dust particles visible in the sunbeam coming through a small window hole'. The particles were scattering light. Polymer particles having sizes in the micron range [10-6 m.] can be easily 'seen' by light-scattering techniques. However, as the particles become smaller [such as the virus particles] and move into nanometer range [10-9 m.], we become "blind" because we are now restricted by the wavelength of visible light. Viruses can still be 'seen' by electron microscopy. However, individual atoms such as those of Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, etc. [note: the CGS Angstrom, 10-8 cm. of my younger days is rarely used nowadays] cannot be 'seen'. -- UKT 110831

These are made of three parts, each of which are defined as dvyaṇuka (dyad). The dvyaṇukas are conceived as made of two parts, each of which are defined as paramāṇu (atom). The paramāṇus (atoms) are indivisible and eternal, they can neither be created nor destroyed.[13] Each paramāṇu (atom) possesses its own distinct viśeṣa (individuality).[14]

The measure of the partless atoms is known as parimandala parimana. It is eternal and it cannot generate the measure of any other substance. Its measure is its own absolutely.[15]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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