Update: 2017-10-30 12:17 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

Contents of this page

{pa.r} : {pa.} + front mid-vowel
{pa.rau:} : {pa.} + back mid-vowel - {pa.ro}?

UKT notes :
Atiratra Agnicayana : building the fire-alter
Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS

Contents of this page




परुषेतर parusetara [ parusha‿itara ]
-- a. reverse of severe, gentle, benign; -‿ukti, f. rough speech.


परुष्णी parusni [ prush-n- ]
-- f. (of parusha) cloud (motley); N. of a river in the Panjb (knotty, winding), now Ravi.


परुष्य parusya [ parush-ya ]
-- a. variegated, manifold.

परुस् parus [ pr-us ]
-- n. knot; joint; limb; section.

Contents of this page


The two syllables, {pa.} प & {ra.} र, could easily form a medial in Bur-Myan as: {pr} .
Its equivalent in Bur-Dev is : प्रे <-- प ् र े . Here because of rhoticity of {ra.} र, we have a serious problem in BEPS. See my note on the Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS.



परे pare [ par ]
= प र े
-- lc. ad. at a later time, subsequently.


परेङ्गितज्ञानफल parengitajnanaphala [ para‿iṅgita-gna-phala ]
-- a. fruitful in the discovery of another's hints.


परेण parena [ prena ]
-- (in.) ad. prp. beyond, over, past (ac.); after (ab., g.); subsequently, later, afterwards.


परेत pareta [ par‿ita ]
-- pp. (gone away), deceased: -bhartri, m. lord of the dead, ep. of Yama; -bhmi, f. cemetery; -rga, m. king of the dead, ep. of Yama; -‿vsa, m. cemetery.


परेतर paretara [ paretara ]
-- a. trustworthy or attracting adversaries.


परेद्यवि paredyavi [ pare-dyavi ]
-- ad. on the following day, to-morrow.

परेप्राण pareprana [ pare-prna ]
-- a. dearer than life.

Contents of this page

{pa.rau:} : {pa.ro} ?

Continuation from Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS.
   The two syllables, {pa.} प & {ra.} र, could easily form a medial in Bur-Myan as: {pr} .
Its equivalent in Bur-Dev is : प्रे <-- प ् र े . Here because of rhoticity of {ra.} र, we have a serious problem in BEPS.



परोऽक्ष paro'ksa [ par-[a]ksha ]
Skt: -- a. [beyond the eye], being out of sight, invisible, imperceptible; unknown, unintelligible; cognizable by mind only; --, imperceptibly: -- Mac157c1
Pal: {pa.rauk~hka.}
- - UHS-PMD-0641

UKT from UHS: out of sight.
Here 'sight' refers to the physical eye-sight. It can also mean what is beyond the physical perception of sight, or what can only be "seen" mentally.

UKT: Note the avagraha ऽ in Skt-Dev. I suspect its presence is to prevent the breakup of ksa as has happened in Pal-Myan. In this case, परोऽक would have to be changed to परोख . I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT120705

-m, ad. behind the back of, without the knowledge of (in. V.; g. or --, C.); in. imperceptibly, mysteriously; ab. without the knowledge of (in.); behind the back of (g.); when one has not been present (gr.); -kma, a. fond of mystery; -krita, pp. not addressing but merely referring to a deity indirectly, i. e. in the third person (verse); -t, f., -tva, n. being out of sight, imperceptibility; obscurity; -vritti, a. living or acting out of sight; -‿artha, a. invisible; secret, recondite.


परोक्षा paroksa [ paroksh ]
-- f. past completed action; personal ending of the perfect (gr.).

परोक्षार्थ paroksartha [ paroksha‿artha ] m. invisible object, the invisible.


परोपकरण paropakarana [ para‿upakarana ]
-- n. rendering of services to others; -kri, make the instrument of others; -‿upakra, m. services rendered to others; -‿upakr-in, a. benefiting others (-i-tva, n. abst. ɴ.); m. N. of a prince; -‿upakriti, f. rendering of services to others.


परोपग paropaga [ para‿upaga ]
-- a. dependent on something else, adjectival; -‿upadesa, m. instruction of others.

परोरजस् parorajas [ paro-ragas ]
-- a. free from passions.


परोऽवरम् paro'varam [ paro-(a)varm ]
-- ad. from above downwards, in succession; -varyas, cpv. broader above.


परोष्णिह् parosnih [ para[h]‿ushnih ]
-- f. a metre (8+ 8+12 syllables).

परोष्णी parosni [ paroshn ]
-- f. N. of a river (probably corrupted from Parushn: cp. Payoshn).

Contents of this page


We have already found in p153.htm , {pa.} & {ra.} do not form the medial {pra.}. Here we are finding that in Skt-Dev the repha {par} is formed. From this we can conclude that whereas Bur-Myan {ra.} is an approximant /ɹ/ (and therefore a medial former), Skt-Dev is not. Skt-Dev र ra is more rhotic and is a trill /r/. Bur-Myan {ra.} is more akin to British-English and is quite different from the more rhotic American-English. -- UKT120706


पर्क parka [ park-a ]
-- m. [√prik] mixture or libation (--).


पर्कटी parkati [ parkat ]
-- f. wavy-leaved fig-tree (Ficus infectoria).


पच् [PARK]
-- v. पृच् [PRIK]


पर्जन्य parjanya [ parg-nya ]
-- m. rain-cloud; rain; god of rain: -ginvita, pp. animated by Parganya.


पर्ण parna [ par-n ]
-- n. [taking across, wafting: √2. pri ] pinion, wing; feather (also of an arrow); leaf (--, a. , ); betel-leaf; m. a tree with large leaves (Butea frondosa), in C. generally called palsa; -krikkhra, m. a kind  ( p157c1 end ) ( p157c2-top )
of penance; -puta, m. n. leaf rolled into a funnel shape; -vat, a. abounding in leaves; -vtik, f. areca nut wrapped with spices in a betel-leaf; -sabda, m. rustling of leaves; -sara, m. stalk of the Parna-leaf; -sl, f. arbour.


Contents of this page



पर्णाद parnada [ parna‿ada ]
-- m. N. of a Brhman: -vak ana, n. speech of Parnda; -‿hra, a. feeding on leaves.


पर्णोटज parnotaja  [ parna‿utaga ]
-- n. (?) hut of leaves; -‿utsa, m. N. of a village.

[parmdi] (or -ndi )
-- m. N. of a prince


पर्यक् paryak [ pari‿ak ]
-- ad. (n. of pari‿ak) round about.


पर्यग्नि paryagni [ pari‿agni ]
-- m. encircling fire, firebrand carried round the victim; the ceremony of carrying round the firebrand: i (ad.) or -m kri, perform this ceremony; -karana, n. performance of the Paryagni ceremony; -krita, pp. having been encircled by the firebrand.


पर्यङ्क paryanka [ pari‿aṅka ] m. couch, bed; squatting posture: -bandha, m., -granthi-bandha, m. doubling of the legs in squatting; -stha, a. sitting on a sofa.


पर्यङ्किका paryankika [ paryaṅk-ik ]
-- f. couch.

-- turn into a couch


पर्यटक paryataka [ pari‿ataka ]
-- m. vagabond; -‿atana, n. roaming about, strolling (with g. or --); -‿anu yoktavya, fp. to be asked; to be called upon to answer; -‿anuyoga, m. enquiry; reproach; -‿ant, m. (limit around), boundary, border, skirt, limit, edge, end; --=adjacent, neighbouring; --, a. surrounded or limited by, reaching to, ending with; -or -m, to the end of, up to, as far as (--); -m, ad. completely, exhaustively; kim paryantam, how far?


पर्यय paryaya [ pari‿aya ] m. revolution, expiration (of a period); change, alteration.


पर्यवधारण paryavadharana [ pari‿avadhrana ]
-- n. mature reflexion; -‿avasna, n. conclusion, end; resulting in (lc.); -‿avasyin, a. ending with, resulting in (--).


पर्यश्रु paryasru [ pari‿asru ]
-- a. bathed in tears, tearful.


पर्याकुल paryakula [ pari‿kula ]
-- a. filled with, full of (--); disordered, disarranged; confused; agitated: -tva, n. confusion; -ya, den. P. confuse; agitate; -kri, id.; -bh, become confused.


पर्याण paryana [ pari-[y]na ]
-- a. circuitous; n. saddle: i-ta, pp. saddled.

-- m. man who has set up the sacred fire before his elder brother


पर्याप्त paryapta [ pari‿pta ]
-- pp. sufficient: -t, f. abundance; (pri)-‿pti, f. conclusion; sufficiency; being a match for any one; competency, capacity for (--).


पर्याय paryaya [ pari‿ya ]
-- m. revolution; expiration of a period; change of seasons; periodic return; repetition; regular succession; turn; ritual turn with the Soma cups in the Atirtra feast; period, sentence; stanza; alternative word, synonym: -or in. in order; alternately, -m, abs. going about; -krama, m. order of succession, regular rotation; -tva, n. condition of being a ritual turn; -‿anna, n. food meant for another.

See my note on Atiratra Agnicayana


पर्यालोचन paryalocana [ pari‿lokana ]
-- n. deliberation; , f. id.; plan, scheme.

पर्यावर्त paryavarta [ pari‿varta ]
-- m. return; exchange; -‿vila, a. extremely turbid.
( p157c2 end )

Contents of this page



पर्यास paryasa [ pari‿s ]
-- m. rotation; border; conclusion; concluding stanza in recitation: -na, n. revolution.


पर्याहाव paryahava [ pari‿hva ]
-- m. a certain formula preceding and following a verse; -‿hita, (pp. √dh) m. man whose younger brother has set up the sacred fire before him.


पर्युक paryuka [ pari‿uka ]
m. N.; -‿ukshana, n. sprinkling; -‿utsuka, a. very restless or agitated; very melancholy; vehemently longing for (d.): -tva, n. longing desire, -bh, become very melancholy; -‿ud-asta, pp. excepting; -‿udsa, m. exclusion, negation; -‿upsaka, a. honouring, respecting; -‿upsana, n. sitting round (Pr.); courtesy, affability; -‿ushita, pp. (√vas, dwell) stale; not punctually kept (word); -‿ushta, pp. id.


पर्येष्टव्य paryestavya [ pari‿eshtavya ]
-- fp. to be sought; -‿eshan a, n. search.


-- --, a.=parvan; -gupta , m. N.


पर्वत parvata [ pr-vat-a ]
-- a. consisting of knots or ragged masses (with dri or gir); m. mountain, hill; rock, boulder; cloud; N. of a Rishi and of a minister of Purravas: -ka, m. N.; -kandara, n. mountain-cave; -dur ga, n. impenetrable mountain; -rg: -a, m. king of mountains, ep. of the Himlaya; -si khara, m. n. hill-top, mountain-peak; -sre shtha, spv. best of mountains; -‿agra, n. id.; -kri, turn into a mountain; &isharp;-ya, a. belonging to mountains; -‿svara, m. N.; -‿upa-tyak, f. mountain-lowland, land at the foot of a mountain-range.


पर्वन् parvan [ pr-van ]
-- n. [fulness: √1. pri] knot of a cane or plant; joint; limb; section, division in a book; natural break in a narrative or conversation; juncture, period; node, day of periodic change of the moon (of which there are two or four); sacrifice performed on one of these days; time when the moon passes through the node at conjunction or opposition; end of an eclipse; (-va)-sarkaraka, m. N.; (-va)-samdhi, m. change of moon, esp. time of new or full-moon.


पर्वात्यय parvatyaya [ parva‿atyaya ]
-- m. end of an eclipse; -‿sphota, m. cracking of the fingers.

पर्विणी parvini  [ parvin- ]
-- f. feast-day.


पर्शान parsana [ prs-na ]
-- m. cavity, gulf, abyss.

पर्शु parsu [ prs-u ]
-- f. rib; curved knife, sickle.


-- = pari-shad, assembly

-- 2. sg. subj. aor. √2. pri

Contents of this page



पल pala [ pala ]
-- n. a weight=four karshas; flesh.

पलल palala [ palala ]
-- n. pounded sesamum; mire; -‿odana, m. n. pap of pounded sesamum.


पलाण्डु palandu [ palndu ]
-- m. (n.) onion.

पलाय palaya [ pal‿aya ]
-- v. √i with pal.

पलायन palayana [ pal‿ayana ]
-- n. running away, flight, escape: -para, a. intent on flight.


पलाल palala [ palla ]
-- n. (also &isharp;, f.) straw; -bhra, m. load of straw; -‿ukkaya, m. heap of straw.


पलाव palava [ palva ]
-- m. fish-hook.


पलाश palasa [ pals- ]
-- n. (a. -- f. ), leaf; foliage (-t, f. abst. ɴ.); petal; flower of the Palsa; m. a tree with large leaves, bearing red blossoms (Butea frondosa ); -in, a. leafy; m. tree; N. of a town or village, Plassey.


पलिक palika [ pal-ika ]
-- a. weighing a pala; esp. -- after a numeral, weighing so many palas.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

< Previous Page [156]     <Page 157>     Next Page [158]>
See this page in simple ASCII
Back to the Search Page   |   Back to the DDSA Page

The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

Contents of this page

Atiratra Agnicayana

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnicayana 120707

The Atiratra Agnicayana (ati-rātr agn-cayana "the building up of the fireplace performed overnight") or Athirathram (Malayalam: അതിരാത്രം); the piling of the altar of Agni is a Śrauta ritual of the Vedic religion, the predecessor of modern day Hinduism which is considered to be the greatest ritual as per the Vedic ritual hierarchy.[1] It is also the world's oldest surviving ritual.[2] Its mantras and theological explanations in the Brahmana texts are first attested in the Yajurveda Samhitas (Taittiriya, Kathaka; Vajasaneyi). The practice of this ritual was generally discontinued among Brahmins by the late Vedic period, during the rise of Jainism and Buddhism in India. Nevertheless, a continuous, unbroken 3,000 year tradition has been found to exist among a few Nambudiri Brahmin families in Kerala, South India.


The entire ritual takes twelve days to perform, in the course of which a great bird-shaped altar, the uttaravedi "northern altar" is built out of 10,800 bricks. The liturgical text is in chapters 11 to 18 of the White Yajurveda; the corresponding exposition of the ritual is in Books 6 to 9 of the Shatapatha Brahmana.A total of 29 sastra's and stuti's from Rigveda and Samaveda are also recited in entire Agnicayana rite.[3]. The original essence and purpose of the ritual is not correctly known. But, the immediate practical purpose of the Agnicayana is to build up for the sacrificer an immortal body that is permanently beyond the reach of the transitoriness, suffering, and death that, according to this rite, characterize man's mortal existence.[4]

The ritual emerged from predecessor rituals, which were incorporated as building blocks, around the 10th century BC, and was likely continuously practiced until the late Vedic period, or the 6th century BC. In post-Vedic times, there were various revivals of the practice, under the Gupta Empire in the north (ca. 4th to 6th century), and under the Chola Empire in the south (ca. 9th century), but by the 11th century, the practice was held to have been discontinued; except for the Nambudiris of Kerala.

To observe the ritual, goat sacrifice is essential.[5] Since animal sacrifice is frowned upon by the Hindu society since the end of Vedic age and is a punishable offense in modern India, all documented Agnicayanas have been performed without this and may be deemed incomplete.

In 1975 Indologist Frits Staal documented in great detail the performance of an Agnicayana conducted performed by Nambudiri Brahmins according to Samaveda tradition[6] at Panjal, Kerala.[7][8] The last performance before that had been in 1956, and the Nambudiris were concerned that the ritual was threatened by extinction. It had never before been observed by outsiders. In exchange for a financial participation of the scholars towards the cost of the ritual, the Nambudiris agreed that it should be filmed and recorded. The ritual was performed from 12 to 24 April 1975. An effigy was used to symbolize the goat sacrifice, due to overwhelming opposition by animal protetction groups.[5] Staal (1989) bases a general analysis of the similarities of grammar and ritual on this performance.

After the 1975 Agnicayana, there have been several more Nambudiri performances: in 1990 Agnicayana at Kundoor, and in 2006 at Sukapuram.[8] Belief holds Sukapuram to be one among the 64 villages originally established by Parashurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu after creating Kerala by throwing his axe into the ocean. The Somayagam (Agnistoma) was performed for the first time in 222 years at Aluva from 25 April till 1 May 2009.[9]

An Athirathram Yagna was conducted at Panjal ( Trichur district, Kerala), home to most of the yagnas in Kerala including the 1975 one and where most of Samavedic Namboodiris reside from April 414, 2011.[10]

Since then two more Athiratrams were conducted at kodakara (trichur distrcit,kerala) from March 23rd to April 3rd, 2012 featuring rare Aaswalaayana (Pakazhiya) Boudhaayana combination. The last Athirathram of this type was performed 112 years ago. [11]

The ritual was also performed for the first time outside kerala by Nambudiris from 21 April 2012 to 2 May 2012 at at Bhadrachalam (Khammam district, Andhra pradesh).[12] 

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

Go back Atiratra-note-b

Contents of this page

Rhoticity Problem in mid-vowels in BEPS

-- UKT 120705

The two syllables, {pa.} प & {ra.} र, could easily form a medial in Bur-Myan as: {pr} .
Its equivalent in Bur-Dev is : प्रे <-- प ् र े .

Now what are the mid-vowels? They are defined by the diagram below.

Mid vowels form what are known as Dissimilar pairs {a.a.wN} . There are two pairs: the front and the back.

Front mid vowels: े (short), ै (long)
The front vowels are usually accompanied by lip-spreading. They have to correspond to Bur-Myan registers: the creak, the modal, and the emphatic

{.}, {},  {:}, and
{.},   {}, {:}

Back mid vowels: ो (short), ौ (long)
The back vowels are usually accompanied by lip-rounding. However, lip-spreading is also very easily done, and there can be many possible pronunciations corresponding to the degree of lip-rounding. They have to correspond to Bur-Myan registers

{o.}, {o}, {o:}, and
{au.}, {au}, {au:}

Firstly, I will concentrate only on close mid-vowel {} which is present in Eng-Lat and the pronunciations of words formed from the two phonemes /p/ and /ɹ/ . It is a major problem in BEPS, stemming from the non-rhotic accent of the Irrawaddy valley and somewhat rhotic accent of British English (RP aka Received Pronunciation). This problem is accentuated in the more rhotic accent of the American English (GA aka General American).

In Bur-Myan accent of the Irrawaddy valley {pr} is mis-pronounced without any rhoticity as / {py} /. However, this is not the case with Bur-Myan accent of the Western coastal area - the Rakhine State.

The problem becomes almost non-solvable when we look into the Bur-Myan nasal r2c5 {a.}. This you would remember is the horizontal conjunct of two {a.} in Pal-Myan. The {a.} as a killed consonant can check the peak vowel of {pra.} to give: {pr} which is also pronounced as / {py}/. {pr} has another sound variation as / pyi/ 'pus' or a 'volume measure of rice grains'. The reader should note the importance of brackets: /.../ which is meant to show that it is the pronunciation and not necessary the right spelling.

Secondly, we will deal with the back mid-vowels. The problem is more complex because {pa.rau:} can be a modified sound of {pa.ro}. The reader is reminded that the back vowel {o} can only be found in Bur-Myan, and probably not in Eng-Lat, and definitely not in Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev.

{pa.ro} as a medial sound is very common in Bur-Myan as {pro} 'falling down of a structure', which again is mis-pronounced in the Irrawaddy valley as / {pyo}/. This last sound is realized in Bur-Myan as {pyo} 'virgin'.

There is yet another problem stemming from confusion between /ɹ/ and /l/ phonemes, and we should note that Skt-Myan {pa.rau:} can be derived from Pal-Myan {pa.lau:}

- - UHS-PMD0641
   UKT from UHS: out of presence, beyond
- - UHS-PMD0644
   UKT from UHS: covering with paste, plastering

On the surface {pa.rau:} and {pa.lau:} seem to mean differently until we remember that both words seem to convey the meaning of "concealment from the physical visual observation". Just as rhoticity is a problem for Bur-Myan speakers, I expect to find a parallel problem, the lateral, for the Skt-Dev speakers when I resume my work on U Pe Maung Tin The Student's Pali English dictionary , 1920. 

Go back Rhoticity-problem-note-b / Rhoticity-problem-note-b0

Contents of this page

End of TIL file