Update: 2018-01-26 03:28 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com
For comparing Pali and Sanskrit, it necessary to go into the Roots, and Verb-forms, for which I rely on:

See what this dictionary is about


index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

UKT 171129: In BEPS basic aksharas, the last consonant of row #1, the velar Nga is
{gna.}-onset/ {nga.}-coda

Consolidated TOC for r1 , r2 , r3  

p060-3.htm p061.htm p062.htm p063.htm p064.htm
p065.htm p066.htm p067.htm p068.htm p069.htm
p070.htm p071.htm p072.htm p072R.htm p073.htm p074.htm p074E.htm
p075.htm  p076.htm p076C.htm* p077.htm p078.htm p079-1.htm p079-2.htm 
p080.htm p081.htm p082.htm p083.htm p084.htm
p085.htm p085R.htm p086.htm p086E.htm p087.htm p087C.htm p088-1.htm
p088-2.htm p089.htm p090-1.htm / p090-1B.htm > dedicated page on Turn-NepalDict-indx.htm

Checking for root √ : finished up to p076C.htm
Temp stop at √krudh, 'be angry'. - Whit026  

UKT 180113: I had to split up the original p076.htm to concentrate on the difference in rhoticity between Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan involving the Ra'ric {ra.ric} sound. I also have to take note of the highly rhotic Skt-Dev ऋ (1 blnk)/ ॠ (2 blnk), and also that the International Pali does not have the "emphatic 2 blnk" sound. I've come up with the scheme (using the length of the hood to represent the degree of rhoticity:

sound involving /a/:
Bur-Myan: {kra.}, {kra}, {kra:}
Pal-Myan : {kRa.}, {kRa}, {kRa:}
  Not present in Skt-Dev, and therefore no confusion between Pali-Myan and Skt-Myan. For this representation to be applicable to the Ra'khine dialect of Bur-Myan, I've to include {kRa:} (emphatic 2 blnk). Pal-Myan, conforming to International Pali, has only two {kRa.} (1 blnk) and {kRa} (2 blnk).
At one time, I had thought of representing Pal-Myan {kRa.} as Ra'kauk-hsw {ra.kauk-hsw:}. However, I had to give up this idea when I started learning Mon-Myan where r1c5 {nga.} has a Ra'kauk-hsw {ra.kauk-hsw:}, unlike the Bur-Myan r1c5 {nga.}.

However, in sound involving /i/, because of the presence of ऋ (1 blnk)/ ॠ (2 blnk), Pali and Sanskrit would be the same.

p090-2.htm p091.htm  p092.htm  p093.htm  p094.htm p095.htm
p096-1.htm  p096-2.htm p097-1.htm p097-2.htm p098.htm p099.htm
p100.htm p101.htm  p102.htm p103-1.htm  p103-2.htm p104-1.htm / p104-1B.htm

p104-2.htm  p104-3.htm p104-4.htm  p104-5.htm  p104-6.htm


Sanskrit and Pali roots : downloaded - more if needed

UKT 170605:

The Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language, by William Dwight Whitney, 1885,
Preface: "This work is intended especially as a Supplement to my author's Sanskrit Grammar (Leipzig, 1879), giving, with a fullness of detail that was not then practicable, nor admissible as part of the grammar itself, all the quotable roots of the language, with the tense and conjugation-systems made from them, and with the noun and adjective (infinitival and participial) formations that attach themselves most closely to the verb ; and further, with the other derivative noun and adjective-stems usually classed as primary: since these also are needed, if one would have a comprehensive view of the value of a given root in the language. And everything given is dated, with such accuracy as the information thus far in hand allows whether found in the language throughout its whole history, or limited to a certain period. ..."
The downloaded file, from Internet and stored in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries:
- WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171229)
- WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171229)

UKT 171228: This work is intended especially as a Supplement to Sanskrit Grammar (Leipzig, 1879), because of which I cannot utilize all that is given. I am now giving in this dictionary, only the root, without other additions. Formerly, I've given what I've downloaded and cut into individual entries: they are no longer under Bk-Cdn-index. They are stored together with ~~Macdonell-cuts sub-directory "ROOTS".

UKT 170607: Trying to relate Sanskrit roots to Pali roots is very difficult. I'm also try relating from Pali to Sanskrit using the following from Pali Roots: from http://obo.genaud.net/backmatter/glossology/pali_roots.htm
Downloaded txt in TIL non-PDF library
  - PaliRoots<> (link chk 171228)
UKT 171229: The following is from
- WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171229)

√katth, 'boast'. - Whit016 / pdf036L-076 - entd in p061.htm
√kad, 'destroy'. - Whit016 - entd in p062.htm
√kan, kā, 'be pleased, enjoy'. - Whit0017 - entd in p062.htm
√kam , 'love' - Whit0017 - entd in p062.htm
√kamp, 'tremble'. - Whit017 - entd in p063.htm

The above are examples of how I'm proceeding to enter Roots and Verb forms. What follow will not be directed to respective files. The last one entered is: √kā, see kan - Whit018

--- downloaded and once entered in respective files are to be deleted. Contents of this page

kal, 'drive, produce', etc. - Whit017

√kaṣ, 'scratch' - Whit018
, 'open' - Whit018
see kan - Whit018
, 'desire' - Whit018
√ka, 'appear, make a show' - Whit018

√kas, 'cough' - Whit019
√ku, see kū - Whit019
√kuc, kue, 'shrink, curl' - Whit019



UKT 171228: I can no longer remember from where I got the following:
The following are for {ka.}-killed with {ng}, and with {sa.}.

kaŋkh - [ kaŋkhati ] - to desire, long for Skt.: kāŋk[.s]
kac - [(kac) - [ kacuka ] - to bind Skt.: kac
kaṭh - [ kaṭhati ] - to boil Skt.: kvath
kaḍḍh - [ kaḍḍhati ] - to drag, draw, pull Skt.: k[.r][.s]
kat - [(kant) - [ kantati ] - 1. to spin, twist, surround 2. to cut, cut off Skt.: k[.r]t

katth - [ katthati ] - to boast, flatter Skt.: katth
kath - [ katheti ] - to relate, tell, speak Skt.: kath
kand - [ kandati ] - to cry, cry out, wail Skt.: krand
kap - [ kapaṇa ] - to wail, mourn, lament Skt.: k[.r]p
kapp - [ kappeti ] - to arrange, organize Skt.: kl[.r]p, k'p
kam - [(1)- [ kāmeti ] - to love, long for Skt.: kam
kam - [(2) -[ kamati ] - to walk, walk about, stride, cross, etc. Skt.: kram
kamp - [ kampati ] - to shake, tremble Skt.: kamp
kay - [ kayati ] - to buy, purchase Skt.: krī
kar - [(1) - [ karoti ] - to make, do, work Skt.: k[.r]
kar - [(2) - [ karati ] - to cut, hurt Skt.: k[.r]t
kal - [ kalati ] - to sound, utter (indistinctly) Skt.: kal
kas - [(kass) - [ kassati ] - to till, plough Skt.: k[.r][.s]

kās - [(1) - [ kāsa ] - to cough Skt.: kās
kās - [(2) - [ okāsati ] - Skt.: kās

ki - [ kiṇāti ] - to buy, purchase Skt.: krī
kicch - [ kicchati ] - to tire, become weary Skt.: unknown, perhaps related to k[.r]cchra
kiṇ - [ kiṇi and kiṇakiṇāyati ] - to tinkle Skt.: unknown, cp. kinkiṇi
kit - [ tikicchati ] - to cure, heal Skt.: cp. cikit, cit
  (AK Warder's Intro. to Pāli has this root, but the Sanskrit has a kit root that I find doesn't fit.
  The PED has it as a desiderative of cit.)
kitt - [ kitteti ] - to praise, proclaim, announce Skt.: cp. kīrti
kir - [(kīr) - [ kirati ] - to scatter, spread Skt.: kir (PED has kīr)
kilam - [ kilameti ] - to tire, become weary Skt.: klam
kilid - [ kilijjati ] - to wet, moisten, be wet Skt.: klid
kilis - [ kilissati ] - to torment, trouble, molest (this later took on the meaning of: to wet, stain, dirty) Skt.: kli[^s]
kiles - [ kileseti ] - to become soiled, stained Skt.: cp. kle[^s]
kis - [ kissati ] - to become emaciated, waste, weary Skt.: k[.r][^s]

kī' - [ kī'ati ] - to play, amuse oneself Skt.: krīḍ
kūj - [ kūjati ] - to sing, hum, woo Skt.: kuj

kujj - [ kujja ] - to bend, fold Skt.: kuc, kruc
kujjh - [ kujjhati ] - to be angry Skt.: krudh
kuc - [ kucita ] - to curve, bend, make crooked Skt.: kruc
kuṭ - [ kuṭati ] - to crush, break into pieces Skt.: kuṭ
kuḍ - [ kuḍḍa ] - to grind, pound Skt.: k[.s]ud
kuth - [ kuthati ] - to boil Skt.: kvath
kup - [ kuppati ] - to shake, tremble, be angry Skt.: kup
kus - [ kosati ] - to call out, cry Skt.: kru[^s]
kuh - [ kuheti ] - to deceive, surprise Skt.: kuh



Note 160307, 170605, 171127:
#1. / p104-1B.htm : Words beginning with Nya'le {a.} ञ as a basic akshara, and Nya'gyi {a.} ञ ् ञ --> ञ्ञ , as a conjunct are found in Pali-Myan. However, Nya'gyi  {a.}/  as a basic akshara is found only in Bur-Myan. See how I've resolved this problem in Argument-for-argument sake and Base consonants and vowels of BEPS .
#2. p090-2.htm etc. were meant to be accessed from MCc2pp-indx.htm. However, I find that it would be more convenient if the TOCs of MCc1pp-indx.htm (active link), MCc2pp-indx.htm (broken link), and MCc3pp-indx.htm (broken link) are presented together. Once the consolidated TOC comes into use, both MCc2pp-indx.htm, and MCc3pp-indx.htm will be deleted: at present only the links have been broken.
#3. See my notes on
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za 

I've split up the following files TOC:
- to highlight Skt-Dev ऋ (R) - p072.htm, p085R.htm ;
- to highlight Pal-Myan ए (E);  p074.htm, p086E.htm ;
- to highlight medials, conjuncts, & hanging consonants: p076.htmp087C.htm
- to highlight non-nasal r1c5-onsets {gna.} present in Bur-Myan & Nwari-Dev, an entirely new file has been created: p090-1B.htm as a puja to Gautama Buddha who had preached in a Tibeto-Burman language most likely to be similar to Nwari - the language of his still extant relatives in the Kathmandu valley of the present day Kingdom of Nepal which was part of Magadha Mahajanapada - the foothold of peoples of Magadha culture. I contend that the Buddha was neither Indian, nor Nepali: He was a native of Magadha Mahajanapada - the culture extending into northern Myanmarpr.


UKT 170808: After finishing p104-6.htm, the aksharas of column c5 (r1-velar, r2-palatal, r3-retroflex, r4-dental, r2-labial) should be classified into two groups: the semi-nasals, and the true-nasals. The semi-nasals non-nasal as onsets and are only nasal in the codas.

UKT 170708: {gna.}-onset are not present in Eng-Lat,  Pal-Myan, and Skt-Dev. They are present only in Bur-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Nepali-Dev in both Gorkhali (IE), and Nwari (Tib-Bur). Though Gorkhali is an IE, it has come under heavy influence of Tib-Bur languages. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepali_language 170709
It is my conjecture that r1c5, the non-nasal {gna.}-onset, has been lost to the Nepali {n-pa-li} नेपाली , and has been replaced by nasal {ma.} म in many words in many sentences:
म नेपालबाट हुँ । ma nepālabāṭ hu "I am from Nepal."
However, some remain: see p090-1B.htm.

Plosive-stops, non-nasals & nasals of row #r1
and Pseudo-Kha (different from Regular-Kha )

IAST: श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/
Romabama: {sha.} ; {Sa.} ; {a.}

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
Argument for argument sake
Base consonants and vowels of BEPS
  Plosive-stops Nasals Approximants
  Tenuis-Nasals-Approximants of Bur-Myan
BEPS consonants : failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Older form of Devanagari
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit
Sanskrit and Pali roots: downloaded
The Velars - row #1 of the Akshara matrix
What this dictionary is about 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Argument for argument sake

UKT 170706: 

In English, Mon and Sanskrit, palatals are pronounced as affricates. The cell r2c5 is controversial with two contenders nasal Nya'le {a.}, and non-nasal Nya'gyi {a.}.

Ancient intellectuals, mostly Brahmins {poaN~Na:} (Buddhists as well as Hindus) and modern ones  and religionists, ever fond of controversy and argument for its own sake*, wrote and rewrote "history" and "hagiography" of gods and goddesses to suit their purposes. An example being Mahabrahma: (excerpt from Wikipedia) "Brahma, along with Vishnu and Shiva, is part of a Hindu Trimurti; however, ancient Hindu texts mention other trinities of gods or goddesses which do not include Brahma."
-- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahma 170708
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erawan_Shrine 170709.
Note: Be careful not to get mixed up in spelling between "Brahmin" {poaN~Na:} - who are humans, and "Brahma" the Axiomatic male god of Hinduism who is asexual in Buddhism.

*UKT 170709: I must admit being accused of being such an individual myself!
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eristic 170709
and Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, first published Thu Feb 17, 2011; substantive revision Tue Feb 3, 2015 - https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/buddha/ 170709
"The Buddha (fl. circa 450 BCE) is the individual whose teachings form the basis of the Buddhist tradition. These teachings, preserved in texts known as the Nikāyas or Āgamas, concern the quest for liberation from suffering. While the ultimate aim of the Buddha's teachings is thus to help individuals attain the good life, his analysis of the source of suffering centrally involves claims concerning the nature of persons, as well as how we acquire knowledge about the world and our place in it. These teachings formed the basis of a philosophical tradition that developed and defended a variety of sophisticated theories in metaphysics and epistemology."

TIL PDF libraries have a copy of Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy - Book4You, with 6510 pdf-pages.
- StandfordEncyloPhilo<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171127)
Unfortunately, I could not find the above excerpt. What I found on "Buddha" is on p.6163-6164/6510 in section on "Comparative Philosophy, Chinese and Western" on p.6154/6510. I came on Incommensurability 'lacking a common quality on which to make a comparison' when we try to compare what the Buddha taught on Non-axiomatic Anatta in the face of the common notion of Axiomatic Atta beliefs. Atta stems from our false perception of indestructibly of ourselves even after death: at least something must survive death! What I've read:

Samuel Fleischacker (1992) proposes a more moderate version of incommensurability -- sometimes we can understand others just well enough to know that we don't understand them. - p.6156/6510

What I found on "Buddha" , p.6163-6164/6510:

Our bodily attributes, various feelings, perceptions, ideas, wishes, dreams, and in general a consciousness of the world display a constant interplay and interconnection that leads us to the belief that there is some definite I that underlies and is independent of the ever-shifting series. But there is only the interacting and interconnected series. This metaphysical concern, of course, had deep practical implications for the Buddha. It points toward the answer to human suffering, which ultimately stems from a concern for the existence and pleasures and pains of the kind of self that never existed in the first place.

The net result is Myanmar Nya'gyi {a.} which is stable under virama {a.t} -- as {} -- was demoted to the status of a conjunct in Pali:  {a.} + viram --> {}~ {a.}.

English speakers, following the Lankan Theravada philologists, have difficulty pronouncing Bur-Myan words with {a.}/ {}, as in the words for {n-pr-tau} 'capital of the country', and {pi~a} 'knowledge, art, science, education'.

Go back argument-note-b

Contents of this page

Base consonants and vowels of BEPS

-- UKT 120526, 130518, ..., 140327, ... , 171127

Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan are so interwoven that they can be spoken seamlessly.

Watch and listen a video in Bur-Myan with Pal-Myan words:{m~boad~D}
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYyTBTjW26E 140211
The first three lines from the video are given. You can watch the video if you are on TIL research computer. It is in folder ~~HD-VIDEO - ThanBoadDe<> (link chk 171127)
Or just listen: it is under MCc1pp-indx.htm - ThanBoadDe<)) (link chk 171127)
The first two lines are in Pal-Myan, but the third line is Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan integrated.

The instrument for comparison of BEPS languages is Romabama (Burmese-Myanmar transcribed into extended-Latin script). The following is the table of base consonants.

Columns #2 and #4 have been described as "aspirated", and an <h> is added to the names of the consonants. For example, the columns are traditionally described as:

c1 - voiceless, c2 - voiceless-aspirated, c3 - voiced,   c-4 - voiced-aspirated , e.g. row#5
        प pa,             फ pha,                           ब ba,          भ bha

In my table above, I have named the columns differently removing the English notion of "aspiration". The notion of aspiration is best illustrated in the Cockney dialect of British English, where the <h> is dropped: "Henry Higgins" becomes  'enry 'iggins . This phenomenon has been caricatured by George Bernard Shaw (1856-1960) in his play Pygmalion with the principal character "Professor Henry Higgins" based on real-life phonetician Henry Sweet (1845-1912).

Listen and watch: Just you wait 'enry 'iggins':
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbdVvIbB1KU 140327

I am not satisfied with my description of column c4. I had called it "voiced pharyngeal" at one time because the POA seems to be way back in the throat - the pharynx. Since the pharyngeals are connected with IPA /h/, I am now calling it deep-h. I do not think it is a simple case of voice lag and aspiration .

My intermediary script, Romabama, has its beginnings in my (U Kyaw Tun's) childhood dream in 1940s. In my pre-teen years I have tried to type the Burmese language on my father U Tun Pe's English typewriter. However, Romabama in the present form was launched only in the late 1990s on the Internet from Canada.

Though I realized that I must have training in phonetics and linguistics, I was already advanced in age to go back to school, and I have to learn these subjects online using my analytical skill as a scientist and engineer. I was assisted by my young wife Daw ThanThan Tun who was also a chemist. She had been my classmate and life-long companion since our teenage years, until she died in 2004. I welcome anyone more capable than me to improve my basic requirements.

To come up with a comprehensive alphabet, I have to improvised more than once, such as the one shown for Romabama alphabet r2c4 cell.

My aim in integrating IPA into BEPS is to come up with a reliable transcription -- which would not be perfect for theorists -- of Bur-Myan to Eng-Latin and back. I am finding that I cannot apply the IPA strictly, and transcriptions such as // & /ʝ/ for palatal fricatives, and /ʂ/ & /ʐ/ for retroflex fricatives are taken to be unpronounceable.

For the fricatives, I have taken only /θ/ , /s/, /z/ , /ʃ/ as pronounceable. The English affricates /ʧ/ & /ʤ/ are taken to be mis-pronunciation due to the Western phoneticians not being capable of distinguishing the tenuis {ka.}, {sa.}, {ta.}, {pa.} from the voiceless {hka.}, {hsa.}, {hta.}, {hpa.}.

One of the obstacles is to find a place for Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}, & Nya'le {a.}, both of which have to be pushed into one cell r2c5. Until, I realized that monosyllabic medials are found only in Bur-Myan, and not in Skt-Dev, I could not make any progress. When I looked into Skt-Dev conjuncts closely I realized that they are disyllabic conjuncts. I need to come to this understanding to explain the medial-conjunct problem in Pal-Myan, where Nya'gyi {a.kri:} is deemed to be the horizontal conjunct of two Nya'le {a.l:}:

{} + {a.} --> {a.} : only in Pal-Myan

Pal-Myan {a.} cannot be killed without destroying the conjunct
Bur-Myan {a.} + viram --> {} 
Similar to {ya.} + viram --> {}

Then looking into the killed Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.kri:}, & Nya'le {a.l:}, I found that killed Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.kri:} is almost the same as killed Ya'palak {ya.}. This shows that Nya'gyi {a.kri:} is not a basic nasal, but a basic nasalized approximant. I moved Ya'palak {ya.} to velar position, which provides a position for Nya'gyi {a.kri:} in the palatal position.

Most of the Westerners are sibilant speakers. Of the BEPS, languages, Burmese and English speakers are used to non-hissing thibilant /θ/ sounds. An example of an English thibilant word is <thin> /θɪn/. Sanskrit speakers mix up this sound with /s/. Romabama has to make allowances for all these conflicting patterns of sounds, and has to come up with a compromise. It is summarized in the table below.

In order to present a comprehensive picture, the IPA table itself has to be extended to include, what the Westerners hear as "aspirated sounds" - those of c2 & c4 consonants such as {hpa.} & {Ba.} sounds shown below.


Now that I am including Mon-Myan into my study, I am putting in another perspective. My references for vocabulary in script and sound are given in my collection
Speaking Mon-Myan Language -- MV1874-indx.htm
which is based on the following 3 sources.
1. Learn Mon Yourself --  http://www.youtube.com/ (link chk 130425)
2. Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language - J. M. Haswell, Rangoon, 1874
3. A vocab of English & Peguan with some geographical names - E. O. Stevens, Rangoon, 1896


The Plosive-stops

In the above IPA table the plosive-stops occupy the first row, followed by nasals in the second row. The IPA gives only the column #1 (tenuis), column #3 (voiced), and column #5 (nasals). The IPA table has to be extended to accommodate column #2 (voiceless), and column #4 (deep-H).


The Nasals

In update 130818, compromises made to bring Indo-European languages, Eng-Lat & Skt-Dev, and Tibeto-Burman languages, Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan together. In doing so, the first problem I have met is with the nasals. The nasals are basic phonemes and are placed in a separate column, #5, among the {wag}-consonants. Bur-Myan recognizes five in r1c5 /ŋ /, r2c5 /ɲ/, r3c5 /ɳ /, r4c5 /n/, r5c5 /m/, compared to two in Eng-Lat : r4c5 /n/, r5c5 /m/. In the IPA consonantal table, the nasals are placed in a special row.

You will find another problem similar to the nasals which I am calling the Sibilants in r1c1, r4c1, & r5c1 such as /sk/, /st/ & /sp/, and in column #5 and in approximants. See - p035-4.htm (link chk 140808) for similar situation in Skt-Dev.


The Approximants

Strictly speaking approximants are neither vowels nor consonants though they been described as semi-vowels which is the same as semi-consonants. The only language among the BEPS in which they seem to play a unique role is Bur-Myan. The approximants may be divided into three subgroups:

Semi-consonants aka semivowels: {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}
---- capable of forming monosyllabic medials and disyllabic medials
    {ya.pn.}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:}
In Mon-Myan, the process is known as Hanging-consonant {by:hsw:}.  
---See Basic Method of Teaching Mon Speech and Script,
--- Naing Maung Toe, Yangon, 2007, (refer to as NMT), p047/pdf 51/251
In Phonetics, the process is known as secondary articulation . See
---Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_articulation 140327

Fricative: (non-hissing) {a.}, & (hissing) {sha.} [note: BEPS {sha.} - MLC {hya.}.
--- Skt-Dev has husher {sha.} श , hisser {Sa.} ष , and sibilant स.
---Incapable of articulating non-hissing thibilant /θ/, they simply pronounce {a.} as a hisser.

Deep-H: {ha.} - capable of forming monosyllabic medial {ha.hto:}

Our interest is the effect of the approximants on the vowel - either free or bound as an inherent vowel in an akshara. They do not seem to change the vowel, say from {a.} to {i.}, but to effect their nature: make it palatal {ya.pn.}, rhotic {ra.ric}, lateral {la.hsw:}, rounded {wa.hsw:}, or glottal {ha.hto:}. Because of these, it is best that they be treated separately from both vowels and consonants.

The Grammatical designations of vowels and approximants

UKT 130910: See p005.htm
{N} अण् - is the grammatical designation of the vowels {a.}, {i.}, {u.]. - Mac005c3
{T} अट् - is the grammatical designation of approximants {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, {ha.} - Mac005c3
The two should be compared.

The Tenuis, Nasals, and Approximants in Bur-Myan language

-- UKT 141023

To understand the phonology of Bur-Myan, we need to know about the Tenuis or c1 sounds, {ka.}, {sa.}, {Ta.}, {ta.}, & {pa.}. These are not present in Eng-Lat, and the Western philologists and phoneticians have been totally ignorant of them. What the English speakers could articulate are the voiceless, {hka.}, {hsa.}, {HTa.}, {hta} & {hpa.}.

With {hpa.} (voiceless) they went further and substitute the labial with labio-dental {fa.}. Next to voiceless {hpa.} is voiced {ba.}, which they substitute with {va.}.

Then comes the Nasals. English has only two <n> &  <m>. They could have extended their nasals by borrowing the Spanish <>. Yet the British have been busy "Singeing the King of Spain's Beard" since 1587, they have been representing the r2c5 sound by the digraph <ny>. The result is Eng-Lat is totally inadequate to represent our 5 nasals, {nga.} (which may be also {gna.}), {a.}, {Na.}, {na.} & {ma.}.

Even if the Western philologists had sought the help of Skt-Dev, which I doubt they did because of their looking down on the Indians, they would not have fared better. Skt-Dev lacked the r1c5 and have only part of r2c5. The Bur-Myan {nga.}/{gna.} and {a.} are totally beyond the comprehension of English speakers and their IPA. Only lately have I come to understand that Bur-Myan, {a.}/ {} is a Palatal-Approximant coming before the Velar-Approximant {ya.}/ {}. However, in Pal-Myan {a.} has been identified as the horizontal conjunct of two {a.}. The the killed {a.}, one of our favorite sounds (present in the name of the capital Naypyitaw) is an enigma even to this day.

Lastly, even today all linguist have not accepted that Bur-Myan is a pitch-register language and is not tonal. They have also failed to understand the our /θ/ sound is the same as in English <thin>. Realizing that to represent /θ/ sound with the digraph <th> is a source of error, I have used the Old-English <> 'thorn character'. Because of the presence of {a.} /θ/ Bur-Myan is a non-hissing thibilant language and not hissing sibilant.

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BEPS Consonants :
failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use

- UKT 150713

"BEPS" - acronym for Burmese, English, Pali, & Sanskrit spoken languages written in respective aksharas - is my coined word. I have been trying to come up with a reliable inter-language transcription between Bur-Myan and English since my early teens. However, only after retiring from the study of Chemistry, and work as a university Chemistry teacher between 1950 to 1988, could I go back to my life long wish of an inter-language transcription.

You must realized that BEPS belongs to different language groups, IE (Indo-European), and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). Speakers of different language groups tend to use different sets of vocal muscles and changing vowel sounds of one group into another is almost an impossibility when the speaker has passed puberty: for males with a change in voice and for  females with the beginning of menstrual flow.

The human voice production has been studied continuously in the East for thousands of years, resulting in our Akshara system of writing. The ancient phoneticians have studied the individual sounds, in individual units (vowels), in small units (syllables), and in longer units (phrases and sentences). The vowels can be divided into two kinds, the short and the long. They relate the length of duration of the vowel to the time the speaker takes to blink his eye. The individual sound unit can be modified by restrictions (consonants) in the mouth. The vowel modified by consonants are the syllables. The consonants can be differentiated by the places of articulation (POA). Because of its nature, we can claim the study of Phonetics and Phonology has its beginning in the East since thousands of years ago. The Western study of Phonetics and Phonology is but a few hundreds of years old.

The first recorded writing as seen on the Asokan stone inscriptions tells us about this study of Phonetics in the Indian subcontinent. The Myanmar system of writing, the ThinboanGyi , is related to the Asokan. It is our Phonetics. When we compare the Asokan and Myanmar consonants we find at least 33% similarity.

ThinboanGyi was taught to Bur-Myan children before the British incursion into Myanmarpr in the late 19th century. The Westerners and their erstwhile native students, not understanding its true nature and its worth, but thinking it to be the basis of monastic education and the main prop of Theravada Buddhist monks, have tried to stamp it out, and is no longer taught in our public schools.

The Western invention, the IPA is a poor substitute for ThinboanGyi, as can be seen below, in which two classes of phonemes, the c1 tenuis and the c4 deep-H (which is probably vd-pharyngeal) are absent. For 5 phonemes of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, IPA has only 3. IPA classifies c1 & c2, and c3 & c4 to be allophones: the IPA phoneticians fail to hear them as distinct sounds. To us, they are legitimate phonemes in their own rights.

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Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher Sha श /ʃ/ and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

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Older form of Devanagari script

- UKT 150708

Macdonell, Monier-Williams and Childers use an older form of Devanagari script.  A full set of vowels and consonants used are presented below.

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Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za

*UKT 160306: There are two unusual conjuncts to bedevil you - the Pseudo-Kha and the Pseudo-Za which are not present in Pal-Myan. You'll find the Pseudo-Za as a "hanging-on" conjunct in Mon-Myan, which has led me to suggest that Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} is a Palatal-Approximant, and that the sole occupant of r2c5 is Nya'l {a.}. For "hanging-on"  conjuncts, see Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Nai Maung Toe, p046 or pdf051/251, in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> (link chk 170610)

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Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit

UKT 160303:

Two rhotic sounds not present in Bur-Myan, and possibly in Pali-Myan:
  #1 Repha, & #2 deriv. of highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel-pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  are the most troublesome in finding corresponding words between in Pali and Sanskrit.
1. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good'
  What about "Lepha" ? : Lepha on short a , e.g. कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'
  - {ka.} p063.htm {ga.} p082.htm {sa.} p092.htm 
2. Rhotic vowel-pair:  formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  - {ka.} p072.htm/ {ga.} p085.htm {sa.}  p095.htm

We can make several general observations at this time of my understanding of BEPS:

#1. Skt-Dev, generally spoken as "Sanskrit" - a typical IE (Indo-European) language - is the most rhotic language in BEPS.

#2. GA (General American), commonly referred to as "American English" is less rhotic than Sanskrit, but more so than RP (Received Pronunciation), usually referred to as "British English" is slightly rhotic, but more so than Bur-Myan, possibly on par with Pal-Myan and Mon-Myan, the Arakanese dialect of Bur-Myan.

#3. Bur-Myan, a typical Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, is definitely non-rhotic. However, Myanmar Buddhist males - myself included - because of their earlier monastic training tend to include rhotic sounds in words spelled with consonant {ra.} /ɹ/.

Rhotic Vowel-Pair ऋ {iRi.} - ॠ {iRi}.  (vow-signs: ृ ॄ )

In the ink-on-paper pages, {kRi.}-words derived from the highly rhotic vowel {iRi.} ऋ  is first found on p072.htm. It threw me off my track completely because I was only familiar with Ra'ric and Repha words. Remember {kRi.} कृ is derived from highly rhotic Skt-Dev rhotic-vowel {iRi.} ऋ  which has nothing to do with {ra.} र and Repha, i.e. it is not Ka-ra'ric-loan-tin {kri.} .

BEPS dealing with 4 entirely different languages, spoken by speakers of two different language groups -- the IE and Tib-Bur speakers, using two different speech-to-script systems - the Alphabet-Letter and Abugida-Akshara - is a complete mess. In this mess, Romabama has to differentiate Pal-Myan {kri.} (slightly rhotic) from Skt-Myan {kRi.} (highly rhotic). The hearer can differentiate the two sounds. The problem is to differentiate in script form. In Romabama, the difference is shown by the length of the hood. The original p072.htm contains both and it has  confused me, because of which I now split the page into two: p072.htm and p072R.htm.

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The Velars - row #1 of the Akshara matrix

- UKT 120218, 140416, 170418, 170707:

UKT 170418: I still need to rewrite the following.

What happens when a highly rhotic fully-voiced sound is put next to unusual sounds as in

  गृध्य 'coveted' = (ग ृ) (ध ् य) = गृ ध्य {gRi.Dya.}
  गृध्र  'vulture'  =  (ग ृ) (ध ् र)  = गृ ध्र  {gRi.Dra.}

To get to a solution I have to ignore the English transliterations and the IPA phonetics and rely on Romabama and Bur-Myan phonology.

Next to {ga.} ग is the velar non-nasal onset {gna.} and its killed form the nasal coda {-n} /ŋ/. It is present as syllable onset only in Bur-Myan and Nwari, but in Engl-Lat, Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, it is found as the coda.

In Mon-Myan, r1c5-akshara is written as {ng~ra} and pronounced as "gn". Haswell, in Consonants in Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, 1874:
- MV1874-indx > has-conso.htm
has clearly written that its pronunciation is "gn" or "ng". English probably has this phoneme as attested by its spellings of <sign> /sɑɪn/ and <sing> /sɪŋ/. The English word <sign> /sɑɪn/ and the Bur-Myan {seing:}/{sen} sound the same. Because of this, it has been suggested that Romabama should have 2 transcriptions:

for onset: {gna.} - non-nasal
for coda: {nga.} - nasal
  Note the coda {nga.} must be shown under virama {a.t} as {~ng}. And as part of the syllable, Romabama transcription of the nuclear vowel of the syllable has to be changed: {~ing} --> {~n}.

However, {nga.} is present as syllable codas in both Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev. An example in English is the word <king> where <ng> is the digraph representing the coda consonant. In Sanskrit it is present similar to the Bur-Myan {kn:si:} and I had written the as {king:si:}. In this particular case, the problem can also be traced to the English-digraph ng .

Unable to solve the problem fully, and ignoring the g coloration, I decided on ignoring it altogether, and came up with the idea of changing the preceding vowels:

The velar nasal {nga.} as onset is quite prominent in Bur-Myan. It is voiced. The Western phoneticians, particularly Peter Ladefoged, have mistakenly identified its derivative {ngha.} [IPA: /ŋ̊/] as the voiceless counterpart. {ngha.} is not counted as a basic akshara in Bur-Myan.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Ladefoged 120218
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_nasal#CITEREFLadefogedMaddieson1996 120218

With the inclusion of Mon-Myan my study, I was faced with the task of rebalancing my aim of making Romabama an intermediary language for use by all speakers of Indic & Myanmar languages. After some time, I am forced to accept that although, Mon uses the basic Myanmar akshara, it is from a different linguistic group -- the Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic). And, its phonology is very different from that of Tib-Bur group. I have to admit that Romabama as it is, cannot be used for Mon-Myan transcription. However, if the subject matter is the same, such as Pali of Theravada Buddhism, we can still understand:

- example from Bur-Myan {n~ta.r} 'danger, harm' -- MED2006-627,
- example from Mon-Myan ◄ {n~ta.ra} ► 'Pali: misery' -- Haswell026.

My next target language would be Nepali which uses the basic Devanagari akshara, and Nwari which once uses the Asokan. Would I live long enough for it? I am already 83.

It is interesting to see the effect of partial checking of the vowels by killed nasals and killed approximants. We must note that since the intrinsic vowel of the consonants have already been taken out, the vowel that is being checked is the one preceding the coda,

Transcription problem:
   Skt-Myan spellings and their Romabama equivalents are tentative. Moreover, they are just guides to guide me with my Sanskrit pronunciation. I have no one else in mind. For transformation I have to remember the most troublesome four graphemes, थ स श ष.
   Going through English transliteration usually makes me confused. I need someone to check on these. Though my headers have Skt-Dev spelling, I have removed all English transcriptions. - UKT111119


Pronunciation problem:
   There are two Sanskrit sounds very foreign to Bur-Myan ears: the repha sound, and the sound of highly rhotic vowel ऋ. To solve this problem, I assume that :

1. Sanskrit was a northern Indian language of the same geographical region - just south of the Himalayas - as Magadha the mother-tongue L1 of Gautama Buddha. This area had been the area of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) languages before the incursion of IE (Indo-European) languages and Dravidian languages.

2. Both Sanskrit and Magadha came under the influence of the Dravidian languages from SriLanka and southern India. Thus Magadha became Pali with a Lankan accent, and Sanskrit came to have a southern flavour. Thus I hold that the International Pali which was derived from SriLanka was not the language of the Buddha.

3. The sounds of the language of Gautama Buddha [of northern India] is similar to Bur-Myan:  both being Tib-Bur languages.

4. The sounds of Vedic Sanskrit [which in most probability originated in northern India] is similar to Hindi-Devanagari. Based on this assumption, to improve my pronunciation I am concentrating some unusual words (for me) by watching Hindi videos. The ones I have watched are no longer available on the internet:
-- on the word (name) of Karna for repha :
-- on the word (name) of Krishna for the highly rhotic ऋ :
-- on the word क्षत्रिय ksatriya = {kSa.tri.ya.] (Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.}]
   for the rhotic-sibilant kS क्ष which I have dubbed the pseudo {hka.}
-- on the word Shakti, and the names of other goddesses

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What this dictionary is about

This dictionary is a learning tool for myself. However, it might be useful for others. Macdonell's entries in older form of Devanagari, are cut into individual entries for ease of comparison to entries from other sources. The scanned images from the Univ. of Cologne, dictionary from the Univ. of Chicago and ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., have been indispensable for Sanskrit; F. Edgerton's, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, and R. C. Childer's Pali dictionary form the linking bridge from Pali or more properly Magadhi to Sanskrit. The downloaded pdf are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 161231)
UKT 170111 to TIL editor: Bookmarks for entries from FE-BHS must be standardized as per entries on p001.htm . Capitals for proper names are allowed, and diacritics removed.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants. The intermediary language is Romabama (Bur-Latin) {ro:ma.ba.ma} based on Pali-Myanmar & Sanskrit-Myanmar. Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology and is primarily aimed to aid transcription (pronunciation) between spoken Burmese and spoken English languages.

Phonology is heavily based on the parent linguistic group. Thus Bama speech and Rakhine speech both belonging to Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) linguistic-group, are mutually understandable, whereas Mon speech belonging to Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) linguistic-group is mutually non-understandable. However, if the subject matter, for instance Pali of Buddhism, then you know the meanings of many words on hearing the pronunciation. A Bama-speaker can follow the Pali chant of a Mon Buddhist monk, or that of a Shan Buddhist monk. When aided by looking the written-script - the circularly-rounded Myanmar-script, the unifying instrument of Myanmarpr - there is more understanding. When looking the written Romabama which uses the Latin script of English, then you can even follow the chant of Sri Lankan monk. Now listen to  the Five Precepts from the Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<)) .  

For reference to Pal-Myan words, I rely on  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein (UHS-PMD, and The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD). 

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