Update: 2017-03-24 02:55 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

I am turning this dictionary into a learning tool for myself. Macdonell's entries in 3 columns-per-page are cut into individual entries. I use the scanned images from the University of Cologne, and from the University of Chicago. This TIL version is finally checked with the ink-on-paper copy of Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012 in TIL library. Moreover to increase the vocabulary, I have added entries from F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, the downloaded pdf is in TIL HD-PDF-Library and as backup in SD-PDF-Library
- FE-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 161231)
UKT 170111 to TIL editor: Bookmarks for entries from FE-BHS must be standardized as per entries on p001.htm . Capitals for proper names are allowed, and diacritics removed.

The TOC is in Akshara order, which is very difficult to follow unless you know the Akshara matrices of vowels and consonants. The intermediary language is Romabama (Bur-Latin) based on Pali-Myanmar & Sanskrit-Myanmar.

For reference to Pal-Myan words, I rely on  Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein (UHS-PMD, and The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD). 

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

BEPS consonants  

Consonants of row#1, #2, #3
velar {ka.} क ,
palatal plosive-stop {sa.}/ {c} च ,
retroflex {Ta.} ट rows

Files from older works:
Consonant-onsets - MCc-indx.htm
I've finished consolidating old to new up to:
p060-3.htm ... p071.htm p072.htm p073.htm - update 170331


p060-3.htm  p061.htm  p062.htm   p063.htm p064.htm  p065.htm  p066.htm  p067.htm  p068.htm  p069.htm
p070.htm   p071.htm  p072.htm p073.htm  p074.htm  p075.htm  p076.htm  p077.htm* p078.htm  p079-1.htm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  ---   ---------------------- p079-2.htm
p080.htm  p081.htm  p082.htm  p083.htm  p084.htm  p085.htm  p086.htm  p087.htm  p088-1.htm  p089.htm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- p088-2.htm
p090-1.htm  p091.htm  p092.htm  p093.htm  p094.htm  p095.htm  p096-1.htm  p097-1.htm  p098.htm* p099.htm
p090-2.htm ---------------------------------------------------------------------- p096-2.htm  p097-2.htm
p100.htm  p101.htm  p102.htm* p103-1.htm  p104-1.htm
----------------------------------------- p103-2.htm  p104-2.htm p104-3.htm p104-4.htm p104-5.htm p104-6.htm

UKT 160307: See my note on Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit : Repha & Rhotic Vowel-Pair ऋ {iRi.}- ॠ {iRi}

*UKT 160306: There are two unusual conjuncts to bedevil you - the Pseudo-Kha and the Pseudo-Za which are not present in Pal-Myan. You'll find the Pseudo-Za as a "hanging-on" conjunct in Mon-Myan, which has led me to suggest that Bur-Myan Nya'gyi is a Palatal-Approximant, and that the sole occupant of r2c5 is Nya'l. For "hanging-on" conjuncts, see Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, p046 or pdf051/251, in Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm > MonMyan-NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> (link chk 160306)

UKT 151230: List of words of entries with Repha.
p063.htm , p082.htm


UKT 150928: In some files you will see conjuncts involving row#3 aksharas:

You'll notice that the middle conjunct-akshara, using a right-hand turn would give the correct position of {HTa.}. However if you sculpt as given by MLC, you will have to give a left-hand turn. An alternative I am considering is to follow the hanging-{Ta.} and sculpt in the upright position.


UKT notes :

Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Older form of Devanagari
Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit

Contents of this page

BEPS Consonants
and the failure of IPA to represent them for everyday use

- UKT 150713

"BEPS" - acronym for Burmese, English, Pali, & Sanskrit spoken languages written in respective aksharas - is my coined word. I have been trying to come up with a reliable inter-language transcription between Bur-Myan and English since my early teens. However, only after retiring from the study of Chemistry, and work as a university Chemistry teacher between 1950 to 1988, could I go back to my life long wish of an inter-language transcription.

You must realized that BEPS belongs to different language groups, IE (Indo-European), and Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman). Speakers of different language groups tend to use different sets of vocal muscles and changing vowel sounds of one group into another is almost an impossibility when the speaker has passed puberty: for males with a change in voice and for  females with the beginning of menstrual flow.

The human voice production has been studied continuously in the East for thousands of years, resulting in our Akshara system of writing. The ancient phoneticians have studied the individual sounds, in individual units (vowels), in small units (syllables), and in longer units (phrases and sentences). The vowels can be divided into two kinds, the short and the long. They relate the length of duration of the vowel to the time the speaker takes to blink his eye. The individual sound unit can be modified by restrictions (consonants) in the mouth. The vowel modified by consonants are the syllables. The consonants can be differentiated by the places of articulation (POA). Because of its nature, we can claim the study of Phonetics and Phonology has its beginning in the East since thousands of years ago. The Western study of Phonetics and Phonology is but a few hundreds of years old.

The first recorded writing as seen on the Asokan stone inscriptions tells us about this study of Phonetics in the Indian subcontinent. The Myanmar system of writing, the ThinboanGyi , is related to the Asokan. It is our Phonetics. When we compare the Asokan and Myanmar consonants we find at least 33% similarity.

ThinboanGyi was taught to Bur-Myan children before the British incursion into Myanmarpr in the late 19th century. The Westerners and their erstwhile native students, not understanding its true nature and its worth, but thinking it to be the basis of monastic education and the main prop of Theravada Buddhist monks, have tried to stamp it out, and is no longer taught in our public schools.

The Western invention, the IPA is a poor substitute for ThinboanGyi as can be seen below, in which two classes of phonemes, the c1 tenuis and the c4 deep-H (which is probably vd-pharyngeal) are absent. For 5 phonemes of Bur-Myan & Pal-Myan, IPA has only 3. IPA classifies c1 & c2, and c3 & c4 to be allophones: the IPA phoneticians fail to hear them as distinct sounds. To us, they are legitimate phonemes in their own rights.


Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're husher Sha श /ʃ/ and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

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Older form of Devanagari script

- UKT 150708

Macdonell, Monier-Williams and Childers use an older form of Devanagari script.  A full set of vowels and consonants used are presented below.

Go back Old-Dev-note-b

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Rhotic sounds of Sanskrit

UKT 160303:

Two rhotic sounds not present in Bur-Myan, and possibly in Pali-Myan:
  #1 Repha, & #2 deriv. of highly rhotic Skt-Dev vowel-pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
are the most troublesome in finding corresponding words between in Pali and Sanskrit.
1. Repha on short a , कर्क karka 'white, good'
  What about "Lepha" ? : Lepha on short a , e.g. कल्क kalka 'wicked, sinful'
  - {ka.} p063.htm {ga.} p082.htm {sa.} p092.htm 
2. Rhotic vowel-pair:  formed from Skt-Dev highly rhotic vowel Skt-Dev pair ऋ {iRi.} (1 blk) & ॠ {iRi} (2 blk)
  - {ka.} p072.htm {ga.} p085.htm {sa.} p095.htm

We can make several general observations at this time of my understanding of BEPS:

#1. Skt-Dev, generally spoken as "Sanskrit" - a typical IE (Indo-European) language - is the most rhotic language in BEPS.

#2. GA (General American), commonly referred to as "American English" is less rhotic than Sanskrit, but more so than RP (Received Pronunciation), usually referred to as "British English" is slightly rhotic, but more so than Bur-Myan, possibly on par with Pal-Myan and Mon-Myan, the Arakanese dialect of Bur-Myan.

#3. Bur-Myan, a typical Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, is definitely non-rhotic. However, Myanmar Buddhist males - myself included - because of their earlier monastic training tend to include rhotic sounds in words spelled with consonant {ra.} /ɹ/.

Go back Rhotic-sounds-note-b

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End of TIL file