Update: 2020-03-09 08:28 PM -0500


Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus


A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
- Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)
The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan), by U Hoke Sein,
- (ref: UHS-PMD). The dictionary in printed form is in TIL Research Library.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190624)

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi, Daw Thuzar Myint, Daw Zinthiri Han and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

   MC-indx.htm | Top


UKT 100204, 200309: The first few pages will set the format which I would be following for the whole dictionary. For each entry I expect to take the entries from some of the following sources:
 - Skt-Dev: from Macdonell
 - Skt-Dev: from Sanskrit Documents or Spoken Sanskrit Dictionary
 - Nepali-Dev: from R. L. Turner
 - BHS-Latin: from F. Edgerton
 - Pal-Latin: from U Pe Maung Tin
 - Pal-Myan: from U Hoke Sein
 - Burmese-Myan: from MLC orthography and Myan-English dictionary
 - Roman-Latin: from Hans H rberg
I expect the above scheme would show me the relationship of Sanskrit to Pali or Old Magadhi. I opine that Old Magadhi was the language of the Ari-monks of Pagan and that it is closely related to modern Bur-Myan.

Contents of this page

{ka.} {ka:. {kn}

The First consonantal akshara in Myanmar akshara is {ka.}. It is a velar-stop. See in my notes:
Problems of the First Consonantal Akshara

In the Myanmar akshara matrix of 5 rows, and 5 columns, or 5x5 matrix, the first row begins with {ka.} and ends with palatal semi-nasal {gna.}/ {ng}, a very favourite phoneme in Bur-Myan language.

{gna.} has no nasality in the onset of syllables, but becomes nasal in the the coda. This has prompted me to call it semi-nasal.

See my note on Nasals (and semi-nasals): my thanks to Ingulimarla Maht {n~gu.li.ma-la. ma.ht} - the mass murderer turned Buddhist saint. His name is erroneously rendered as Angulimarla {n-gu.li.ma-la.}: the mix-up between {n~} /ɪn/ and {n} /ʌn/. See the story of the saint: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%E1%B9%85gulim%C4%81la (200121).

{kn-a.} कंस
{ka.ka.} कक / {ka.ka} कका / {ka.ku.} कक

{kak~Sa.}/{ka.kSa.} (spelled with Pseudo-Kha) :

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
Cavity of the loins
Coinage metals
Ikshavaku {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.}
Ka-major & Ka-minor
King Kamsa
Panchatantra Tales
Problems of the First Consonantal Akshara
Royal regalia :
  a story of {hkyr-nn:} 'sandals' - the vehicle 

Contents of this page


{ka.} क

{ka.} क ka: the first consonantal akshara in BEPS. It is known as Ka'gyi {ka.kri:} but pronounced as {ka.kyi:} because Bur-Myan lacks in rhotic sounds. This leaves me no choice but to call {ka.kri:} as Ka-major.

Taking a cue from Na-major & Na-minor pair and other similar major-minor pairs, the question arises to the presence of Ka-minor .

See Ka-major & Ka-minor in my notes.

{ka:.} is present in Mon-Myanmar. Its equivalent in Bur-Myan is {kaa.}.
I'm using the Univ. of Chicago links - https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516 to check the spellings of entries. Ref. to this site is uchg . Unfortunately, before I have finished going through the whole Macdonell's dictionary, the uchg-website stopped giving active links.


{ka.} क 

UKT 200114: Just as the First Man was called Prajpati प्रजापति prajā-pati in Hinduism, it makes sense to call the First Akshara, the Prajpati spelled with {pRa.}. It reminds me that the First Man was Adam in Christianity. The only thing we need now is a self-styled agent of The Creator to begin preaching a new religion!

p060-3c1-b00/uchg p049-
क [ . k ] - inter. prn. st. (n. V. kd; C. km) who? what? which? with iva, u, nma, who indeed? often used in a depreciating sense= as good as none, no one or nothing: k‿esha kath? that is out of the question; kim with in. or gd.=what does -matter? what is the use of -to (g.)? with nu, who pray? with v, who possibly? with svid, who or what, I wonder?
- Indef. prn. . with neg. any, any one; . with preceding ya and following ka, whosoever, whichever; anysoever, every; with preceding ya and following v , anysoever; . with kan, none whatever (often strengthened by negatives); 4. with kana, kid, or api, some, any, a certain (a. or n.): pl. some; kaskidkaskid, the one--the other: pl. some-others. -- Mac060c1


p060-3c1-b01/uchig p049- .
क [ . k ] . m. (Who?) ep. of Pragpati or Brahman; n. bliss; water; head. - Mac060c1

IPal: ka - m. brahma, fire, wind, mind; n. head, water, hair. UPMT-PED061
BPal: {ka.} - UHS-PMD0275c1
  UKT from UHS: n. water, head
  UKT 200107: See my note on Prajpati प्रजापति prajā-pati in Pal-Myan is {pa.za} (UHS PMD0568) + {pa.ti.} (UHS PMD0594) - meaning "chief of something". "Something" itself may be creatures, peoples, family, etc. It need not be a Creator or a god.
Important notice: Eventually this note on Prajpati will be transferred to a page, p154.htm, beginning with prajā. I hope such transfers will be beneficial to the whole dictionary.


{ka:.} कः
Skt: कः (kaH) - who -- SktDoc

Contents of this page

{kn} कं

UKT 200113: {kn} - the {::tn} nasal without a definite POA - seems to be an artificial phoneme formed to serve the IE speakers to pronounce the Tib-Bur nasals of rows #1, #2, and #3. 

BPal: {kn ka-ln} - UHS PMD0275c1
  UKT from UHS: when

{kn-ka.na.} कंकन
Skt: कंकन (ka.nkana) - bracelet -- SktDoc

{kn-sa.na.} कंच्न 
Skt: कंच्न (ka.nchna) - anyone (or someone) - SktDoc

कं  (kaM)
Skt: कं (kaM) - whom -- SktDoc 


Contents of this page


{kn-a.} कंस

p060-3c2-b00/uchg p49-कंस
कंस [ kams ] - m. goblet; m. n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna;
 -krish, -satru, -nishdana, -‿ari, m. ep. of   Krishna. - Mac060c2

{kn-a.} कंस
Skt: कंस [kams] - m. goblet; m.n. brass; m. N. of a king slain by Krishna - Mac060
Skt: कंस kaṃsa - m.n. brass, tutanag or white copper alloy contg more Sn or Zn than Cu], metal, bell-metal, dish, goblet ... -- SpkSkt
IPal: kaṁsa - m. metal, bronze, a gong, bowl. - UPMT-PED061
BPal: {kn-a.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: m. copper (or brass), white brass, dinner-plate, four pieces of money.

UKT 140629, 181226: Kamsa {kn-a.} was a king of Mathura माथुर , a city now located in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh aka UP. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathura 200111
See in my note on Kamsa and Coinage metals.
See also the importance of the city to Buddhism in:
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/ma/madhuraa.htm 181226

Skt: कंस्य (ka.nsya) {kn-ya.} - bronze -- SktDoc

BHS: kaṃsa-doha - FEdgerton163c1b01
  UKT from Edgerton: brass dish

BHS: kaṃsa-pātrī - FEdgerton163c1b02
  UKT from Edgerton: brass bowl
BPal: {kn-a.pa-ti} -- UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: f. brass bowl

{kn-HTn} कंठं 
Skt: कंठं (ka.nThaM) - neck -- SktDoc

{kn-HT} कंठे 
Skt: कंठे (ka.nThe) - in the neck -- SktDoc

BHS: kaṃsa-kūṭa - see kāṃsa - FEdgerton163c1b00
IPal: kaṁsakūṭa , n. counterfeit metal. - UPMT-PED061
BPal: {kn-a.ku-Ta.}, - UHS-PMD0275c1 
  UKT from UHS: m. counterfeiting money.
  UKT 190122: Taking the above together, we can infer that coinage money at that time was made of precious metal like gold.


Contents of this page

{ka.ka.} कक

Skt: nil in Mac
IPal: kakaca - m. a saw. - UPMT PED061
BPal: {ka.ka.sa.} - UHS PMD0275c1
   UKT from UHS - m. saw 

Contents of this page

{ka.ka} कका

p060-3c2-b01//uchg p049-ककार
Skt: ककार kakāra - m. the sound of the letter k . - Mac060c2
Nep: ककार् kakār - s. The letter k. [lw. Sk. kakāra-.] - Turn066
IPal: kakkara - adj. hard, strong ; m. a mirror. - UPMT PED061
BPal: {kak~ka.ra.} - UHS PMD0275c1
  UKT from UHS: mfn - rough. m. {tau:krak} - jungle fowl 

Contents of this page

{ka.ku.} ककु

p060-3c2-b02/ not online
Skt: ककुत्स्थ [kakut-stha] = क क ु त ् स ् थ
-- m. N. of a grandson of Ikshvku.

UKT 140629: King Ikshvku, which in Pali "Okkaka", was the ancestor of Gautama Buddha.
See in my note Ikshavku {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.} ikṣvāku. The name [kakut-stha] does not agree with names given in my note.


p060-3c2-b03/uchg p049-156 ककुद्
Skt: ककुद् [ kakd ]
- f. summit, peak; tip; hump; ensign of royalty; chief of (g.).


p060-3c2-b04/not on online
Skt: ककुद [kakuda]
  -- n. (m.) id. -- Mac060-3
Skt: ककुदkakudaḥ - ककुदः दम् - Apte: SktDict
. The peak or summit of a mountain.
 . A hump (on the shoulders of an Indian bull). किं यत्तत्सास्नालाङ्गूलककुदखुरविषाण्यर्थरूपं स शब्दः Mbh.I.1.1.
 . Chief, foremost, pre-eminent; ककुदं वेदविदां तपोधनश्च Mk.1.5; इक्ष्वाकुवंश्यः ककुदं नृपाणाम् R.6.71.
 4. A sign or symbol of royalty; नृपतिककुदम् R.3.7,17,27.
 5. A species of serpent.
IPal: kakuda - mn. the hump of a bull, a symbol of royalty - UPMT-PED061
BPal: {ka.ku.Da.}
- - UHS-PMD0275
  UKT from UHS: m. bullock's hump, cock's croft, royal regalia, names of 2 plants.
  See my note on Royal regalia 

BHS: Kakuda Kātyāyana - FEdgerton163c1 
  UKT from Edgerton: n. of the six famous heretical teachers of Buddha's day.

UKT 190218: Perhaps the word "heretical" is a matter of judgement. I prefer "Non-Buddhistic" or "AntiBuddha" should be used. See a similar term "Antichrist" in Christianity:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antichrist 190218
"The term (including one plural form) [1] is found five times in the New Testament, solely in the First and Second Epistle of John. [2] He is announced as the one 'who denies the Father and the Son.' [3]

p060-3c2-b05/uchg p049-ककुद्््मत््
Skt: ककुद््मत्् [ kakd-mat ]
- a. having a hump; m. mountain; buffalo with a hump.


p060-3c2-b06/uchg p049-ककुद्््मिन्
Skt: ककुद््मिन् [ kakud-min ]
- a. having a hump; m. buffalo with a hump; -mi-kany, f. pat. of the Revat.


p060-3c2-b07/ not online
Skt: ककु्द्रुम kakudruma (Dev sp?)
- m. N. of a jackal
  UKT 171130: See my note on fables in Panchatantra Tales & Panchamakra.

Contents of this page


p060-3c3-b00/uchg p049- ककुन्दर 
  ककुन्दर [ kakundara ] = क क ु न ् द र -->  {ka.koan~da.ra.}
Skt: ककुन्दर [kakundara] - n. cavity of the loins. -- Mac060-c3
Skt: ककुन्दर kakundara - n. cavities of the loins -- SpkSkt
Bur: {hka:htic} -- MLC MED2006-055
  UKT: - nick or notch above hip.
  See my note on cavity of the loins .


p060-3c3-b01/uchg p049-ककुब्जय
ककुब्जय [ kakub-gaya ]
 - m. conquest of the world.


p060-3c3-b02/uchg p049-ककुभ्
Skt: ककुभ् [ kakbh ]
- f. summit; point of the compass; a metre.


p060-3c3-b03/uchg p049-ककुभ
ककुभ [ kakubh ]
  - a. prominent; m. kind of musical mode; a tree;
   -surabhi, a. fragrant with Kakubha flowers. -- Mac060-3

Skt: ककुभ [ kakubh ] - a. prominent; m. kind of musical mode; a tree - Mac060c3
BHS: Kakubha - FEdgerton163c1
  UKT from Edgerton: n. of a deity (devaputra; living in a kakubha tree 
BPal: {ka.ku.Ba.}  -- UHS-PMD0275
   UKT from UHS: m. name of 2 plants, Terminalia arjuna.
  See: ककुभ, kakubha, n. flower of Terminalia arjuna - http://www.indianetzone.com/38/kakubha_plants.htm 110819


p060-3c3-b04/uchg p049-ककुम्मुख
ककुम्मुख [ kakum-mukha ]
- n. point of the compass.

Contents of this page

{kak} कक्

UKT 200106: Bur-Myan grammar allows only short vowels (with 1 eye-blink) duration be checked. If you find a word in which a long vowel (2 blnk) is being checked, you can be pretty sure that it is a Pal-Myan word or a loan word. Again, the consonant under the virama {a.t} is either a tenuis-voiceless consonant or a nasal consonant.

What follows is on the question of what if the short vowel of {ka.} (1 blnk) is checked by various codas beginning with: {k}, {c}, {T}, {t}, {p} (of the wag-aksharas), {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {} (of the a-wag aksharas, {ng}, {}, {N}, {n}, {m} (of the semi-nasals and true-nasals), and forgotten-approximant {}.

Later we will be faced with what happens when long vowel {ka} (2 blnk) are checked. Should we write {kaa} or {k} ?
See p065-2.htm.

p060-3c3-b05/uchg p049-कक्कोल
कक्कोल [ kakkola ]
- m. a tree; n. an aromatic substance; -ka, n. id.

Contents of this page

{kak~Sa.}/{ka.kSa.} कक्ष = क क ् ष 

p060-3c3-b06/uchg p049-कक्ष
कक्ष [ kksha ] = क क ् ष  -> {kak~Sa.}/{ka.kSa.} -> {ka.hka.}
- m. hiding-place, lair; thicket; m.,
 , f. arm-pit; girth, girdle, cincture; balance (generally f.);
 , f. circular wall, enclosure; orbit of a planet; equality; emulation:
()-pata, m. loin-cloth.

Skt:  , f. arm-pit; girth, girdle, cincture; balance (generally f.); - Mac060c3
Nep: कक्ष kakṣa or kacche, s. Armpit; lap; -- circumstance. -- tyas k˚ mā or tyaso bhaekā k˚ mā in that case. [lw. Sk. id.] - Turn066
Nep: कक्षा kakṣā - s. Waist-band, girdle; -- (more usu.) rank, class. - Turn066
IPal: kakkha - m. the armpit', dried grass, buffalo; f. a woman's girdle. - UPMT-PED062

Nep: कखौतो kakhauto - s. A boil in the armpit. [Sk. kkṣa- (v.s.v. kākh) + ?] - Turn066

UKT 200120: Logically you would expect to see {kak~hka.} after {kak~ka.} कक्क .
It is not so in Skt-Dev. After {kak~ka.} comes the special conjunct {kak~Sa.}

Continue to next page: p061-1.htm , where you'll see {kak~Sa.} changing to {ka.kSa.}

( end of old p060-4.htm

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Cavity of the loins

-- UKT 140206:

Skt-Dev word ककुन्दर kakundara  has been translated as "the cavity or cavities of the loins".

Skt: ककुन्दर [kakundara] - n. cavity of the loins.
  -- Mac060-c3
Skt: ककुन्दर kakundara
  -- n. cavities of the loins -- SpkSkt

Because of the word "cavity or cavities" we can be easily led astray. So what is "loins" in Skt-Dev?

What are "loins" in Skt-Dev?
कटिकूप kaṭikūpa - m. loins -- SpkDev
कटिदेश kaṭideśa - m. loins -- SpkDev

The English word "loins"

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loin 140206

"The loins (or: lumbus) are the sides between the lower ribs and pelvis, and the lower part of the back. It is often used when describing the anatomy of humans and quadrupeds (such as horses, pigs or cattle)" .

An efficient way to carry a child who is fully awake is to carry it in the cavity of the hip. The women of India and SE Asia usually carry a child this way. In the pix, an Indonesian woman carried a child while on her way to a temple. She probably did not have an umbrella because she was on her way to a temple. Her shadow shows that the time was about noon, and the sun would be very hot. I had downloaded the pix from Google images a long time ago and this is all the info I could get.

Go back cavity-loins-note-b

Contents of this page

Coinage metals

Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu)

- UKT 181226, 200205

The Coinage metals are Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), and Copper (Cu). "Ancient India in circa 6th century BC, was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world." - Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_metals 181227

Coinage in India: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coinage_of_India 181227
"token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms (600 BCE 300 BCE) of the Indian Iron Age."
UKT 181227: In all probability, it would be gold and silver which were first used as coinage metals. Copper, which could turn greenish would not be used. However, in Pyu age, bundles of copper or brass strands were also probably used.

Late Bronze Age in Isreal
- MOSugerman-BronzeAgeIsreal<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200106)

Of the three, gold is the most chemically inactive and occurs in nature as elemental metal, whereas copper {kr:ni}) is the most active. It occurs mostly as sulphides (chemical compounds of sulphur S {kn.} and some arsenides (chemical compounds of arsenic As {sain}

Note: The Bur-Myan word {sain} can mean either diamond which is pure Carbon C, or compounds of Arsenic As. Arsenic compounds are toxic, whereas diamond is not.

All the three metals, Au, Ag, Cu, are soft and not suitable for making swords (the main weapon of the ancient world.

Copper ores (containing Cu-As) on reduction to metallic state differ in hardness depending on the content of other metals such as Tin (Sn), and Zinc (Zn)). Alloys of Cu-Sn (bronze {kr:o}) are usually more hard than those of Cu-Zn (brass {kr:wa}). Thus, Cu-Zn alloys (brass) are not suitable for sword making and are considered to be the Metal of Peace. The Jewish people would allow only brass (Cu-Zn) to be used in construction of their altars. Bronze (Cu-Sn) is used for making swords.

See Wikipedia for Implements of War:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altar_(Bible) 181228
"In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils used with the altar are enumerated. They were made of brass. (Comp. 1 Samuel 2:13-14; Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:6-7). The altar could not be carved using utensils made of iron or of bronze (Exodus 20:25), nor were any allowed on or near it, because iron and bronze were used for implements of war.

Bronze (Cu-Sn) becomes more hard when there is some Arsenic (As) (derived from ore) in it. Ancient blacksmith because of continual exposure to Arsenic-fumes usually became lame. The Greek god Hephaestus aka Roman god Vulcan is lame because of Arsenic fumes and probably not of a birth-defect. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hephaestus - 181227 

It is probable that the counterfeit metal is an alloy. When Iron-Agers (Indo-Europeans and Indo-Africans) invaded Ancient India through north-west frontier and from the south, the Bronze-Agers (Tibeto-Burmans) had only bronze-weapons to defend themselves. This, I speculate was the reason why King Kamsa {kn-a. Bu-rn} कंस, was defeated by King Krshna. The victor was later deified as Krishna कृष्ण kṛṣṇa an avatar of Vishnu-dva, and the loser dubbed the demon. See
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamsa 200205
"Kamsa is described as human in early sources and a rakshasa (demon) in the Puranas. [1] [2] [3] His royal house was called Bhoja and another of his names was Bhojapati. [4] "

Go back coinage-note-b

Contents of this page

Ikshavaku  {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.} ikṣvāku

- UKT 140629, ... , 190122, 200205

UKT 200205: Romabama aks-to-aks transcription from ikṣvāku to {AIk~Sa.ba-ku.} is mine. Note the first syllable {AIk} is spelled with vowel letter {I.} - which is not allowed in Bur-Myan. It rhymes with the English words <paid> and <aid> - not with <said>.
The name ikṣvāku is from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku 200205

From: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_dynasty 200105

According to the Puranic literature {pu.raaN kym:}, Suryavansh or the Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku ikṣvāku dynasty is an ancient and one of the oldest dynasties of India. The sun god Surya, also known as Vivasvan is considered the primogenitor of Suryavansh and his son Vaivasvata Manu is the progenitor of humanity according to the Hindu texts. However, it was the magnanimous King Ikshvaku of the ancient kingdom of Kosala who became the first chakravarti {sac~ra.wa.t: mn:} or the universal ruler when he conquered far distant lands of Āryāvarta and established a formidable empire. Thus, the dynasty derived his name and was also called Ikshvaku dynasty. [1] [UKT]

UKT 200205: Lord Rama is none other than King Rama of Ramayana epic who was deified after his death. As a Theravada-Buddhist and a scientist, I feel that such deification of excellent human beings is a disservice to the person concerned. As such I have struck out the word Lord, and have subs tituted King.

Lord King Rama belonged to the Suryavansha or Ikshvaku dynasty.[2] Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty. [3] According to the Buddhist texts [UKT: which Buddhist texts?], Prince Siddhartha belonged to this dynasty. The dynasty is also known as Raghuvansha or Raghu-kula because of King Raghu who was the great grandson of Ikshavaku and great grandfather of Lord Rama.

The prominent kings and emperors belonging to this royal house are Mandhatri, Muchukunda, Ambarisha, Dilīpa, Raghu, Aja, Dasharatha, Rama, Bahubali, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara,[4] Raghu, Rama and Pasenadi. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts [UKT: which Buddhist texts?] include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts  [UKT: which Buddhist texts?], Mahasammata {ma.ha m~ma.ta. mn:}, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty,[5] who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81sammata 200205
"Maha Sammata is mentioned in various Buddhist traditions. In addition to the Theravada accounts, Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhist schools describe him as the founder of political thought. [11]

Refer also to: Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, (Buddh-Pali-Names). I've found the following issues with the name Ikshavaku aka Okkaka.

1. I have always thought that the name "Okkaka" is spelled with the close back vowel /u/, but on actual check with the list supplied by U Zawtika, Zeyathukha monastery, Sanchaung, I find that it is to be spelled with open back vowel /ɔ/ (open-O). Close back vowel /u/ is {U.}, and open back vowel /ɔ/ (open-O) is {AU.}/ {AU:}.

Listening repeatedly the Skt-Dev programmes has raised the possibility that the phoneme can be Mon-Myan {ou}. Also, the {AU:} in the name is checked by {k}, the top-member of the vertical conjunct {k~ka.}, resulting in pronunciation: "ouk" - not "oak".

2. The Western authors (like those writing for Wikipedia) usually omits "titles" such as "King" and "Prince". In Bur-Myan usage, these titles are regarded as part of the names. I have made the necessary corrections. 

3. According to Buddhist Dictionari Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html (link chk 171125):
"Although the Sanskritised form of the Pāli name is Iksavāku, it is unlikely that Okkāka is identical with the famous Iksavāku of the Purānas {pu.raaN-kym:}, the immediate son of Manu, son of the Sun. The Pāli* is evidently more primitive, as is shown by the form Okkāmukha, and the name Iksavāku looks like a deliberate attempt at accommodation to the Purānic account. For discussion see Thomas, op. cit., p.6."

* UKT 190122: I cannot agree with the idea that Pali is more primitive than Sanskrit. Pali is an artificial language invented in Lanka after the Asokan missionaries had spread Buddhism to the island from Magadha the homeland of Buddha. Pali was invented from Magadhi (Tib-Bur), and Lanka (Aus-Asi) languages. It was Magadhi which is more primitive than Sanskrit.


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikshvaku_dynasty 140629

Ikshavaku dynasty in Buddhist tradition

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas {a.kya.} to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. [UKT]

See Mahavamsa, by W. Geiger, PTS 1912, in TIL CD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- WGeiger-Mahavamsa<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200206)
UKT 200206, In chapter II, we find:
"The prince Okkamukha was Okkaka's eldest son; Nipuna,
Candima, Candamukha and Sivisamjaya, the great king
Vessantara, Jali, and Sihavahana and Sihassara: these were
his sons and grandsons. Eighty-two thousand in number were
the royal sons and grandsons of king Sihassara; Jayasena
was the last of them. They are known as the Sakya kings
of Kapilavatthu. ref. 1"

This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. [9] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows: [10] [11] 

1. King Okkaka {AUk~ka-ka. mn:}
2. Okkamukha
3. King Sivisamjaya
4. King Sihassara
5. Prince Jayasena
6. Sihahanu
7. King Suddhodana
8. Prince Siddhartha who became Gautama Buddha
9. Prince Rahula

Go back Ikshvaku-note-b

Contents of this page

Ka-major & Ka-minor

- UKT: 190217, 190408, 200107

{ka.} क ka is the first consonantal akshara in BEPS aka Binpathak {ba.n~pa-ak}. In Asokan - the script found on the Asoka pillars: the oldest script found in India, it is {ka.Ask}.

{ka.} क ka is known as Ka'gyi {ka.kri:} pronounced as {ka.kyi:} (mispronouncing {ka.} as {ga.} resulting in Ka'gyi). It is because Bur-Myan lacks in rhotic sounds, and also we tend to use heavy sounds. This leaves me no choice but to call {ka.kri:} as Ka-major. Taking a cue from Na-major & Na-minor pair and other similar major-minor pairs, the question arises to the presence of Ka-minor .

Now that I am fully 85 years of age, I dare ask: if is Ka-major aka Ka'gyi, where is Ka-minor aka Ka-minor? I've hopefully solved this question after a cursory study of Mon-Myan Peguan-dialect which is now extinct. It is the mother-tongue of my great grandmother, Daw Mma who was born in Mayan village, near Kungyangon town (my birthplace) now incorporated into Greater Yangon. She died in Moulmein - a fugitive, thanks to the Anglo-Burmese Wars waged by the British colonialists. I could now only study the Mon-Myan Martaban-dialect, now spoken only in the out lying areas of the Mon-state. It is an endangered language rapidly becoming extinct due to the lack of interest of the ethnic Mons in particular, and of the Myanmar linguists in general.

Let's see what {ka.} as a glyph or as script is.

Ka in Script

Take care in dealing with the row#1 Velar-row beginning with {ka.}/ {k}, and the row#2 Palatal-row beginning with {sa.}/ {c}. They become mixed up when the different languages of BEPS are treated as a group.

Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan speakers treat row#2 as Palatal Plosive-stops. But to the Eng-Lat, Mon-Myan & Skt-Dev speakers they are Palatal Affricates. See the First Mix-up in BEPS

I'm beginning with {ka.} क - the first letter of the consonants - starting from p060-3.htm - similar to p105.htm which begins with {ta.} त. Note: what I get from Univ. of Chicago are still actively link to its website.

The akshara {ka.} क - the script - represents the phoneme /ka/. Note the IPA /k/ is without an inherent vowel and is a "dead Letter" which is unpronounceable. You'll get mixed up until you differentiate Abugida from the Alphabet, and Akshara from the Letter.

From this page onwards, we'll be on the lookout to answer the question of what if the short vowel of {ka.} (1 blnk) is checked by various codas beginning with:
- {k}, {c}, {T}, {t}, {p} , 
- {ng}, {}, {N}, {n}, {m}
- codas of a-wag aksharas: {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}
- and long-forgotten approximant {} which had been erroneously thought to be nasal.
See the continuation on p065-2.htm (link chk 190408)

Note that we have 3 English transliterations - which adds only confusion - I will give Skt-Myan/Romabama/Skt-Dev in a row, noting that Romabama transcription is only a guide for a Bur-Myan speaker. For real Skt-Dev pronunciation he will have to study with a Sanskrit speaker.

Go back Ka-major-minor-note-b

Contents of this page

King Kamsa

- UKT 140630, 170124, 181226:

Dvas and Asuras : the cheaters and the cheated

UKT 181231:

Was Kamsa an Asura? To answer my question, I've to make the following assumption;

Here, I'm making the assumption that both Dvas and Asuras were of the same kind of male gods, who of course are axiomatic, representing the humans of two groups. Dva-worshippers entered the Indian sub-continent through north-western frontiers, and Asura-worshippers entered the sub-continent from the south through maritime routes driven by trade-winds. Both group were undifferentiated while they were on the Persian highlands and both had iron-weapons. They were the Iron-Age peoples. On occasions they joined forces to subdue the Mother-goddess worshippers -- the original inhabitants of the sub-continent who were Bronze-Age peoples. The story is told in the Churning of Ocean, at the conclusion of which the Dvas cheated the Asuras keeping the choicest booty for themselves. The main-god of the Dvas changed himself into a female and using the feminine wiles to cheat the Asuras.
समुद्रमन्थन samudra manthana 'lit. churning of the ocean' - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samudra_manthan 181231
मोहिनी mohinī - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohini 181231
असुर) asura - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asura 181231

Read also
story of Narada and Kamsa - http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39442/39442-h/39442-h.html#narada-and-kansa 181231
Asura: Tale of the Vanquished  is Anand Neelakantan, 2012 .
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asura:_Tale_of_the_Vanquished 181228

Many humans noted for their exploits have been deified by various religionists in ancient times, and I believe Krishna was one of them. The story of Kamsa {kn-a.} and Krishna appears to be a power struggle for the throne of Mathura Kingdom . Or, it could also be the struggle of the Iron-Agers (with iron weapons) overpowering the Bronze-Agers (with bronze weapons) who were defending their city from the invaders.

Taking a cue from the meaning of Kamsa {kn-a.} 'brass - an alloy of copper', I have come to believe that the story of Kamsa (with brass weapons belonging to Bronze Age), and Krishna (with iron weapons belonging to Iron Age) is the war between the peoples of the Bronze Age, defending their mother-land from the invaders with iron weapons of the Iron Age. Timeline of coming of Iron Age: 1300-230 BCE. Based on this cue, I'll refer to king of Bronze-Age peoples as King Kamsa {kn-a. Bu.rn}.

See also Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age_India 170124

It can be said that the various battles would have been well-known to Gautama Buddha (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE c. 483 BCE/400 BCE). The Buddha, the humanist, would have known that the battles between Brass-Agers and Iron-Agers are nothing more than unequal fights between the aggressors with better weapons [similar to the British with Enfield rifles overcoming the Burmese with Ngak'kyi-daung dahs {gnak-kri:tan-Da:}.] with heavy loss of life of the vanquished. Even as a child of 7 or 8, Prince Siddhartha, who later became the Buddha, must have pondered on this point that had led him into the First Jhana.

Inset pix: Prince Siddhartha, the child who later became the Gautama Buddha, saw a worm being grabbed for food by a bird. The worm was unearthed during ploughing -- an innocent activity. The bird had no intention of killing the worm. It sees the worm only as food - no question of killing a living being. Another innocent activity. The bird itself is food for a larger bird of prey which only takes the bird as food. A simple innocent endeavour, getting food, has a larger effect of killing an individual, whose death would trigger more loss of life and agony.

Now, if you have to explain everything in terms of scientifically unacceptable gods and devils, you can go on reading the following:

We must note that Hinduism - the religion - is now made up of 3 traditions: the worship of Vishnu, the worship of Siva, and the worship of Devi. Vishnu, Siva, and Devi are all non-humans - they are dva-gods.

However in these traditions, there are deified humans of different time-periods, e.g., Krishna, and Rama. Krishna is popularly portrayed with his childhood love - Radha राधा {ra-Da}, and Rama with Sita सीता {i-ta} (meaning "furrow"). The Hindu religionists even tried to include Gautama Buddha - a human being - into the Vishnu-tradition by calling him a reincarnation of Vishnu.

It is not only in Hinduism that we find the Gautama Buddha. We find him in both Christianity and Islam. I quote Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barlaam_and_Josaphat 140629"

Balauhar and Budasaf or Bilawhar wa-Yudasaf is a legendary Islamic telling of the story of Siddhartha Gautama originating in the Sogdian language (Middle Iranian). [1] The tale came into Christianity as the story of Sts. Barlaam and Josaphat, who were venerated in both the Eastern and Western churches.

See the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, edited by J. Jacobs, 1896 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- JJacobs-BarlammJosaphat<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181226)
See Appendix 1, p097 (Roman Number XCVII) for the birth of Barlaam which is almost the copy of the birth of the prince who would become Buddha: "There lived once a king in India mighty and powerful, who knew not the true faith, and persecuted grievously its adherents. Now he had no son to follow him, and this grieved him sorely. One night his chief wife dreamed that a huge white elephant came down to her from the air, but injured her not. The astrologers declared to the king that he would have a son." If Barlamm was the Buddha, then Josaphat would be a Buddha-to-be who was converted by the Buddha.

Now back to Kamsa and Krishna:

UKT 181231: The following is based on the same Wikipedia article but of two different dates
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamsa 140629
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamsa 181231
In going over the story, I keep in my mind my conjecture on Dvas and Asuras , and that it was a time of Iron-Agers from Iranian-Persian highlands and southern areas swallowing up the sub-continent of India inhabited by Bronze-Agers who were Tib-Bur speakers. Those from the highlands were IE-speakers [who would later become Vaishnavite-Hindus - worshipping Vishnu as supreme God], and those from southern areas were Aus-Asi speakers [who would become Shaivite-Hindus - worshipping Siva as the Supremo]. Another conjecture is the IE-speakers were fair-complexioned akin to Europeans and Aus-Asi speakers were dark-skinned and thick-lipped akin to Africans. Also refer - to Yadava - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yadava 181231
- to Magadha in time of Krishna - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapadas 181221
- to Dwaraka - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwarka 181221

In Hindu mythology, [there were two groups giving rise to two traditions: Vaishnavite and Shaivite] Kamsa, or Kansa  {kn-a. Bu.rn} कंस kaṃsa, was the tyrant ruler of the Vrishni kingdom with its capital at Mathura. He is the brother of Devaki {d-wa.ki} देवकी .

Kamsa was born to King Ugrasena a Yadava king and Queen Padmavati. However, out of ambition and upon the advice of his personal confidantes, Banasura and Narakasura, [note the suffix -sura] Kamsa decided to overthrow his father and install himself as the King of Mathura. Therefore, upon the guidance of another advisor, Chanur, Kamsa decided to marry Asti and Prapti, the daughters of Jarasandha, King of Magadha {ma-ga.Da. ten:}. [5] [Note {ma-ga.Da. ten:} was populated by Tib-Bur speakers, culturally and linguistically the same as the population of present-day Myanmarpr]

In Vaishnavite Hinduism (as opposed to Shaivite tradition), Kaṁsa'  कंस (Skt-Dev) aka Kans (Hindi-Dev), {kn-a.} was a king of Mathura. He was the brother of Devaki {d-wa.ki} देवकी .

Princess Devaki {d-wa.ki} was the mother of the Krishna {kRRi.SNa.}. Even as a young man {kRRi.Sna.} slew King Kansa  {kn-a. Bu.rn}. However, it was probable that he was unable to control the local population of Tib-Bur speakers and had to withdraw south towards the sea to Dwaraka city where he made himself king.

UKT 181230: The story of King Kaṁsa'  कंस ( {kn-a.} 'lit. {kr:} 'copper & its alloys') is related to that of Klanemi Asura - a name you'll come across in p067.htm (p067c2-b13).

Now the story of Kamsa from: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39442/39442-h/39442-h.html#narada-and-kansa 181231


"Nrada told Kansa: "The female child was the daughter of Yasod; Krishna and Rma are sons of Devaki. Vsudeva kept them with his friend Nanda out of fear. Those two brothers have killed your spies." In rage the king of Bhoja took his sword to kill Vsudeva. Nrada prevented him. But the King put Yasudeva and his wife in iron fetters. He then ordered Kesi to kill Rma and Krishna. He called his ministers together in council. Addressing Chnur and Mushtika he said: "Rma and Krishna are to kill us. So Nrada told me." Those two Asuras came ready for Vraja. But Kansa said: "No, you need not go. I shall send for the two brothers and kill them in a wrestling match. So prepare the playground. Place the elephant Kubalaypida at the entrance and let him kill my enemies. On the fourteenth day of the Moon, let us commence Dhanus Yajna, and let animals be killed in honor of Śiva." ...

Story of King Kamsa who was killed by Vasudeva वसुदेव from Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by G. P. Malalasekera.

3. Kamsa.- Son of Mahākamsa and brother of Upakamsa and Devagabbhā. Later he became king of Asitajana in Kamsabhoga in the Uttarāpatha. He was killed by Vasudeva, one of the Andhakavenhudā-saputtā (J.iv.79f).

Vāsudeva - The eldest of the Andhakavenhudāsaputtā. The Ghata Jātaka (No. 454) relates how, when Vāsudeva's son died and Vāsudeva gave himself up to despair, his brother Ghatapandita brought him to his senses by feigning madness. Vāsudeva's minister was Rohineyya. Vāsudeva is addressed (J.iv.84; he is called Kanha at J.vi.421) as Kanha and again as Kesava. The scholiast explains (J.iv.84) that he is called Kanha because he belonged to the Kanhāyanagotta, and Kesava because he had beautiful hair (kesasobhanatāya). These names, however, give support to the theory (see Andhakavenhudāsaputtā, No.1) that the story of Vāsudeva was associated with the legend of Krsna.

In the Mahāummagga Jātaka (J.vi.421) it is stated that Jambāvatī, mother of King Sivi, was the consort of Vāsudeva Kanha. The scholiast identifies this Vāsudeva with the eldest of the Andhakavenhudāsaputtā, and says that Jambāvatī was a candalī. Vāsudeva fell in love with her because of her great beauty and married her in spite of her caste. Their son was Sivi, who later succeeded to his father's throne at Dvāravatī. Vāsudeva is identified with Sāriputta. J.iv.89.

Go back Kamsa-note-b

Contents of this page

The Nasals

UKT 200112: The Nasals as a group are quite problematical in BEPS. There are those which cannot be rightly articulated by speakers of IE languages. This problem must have been observed long ago and the the ancient phoneticians have invented the {::tn} - the nasals without a definite POA. It is an artificial group formed to help the IE speakers pronounce the Tib-Bur nasals of rows #1, #2, and #3. The {::tn} in Nepali should also be treated in the same way: e.g.
  Nep: कंकन् kaṁkan - v. kaṅkan. - Turn-Nep065
  Nep: कंगाल् kaṁgāl - v. kaṅgāl. - Turn-Nep065
  Nep: कंचन् kaṁcan - v. kācan. - Turn-Nep065

The problematical nasals are no doubt what I am calling the Semi-nasals, {kn~} & {k~}. The nasals without problem are true-nasals, {kN}, {kn} & {km}. The semi-nasals and the True nasals  must be differentiated, or you'll get into translation problems.

Then there is the nasal in words like {ka.a.} derived from {a.}. They are problematical to all except the native Bur-Myan speakers. In actuality, they do not seem to belong to Nasals but to Approximants. I presume {a.} was a basic phoneme of Tib-Bur but was lost to almost all languages of the world except Bur-Myan. In Pal-Myan it has been reduced to the status of a horizontal conjunct of two {~a.}. We find this conjunct in words like "education" {p~a}.

Go back Nasal-note-b

Contents of this page

Panchatantra Tales

-- UKT 140629: We always think of Tantric Buddhism whenever we hear the word "Tantra". In the following account, it simply means "techniques".

My note based on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchamakara 171130

Don't get confused with Panchamakara, aks the Five Ms: a Tantric term for 5 substances used:
1. madya 'wine'; 2. māṃsa 'meat'; 3. matsya 'fish'; 4. mudrā 'parched grain'*; 5. maithuna 'sexual intercourse'.

Taboo-breaking elements are only practiced literally by "left-hand path" tantrics (vāmācārin, whereas "right-hand path" tantrics dakṣiṇācārin oppose these. (Rawson, 1978).- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchamakara 171130

*According to Theravada Buddhist tradition, mudrā is what we now understand by "Yoga" - severe hand and body postures taken for long periods of time. In modern Yoga, these were taken for only a few minutes.
Sculptures of couples in maithuna can be seen in some Hindu temples in India - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maithuna 171130

According to Bur-Myan indigenous histories, some Arigyi (Pali-Myan speaking) monks took up the Tantric practice. They were suppressed by King Anawrahta of northern kingdom of Pagan: their places were taken by Mon-Myan speaking monks from rival southern kingdom of Thaton. However, not all Arigyi were suppressed. Some do remain such as Anawrahta' own father, King Kn'hsau who had been forced to become a monk by his foster sons. He is celebrated as Hti-hpru Hsan Nat {hti:hpru-hsan: nt} in the pantheon of Thirty-Seven Nats.
See: Folk Elements in Buddhism
-- flk-ele-indx.htm > ch07-0922.htm (link chk 190414)

I opine that Pali-Myan was Old Magadhi imported from Magadha Mahajanapada since the days of King Abhiraza of northern kingdom of Tagan long before the time of Gautama Buddha. Magadhi-Myan, became tainted with Pali of the Mons which was imported from Sri Lanka some 250 years after the death of the Buddha. Since the Mons and Lankans are Aus-Asi linguistic group, Magadhi-Myan lost words beginning with velar plosive-stop Nga, and approximant Nya'gyi.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchatantra 140629

The Panchatantra पञ्चतन्त्र   'Five Principles or Techniques'  = प ञ ् च त न ् त ् र   is an ancient Indian inter-related collection of animal fables in verse and prose, in a frame story format. The original Sanskrit work, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BCE, [1] is attributed to Vishnu Sharma. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". [2] It is "certainly the most frequently translated literary product of India", [3] and these stories are among the most widely known in the world. [4] To quote Edgerton (1924): [5]  

...there are recorded over two hundred different versions known to exist in more than fifty languages, and three-fourths of these languages are extra-Indian. As early as the eleventh century this work reached Europe, and before 1600 it existed in Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, German, English, Old Slavonic, Czech, and perhaps other Slavonic languages. Its range has extended from Java to Iceland... [In India,] it has been worked over and over again, expanded, abstracted, turned into verse, retold in prose, translated into medieval and modern vernaculars, and retranslated into Sanskrit. And most of the stories contained in it have "gone down" into the folklore of the story-loving Hindus, whence they reappear in the collections of oral tales gathered by modern students of folk-stories.

Thus it goes by many names in many cultures. In India, it had at least 25 recensions, including the Sanskrit Tantrākhyāyikā [6] (तन्त्राख्यायिका) and inspired the Hitopadesha. It was translated into Middle Persian in 570 CE by Borzūya. This became the basis for a Syriac translation as Kalilag and Damnag [7] and a translation into Arabic in 750 CE by Persian scholar Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa as Kalīlah wa Dimnah [8]. A New Persian version from the 12th century became known as Kalīleh o Demneh [9]  and this was the basis of Kashefi's 15th century Anvār-e Soheylī  [10] ('The Lights of Canopus'). The book in different form is also known as The Fables of Bidpai [11] [12] (or Pilpai, in various European languages) or The Morall Philosophie of Doni (English, 1570).

Go back Panchatantra-note-b

Contents of this page


UKT: 140205, ... , 170222, 180417, 200107

Ka in Myth : the Unknown god  

Mention of Prajapati or Brahma always brings back to my mind the fiction Planet of the Apes and Ludwig Feuerbach's, 1841, Essence of Christianity. 1841. See downloaded Essence of Christianity, by Ludwig Feuerbach, 1841, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- LFeuerbach-EssenceChristianity<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181226)

UKT 200111: The Brahma shown on the right is not the Buddhist depiction. It is Hindu, or it may even be Vedic. It is pathetic that in Thailand, a Theravada Buddhist country, the Brahma is shown with 4 faces. Iconography, is a misleading source of religion, but still an inspiration for uneducated layman.

In the Planet of the Apes, the science fiction of 1968, it is the God creating the Ape in his own image. In the older Essence of Christianity it is "Man first unconsciously and involuntarily creates God in his own image, and after this God consciously and voluntarily creates man in his own image."

Reading - not studying - through Feuerbach's work, I feel that he could not get away from an idea - the idea of God. He is still attached to an idea, whether for or against. And so he is still suffering from mental pain. What, we, Buddhists aspire is to be free from Attachment to be free of mental Suffering.

See also the Hymn of Creation Nasadiya Sukta which is linked to the Sphota Theory of Language
- lang-indx.htm > lang-thot-indx.htm > spho-cwrd-indx.htm (link chk 170124)
On p074.htm, you'll come across another epithet of Prajpati: 

केश [ 2. ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i.e. Pragpati).

It is said "Man created God after his own image". How pathetic for ignorant people looking for something to worship to help them in their daily life.

The priests came along and created one and many gods for the people to worship. They appointed themselves as the agents of the god or gods - making sure that the people obey them and support them.

"Man created God in his own image." -- Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including both Karl Marx and Frederich Engels.
-- From: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Feuerbach 140227

As a Theravada Buddhist, and a no nonsense down-to-earth scientist, I've come to uphold the above view of myth devoid of reality. I enjoy reading myths only for entertainment, but for serious thinking accept only the Four Principles, and the Doctrine of Anatta discovered by Rishi (former Prince) Siddhartha aka Gautama Buddha (after he came to discover the above scientific principles.)

It is ironic that this historical Buddha himself came be worshipped as a god in many parts of the world.

From Chapter 10. Miscellaneous Minor Deities in Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Puranic, by W.J. Wilkins, 1900, sacred-texts.com. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/hmvp/hmvp47.htm 140227
in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- WJWilkins-HinduMyth<> / Bkp<>  (link chk 200108)

6. KA? WHO?

The HTML version and the PDF version are the same except in page numbers. What is (p.480 cont) in HTML is (p180) in PDF. Back on 140227, I've copied the HTML version. Now, that I have the PDF version, I've erased the text of the HTML version.

From PDF version:

(p180) The Athenians were not alone in worshipping the "Unknown God." "The authors of the Brāhmanas had so completely broken with the past, that, forgetful of the poetical character of the hymns (of the Vedas), and the yearning of the poets after the unknown god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun itself into a deity, and acknowledged a god, Ka? or 'Who?' In the 'Taittiriya Brāhmana,' in the 'Kaushītaki Brāhmana,' in the 'Tāndya Brāhmana,' and in the 'Satapatha Brāhmana,' wherever interrogative verses occur, the author states that Ka is Prajāpati, or the lord of creatures. Nor did they stop here. [UKT ]

Some of the hymns in which the interrogative pronoun occurred were called Kadvat, i.e., having kad or quid. But soon a new adjective was formed, and not only the hymns, but the sacrifices also, offered to the god, were called Kāya, or 'Who-ish.' [UKT ]

At the time of Pānini (the great grammarian), this word had acquired such legitimacy as to call for a separate rule explaining its formation. The commentator here explains Ka by Brāhman. After this, we can hardly wonder that in the later Sanskrit literature of the Purānas, Ka appears as a recognized god, with a genealogy of his own, perhaps even a wife; and that in the laws of Manu one of the recognized forms of marriage, genet ally known by the name of the Prajāpati marriage, occurs under the monstrous title of Kāya."231 In the Mahābhārata Ka is identified with Daksha [the ibex-headed god], and in the "Bhāgavata Purāna" it is applied to Kasyapa, probably on account of their similarity to Prajāpati.

UKT 180415: After coming across Ka - the unknown God mentioned by W. J. Wilkins, I had to look in A. A. Macdonell
- AAMacdonell-VedicMyth<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180415)
On pdf131/216:

In the refrain of the first nine verses of RV. 10, 121 the supreme god is referred to as unknown by the interrogative pronoun Ka, Who ? The answer given in the tenth verse, is that Prajapati alone embraces all beings. This later led to the employment of Ka not only as an epithet of Prajapati (AB. 3, 22 [7] ), but as a name, used by itself, of the supreme god (MS. 3, 12 [5]). In the TS. (i, 7, 6 [6] ) Ka is expressly identified with Prajapati [7] .

Prajapati : the lord of Men and Worms

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prajapati 120125

In Hinduism, Prajapati (Skt: प्रजापति) "lord of creatures*" is a Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protector of life. He appears as a creator deity or supreme God Viswakarma Vedic deities in RV 10 and in Brahmana literature. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the [1] Nasadiya Sukta.

*UKT 180417: The English phrase "lord of creatures" is objectionable because it involves the idea of "creation" and "creation by a god". I would rather use "lord of living things" because of the akshara {za.} ज. We should note that a human being Hs made up of two parts: body and mind or intelligence. However, an earth-worm, for instance, is also a living thing. It is without a developed brain is mostly body and almost no intelligence. And so we must conclude that Prajapati is also the "lord of worms".

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

UKT continues:
"Pragpati" or "Prajpati" प्रजापति prajā-pati is made up of two words, {pRa.za} & {pa.ti.}. It simply means "the lord of all living things". Axiomatic religionists identify it (sex is not mentioned and can be He, She, or It) to suit their religion: Christians with God (creator of Adam - the first human), Hindus of Vaishnavism sect with Brahma {brah~ma} the Hindu (Four-faced inhabitant of Dva world at the summit of Mt. Mru), different from Buddhist (Single-faced higher-than dva of Brahma world beyond the peak of Mt. Mru}), Jews with YHVH, Muslims with Allah, etc. 

UKT 170124, 171130, 180417: Hindus of Shaivism sect hold that Siva is the Supreme Creator surpassing Brahman. Moreover, he was a very licentious male deflowering marrying the Mother-goddesses of the conquered peoples of the Indian subcontinent such as Parvati (daughter of Himavat, हिमवत्), Umma, Durga, and Kali. It reminds me of stories of occupying soldiers raping the women of the conquered peoples. Read https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sati_(Hindu_goddess) 180418

The Shaivites finally identify Prajpati with Dakṣa, दक्ष, the ibex-headed god or an anthropomorphic Mountain goat! And made Parvati the sex-slave of Shiva and worship the Lingum (penis) of Shiva stuck in the Yoni (vagina) of Parvati forever.
See a video on the human Rishi Bhagu cursing god Shiva (link chk 180417)

Shaivites considered these to be just names, however I opine that they were formerly Mother-goddesses and Folk-gods in the Bronze Age.

See also Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica) habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan - by Garee Khan, Babar Khan, Faisal M. Qamer, Sawaid Abbas, Anwar Khan, Chen Xi, in the Journal of King Saud University Science (2016) 28, 245254. Downloaded article in TIL CD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- GKhanEtAl-HimalyanIbex<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180417),

Axiomatic religion artist would portray It any way they like. For example, Michelangelo drew his likeness in the form of an old  man on a part of the Sistine Chapel of the Roman Catholics in Rome, Italy, circa 1511-1512.

UKT 190215: If I may quote the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Creation_of_Adam 190215,
The Christian God, who appears as an Old Man, is still trapped in inescapable Old Age, which finally would lead to Death.

Non-axiomatic religions like the various kinds of Buddhism, Mahayana and Theravada have no such notion and Prajpati simply means "the lord or king of all living things" who is still trapped in the "Cycle of Death and Rebirth" involving old age and disease.

To come up with an inter-language transcription between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, we must not forget that Pali (at least the Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr which I would like to term Magadhi-Myanmar) is a Tib-Bur language which is only slightly rhotic, whereas Skt-Dev is highly rhotic. Thus the <r> of Skt-Dev may be ignored in some cases. An example:

Skt: Prajapati प्रजापति prajā-pati "lord of people"
BPal: {pa.za} - UHS PMD0568
  UKT from UHS: f. creatures, humanity, peoples of a country, progeny, the world of living

On p074.htm , you'll come across:

केश [ 2. ka‿sa ]
- n. the lunar mansion Rohin (ruled by Ka, i.e. Pragpati).

UKT 151111: Skt-Dev Ka क, same as {ka.} of Bur-Myan. It is a velar plosive-stop and occupies the cell r1c1 in the Bur-Myan matrix. In the oldest inscriptions found in the Indian subcontinent, the inscription of King Asoka, the Buddhist king, this cell is occupied by the akshara {ka.} of Asokan Brahmi .

For comparison read Wikipedia on the Hindu god Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture'
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitragupta 171130
"Chitragupta चित्रगुप्त = च ि त ् र ग ु प ् त , 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture') is a Hindu god assigned with the task of keeping complete records of actions of human beings on the earth."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prajapati 150726

In Hinduism, Prajapati प्रजापति prajā-pati "lord of people" is a group Hindu deity presiding over procreation, and protection of life, thereby a King of Kings. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the [1]
[UKT: See also in Wikipedia on Nasadiya Sukta 'Hymn of Creation', 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasadiya_Sukta 150727 }

Wiki Ref. [1] - Vishvakarma Architect of the Gods | Mamandram Magazine". Mamandram.org. 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2012-07-12. Wiki Ref01b

According to later beliefs in the post-Vedic Era, the Prajapaties were elected democratically. Lord Vishnu was first elected democratically/unanimously as Prajapati (in the North of Aryavarta or Bharta) by all the Rishis and subjects of that era and sat on the throne of Prajapati. Thereafter, Lord Brhma was elected as Prajapati (in the west of Aryavrat or Bharta), after which Lord Shankar (in the South of Aryavrat or Bharta) or Rudras were elected as Prajapaties. The throne of Prajapati succeeded further and there were about 26 Prajapaties, as mentioned in the Vedas.

Prajapati is a Vedic deity presiding over procreation, and the protection of life. He appears as a creator deity or supreme god vishvakarman above the other Vedic deities in RV 10 and in Brahmana literature. Vedic commentators also identify him with the creator referred to in the Nasadiya Sukta..

UKT: more in Wikipedia article

Go back prajapati-note-b

Contents of this page

Problems of the First Consonant Akshara

UKT 151025, ... , 181211, 200204:

I had thought dealing with {ka.} क ka would be simple, but it is not. I must deal with {ka.} क ka as:
#1. an akshara-major
#2. the First or the Mother of all aksharas
#3. Velar plosive-stop
#4. Ka vs. Ta based on Asoka and Georgian scripts

#1. {ka.} क as an akshara-major

There are four Akshara-majors aka Major-consonants {ak~hha.ra kri:} in Myanmar consonants. They are the basis of a powerful Myanmar Yan {n:}. They are: Ka'gyi {ka.kri:} {ka.}; Ga'gyi {Ga.kri:} {Ga.}; Na'gyi {Na.kri:} {Na.}; and La'gyi {La.kri:} {La.}.   Among them, three have Minor counterparts: {ga.gn} {ga.};  {na.gn} {na.}; and {la.ng} shortened to {la.}. Now, where is Ka-minor {ka.gn}? A possible solution is in Mon-Myan aksharas with inherent vowel /e/ different from those with inherent vowel /a/. See Section 5: Myanmar languages and culture, in which the g sound /g/ is absent, and the glyphs becomes /ke/, and /hke/. 

  aGrammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, to which are added a few pages of phrases, etc., by Haswell, J.M., ABM Press (American Baptist Mission Press), Rangoon, 1874
- MonMyan-Haswell-gramm-notes-vocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 200204)
  b. A vocabulary of English and Peguan, to which are added a few pages of geographical names , by Stevens, E.O., ABM Press, Rangoon, 1896
- MonMyan-Stevens-vocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 200204)
  c. Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R. C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
- Mon-Myan-RCTemple-translit-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 200204). 

We can tentatively say Ka-minor is in Mon-Myan {k}: Ka-major {ka.}, and Ka-minor {k}.


#2. {ka.} क as the First or the Mother of all aksharas

("Ka the Unknown god" is a Skt-Dev problem. If we are to state in Bur-Myan, the unknown would be {B}.). The First need not be the progenitor. Yet, in our cultures the eldest or oldest in a family, in a community is respected even though the person is a female. Even a Myanmar Buddhist monk is allowed to maintain his mother - but not his father - out the alms he has collected. And when his mother dies, the whole community would hold a funeral as befitting as the monk himself.

#2. as the Unknown god Ka of Skt-Dev speakers, and also of the pre-Christian Athenians of Ancient Greece. See Chapter 10. Miscellaneous Minor Deities in Hindu Mythology, Vedic and Puranic, by W.J. Wilkins, 1900, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- WJWilkins-HinduMyth<> / Bkp<>  (link chk 180412)
"6. KA? WHO? : The Athenians were not alone in worshipping the "Unknown God." "The authors of the Brāhmanas had so completely broken with the past, that, forgetful of the poetical character of the hymns (of the Vedas), and the yearning of the poets after the unknown god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun itself into a deity, and acknowledged a god, Ka? or 'Who?' In the 'Taittiriya Brāhmana,' in the 'Kaushītaki Brāhmana,' in the 'Tāndya Brāhmana,' and in the 'Satapatha Brāhmana,' wherever interrogative verses occur, the author states that Ka is Prajāpati, or the lord of living things creatures."
  See also p065.htm , in which you'll find: p065c2-b12 का [k] , and Allah, The Unique Name of God, 'research into the names of God in over 150 languages of the world' by Maulana Abdul Haq Vidyarthi , 2007. The downloaded book is in the TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF librairies
- AHVidyarthi-Allah<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180406)
Inset pix: p.092 of the above book:


#3. {ka.} क as Velar plosive-stop

Velar-stop Ka is easily confused with Palatal-affricate Ca which is absent in Bur-Myan. However, the phoneme is represented by the medial-conjunct {kya.} in Bur-Myan. Being a conjunct {kya.} breaks up under the Viram {a.t} sign. What we need is a dedicated glyph for Ca which will not break down. It can be formed from Dental-approximant {Sa.}/ {S} by application of Ha'hto {ha.hto:} . Take care: I'm not applying the Ha'hto {ha.hto:} to Palatal-stop {sa.}/ {c} .

Note: Dental-approximant {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् is unknown in Bur-Myan, but known in Skt-Dev. It was also probably unknown in Devanagari at one time: attested from the fact that it was formed as:

प + diagonal --> ष 

UKT 181211: Going through the Fricatives, MCa1pp-indx.htm, and comparing the number of entries for {sha.}, {Sa.}, and {a.}, you'll find the number of entries with {Sa.} is just a fraction of {a.}. It indicates that {Sa.} has to be created to represent {a.} for creating the sibilants such as {Ska.} , {Sta.}, {Spa.}, etc. Compare to Eng-Lat <skin>, <star>, <spot>.

It is probably not well known among English-speaking Myanmar Buddhists that Velar-stop Ka is represented by Uvular Qa in Arabic-to-English transliteration.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uvular_stop 200204
"In phonetics and phonology, a uvular stop is a type of consonantal sound, made with the back of the tongue in contact the uvula, which hangs down in front of the throat (hence uvular), held tightly enough to block the passage of air (hence a stop consonant).

Uvular stops are acoustically similar to but less common than the velar stops (e.g. [k] and [ɡ]), and do not occur in English. Uvular stops are common in certain parts of the world, e.g. the Caucasian languages and the Pacific Northwest languages of North America. However, they are unattested in the European languages (outside of a few peripheral areas such as the Caucasus).

The most common sound is the voiceless stop [q]. This sound is well known in Arabic, and occurs (at least in Standard Arabic) in words such as Quran (Koran), Qatar, and Al-Qahira (Arabic for Cairo)."

See also: Points of Articulation (POA) by C. dCanio, 2009?. in TIL PDF libraries:
- CdCanio-POA<> / Bk<> (link chk 200204)
"No language contrasts palatal, velar, and uvular consonants (all three), but many do have contrasts between palatals-velars, palatals-uvulars, and between velars-uvulars.

Take care in dealing with {ka.}-row or Velar-row (row#1),  and {sa.}/ {c}-row or Palatal plosive-stop-row (row#2). They became mixed up when the different languages in BEPS are studied as a group. In fact Macdonell and other authors of his time denotes {sa.}/ {c} as [ka ] : italicised k . The Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan speakers treat row#2 -- the {sa.}/ {c}-row -- as Palatal Plosive-stops. But to the Eng-Lat, Mon-Myan & Skt-Dev speakers they are Palatal Affricates.


#4. Asokan and Georgian Ka vs. Ta

Let's now look at the Asoka aksharas - the oldest script found in India: {ka.Ask} and {ta.Ask}. And Georgian alphabet - the furthest away from Myanmarpre - კ (kan) and თ (tan). Now my curiosity is aroused.

You'll notice that the shape of {ka.Ask} is the square, and {ta.Ask} is the equilateral triangle. With the triangle, you can arrive at a circle. It is basis of "rounding the square into a circle". How much this has to do with Spherical geometry used in astronomy of the Babylonians to discover the Metonic cycles, before the Greeks, is still beyond my comprehension. You'll note that the Myanmar astrologer-astronomers used the Metonic cycles in Burmese calendar calculations. It is not found in India. See
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 180418

I'm beginning with {ka.} क - the first letter of the consonants - starting from p060-3.htm - similar to p105.htm which begins with {ta.}. Georgian თ (tan) is clearly related to Myanmar {ta.} both in appearance and pronunciation. What about Georgian კ (kan) and Myanmar {ka.}? Rotate counter clockwise the კ (kan), and you get .

The akshara {ka.} क - the script - represents the phoneme /ka/. Note the IPA /k/ is without an inherent vowel and is a "dead Letter" which is unpronounceable. You'll get mixed up until you differentiate Abugida from the Alphabet, and Akshara from the Letter. 

Go back Problem-First-Consonant-note-b

Contents of this page

Royal regalia

- UKT 140206

Each kingdom has its own royal regalia - a sign of sovereignty. But the items and the number of items vary from kingdom to kingdom.

BPal: {ka.ku.Da. BN~a.} -- UHS-PMD0275 
Bur: {ming:mrauk-tn-hsa} - n. coronation regalia (of Bur-Myan kings), namely (clockwise from 'crown' to 'sandals'):

1. {ma.keiT} 'crown'
2. {hti:hpru} 'white umbrella'
3. {n-lyak} 'double edged dagger'
4. {a:mri:yup} 'yak-tail swish'
5. {hkr-nn:} 'sandals'

I have an interesting story to tell about {hkr-nn:} 'sandals'. I have many friends, some of them highly educated, and some working as teaching staff of the universities, who sincerely believe in the esoteric practices of Myanmarpr. If you do not make fun of them they would let you into their secret beliefs. That particular friend was working as an assistant lecturer in Mathematics in the Rangoon Arts & Sc. Univ. in 1980's.

When I got the news that one of my favourite ex-students from Bassein College (now university) had died in a bus accident, I went to see his parents. Before that I had a strange "mental disturbance" when that student "appeared" before me during my day-time nap. I made enquiries and came to know that my ex-student had died in a bus accident. His funeral had been over by a week when I went to see his family. His father told me that my ex-student had a grudge against his professor who had not given him good grades because of which had to work as an inspector on a long-distance bus line. He had died falling from a moving bus. The family did not realized that I was that very professor. I asked the time of his death, and was shocked to find that it coincided with the very instant I had that "mental disturbance".

I related the incident to my mathematical friend, and he said in order to help the soul, (or "bardo" in the Tibetan belief - see Tibetan Book of the Dead: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardo_Thodol 140630), I should make an offering of a "vehicle" to the Buddhist Sangha. By "vehicle" I had understood it to be a motor car - a very expensive item, but my friend told me that I can substitute "the vehicle" with a pair of sandals. Is it possible that his bardo had come to me for help for his mistake of having a grudge against me! I may be a down-to-earth physical scientist, but I admit there are elements of the traditional Bur-Myan Buddhist beliefs still lurking in me.

As a duty, as a teacher of Bur-Myan Theravada tradition, I must look after the interests of my students. Clearly, my mathematical friend expected me to fulfill the help-request of my dead student. Following his instructions, we went up the Shwdagon pagoda, and offered a pair of sandals to the first Buddhist monk who happened to be a stranger. I hope my student is now in a higher-plane of existence, and is helping me with my work.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crown_Jewels_of_the_United_Kingdom 140206

The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at other state functions. The term refers to the following objects: the crowns, sceptres (with either the cross or the dove), orbs, swords, rings, spurs, colobium sindonis, dalmatic, armills, and the royal robe or pall, as well as several other objects connected with the ceremony itself. [1]

Many of these descend directly from the pre-Reformation period and have a religious and sacral connotation. The vestures donned by the sovereign following the unction, for instance, closely resemble the alb and dalmatic worn by bishops, although the contention that they are meant to confer upon the sovereign an ecclesiastical character is in dispute among Christian scholars.

Go back royal-regalia-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file