Update: 2020-05-13 12:27 AM -0400


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A compilation from:
1. A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell (Mac), 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
  link: uchicago
Skt-Doc Glossary online:
- https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 190701
  Downloaded (unedited) in TIL non-PDF & non-SD libraries,
  Web-Archive section.

2. The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200501) 

3. Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-PED) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)

4. Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, 1954, with English translation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT)
This dictionary in ink-on-paper form is in TIL research library at 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon, Myanmar.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

TOC of present BEPS dictionary : according to Bur-Myan phonology
The First consonantal akshara in Myanmar akshara is {ka.}. It is a velar-stop. See Problems of the First Consonantal Akshara
Be careful to differentiate the two phonologies in entries: Pal-Myan and Skt-Myan.

Mac: p060-3c1

{ka.} {ka:. {kn}

Mac: p060-3c2

{kn-a.} कंस  {kn-au:}

{ka.ka.} कक / {ka.ka} कका / {ka.ku.} ककु

Mac: p060-3c3


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UKT notes :
King Kamsa
Royal regalia



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{ka.} क

{ka.} क ka is the first consonantal akshara in BEPS. It is known as Ka'gyi {ka.kri:} but pronounced as {ka.kyi:} because Bur-Myan lacks rhotic sounds. This leaves me with no choice but to call {ka.kri:} as Ka-major.

Taking a cue from Na-major & Na-minor pair and other similar major-minor pairs, the question arises to the presence of Ka-minor .
See Ka-major & Ka-minor in my notes.

{ka:.} is present in Mon-Myanmar. Its equivalent in Bur-Myan is {kaa.}.

Mac p060-3c1 : Contents of this page

{ka.} क 

p060-3c1-b00/uchg p049-  

क ka
Skt: क [ . k ] - inter. prn. st. (n. V. kd; C. km) who? what? which? with iva, u, nma, who indeed? often used in a depreciating sense = as good as none, no one or nothing: k‿esha kath? that is out of the question; kim with in. or gd.= what does -matter? what is the use of -to (g.)? with nu, who pray? with v, who possibly? with svid, who or what, I wonder? - Indef. prn. . with neg. any, any one; . with preceding ya and following ka, whosoever, whichever; anysoever, every; with preceding ya and following v , anysoever; . with kan, none whatever (often strengthened by negatives); 4. with kana, kid, or api, some, any, a certain (a. or n.): pl. some; kaskidkaskid, the one--the other: pl. some-others. -- Mac060c1

UKT 200114: Just as the First Man was called Prajpati प्रजापति prajā-pati in Hinduism, it makes sense to call the First Akshara, the Prajpati spelled with {pRa.}. It reminds me that the First Man was Adam in Christianity. The only thing we need now is a self-styled agent of The Creator to begin preaching a new religion!

p060-3c1-b01/uchig p049- .

क ka
Skt: क [ . k ] . m. (Who?) ep. of Pragpati or Brahman [ {brah~ma} "the four-faced Hindu-dva who has a wife" ];
  n. bliss; water; head. - Mac060c1
IPal: ka - m. brahma, fire, wind, mind; n. head, water, hair. UPMT-PED061
BPal: {ka.} - n. water, head - UKT:UHS-PMD0275c1
  UKT 200107: See my note on Prajpati प्रजापति prajā-pati in Pal-Myan is {pa.za} (UHS PMD0568) + {pa.ti.} (UHS PMD0594) - meaning "chief of something". "Something" itself may be creatures, peoples, family, etc. It need not be a Creator or a god.
Important notice: Eventually this note on Prajpati will be transferred to a page, p154.htm, beginning with prajā. I hope such transfers will be beneficial to the whole dictionary.

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{ka:.} कः

कः kaḥ
Skt: कः (kaH) - who -- SktDoc

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{kn} कं

UKT 200113: {kn} - the {::tn} nasal without a definite POA - seems to be an artificial phoneme formed to serve the IE speakers to pronounce the Tib-Bur nasals of rows #1, #2, and #3. 
UKT 200330: There are many words beginning with {kn} in Nepali - though some are spelled with Chandrabindu "moon-dot". See Turner's Nepali dictionary (available in TIL research station: Turn065-2.htm & Turn066.htm

BPal: {kn ka-ln} - when - UKT:UHS PMD0275c1

{kn-ka.na.} कंकन
Skt: कंकन (ka.nkana) - bracelet -- SktDoc

{kn-sa.na.} कंच्न 
Skt: कंच्न (ka.nchna) - anyone (or someone) - SktDoc

Nep: कँधेउलि kãdheuli ,
or kãdhyauli, s. The stick {htm:po:} carried by coolies across their shoulders to take the weight of a load. [cf. H. kandhelī f. pack-saddle, pad; G. k?#772;dhelī f. yoke; -- v. k?#772;dh.] - Turn006

Nep: कँवारि kãwāri,
(W.) s. Name of a partic. kind of plant. [Sk. kumārī f. name of Aloe perfoliata and other plants: Pk. kumārī f.; H. kũwār f. Aloe perfoliata, P. kuār f., S. kũār-būṭī f., G. kũvār f.] - Turn006

{kn} कं
Skt: कं (kaM) - whom -- SktDoc 

Mac: p060-3c2 : Contents of this page

{kn-a.} कंस 

p060-3c2-b00/uchg p49- कंस

कंस kaṃsa
Skt: कंस [ kams ] {kn-Sa.} - m. goblet; m. n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna;  -krish, -satru, -nishdana, -‿ari, m. ep. of  Krishna. - Mac060c2

{kn-a.} कंस / {kn-Sa.} (in Skt-Myan)
Skt: कंस [kams] - m. goblet; m.n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna - Mac060
Skt: कंस kaṃsa - m.n. brass, tutanag or white copper alloy contg more Sn or Zn than Cu], metal, bell-metal, dish, goblet ... -- SpkSkt
Nep: कंस kaṁsa ,s. The name of the uncle of Kr̥ṣṇa. [lw. Sk. id.] - Turn006
IPal: kaṁsa - m. metal, bronze, a gong, bowl. - UPMT-PED061
BPal: {kn-a.} - m. copper (or brass), white brass, dinner-plate, four pieces of money.- UKT:UHS-PMD0275

See my note on King Kamsa {kn-a. Bu.rn} - the last king of Bronze Age

कंस्य kāṃsya
Skt: कंस्य (ka.nsya) {kn-sha.} कंस्य - bronze -- SktDoc

BHS: kaṃsa-kūṭa {kn-Sa.ku-Ta.} - see kāṃsa - Edgerton163c1b00
IPal: kaṁsakūṭa , n. counterfeit metal. - UPMT-PED061
BPal: {kn-a.ku-Ta.} - m. counterfeiting money. - UKT:UHS-PMD0275c1 
  UKT 190122: Taking the above together, we can infer that coinage money at that time was made of precious metal like gold.

BHS: kaṃsa-doha {kn-Sa. dau:ha.} - brass dish - Edgerton163c1b01 
  UKT 200330: [ {kn-Sa. dau:ha.} कंषदोह ] is what I got doing aks-to-aka from BHS kaṃsa-doha.
  The word doha is given as "a milk-pail" by Monier-Williams:Skt-Doc

BHS: kaṃsa-pātrī {kn-Sa. pa-tRi} - brass bowl - Edgerton163c1b02
BPal: {kn-a.pa-ti} - f. brass bowl - UHS-PMD0275

कंठं kaṃṭhaṃ 
Skt: कंठं (ka.nThaM) {kn-HTn} - neck -- SktDoc

कंठे kāmṭhe 
Skt: कंठे (ka.nThe) {kn-HT} - in the neck -- SktDoc ठ

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BHS: kaṃsopadohinī - f. adj. ... ... - Edgerton163c1b03

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{ka.ka.} कक

Skt: nil in Macdonell & Edgerton
IPal: kakaca - m. a saw. - UPMT PED061
BPal: {ka.ka.sa.}  - m. saw  - UKT:UHS PMD0275c1

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{ka.ka} कका

p060-3c2-b01//uchg p049-ककार

ककार kakāra
Skt: ककार kakāra - m. the sound of the letter k . - Mac060c2
Nep: ककार् kakār - s. The letter k. [lw. Sk. kakāra-.] - Turn066

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{ka.ku.} ककु

BHS: Kakucchanda Kakutsanda, sunda, see s.v. Krakucchanda.

p060-3c2-b02/ not online

ककुत्स्थ kakutstha
Skt: ककुत्स्थ [kakut-stha] -- m. N. of a grandson of Ikshvku. - Mac060-3c2
Skt: ककुत्स्थ kakutstha - m. standing on a hump - SpkSkt

UKT 140629: King Ikshvku, which in Pali "Okkaka", was the ancestor of Gautama Buddha.
See in my note Ikshavku {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.} ikṣvāku. The name [kakut-stha] does not agree with names given in my note.


p060-3c2-b03/uchg p049-ककुद्

ककुद् kakud 
Skt: ककुद् [ kakd ] - f. summit, peak; tip; hump; ensign of royalty; chief of (g.).- Mac049-3c2
Skt: ककुद् kakud - f. visual signal on the scope, hump, hollow of the mouth, chief, ensign or symbol of royalty, palate, head, ... - SpkSkt

p060-3c2-b04/not on online

ककुद kakuda
Skt: ककुद [kakuda] -- n. (m.) id. -- Mac060-3
Skt: ककुदkakudaḥ - ककुदः दम् - Apte: SktDict
. The peak or summit of a mountain.
 . A hump (on the shoulders of an Indian bull). किं यत्तत्सास्नालाङ्गूलककुदखुरविषाण्यर्थरूपं स शब्दः Mbh.I.1.1.
 . Chief, foremost, pre-eminent; ककुदं वेदविदां तपोधनश्च Mk.1.5; इक्ष्वाकुवंश्यः ककुदं नृपाणाम् R.6.71.
 4. A sign or symbol of royalty; नृपतिककुदम् R.3.7,17,27.
 5. A species of serpent.
IPal: kakuda - mn. the hump of a bull, a symbol of royalty - UPMT-PED061
BPal: {ka.ku.Da.} - m. bullock's hump, cock's croft, royal regalia, names of 2 plants. - UKT:UHS-PMD0275
  See my note on Royal regalia 


BHS: Kakucchanda, Kakutaanda, sunda, see s. v. Krakucchanda. - Edgerton163c1b04


Kakuda Kātyāyana
BHS: Kakuda Kātyāyana (Pal: Kakuda, Kakudha, or Pakudha, Kaccayana n. of the six famous heretical teachers of Buddha's day. - Edgerton163c1b05

UKT 200502: First, I must object to the use of "heretical" - which shows that the six teachers were not Buddhists.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six_Heretical_Teachers 200502
1. Pūraṇa Kassapa, 2. Makkhali Gosāla,
3. Ajita Kesakambala, 4. Pakudha Kaccāyana,
5. Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta [UKT 200502: aka Mahavira is the founder of Jainism. He was in many ways similar to Gautama Buddha.] 
6. Sajaya Belaṭṭhaputta 

UKT 190218: Perhaps the word "heretical" is a matter of judgement. I prefer "Non-Buddhistic" or "AntiBuddha" should be used. See a similar term "Antichrist" in Christianity:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antichrist 190218
"The term (including one plural form) [1] is found five times in the New Testament, solely in the First and Second Epistle of John. [2] He is announced as the one 'who denies the Father and the Son.' [3]


p060-3c2-b05/uchg p049-ककुद्््मत््

ककुद््मत् [ kakd-mat ]
Skt: ककुद््मत्् [ kakd-mat ] - a. having a hump; m. mountain; buffalo with a hump. - Mac060-3c2

p060-3c2-b06/uchg p049-ककुद्््मिन्

ककुद््मिन् [ kakud-min ]
Skt: ककुद््मिन् [ kakud-min ]
- a. having a hump; m. buffalo with a hump; -mi-kany, f. pat. of the Revat. - Mac060-3c2

p060-3c2-b07/ not online

ककु्द्रुम [kakudruma] = क क ु ् द ् र ु म
Skt: ककु्द्रुम kakudruma - m. N. of a jackal - Mac060-3c2
  UKT 171130: See my note on fables in Panchatantra Tales & Panchamakra.

Mac p060-3c3 : Contents of this page


p060-3c3-b00/uchg p049- ककुन्दर 

ककुन्दर kakundara = क क ु न ् द र -->  {ka.koan~da.ra.}
Skt: ककुन्दर [kakundara] - n. cavity of the loins. -- Mac060-c3
Skt: ककुन्दर kakundara - n. cavities of the loins -- SpkSkt
Bur: {hka:htic} -- MLC MED2006-055
  UKT: - nick or notch above hip.
  See my note on cavity of the loins .

p060-3c3-b01/uchg p049- ककुब्जय

ककुब्जय [ kakub-gaya ] = क क ु ब ् ज य / UKT 200503: {ba.} ब ; {za.ya.} जय
Skt: ककुब्जय [ kakub-gaya ] - m. conquest of the world. - Mac060-3c3

UKT 200503: Macdonell's translation of  ककुब्  as the "world" is not appropriate. I would translate as the "utmost, or topmost" which can be anything from the "world" to topmost "honour". {za.ya.} जय  is {ze-yya.} "success" - UHS0419c1

p060-3c3-b02/uchg p049-ककुभ्

ककुभ् [ kakbh ]
Skt: ककुभ् [ kakbh ] - f. summit; point of the compass; a metre. - Mac060-3c3

p060-3c3-b03/uchg p049-ककुभ

ककुभ [ kakubh ]
Skt: ककुभ [ kakubh ] - a. prominent; m. kind of musical mode; a tree; -surabhi, a. fragrant with Kakubha flowers.
  -- Mac060-3
BHS: Kakubha  n. of a deity (devaputra; living in a kakubha tree - Edgerton163c1b06
BPal: {ka.ku.Ba.} - m. name of 2 plants, Terminalia arjuna.  - UKT:UHS-PMD0275
  See: ककुभ, kakubha, n. flower of Terminalia arjuna - http://www.indianetzone.com/38/kakubha_plants.htm 110819

p060-3c3-b04/uchg p049-ककुम्मुख

ककुम्मुख [ kakum-mukha ]
Skt: ककुम्मुख [ kakum-mukha ] - n. point of the compass. - Mac0603c3

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UKT notes

Ikshavaku  {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.} ikṣvāku

- UKT 140629, ... , 190122, 200205

UKT 200205: Romabama aks-to-aks transcription from ikṣvāku to {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.} is mine. Note the first syllable {AIk} is spelled with vowel letter {I.} - which is not allowed in Bur-Myan. It rhymes with the English words <paid> and <aid> - not with <said>.
The name ikṣvāku is from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku 200205

From: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_dynasty 200105

According to the Puranic literature {pu.raaN kym:}, Suryavansh or the Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku ikṣvāku dynasty is an ancient and one of the oldest dynasties of India. The sun god Surya, also known as Vivasvan is considered the primogenitor of Suryavansh and his son Vaivasvata Manu is the progenitor of humanity according to the Hindu texts. However, it was the magnanimous King Ikshvaku of the ancient kingdom of Kosala who became the first chakravarti {sac~ra.wa.t: mn:} or the universal ruler when he conquered far distant lands of Āryāvarta and established a formidable empire. Thus, the dynasty derived his name and was also called Ikshvaku dynasty. [1] [UKT]

UKT 200205: Lord Rama is none other than King Rama of Ramayana epic who was deified after his death. As a Theravada-Buddhist and a scientist, I feel that such deification of excellent human beings is a disservice to the person concerned. As such I have struck out the word Lord, and have subs tituted King.

Lord King Rama belonged to the Suryavansha or Ikshvaku dynasty.[2] Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty. [3] According to the Buddhist texts [UKT: which Buddhist texts?], Prince Siddhartha belonged to this dynasty. The dynasty is also known as Raghuvansha or Raghu-kula because of King Raghu who was the great grandson of Ikshavaku and great grandfather of Lord Rama.

The prominent kings and emperors belonging to this royal house are Mandhatri, Muchukunda, Ambarisha, Dilīpa, Raghu, Aja, Dasharatha, Rama, Bahubali, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara,[4] Raghu, Rama and Pasenadi. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts [UKT: which Buddhist texts?] include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts  [UKT: which Buddhist texts?], Mahasammata {ma.ha m~ma.ta. mn:}, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty,[5] who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81sammata 200205
"Maha Sammata is mentioned in various Buddhist traditions. In addition to the Theravada accounts, Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhist schools describe him as the founder of political thought. [11]

Refer also to: Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, (Buddh-Pali-Names). I've found the following issues with the name Ikshavaku aka Okkaka.

1. I have always thought that the name "Okkaka" is spelled with the close back vowel /u/, but on actual check with the list supplied by U Zawtika, Zeyathukha monastery, Sanchaung, I find that it is to be spelled with open back vowel /ɔ/ (open-O). Close back vowel /u/ is {U.}, and open back vowel /ɔ/ (open-O) is {AU.}/ {AU:}.

Listening repeatedly the Skt-Dev programmes has raised the possibility that the phoneme can be Mon-Myan {ou}. Also, the {AU:} in the name is checked by {k}, the top-member of the vertical conjunct {k~ka.}, resulting in pronunciation: "ouk" - not "oak".

2. The Western authors (like those writing for Wikipedia) usually omits "titles" such as "King" and "Prince". In Bur-Myan usage, these titles are regarded as part of the names. I have made the necessary corrections. 

3. According to Buddhist Dictionari Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html (link chk 171125):
"Although the Sanskritised form of the Pāli name is Iksavāku, it is unlikely that Okkāka is identical with the famous Iksavāku of the Purānas {pu.raaN-kym:}, the immediate son of Manu, son of the Sun. The Pāli* is evidently more primitive, as is shown by the form Okkāmukha, and the name Iksavāku looks like a deliberate attempt at accommodation to the Purānic account. For discussion see Thomas, op. cit., p.6."

* UKT 190122: I cannot agree with the idea that Pali is more primitive than Sanskrit. Pali is an artificial language invented in Lanka after the Asokan missionaries had spread Buddhism to the island from Magadha the homeland of Buddha. Pali was invented from Magadhi (Tib-Bur), and Lanka (Aus-Asi) languages. It was Magadhi which is more primitive than Sanskrit.


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty 140629

Ikshavaku dynasty in Buddhist tradition

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas {a.kya.} to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. [UKT]

See Mahavamsa, by W. Geiger, PTS 1912, in TIL CD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- WGeiger-Mahavamsa<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200206)
UKT 200206, In chapter II, we find:
"The prince Okkamukha was Okkaka's eldest son; Nipuna,
Candima, Candamukha and Sivisamjaya, the great king
Vessantara, Jali, and Sihavahana and Sihassara: these were
his sons and grandsons. Eighty-two thousand in number were
the royal sons and grandsons of king Sihassara; Jayasena
was the last of them. They are known as the Sakya kings
of Kapilavatthu. ref. 1"

This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. [9] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows: [10] [11] 

1. King Okkaka {AUk~ka-ka. mn:}
2. Okkamukha
3. King Sivisamjaya
4. King Sihassara
5. Prince Jayasena
6. Sihahanu
7. King Suddhodana
8. Prince Siddhartha who became Gautama Buddha
9. Prince Rahula

Go back Ikshvaku-note-b

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King Kamsa

UKT 140629, 181226, 200507

It is no longer accepted that the IE speakers came into India en masse with iron-weapons and male gods to defeat the indigenous peoples. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_migration

The IE speakers, slowly and in small groups, infiltrated into India through the north-western mountain passes. At about the same time, the Dravidian speakers came into India from the south by the sea. The new arrivals make friends with the indigenous peoples, showing them their iron-working methods. The new comers had other technologies they had developed for navigating the deserts and the sea. They knew celestial navigation, while the indigenous peoples, mostly agriculturalists, knew nothing much about the stars, but had only known about the yearly cycles to predict when to grow and when to harvest.

The new comers must have slowly make inroads into the ruling circles even by marriage. The indigenous peoples - the Tib-Bur speakers, worshippers of mother-goddesses {m-tau}, were only used to bronze and brass technologies, and had only bronze-weapons.

I've made the above speculation to show how Krishna - noted by his very dark skin - had come to be related to King Kamsa.

Kamsa {kn-a.} was a king of Mathura माथुर , a city now located in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh aka UP. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathura 200111
See also the importance of the city to Buddhism in:
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ma/madhuraa.htm 181226

The very name Kamsa {kn-a.} means Copper {kr:ni}, Brass {kr:wa} (alloy with Zinc), or Bronze {kr:o} (alloy with Tin). The the hardness scale Bronze is the hardest and was used for making implements of War.

The metallic group - Copper (Cu), Silver (Ag), and Gold (Au} - is known as the Coinage metals because they were used as currency.

"Ancient India in circa 6th century BC, was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world." - Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_metals 181227

  Coinage in India: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_India 181227
"token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms (600 BCE 300 BCE) of the Indian Iron Age."
UKT 181227: In all probability, it would be gold and silver which were first used as coinage metals. Copper, which could turn greenish would not be used. However, in Pyu age, bundles of copper or brass strands were also probably used.

Late Bronze Age in Isreal
- MOSugerman-BronzeAgeIsreal<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200106)

Of the three, gold is the most chemically inactive and occurs in nature as elemental metal, whereas copper {kr:ni}) is the most active. It occurs mostly as sulphides (chemical compounds of sulphur S {kn.} and some arsenides (chemical compounds of arsenic As {sain}

Note: The Bur-Myan word {sain} can mean either diamond which is pure Carbon C, or compounds of Arsenic As. Arsenic compounds are toxic, whereas diamond is not.

All the three metals, Au, Ag, Cu, are soft and not suitable for making swords (the main weapon of the ancient world.

Copper ores (containing Cu-As) on reduction to metallic state differ in hardness depending on the content of other metals such as Tin (Sn), and Zinc (Zn)). Alloys of Cu-Sn (bronze {kr:o}) are usually more hard than those of Cu-Zn (brass {kr:wa}). Thus, Cu-Zn alloys (brass) are not suitable for sword making and are considered to be the Metal of Peace. The Jewish people would allow only brass (Cu-Zn) to be used in construction of their altars. Bronze (Cu-Sn) is used for making swords.

See Wikipedia for Implements of War:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar_(Bible) 181228
"In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils used with the altar are enumerated. They were made of brass. (Comp. 1 Samuel 2:13-14; Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:6-7). The altar could not be carved using utensils made of iron or of bronze (Exodus 20:25), nor were any allowed on or near it, because iron and bronze were used for implements of war.

Bronze (Cu-Sn) becomes more hard when there is some Arsenic (As) (derived from ore) in it. Ancient blacksmith because of continual exposure to Arsenic-fumes usually became lame. The Greek god Hephaestus aka Roman god Vulcan is lame because of Arsenic fumes and probably not of a birth-defect. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hephaestus - 181227 

It is probable that the counterfeit metal is an alloy. When Iron-Agers (Indo-Europeans and Indo-Africans) invaded Ancient India through north-west frontier and from the south, the Bronze-Agers (Tibeto-Burmans) had only bronze-weapons to defend themselves. This, I speculate was the reason why King Kamsa {kn-a. Bu-rn} कंस, was defeated by Krshna who later became king. The victor was later deified as Krishna कृष्ण kṛṣṇa an avatar of Vishnu-dva, and the loser dubbed the demon. See
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamsa 200205
"Kamsa is described as human in early sources and a rakshasa (demon) in the Puranas. [1] [2] [3] His royal house was called Bhoja and another of his names was Bhojapati. [4] "

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Royal regalia

- UKT 140206

Each kingdom has its own royal regalia - a sign of sovereignty. But the items and the number of items vary from kingdom to kingdom.

BPal: {ka.ku.Da. BN~a.} -- UHS-PMD0275 
Bur: {ming:mrauk-tn-hsa} - n. coronation regalia (of Bur-Myan kings), namely (clockwise from 'crown' to 'sandals'):

1. {ma.keiT} 'crown'
2. {hti:hpru} 'white umbrella'
3. {n-lyak} 'double edged dagger'
4. {a:mri:yup} 'yak-tail swish'
5. {hkr-nn:} 'sandals'

I have an interesting story to tell about {hkr-nn:} 'sandals'. I have many friends, some of them highly educated, and some working as teaching staff of the universities, who sincerely believe in the esoteric practices of Myanmarpr. If you do not make fun of them they would let you into their secret beliefs. That particular friend was working as an assistant lecturer in Mathematics in the Rangoon Arts & Sc. Univ. in 1980's.

When I got the news that one of my favourite ex-students from Bassein College (now university) had died in a bus accident, I went to see his parents. Before that I had a strange "mental disturbance" when that student "appeared" before me during my day-time nap. I made enquiries and came to know that my ex-student had died in a bus accident. His funeral had been over by a week when I went to see his family. His father told me that my ex-student had a grudge against his professor who had not given him good grades because of which had to work as an inspector on a long-distance bus line. He had died falling from a moving bus. The family did not realized that I was that very professor. I asked the time of his death, and was shocked to find that it coincided with the very instant I had that "mental disturbance".

I related the incident to my mathematical friend, and he said in order to help the soul, (or "bardo" in the Tibetan belief - see Tibetan Book of the Dead: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardo_Thodol 140630), I should make an offering of a "vehicle" to the Buddhist Sangha. By "vehicle" I had understood it to be a motor car - a very expensive item, but my friend told me that I can substitute "the vehicle" with a pair of sandals. Is it possible that his bardo had come to me for help for his mistake of having a grudge against me! I may be a down-to-earth physical scientist, but I admit there are elements of the traditional Bur-Myan Buddhist beliefs still lurking in me.

As a duty, as a teacher of Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, I must look after the interests of my students. Clearly, my mathematical friend expected me to fulfill the help-request of my dead student. Following his instructions, we went up the Shwdagon pagoda, and offered a pair of sandals to the first Buddhist monk who happened to be a stranger. I hope my student is now in a higher-plane of existence, and is helping me with my work.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_Jewels_of_the_United_Kingdom 140206

The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at other state functions. The term refers to the following objects: the crowns, sceptres (with either the cross or the dove), orbs, swords, rings, spurs, colobium sindonis, dalmatic, armills, and the royal robe or pall, as well as several other objects connected with the ceremony itself. [1]

Many of these descend directly from the pre-Reformation period and have a religious and sacral connotation. The vestures donned by the sovereign following the unction, for instance, closely resemble the alb and dalmatic worn by bishops, although the contention that they are meant to confer upon the sovereign an ecclesiastical character is in dispute among Christian scholars.

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