Update: 2017-07-10 05:15 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com
For comparing Pali and Sanskrit, it necessary to go into the Roots, and Verb-forms, for which I rely on:

See what this dictionary is about


index.htm | Top

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Consonants of row #1,
velar:  {ka.} क , to {gna.}-onset, {nga.}-coda

UKT 170708: {gna.}-onset are not present in Engl-Lat,  Pal-Myan, and Skt-Dev. They are present in Bur-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Nepali-Dev in both Gorkhali (IE), and Nwari (Tib-Bur). Though Gorkhali is an IE, it has come under heavy influence of Tib-Bur languages. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepali_language 170709
It is my conjecture that r1c5, the non-nasal {gna.}-onset, has been lost to the Nepali {n-pa-li} नेपाली , and has been replaced by nasal {ma.} म in many words in many sentences:
म नेपालबाट हुँ । ma nepālabāṭ hu "I am from Nepal."

Plosive-stops, non-nasals & nasals of row #r1

p060-1.htm : 
p060-2.htm : 
p060-3.htm  p061.htm  p062.htm  p063.htm p064.htm  p065.htm  p066.htm  p067.htm  p068.htm  p069.htm
p070.htm----p071.htm---p072.htm p073.htm  p074.htm  p075.htm  p076.htm  p077.htm* p078.htm  p079-1.htm
------------------------------ p072R.htm ------------- p074E.htm ------------ p076C.htm 0------------------------- p079-2.htm
p080.htm---p081.htm----p082.htm  p083.htm  p084.htm  p085.htm -  p086.htm  - p087.htm -- p088-1.htm  p089.htm
------------------------------------------------------------------------ p085R.htm - p086E.htm - p087C.htm  p088-2.htm
p090-1B.htm > dedicated page on Turn-NepalDict-indx.htm


UKT 160307, 170605: See my notes on
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za 

I've split up the following files TOC:
- to highlight Skt-Dev ऋ (R) - p072.htm, p085R.htm ;
- to highlight Pal-Myan ए (E);  p074.htm, p086E.htm ;
- to highlight medials, conjuncts, & hanging consonants: p076.htmp087C.htm
- to highlight non-nasal r1c5-onsets {gna.} present in Bur-Myan & Nwari-Dev, an entirely new file has been created: p090-1B.htm as a puja to Gautama Buddha who had preached in a Tibeto-Burman language most likely to be similar to Nwari - the language of his still extant relatives in the Kathmandu valley of the present day Kingdom of Nepal which was part of Magadha Mahajanapada - the foothold of peoples of Magadha culture. I contend that the Buddha was neither Indian, nor Nepali: He was a native of Magadha Mahajanapada - the culture extending into northern Myanmarpr.

Contents of this page

UKT notes :
BEPS consonants : failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use  
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Older form of Devanagari
Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit
The Velars - row #1 of the Akshara matrix
What this dictionary is about 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

BEPS Consonants :
failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use

- UKT 150713

"BEPS" - acronym for Burmese, English, Pali, & Sanskrit spoken languages written in respective aksharas - is my coined word. I have been trying to come up with a reliable inter-language transcription between Bur-Myan and English since my early teens. However, only after retiring from the study of Chemistry, and work as a university Chemistry teacher between 1950 to 1988, could I go back to my life long wish of an inter-language transcription.

You must realized that BEPS belongs to different language groups, IE (Indo-European), and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). Speakers of different language groups tend to use different sets of vocal muscles and changing vowel sounds of one group into another is almost an impossibility when the speaker has passed puberty: for males with a change in voice and for  females with the beginning of menstrual flow.

The human voice production has been studied continuously in the East for thousands of years, resulting in our Akshara system of writing. The ancient phoneticians have studied the individual sounds, in individual units (vowels), in small units (syllables), and in longer units (phrases and sentences). The vowels can be divided into two kinds, the short and the long. They relate the length of duration of the vowel to the time the speaker takes to blink his eye. The individual sound unit can be modified by restrictions (consonants) in the mouth. The vowel modified by consonants are the syllables. The consonants can be differentiated by the places of articulation (POA). Because of its nature, we can claim the study of Phonetics and Phonology has its beginning in the East since thousands of years ago. The Western study of Phonetics and Phonology is but a few hundreds of years old.

The first recorded writing as seen on the Asokan stone inscriptions tells us about this study of Phonetics in the Indian subcontinent. The Myanmar system of writing, the ThinboanGyi , is related to the Asokan. It is our Phonetics. When we compare the Asokan and Myanmar consonants we find at least 33% similarity.

ThinboanGyi was taught to Bur-Myan children before the British incursion into Myanmarpr in the late 19th century. The Westerners and their erstwhile native students, not understanding its true nature and its worth, but thinking it to be the basis of monastic education and the main prop of Theravada Buddhist monks, have tried to stamp it out, and is no longer taught in our public schools.

The Western invention, the IPA is a poor substitute for ThinboanGyi, as can be seen below, in which two classes of phonemes, the c1 tenuis and the c4 deep-H (which is probably vd-pharyngeal) are absent. For 5 phonemes of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, IPA has only 3. IPA classifies c1 & c2, and c3 & c4 to be allophones: the IPA phoneticians fail to hear them as distinct sounds. To us, they are legitimate phonemes in their own rights.

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Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher Sha श /ʃ/ and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

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Older form of Devanagari script

- UKT 150708

Macdonell, Monier-Williams and Childers use an older form of Devanagari script.  A full set of vowels and consonants used are presented below.

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Pseudo-Kha and Pseudo-Za

*UKT 160306: There are two unusual conjuncts to bedevil you - the Pseudo-Kha and the Pseudo-Za which are not present in Pal-Myan. You'll find the Pseudo-Za as a "hanging-on" conjunct in Mon-Myan, which has led me to suggest that Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.} is a Palatal-Approximant, and that the sole occupant of r2c5 is Nya'l {a.}. For "hanging-on"  conjuncts, see Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Nai Maung Toe, p046 or pdf051/251, in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> (link chk 170610)

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Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit

UKT 160303:

Two rhotic sounds not present in Bur-Myan, and possibly in Pali-Myan:
  #1 Repha, & #2 deriv. of highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel-pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  are the most troublesome in finding corresponding words between in Pali and Sanskrit.
1. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good'
  What about "Lepha" ? : Lepha on short a , e.g. कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'
  - {ka.} p063.htm {ga.} p082.htm {sa.} p092.htm 
2. Rhotic vowel-pair:  formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  - {ka.} p072.htm/ {ga.} p085.htm {sa.}  p095.htm

We can make several general observations at this time of my understanding of BEPS:

#1. Skt-Dev, generally spoken as "Sanskrit" - a typical IE (Indo-European) language - is the most rhotic language in BEPS.

#2. GA (General American), commonly referred to as "American English" is less rhotic than Sanskrit, but more so than RP (Received Pronunciation), usually referred to as "British English" is slightly rhotic, but more so than Bur-Myan, possibly on par with Pal-Myan and Mon-Myan, the Arakanese dialect of Bur-Myan.

#3. Bur-Myan, a typical Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, is definitely non-rhotic. However, Myanmar Buddhist males - myself included - because of their earlier monastic training tend to include rhotic sounds in words spelled with consonant {ra.} /ɹ/.

Rhotic Vowel-Pair ऋ {iRi.} - ॠ {iRi}.  (vow-signs: ृ ॄ )

In the ink-on-paper pages, {kRi.}-words derived from the highly rhotic vowel {iRi.} ऋ  is first found on p072.htm. It threw me off my track completely because I was only familiar with Ra'ric and Repha words. Remember {kRi.} कृ is derived from highly rhotic Skt-Dev rhotic-vowel {iRi.} ऋ  which has nothing to do with {ra.} र and Repha, i.e. it is not Ka-ra'ric-loan-tin {kri.} .

BEPS dealing with 4 entirely different languages, spoken by speakers of two different language groups -- the IE and Tib-Bur speakers, using two different speech-to-script systems - the Alphabet-Letter and Abugida-Akshara - is a complete mess. In this mess, Romabama has to differentiate Pal-Myan {kri.} (slightly rhotic) from Skt-Myan {kRi.} (highly rhotic). The hearer can differentiate the two sounds. The problem is to differentiate in script form. In Romabama, the difference is shown by the length of the hood. The original p072.htm contains both and it has  confused me, because of which I now split the page into two: p072.htm and p072R.htm.

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The Velars - row #1 of the Akshara matrix

- UKT 120218, 140416, 170418, 170707:

UKT 170418: I still need to rewrite the following.

What happens when a highly rhotic fully-voiced sound is put next to unusual sounds as in

  गृध्य 'coveted' = (ग ृ) (ध ् य) = गृ ध्य {gRi.Dya.}
  गृध्र  'vulture'  =  (ग ृ) (ध ् र)  = गृ ध्र  {gRi.Dra.}

To get to a solution I have to ignore the English transliterations and the IPA phonetics and rely on Romabama and Bur-Myan phonology.

Next to {ga.} ग is the velar non-nasal onset {gna.} and its killed form the nasal coda {-n} /ŋ/. It is present as syllable onset only in Bur-Myan and Nwari, but in Engl-Lat, Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev, it is found as the coda.

In Mon-Myan, r1c5-akshara is written as {ng~ra} and pronounced as "gn". Haswell, in Consonants in Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, 1874:
- MV1874-indx > has-conso.htm
has clearly written that its pronunciation is "gn" or "ng". English probably has this phoneme as attested by its spellings of <sign> /sɑɪn/ and <sing> /sɪŋ/. The English word <sign> /sɑɪn/ and the Bur-Myan {seing:}/{sen} sound the same. Because of this, it has been suggested that Romabama should have 2 transcriptions:

for onset: {gna.} - non-nasal
for coda: {nga.} - nasal
  Note the coda {nga.} must be shown under virama {a.t} as {~ng}. And as part of the syllable, Romabama transcription of the nuclear vowel of the syllable has to be changed: {~ing} --> {~n}.

However, {nga.} is present as syllable codas in both Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev. An example in English is the word <king> where <ng> is the digraph representing the coda consonant. In Sanskrit it is present similar to the Bur-Myan {kn:si:} and I had written the as {king:si:}. In this particular case, the problem can also be traced to the English-digraph ng .

Unable to solve the problem fully, and ignoring the g coloration, I decided on ignoring it altogether, and came up with the idea of changing the preceding vowels:

The velar nasal {nga.} as onset is quite prominent in Bur-Myan. It is voiced. The Western phoneticians, particularly Peter Ladefoged, have mistakenly identified its derivative {ngha.} [IPA: /ŋ̊/] as the voiceless counterpart. {ngha.} is not counted as a basic akshara in Bur-Myan.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Ladefoged 120218
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_nasal#CITEREFLadefogedMaddieson1996 120218

With the inclusion of Mon-Myan my study, I was faced with the task of rebalancing my aim of making Romabama an intermediary language for use by all speakers of Indic & Myanmar languages. After some time, I am forced to accept that although, Mon uses the basic Myanmar akshara, it is from a different linguistic group -- the Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic). And, its phonology is very different from that of Tib-Bur group. I have to admit that Romabama as it is, cannot be used for Mon-Myan transcription. However, if the subject matter is the same, such as Pali of Theravada Buddhism, we can still understand:

- example from Bur-Myan {n~ta.r} 'danger, harm' -- MED2006-627,
- example from Mon-Myan ◄ {n~ta.ra} ► 'Pali: misery' -- Haswell026.

My next target language would be Nepali which uses the basic Devanagari akshara, and Nwari which once uses the Asokan. Would I live long enough for it? I am already 83.

It is interesting to see the effect of partial checking of the vowels by killed nasals and killed approximants. We must note that since the intrinsic vowel of the consonants have already been taken out, the vowel that is being checked is the one preceding the coda,

Transcription problem:
   Skt-Myan spellings and their Romabama equivalents are tentative. Moreover, they are just guides to guide me with my Sanskrit pronunciation. I have no one else in mind. For transformation I have to remember the most troublesome four graphemes, थ स श ष.
   Going through English transliteration usually makes me confused. I need someone to check on these. Though my headers have Skt-Dev spelling, I have removed all English transcriptions. - UKT111119


Pronunciation problem:
   There are two Sanskrit sounds very foreign to Bur-Myan ears: the repha sound, and the sound of highly rhotic vowel ऋ. To solve this problem, I assume that :

1. Sanskrit was a northern Indian language of the same geographical region - just south of the Himalayas - as Magadha the mother-tongue L1 of Gautama Buddha. This area had been the area of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) languages before the incursion of IE (Indo-European) languages and Dravidian languages.

2. Both Sanskrit and Magadha came under the influence of the Dravidian languages from SriLanka and southern India. Thus Magadha became Pali with a Lankan accent, and Sanskrit came to have a southern flavour. Thus I hold that the International Pali which was derived from SriLanka was not the language of the Buddha.

3. The sounds of the language of Gautama Buddha [of northern India] is similar to Bur-Myan:  both being Tib-Bur languages.

4. The sounds of Vedic Sanskrit [which in most probability originated in northern India] is similar to Hindi-Devanagari. Based on this assumption, to improve my pronunciation I am concentrating some unusual words (for me) by watching Hindi videos. The ones I have watched are no longer available on the internet:
-- on the word (name) of Karna for repha :
-- on the word (name) of Krishna for the highly rhotic ऋ :
-- on the word क्षत्रिय ksatriya = {kSa.tri.ya.] (Pal: {hkt~ti.ya.}]
   for the rhotic-sibilant kS क्ष which I have dubbed the pseudo {hka.}
-- on the word Shakti, and the names of other goddesses

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What this dictionary is about

This dictionary is a learning tool for myself. However, it might be useful for others. Macdonell's entries in older form of Devanagari, are cut into individual entries for ease of comparison to entries from other sources. The scanned images from the Univ. of Cologne, dictionary from the Univ. of Chicago and ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., have been indispensable for Sanskrit; F. Edgerton's, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, and R. C. Childer's Pali dictionary form the linking bridge from Pali or more properly Magadhi to Sanskrit. The downloaded pdf are in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 161231)
UKT 170111 to TIL editor: Bookmarks for entries from FE-BHS must be standardized as per entries on p001.htm . Capitals for proper names are allowed, and diacritics removed.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants. The intermediary language is Romabama (Bur-Latin) {ro:ma.ba.ma} based on Pali-Myanmar & Sanskrit-Myanmar. Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology and is primarily aimed to aid transcription (pronunciation) between spoken Burmese and spoken English languages.

Phonology is heavily based on the parent linguistic group. Thus Bama speech and Rakhine speech both belonging to Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) linguistic-group, are mutually understandable, whereas Mon speech belonging to Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) linguistic-group is mutually non-understandable. However, if the subject matter, for instance Pali of Buddhism, then you know the meanings of many words on hearing the pronunciation. A Bama-speaker can follow the Pali chant of a Mon Buddhist monk, or that of a Shan Buddhist monk. When aided by looking the written-script - the circularly-rounded Myanmar-script, the unifying instrument of Myanmarpr - there is more understanding. When looking the written Romabama which uses the Latin script of English, then you can even follow the chant of Sri Lankan monk. Now listen to  the Five Precepts from the Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<)) .  

For reference to Pal-Myan words, I rely on  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein (UHS-PMD, and The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD). 

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End of TIL file