Update: 2014-10-09 03:49 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{pa.wa.} : How important is {pwa.} in Skt-Dev?
{pa.sha.} : in Pal-Myan, the {pa.sha.} (sibilant) are changed into {pa.a.} (thibilant)

UKT notes :
Vowels checked by killed approximants

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पलिक्नी palikni [ plikn ]
= प ल ि क ् न ी
--> (प) (ल ि क ्) (न ी) --> {pa.laik-ni}
-- a. f. (of palit) grey.

पलित palita [ palit ]
-- a. grey, hoary; n. sg. & pl. grey hair: -m-karana, a. () making grey.

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See my note on Vowels checked by killed approximants .


पल्पूलन palpulana [ pal-pl-ana ]
= प ल ् प ू ल न --> {pal~pu.la.na.}
-- n. lye; alkaline water for washing.

पल्पूलय palpulaya [ palpl-ya ]
-- den. P. wash with alkaline water.


पल्यङ्क palyanka [ pali‿aṅka ]
-- m. couch; bedstead.

पल्यङ्गय palyangaya [ pli‿aṅgaya ]
-- cs. (√aṅg) . cause to go round, stir; ps. revolve.


-- . v. √i with pali


पल्लव pallava [ 1. pallava ]
= प ल ् ल व
-- den. P. put forth young shoots.

पल्लव pallava [ 2. pallava ]
-- m. n. sprout, shoot, twig (the term is figuratively applied to fingers, toes, and lips); strip of cloth, lappet: -ka, m. libertine, i-k, f. N.; -grhin, a. over-spreading with shoots=diffuse, prolix; -na, n. prolixity; -maya, a. consisting of young shoots.


पल्लवय pallavaya [ pallava-ya ]
-- den. P. put forth new shoots; extend, spread abroad: vkah --, talk diffusely: pp. ita, furnished with shoots; far-spread; --, filled with, full of, abounding in.


पल्लवापीडित pallavapidita [ pallava‿pdita ]
-- pp. loaded with sprouts.

पल्लविन् pallavin  [ pallav-in ]
-- a. having young shoots.


-- f. = pall

पल्ली palli [ pall ]
-- f. small village, esp. settlement of wild tribes: -pati, m. headman of --.


पल्वल palvala [ pal-va-la ]
-- n. small tank, pond, pool.

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UKT 120709: How important is {pwa.} in Skt-Dev?


पवन pavana [ pv-ana ]
-- m. (purifier), wind, breeze, air; god of wind; vital air; breath; domestic (sacred) fire; n. instrument for purifying, winnowing-fan; whisk; sieve, strainer; potter's kiln; -kshipta, pp. tempest-tossed; -gava, m. (swift as the wind), N. of a horse; -tanaya, m. son of the wind, ep. of Hanumat and of Bhmasena; -‿ghta, m. gust of wind; -‿tmaga, m. son of the wind, fire; ep. of Bhmasena.


पवमान pavamana [ pv-amna ]
-- pr. pt. √p; m. wind; god of wind; N. of a certain Agni or of a son of Agni; N. of certain stotras sung by the Smagas at the Gyotishtoma sacrifice: -vat, a. accompanied by the Pavamna stotra; -sakha, m. (friend of the wind), fire; -‿uktha, n. series of verses in the midday Pavamna.


पवि pavi [ pav- ]
-- m. tire of a wheel; metal tip of a spear or arrow; iron band on Soma-stone; thunderbolt.


पवित्र pavitra [ pav--tra ]
-- n. means of purifying; sieve, (Soma) strainer; blade of sacrificial grass; purificatory text; a. purifying, pure, beneficent; sanctified by (--): -ka, n. small sieve; (two) blades of Kusa grass (--, a.); vessel in which an honorific gift is presented; -tar kri, purify or sanctify in a high degree; -t, f., -tva, n. purity; -dhara, m. N.; -pni, a. holding blades of Kusa grass in one's hand.


पवित्रय pavitraya [ pavitra-ya ]
-- den. P. purify, cleanse: pp. ita, purified, sanctified, blessed.

पवित्रवत् pavitravat [ pavtra-vat ]
-- a. possessed of a means of purification, a strainer or blades of Kusa grass; purifying, cleansing.


पवित्रारोपण pavitraropana [ pavitra‿ropana ]
-- n. investiture of Krishna's effigy with the sacred cord, a certain festival; -‿rohana, n. id.


पवित्रिन् pavitrin [ pavitr-in ]
-- a. purifying; pure.

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-- purify; -bh , become pure

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-- only pr. st., psya [पश्य = प श ् य], see, possess vision; behold, look at; observe, notice; gaze, be a spectator, look on (tasya pasyatah ), g. abs. before his eyes); ...











-- v. PSAYA , bind


पशव्य pasavya [ pasav-y ]
-- a. relating to or fit for cattle.


पशु pasu [ ps-u (or-) ]
-- m. [tethered beast], cattle (single head or herd); domestic animal (including cows, horses, goats, sheep, asses, and dogs: opp. mriga, wild beast); beast, brute; sacrificial animal, victim: -kalpa, m. ritual of the animal sacrifice; ()-kma, a. desiring cattle; -ghna, a. killing animals; m. cattle-slayer; -t, f., -tva, n. condition of being a sacrificial animal; condition of cattle; bestiality; -trip, a. cattle-stealing; -dharma, m. manner of beasts or in which beasts are treated; -pti, m. lord of beasts, ep. of Siva; -pla, m. guardian of flocks, herds man (also: -ka): -vat, ad. after the manner of herdsmen; -pdita, (pp.) n. damage caused by cattle; -bandh, m. (binding of victim to sacrificial post), animal sacrifice; -mt, a. connected with or abounding in cattle; containing the word &open;pasu;&close; -rakshin, m. tender of cattle, herdsman; -roman, n. hair of an animal; -vat, ad. like the brutes; as with cattle; -vadha, m. slaughter of animals; -sam mnya, m. enumeration of the sacrificial animals in the Asvamedha: i-ka, a. mentioned in the Sammnya; -han, a. (ghn) killing beasts; -havya, n. animal sacrifice.


-- turn into an ox or a sacrificial beast


पश्च pasca [ *pas-k ] a. hinder; later.


पश्चा pasca [ pas-kấ ]
-- (in.) ad. (V.) behind, after; in the west; afterwards.


पश्चात् pascat [ paskất ]
-- (ab.) ad. behind, in the rear, after; backwards; from or in the west; west wards; afterwards, hereafter, subsequently (sts. pleonastically with a gd.); -kri, leave behind, surpass; place on the back or despise; prp. with ab. and g. after; to the west of; tatah paskt, after that, thereupon.


पश्चात्ताप pascattapa [ paskt-tpa ]
-- m. repentance, re- ( p158c2 end ) ( p158c3-top )
morse; -tpin, a. repenting; -puro-mruta, m. du. west and east wind; (d)-baddha-pu rusha, m. man whose hands are tied behind his back; -bhu-baddha, pp. id.; (d)-bhga, m. hind part.

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पश्चार्ध pascardha [ paska‿ardh ]
-- m. hind portion; western side.


पश्चिम pascima  [ pask-ima ]
-- a. hinder; western; last, latest, final: -m darsanam drashtum, see for the last time; vel, f. evening time, close of day; samdhy, f. evening twilight; , f. (sc. dis) west.


पश्चिमाचल pascimacala [ paskima‿akala ]
-- m. Western Mountain (a fabulous mountain behind which the sun is supposed to set: cp. asta‿akala); -‿ambu dhi, m. western ocean; -‿itara, a. (opposite of west), eastern; -‿uttara, a. north-western: -prva, a. western, northern, or eastern.


पस्त्य pastya [ pasty ]
-- n. stall; , f. pl. homestead, dwelling, household.


पल्हव palhava [ pahlava ]
= प ल ् ह व
-- m. pl. the Parthians or Persians.

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Though {a.} is an approximant it is not a medial former. It shares a property with plosive-stops in having a voiced form. The ordinary form is voiceless. -- UKT120709

We should expect to find {pa.a.} entries. But we don't.
Referring to Monier-Williams brought up a few entries, the first under [Page 612, Column 3] being:

   pas cl. 1. P. Ā. pasati, ○te (vḷ. for spaś Dhātup. xxi, 22)
  cl. 10. P. pāsayati, to bind (v. l. for paś, xxxiii, 45)

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{pa.} , {pa} , {pa:}


[1. P], II. P.
-- p (V.), I. P. (.) piba , drink, quaff; imbibe ...











[2. P] II. P.
-- pấ-ti , guard, preserve, protect, from (ab.); govern, reign; observe, ...



[3. P] III. .
-- ppte , w. (?) ud , rise against, show hostility towards. ...


पा pa [ p ]
-- a. (only --) 1. drinking; 2. guarding, protecting.


पांशन paṃsana [ pms-ana ]
-- a. () defiling, disgracing (-).

पांसु paṃsu [ pms ]
-- m. particle of dust, grain of sand: gnly. pl. dust, sand.


पांसुक paṃsuka [ pmsu-ka ]
-- m. pl. dust, sand; -l, a. dusty, dust-stained; sandy; defiled, tainted; --, disgracing: , f. dissolute woman, concubine.


पांसुक्रीडन paṃsukridana [ pmsu-krdana ]
-- n. playing in the sand; -krd, f. id.; -gunthita, pp. covered with dust; -dhvasta-siroruha, a. whose hair is covered i. e. sullied with dust; -varsha, m. n. shower of dust; -samkaya, m. heap of sand; -samhana, a. whirling up dust; -hara, a. id.

UKT: p158c3-b13 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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Vowels checked by killed approximants

-- UKT 120707

In Skt-Dev transcriptions derived from transliteration, it appears that the idea of checking the nuclear vowel with killed consonants is not prevalent. Thus,

दत् dat [ dt ]
= द त ्
-- m. [(a)d-at, pr. pt. eater] tooth (nm. dan): -- a. f. -.

Note the virama (which I usually shorten to "viram") which shows that preceding consonant has it's intrinsic vowel killed. Of course, since the idea of an intrinsic vowel is absent in the alphabetic system of English, it is not taken into consideration in the transliteration which is used as a transcription. Here, द da/ {da.} still retains its intrinsic vowel form as a.

In Romabama, which has become a transcription, if we were to allow the nuclear vowel of the syllable {dt} to remain as it was as a, the pronunciation sounded like / {dakt}/, i.e. {dak} followed by a killed {t} as an afterthought.

I have noticed it for a long time trying to transcribe the common English word C-A-T or <cat> /kt/. (See DJPD16-086 for the transcription.). If we transcribe it as {kt} the pronunciation is actually /kʌt/ instead of /kt/. Because of this I have to change the Romabama transcription to {} from {a}.

When the checking killed consonant is actually a medial former which we have described as an approximant, the problem becomes more complex. Firstly, Skt-Dev does not seem to have the idea of medial formers as we do have in Bur-Myan as evidenced from instances such as its preference to form repha पर् par {par} instead of प्र pra {pra.} . The problem lies on Skt-Dev र ra being a trill consonant /r/ which is different from Bur-Myan {ra.} being an approximant /ɹ/. We find this difference in the two dialects of English: the American English (General American - GA) with /r/ and the British English (Received Pronunciation - RP) with /ɹ/.

The four medial formers under consideration at present are: {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.} . When the intrinsic vowel of {pa.} is checked by these medial formers we get:

Skt-Myan: {p} पय् ; {par} पर् ; {pal} पल् ; {pwa.} प्व (?)

In regular Bur-Myan, {par} is unknown, and we get the medials

Bur-Myan: {pya.} प्य ; {pra.} प्र ; {pla.} प्ल ; {pwa.}

To get a syllable similar to Bur-Myan {pra.}, Skt-Dev uses a highly rhotic vowel ऋ to give पृ  which is written in Romabama as {pRa.} .

Go back vow-check-approx-note-b

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