Update: 2017-10-30 12:00 AM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{pa.ya.} : monosyllabic medial {pya.} & disyllabic conjunct {p~ya.} {p~ya.}
{pa.ra.} : why not {pra.} ?

UKT note to TIL editor: It is sometimes necessary to pick out an item from a Macdonell's group to compare it to Pal-Myan. See how I have done it in this file. -- 120627

परकरगत parakaragata [ para-kara-gata ]
-- pp. passed into the hands of others.

UKT notes :
English prefix Para
Theory of Monosyllabic Medial Formation
  monosyllabic medial {pya.} & disyllabic conjunct {p~ya.} {p~ya.}

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पनु panu [ pan- (or -&usharp;) ]
-- f. admiration, praise.


पन्था pantha [ pnth- ] m., v. pth.

पन्थान् panthan [ pnth-n ]
-- v. pth.


पन्न panna [ pan-na ] {pn~na.}
= प न ् न
-- pp. √pad: -g, m. (low-going), (, f.) snake; snake-demon: -maya, a. () consisting of snakes, -rga, m. king of the snake-demons, -‿indra, m. id., -‿svara, m. id.

Skt: -- m. (low-going), ( i , f.) snake; snake-demon -- Mac-153c1
Pal: {pn~na.ga.}
-- UHS-PMD-0605

UKT from UHS: m. snake

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पन्य panya [ pn-ya ] {pa.nya.}
= प न ् य
-- fp. wonderful: -tama, spv.

पप्रि papri  [ p-pr-i ]
-- a. [√1. pri] bestowing (ac., g.).


पम्पा pampa [ pamp ]
-- f. N. of a river and of a lake: -pra‿avra, m. ocean of milk.

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Theory of Monosyllabic Medial Formation

- UKT 120627, 141009: The following is just a theory - my speculation. It needs experimental proof.

The IE speakers cannot articulate the monosyllabic medial {pya.} due to their use of a set of muscles different from the one used by Tib-Bur speakers. Note that {pa.} /pa/, the bilabial, is articulated outside the front teeth behind the lips and is a very recognized consonant for the Tib-Bur speakers. The IE speakers who are more use to articulating labio-dentals tend to use a different set of muscles to articulate the bilabial.

The POA of palatal {ya.} the medial former is well inside the mouth. The POA of {pa.} /pa/ and that of {ya.} are far apart. The IE speakers tend to articulate {ya.} as a plosive-stop something like {gya.} (IPA transliteration is not satisfactory and is not given.). However, the Tib-Bur speakers articulate {ya.} as an approximant - something like a vowel. When {pa.} & {ya.} have to be articulate together, IE speakers can only produce {p~ya.} - a disyllable with the schwa after <p>.

Burmese speakers of the Tib-Bur group are used to approximants, but not to labio-dental. And they are fond of monosyllabic medials - the bane of the IE speakers. That is the reason why my American friends cannot pronounce my name Kyaw . They can only say {k~yau} [My experience with my name 'Kyaw' in the U.S.]

What about Pal-Myan? You would ask.
Pal: {pa.ya.}
- -- UHS-PMD-0611
   UKT from UHS: n. milk, fluid

Because of this can we say that Pal-Myan is an intermediate between IE and Tib-Bur. My conjecture is that as Magadhi it was Tib-Bur, but it has become influenced Pal-Lanka which is highly influenced by Sanskrit.


पयःपान payhpana [ payah-pna ]
-- n. drinking or draught of milk; -pra, m. quantity of water.


पयस् payas [ py-as ]
-- n. [√2. p] juice, fluid; vital sap, strength; milk; water; rain.

पयस्य payasya [ payas-ya ]
-- a. made from milk; tilda;, f. clotted milk, curds.


पयस्वत् payasvat [ pyas-vat ]
-- a. juicy, full of sap; abounding in milk.

पयस्विन् payasvin [ payas-vin ]
-- a. id.: -, f. cow yielding abundance of milk.


पयोद payoda [ payo-da ]
-- a. yielding milk; water-giving; m. cloud; -dhara, m. (water-bearing), id.; (milk-yielding), female breast; udder: -bh, become an udder.


पयोधरोन्नति payodharonnati [ payodhara‿unnati ]
-- f. high bosom and rise of clouds.


पयोधारा payodhara [ payo-dhr ]
-- f. shower of water; -dhi, m. water reservoir; sea; -nidhi, m. sea; -bhrit, m. (water-bearing), cloud; -maya, a. consisting of water; -mukha, a. having milk on the surface; -muk, a. yielding milk; m. (water-discharging), cloud; -raya, m. torrent; -rsi, m. ocean; -vha, m. (water carrying), cloud; -vrata, a. subsisting on milk only as a vow.


पयोष्णी payosni [ paya [h]‿ushn ]
-- f. N. of a river (milk-warm).

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UKT 120627, 141009:
It is possible that the monosyllabic medial {pra.} cannot be articulated by IE speakers
   because of which {pa.} & {ra.} remains separate.
English, being notoriously lax on pronunciation of vowel lengths, cannot distinguish
   {pa.ra.} पर (short vowel ending) from {pa.ra} परा (long vowel ending). Yet,
   it uses <para> as a prefix in many words.
   See my note on English prefix para .


पर para [ pr-a ]
-- a. [leading beyond: √2. pri], 1. of place: farther, than (ab.); remoter, ulterior; opposite (shore); next (life); 2. of time: past, previous; future, subsequent; following (ab.); latest, extreme (age), high (time); 3. of amount: exceeding, more than (ab., -- ); remaining over; 4. of sequence: following, coming next after (ab., -- ); repeated: each successive; 5. of degree: superior, higher, better, worse, than (ab.; rarely -- ); supreme, pre-eminent, best; utmost, deepest, greatest; 6. of range: transcending (ab.); 7. of relation: other; alien, strange, hostile; different, from (ab.); m. descendant; stranger; adversary, foe, enemy; universal soul, the Absolute; n. remotest distance; height, summit, acme; supreme bliss; extreme limit (-- ); further or wider meaning of a word (-- , a. synonymous with); chief aim, main thing: -- , a. having -as the main thing=intent on, absorbed in, deeply affected with, mainly consisting in, chiefly meant for, altogether based on; -m, ad. afterwards, subsequently; beyond, after (ab.); highly, excessively; completely; at the most; nothing but, only; however, but; atah param, beyond that; after that; next; hereafter; still further; itah param, henceforth; tatah or tatas ka --, id.; thereupon; na‿asmt param, no more of that, enough; na param - api, not only--but also; na param--yvat, not only--but even; yadi param, if at all, perhaps; param tu or kim tu, however, but; param na--api na, not only not--but also not.


परंशक्ति paraṃsakti [ param-sakti ] f.: only in. with all one's might; to the best of one's ability.
( p153c1 end )

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परकथा parakatha [ para-kath ] f. pl. talk about others; -kara-gata, pp. being in the hands of another or others; -karman, n. service for others; -kalatra‿abhigamana, n. adultery; -krya, n. another person's business or affair; -kla, a. belonging to a later time, subsequent.


परकीय parakiya [ parak-ya ]
-- a. belonging to another or others; hostile.


परकृत parakrta [ para-krita ]
-- pp. done or committed by another; -kriti, f. act of another; analogous case, precedent; -kritya, n. another person's business or affair; a. belonging to the enemy's party, supporting the enemy's cause: -paksha, m. hostile party; -kshetra, n. another's field; another man's wife; -gata, pp. belonging to another; -gmin, a. benefiting another; relating to another (adjective); -guna, m. pl. or --, other people's merits: -grhin, a. recognising the merits of others; -geha-vsa, m. sojourn in another's house; -glni, f. laxity of the enemy.

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परचिन्ता paracinta [ para-kint ]
-- f. thought for others; -kkhidra, n. another's failings or weak points; -gana, m. stranger; -tantra, a. dependent on another; dependent on (-- ): -kri, make dependent; make over to another, sell.

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परतर paratara [ para-tara ]
-- cpv. greater, more.


परतस् paratas [ para-tas ]
-- ad. 1.=ab. of para, a. highest; belonging to another; m. stranger; 2. further; henceforward, afterwards; high up; with ab. high above, over (of power or rank); after (of time); itas--paratas, here--there; before--after.


परता parata [ para-t ]
-- f. absoluteness; highest degree.

-- a. seeking to please others


परत्र paratra [ para-tra ]
-- ad. in the other world, here after; below (in a book): -bhru, a. anxious about the next world.


परत्व paratva [ para-tv ]
-- n. remoteness; posteriority; superiority, to (g.); intentness or emphasis on (-- ).


परदार paradara [ para-dra ]
-- m. sg. & pl. another man's wife; adultery; -dshana, m. ruin of the foe, peace in which the enemy seizes the revenue of the country; -desa, m. another place; foreign country; enemy's territory; -dosha-ga, a. knowing the faults of others; -dravya, n. pl. goods of others: -‿apahraka, a. stealing others' property; -droha, m. hostility towards others: -karma-dh, a. injuring others in deed or thought; -dhana, n. another's property; -dharma, m. law or duties of another or of another caste; another's peculiarity.


परंतप parantapa [ param-tapa ]
-- a. vexing the foe; N. of a prince of Magadha.

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परपक्ष parapaksa [ para-paksha ]
-- m. party of the enemy; -patn, f. another's wife; -parigraha, m. another's property; another's wife; -pari bhava, m. humiliation of others; -parivda, m. speaking ill of others; -pka, m. another's food or table; -pinda, n. another's cake; -puram-gaya, a. conquering the city or cities of the foe; -purusha, m. another man, stranger; -pushta, (pp.) m. Indian cuckoo: , f.; N. of a princess; -pushta-maya, a. () being a perfect cuckoo; -prv, f. woman having had another husband before, woman previously married: -pati, m. husband of a woman married before; -prayogana, a. useful to or benefiting others.

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परब्रह्मन् parabrahman [ para-brahman ]
-- n. supreme Brahman; -bhga, m. supreme state, pre-eminence: -t, f. high position, pre-eminence; -bhgya‿upagvin, a. living on another's fortune; -bhmishtha, a. abiding in a foreign ( p153c2 end )
( p153c3-top )
country; -bhshana, m., v. r. for -dshana; -bhrita, (pp., nourished by others), m., , f. Indian cuckoo: -maya, a. consisting altogether of cuckoos; -bhedana, a. foe-piercing.


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परम parama [ para-m ]
-- spv. farthest, remotest, extreme, last; highest, chief, primary; supreme, transcendant; most excellent, best, greatest; worst; better, greater, worse, than (ab.); n. extreme limit; chief aim, main thing: only --  a. amounting at the most to; wholly occupied with, doing nothing but, solely intent on, engrossed with: -m, ad. very well, yes (expressing assent); --, ad. extremely, exceedingly, greatly, very.


परमक paramaka [ parama-ka ]
-- a. most excellent, supreme, highest, best, greatest; worst.


परमत paramata [ para-mata ]
-- n. opinion of others.


परमता paramata [ param-t ]
-- f. highest position, supremacy; summit, highest aim; -druna, a. very dreadful; -duhkhita, pp. deeply afflicted.


परमन्युमत् paramanyumat  [ para-manyu-mat ]
-- a. deeply distressed; -marma-ga, a. knowing the secret designs of others.


परमपुंस् paramapuṃs [ parama-pums ]
-- m. supreme soul, ep. of Vishnu; -purusha, m. id.

परमर्षि paramarsi [ parama‿rishi ]
-- m. great sage.


परमशोभन paramasobhana [ parama-sobhana ]
-- a. exceedingly beautiful; -samhrishta, pp. exceedingly rejoiced; -hamsa, m. ascetic of the highest order; universal soul; -‿akshara, n. syllable om or the Absolute; -‿aṅgan, f. most excellent woman.


परमाणु paramanu [ parama‿anu ] m. infinitesimal portion, atom: -t, f. atomic nature, -krana vda, m. doctrine of atoms, Vaiseshika system.


परमात्मन् paramatman [ parama‿tman ]
-- m. supreme or universal soul; -‿tma-t, f., -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -‿nanda, m. supreme joy; -‿anna, n. (best food), rice boiled in milk; -‿pad, f. greatest misfortune; -‿artha, m. highest or whole truth, true state of the case, reality: --, -tas, in., ab. in reality, -bhg, a. possessed of the highest truth.


परमेश्वर paramesvara [ parama‿svara ]
-- m. mighty or supreme lord, prince; God: -t, f., -tva, n. sovereignty, lordship.


परमेष्ठिन् paramesthin [ parame-shth-n ]
-- a. standing at the head or in the highest place, supreme; m. lord, ep. of various gods or divine beings.


परमेष्वास paramesvasa [ parama‿ishu‿sa ]
-- m. excellent bowman; -‿upsaka, m. zealous Buddhist layman.


परंपर parampara [ para-m-para ]
-- a. one after another, successive: -m, ad. in regular succession; , f. uninterrupted line, unbroken series, regular succession; mediateness: in. indirectly; ()-prpta, pp. handed down by tradition, -‿yta, pp. id.

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परयोषित् parayosit [ para-yoshit ]
-- f. wife of another man; -ramana, m. second lover, paramour; -loka, m. the other or future world: -‿arthin, n. seeking heaven; -vat, 1. ad. like a stranger; -vat, 2. a. depending on another; ready to obey (lc.); dependent on (in., g.); devoted to, a prey to (-- ): -t, f. readiness to gratify or obey, complaisance; -varga, m. party of others; -vasa, a. dependent on the will of another, subservient; overpowered by, a prey to (-- ): -m kri, overcome; -vkya, n. fault of another; -vda, m. talk of others, rumour; detraction; objection; -vra-han, a. slayer of the warriors of the enemy; -vy kshepin, a. scattering foes; -vyha-vinsana, m. destroyer of the ranks of the enemy.
( p153c3 end )

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UKT notes

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English prefix Para

From http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/para- 120630
UKT note to TIL HTML editor: the downloaded text contains many tags which are unnecessary and have to be removed.


a prefix appearing in loanwords from Greek, most often attached to verbs and verbal derivatives, with the meanings "at or to one side of, beside, side by side (parabola; paragraph; parallel; paralysis), "beyond, past, by" (paradox; paragogue); by extension from these senses, this prefix came to designate objects or activities auxiliary to or derivatives of that denoted by the base word (parody, paronomasia), and hence abnormal or defective (paranoia), a sense now common in modern scientific coinages (parageusia; paralexia). As an English prefix, para- may have any of these senses; it is also productive in the naming of occupational roles considered ancillary or subsidiary to roles requiring more training, or of a higher status, on such models as paramedical or paraprofessional; paralegal; paralibrarian; parapolice.


a combining form designating the para (1, 4) position in the benzene ring. Abbreviation: p-. Compare meta (def. 2c), ortho- (def. 2b).
[UKT personal note: The first time I became aware of the meaning was in my Organic Chemistry lectures which I took as a B.Sc. Honours student in 1952 at the Rangoon University.)

Also, especially before a vowel, par- .


Greek para- ,  combining form representing par (preposition) beside, alongside of, by, beyond.

In French

a combining form meaning "guard against", occurring in loanwords from French, or via French, from Italian: parachute; parasol.

< French < Italian para, 3rd singular present of parare to prepare against, ward off < Latin parāre to prepare.

UKT: More in the original

Go back English-prefix-para-note-b

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