Update: 2017-10-29 11:57 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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  p152-c1 : whole column

UKT notes :
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

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Though the sound of {pd} /pʌd/ is not known in Bur-Myan, both {pt} /pʌt/ and {pd} /pʌd/ are realized in Eng-Lat.
   I intend to look, at a later moment,  into the pronunciations of {pa.} /pa/ whose inherent vowel is checked by various killed-consonants. My study will be on {pt} /pʌt/ , {pd} /pʌd/ and others in both regular and imported Bur-Myan words.
   Listening to the sounds of Bur-Myan by both native-born and foreign-born phoneticians to draw conclusions on Burmese phonemics depends on cultures of the listeners. I hold that their conclusions would be restricted by Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. See my note. -- UKT120626

Word-reading of the Veda - UKT120627
   Going further down the entries, I noticed the peculiar way in which Mcdonell has written on Word-reading of the Veda . He implies that reading of the Veda needs special methods.
   I have the suspicion that the Vedic language was quite different from the native language of the "new-comers": the Vedic language was Tib-Bur, and the new-comers' native speech was IE. The new-comers because of their cultural difference from Tib-Bur, would have to apply "special methods".
   I have come to the above suggestion based on my experience of trying to make my American friends pronounce my Tib-Bur name 'Kyaw'. I noticed that they tend to start with dental sounds, and insert the dental fricative-sibilants to pronounce <ky>.
   Then I noticed that they could not differentiate {ka.} from {hka.}. They are deaf to tenuis sound of {ka.} which they always identify with the voiceless {hka.}. The result was I had to adopt a new name 'Joe'. Refer to
"word-reading of the Veda (in which the words are given separately irrespective of the rules of Sandhi)" -- p152c2-b02
"-ptha, m. word-reading, a mode of reciting and writing the Veda in which every word is given in its original form irrespective of Sandhi;" -- p152c2-b03
"पदशास्त्र padasastra [ pada-sstra ] -- n. science of words written separately in the Veda" --  p152c2-b06
   This problem seems to have become very acute by the time of Panini (पाणिनि {pa-Ni.ni.}) (more than 2000 years ago), and he finally codified new Sanskrit rules in his Ashtadhyayi (अष्टाध्यायी Aṣṭādhyāyī, meaning "eight chapters"). [My note to Sanskrit scholars: Please take my above suggestions as those from a novice, and please explain as you would to your student.]


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p151c3-b07  &  p152-c1

[PAD] IV. (P.) .
-- pdya , fall, - down, off, or out; perish (V.); go to (ac.); ...

( p152c1 end )



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पद् pad [ pd ]
-- m. (strong base pấd; f. -- a. pad or pad) foot; step; quarter: in. sg., du., pl. also on foot.

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पद pada [ pad- ]
-- (m.) n. step; stride; footstep; trace; mark, sign; footing, place, abode, home; station, position, office; dignity, rank; object (of contempt, dispute, etc.); cause, occasion; foot (also as a measure); quarter verse; word; nominal base before consonant terminations (so-called because treated like a word in external Sandhi); word-reading of the Veda (in which the words are given separately irrespective of the rules of Sandhi): padam kri, set foot on, enter (lc.); have a regard for (prati); have to do with (lc.): mrdhni, place one's foot on the head of (g.) =overcome, surpass, hridaye or kitte --, take complete possession of the heart or mind; padam -tan, gain ground; -dh, gain a footing; -ni-dh, set foot on=make an im pression on (lc.): -padavym, set foot on the path of=emulate (g.); padam ni-bandh= engage in (lc.); pade pade, at every step, everywhere, on every occasion.


पदक padaka [ pada-ka ]
-- n. step; office, position; -krama, m. kind of gait; peculiar method of reciting and writing the Veda; -gati, f. gait; -kihna, n. footprint; -t, f. original form of a word; condition of a word; -nysa, m. putting down the foot, step; footprint; inditing of verses; ()-paṅkti, f. series of footsteps, track; a metre (5 X 5 syllables); series of words; -paddhati, f. series of foot steps, track; -ptha, m. word-reading, a mode of reciting and writing the Veda in which every word is given in its original form irrespective of Sandhi; -prana, a. verse filling; -ypana, a. () pace-retarding; -rak an, f. arrangement of words, literary work; -vigraha, m. separation of words; -vd, a. (knowing the place), familiar with (g.).


पदवी padavi [ pada-v&isharp; ]
-- m. (nm. -s) leader, guide (V.); f. (nm. ) track, path; way or road, to (--); sphere, ken (of eyes, ears, memory); post, office: -m abhi‿i, tread the path of (--), equal, resemble; -pra‿p or sam--ruh, enter the path of, devote oneself to (--); -y, enter the path of, become an object of, e. g. laughter (--).


पदवृत्ति padavrtti [ pada-vritti ]
-- f. hiatus between two words in a sentence.

पदशस् padasas [ pada-sas ]
-- ad. step by step, by degrees; word for word.


पदशास्त्र padasastra [ pada-sstra ]
-- n. science of words written separately in the Veda; -sreni, f. line of footsteps, track.


पदसंधि padasandhi [ pada-samdhi ]
-- m. euphonic combination of words; -stha, a. pedestrian; in vested with office; -sthna, m. footprint; -sthita, pp. invested with office.

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पदाङ्क padanka [ pada‿aṅka ]
-- m. footprint.


पदाति padati [ pad-t-i ]
-- a. [going (√at) on foot], being on foot, pedestrian; m. foot-soldier; -in, a. consisting of or provided with foot soldiers; m. foot-soldier; (-ti)-lava, m. (non entity of a=) humble servant.


पदानुग padanuga [ pada‿anuga ]
-- a. following on the heels of (g.); pleasant to (--); m. attendant; -‿anussana, n. science of words; -‿anta, m. end of a quarter-verse; end of a word, final; -‿antara, n. another word; interval of a step: e sthitv, stopping after a step; -‿anveshin, a. following a track.
( p152c2 end )

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पदार्थ padartha [ pada‿artha ]
-- m. thing corresponding to a word, substance, object; subject, topic; category (ph.); meaning of a word.


पदावली padavali [ pada‿val ]
-- f. series of pdas or words; -‿vritti, f. repetition of a word; repetition of the same word with another meaning (rh.).


पद्धति paddhati [ pad-dhati ]
-- f. [pad-hati, foot-tread], track, trace; way, path (also fig.); line, row; guide (a class of manuals).

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पद्म padma [ pad-ma ]
= प द ् म
-- m. n. lotus flower (which closes at night: Nelumbium speciosum); lotus-shaped array; kind of sitting posture during religious absorption; one of the nine treasures of Kubera; 1000 billions; N. of a Nga; N.; , f. the Lotus-coloured, ep. of the goddess of fortune, Sr.


पद्मक padmaka [ padma-ka ]
-- m. N.; kind of sitting posture during religious absorption; n. a tree; -kta, m. N. of a fairy prince; -kosa, m. calix of a day-lotus; position of the fingers resembling the calix of a lotus; -kos-ya, den. . resemble the calix of a day-lotus; -khanda, n. group of day-lotuses; -garbha, m. (produced from a lotus), ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva; N.; inside of a lotus; n. Lotus-filled, N. of a lake; -t, f. condition of a day-lotus; -darsana, m. (lotus-like), N.; -nbha, m. (having a lotus in his navel), ep. of Vishnu; N.; -nidhi, m. one of the nine treasures of Kubera (also personified); treasure having the value of a Padma = 100,000,000 pieces of money [UKT note: 100 millions]; -nibha‿kshana, a. having lotus-like eyes; -pura, n. N. of a city; -prabh, f. N.; -mihira, m. N. of a historian; -yoni, m. (sprung from a lotus), ep. of Brahma; -rati, m. N.; -rga, m. (lotus-coloured), ruby: -ka, m. id.; -rga, m. N.; -lekh, f. N.; -varkas, a. lotus-coloured; -varna, a. id.; -vishaya, m. N. of a country; -vesha, m. N.; -vykosa, n. breach of a certain shape; -sekhara, m. N. of a prince of the Gandharvas; -sr, f. N.; -samksa, a. lotus-like; -sadman, m. (seated on a lotus), ep. of Brahma; -saras, n. lotus-lake; N. of a lake; -sena, m. N.; -svmin, m. N. of a shrine.


पद्माकर padmakara [ padma‿kara ]
-- m. group of day-lotuses; -‿aksha, a. () lotus-eyed; -‿di-tva, n. condition of a lotus etc.


पद्मावती padmavati [ padm-vat- ]
-- f. ep. of Lakshm; N.; ep. of Uggayin in the Krita age; T. of the 17th Lambaka in the Kathsaritsgara.


पद्मासन padmasana [ padma‿sana ]
-- n. lotus-seat; kind of sitting posture in religious absorption.


पद्मिन् padmin [ padm-in ]
-- a. spotted (elephant): -, f. lotus (Nelumbium speciosum : flower & plant); multitude of lotuses; lotus-pond: -khanda, n. group of lotuses.

-- (spv.) f. N.


पद्मोद्भव padmodbhava [ padma‿udbhava ]
-- a. produced from a lotus; m. ep. of Brahma; N.


पद्य padya [ pd-ya ]
-- a. relating to the foot; n. verse.

-- (--) a. ( ) inclined towards (lc.).

पद्वत् padvat [ pad-vt ]
-- a. having feet, running; n. running animals.

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In Bur-Myan there are three pitch-registers, and it is the job of transcriber to make Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan compatible. The Bur-Myan registers are:
   the creak {pn.}, the modal {pn}, and the emphatic  {pn:}


[PAN] I. .
-- pna , be admirable; admire; cs. panya , P. . rejoice at (ac., g.); pp. panit , admired; praised.


पनस panasa [ panasa ]
-- m. breadfruit-tree; n. its fruit.

[pan-as-y] .
-- be admirable


-- . show to be admirable

पनाय्य panayya [ panấy-ya ]
-- fp. astonishing, admirable.

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UKT notes

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity 120626

The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influence their cognitive processes. [UKT]

Popularly known as the SapirWhorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, the principle is often defined as having two versions: (i) the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories and (ii) the weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behaviour. The term "Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis" is a misnomer, as Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf never co-authored anything, and never stated their ideas in terms of a hypothesis. [UKT]

UKT note 120626 based on: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapir-Whorf-hypothesis 090623
   As a physical scientist with both Chemistry and Chemical Engineering backgrounds, I am more interested in Benjamin Whorf who was a Chemical Engineer by profession. He noted that words such as <full> and <empty> can mean different things with disastrous results -- chemical fires with possible loss of life.

Whorf (Benjamin Lee Whorf) ( - 1941) wrote:
   "We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native language. The categories and types that we isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscope flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds and this means largely by the linguistic systems of our minds. We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language [...] all observers are not led by the same physical evidence to the same picture of the universe, unless their linguistic backgrounds are similar, or can in some way be calibrated." Benjamin Lee Whorf, 1940

As a careful scientist he note how common words such as <full> and <empty> can mean different things:
   "Another example in which Whorf attempted to show that language use affects behavior came from his experience in his day job as a chemical engineer working for an insurance company. On inspecting a chemical plant he once observed that the plant had two storage rooms for gasoline barrels, one for the full barrels and one for the empty ones. He further noticed that while no employees smoked cigarettes in the room for full barrels no-one minded smoking in the room with empty barrels , although this was potentially much more dangerous due to the highly flammable vapors that still existed in the barrels. He concluded that the use of the word empty in connection to the barrels had led the workers to unconsciously regarding them as harmless, although consciously they were probably aware of the risk of explosion from the vapors. This example was later criticized by Lenneberg as not actually demonstrating the causality between the use of the word empty and the action of smoking, but instead being an example of Circular reasoning.

Also the distinction between a weak and a strong version of the hypothesis is a later invention, as Sapir and Whorf never set up such a dichotomy although in their writings at times their view of the relativity principle are phrased in stronger or weaker terms.[1]

The idea was first clearly expressed by 19th century thinkers, such as Wilhelm von Humboldt, who saw language as the expression of the spirit of a nation. Members of the early 20th century school of American Anthropology headed by Franz Boas and Edward Sapir also embraced forms of the idea to one extent or another, but Sapir in particular wrote more often against than in favor of anything like linguistic determinism. Sapir's student Benjamin Lee Whorf came to be seen as the primary proponent as a result of his published observations of how he perceived linguistic differences to have consequences in human cognition and behavior. Harry Hoijer, one of Sapir's students, introduced the term "SapirWhorf hypothesis",[2] even though the two scholars never actually advanced any such hypothesis.[3] Whorf's principle of linguistic relativity was reformulated as a testable hypothesis by Roger Brown and Eric Lenneberg who conducted experiments designed to find out whether color perception varies between speakers of languages that classified colors differently. As the study of the universal nature of human language and cognition came into focus in the 1960s the idea of linguistic relativity fell out of favour among linguists. A 1969 study by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay claimed to demonstrate that color terminology is subject to universal semantic constraints, and hence to discredit the SapirWhorf hypothesis.

From the late 1980s a new school of linguistic relativity scholars have examined the effects of differences in linguistic categorization on cognition, finding broad support for weak versions of the hypothesis in experimental contexts.[4] Some effects of linguistic relativity have been shown in several semantic domains, although they are generally weak. Currently, a balanced view of linguistic relativity is espoused by most linguists holding that language influences certain kinds of cognitive processes in non-trivial ways, but that other processes are better seen as subject to universal factors. Research is focused on exploring the ways and extent to which language influences thought.[4] The principle of linguistic relativity and the relation between language and thought has also received attention in varying academic fields from philosophy to psychology and anthropology, and it has also inspired and colored works of fiction and the invention of constructed languages.

Go back Sapir-Whorf-note-b

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