Update: 2014-10-09 04:55 AM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{pt} /pʌt/
{pht} : not a Bur-Myan sound. Our equivalent is more sharp: {pt}

UKT notes :
Pronunciation of the letter U

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After the retroflex p-nasal {pN} that is not known in the West, we are now with {pt} /pʌt/ the sound of which is well known in English with a caveat.
   English has two vowels /ʊ/ and /ʌ/ represented by the same letter of the Latin alphabet <u> realized in : <put> /pʊt/  and <but> /bʌt/ . See my note for more of pronunciation of the letter U .

p150c3-b04  &  p151c1-top

[1. PAT], I. P. (E. also )
-- pta , fly (also fig.); descend; set (sun); alight; throw oneself upon or into (ac., lc.); fall down, at the feet (lc.) of (g.); fall, into (ac.), ...


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[2. PAT] IV. .
-- ptya , (V.) be lord of, have power over, possess (ac. in.); share in, be associated with (lc.); be of use or serve for (d.); serve as, be anything. abhi . possess.

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पत pata [ pat-a ]
-- m. flight (only --): -ga, m. [moving by flight], winged creature, bird: -rga, -‿svara, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda.


पतंग patanga [ patam-g ]
-- a. flying; m. bird; winged insect; grasshopper, butterfly; esp. moth; sun: -knta, (pp.) m. sun-stone; -grma, m. N. of a village.


पतंगम patangama [ patam-gama ]
-- m. moth.

पतंगर patangara [ patamga-r ]
-- a. bird-like.


पतंगवृत्ति patangavrtti [ patamga-vritti ]
-- f. behaviour of the moth, height of folly; a. behaving like a moth, extremely foolish.


-- m. N. of a grammarian (the celebrated author of Mahbhshya) and of a philosopher (founder of the Sṅkhya system).


पतत् patat [ pat-at ]
-- pr. pt. flying; m. bird.


पतत्र patatra [ pta-tra ]
-- n. wing; feather.

पतत्रिन् patatrin [ patatr-in ]
-- a. winged, flying; m. bird; arrow.


पतद्ग्रह patadgraha [ patad-graha ]
-- m. (catching what falls), spittoon.


पतन patana [ pt-ana ]
-- n. flying, flight; flying or falling down, descent, fall, from (ab.), into (lc. or --); casting oneself (into, --), prostration (at, --); hanging down, flaccidity (of the breasts); fall, ruin; getting into (lc.): -sla, a. accustomed to fall down.


पतनीय pataniya [  patan-ya ]
-- a. leading to a loss of caste; n. crime producing loss of caste.


पतय pataya [ pat-ya ]
-- cs. of √1. pat, P. fly along; . strike down. , fly to. vi, P. open (int.).


पताका pataka [ patk ]
-- f. flag, banner: -m labh, carry off the palm among (lc.); episode in a drama; -‿amsuka, n. flag; -danda, m. flag staff.


पताकिन् patakin [ patk-in ]
-- a. bearing a flag; m. ensign-bearer; flag; car: -, f. army.


पति pati [ pt-i ]
-- m. owner, master, lord, ruler; husband.
( end p151c1 )

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पतिंवरा patiṃvara [ patim-var ]
-- f. one who chooses her own husband.


-- -- a. husband; -ghni a. f. husband-slaying


पतित patita [ pat-ita ]
-- pp. √1. pat; n. flight: -vritta, pp. living as an outcast; -svitr ka, a. having neglected the Svitr, i. e. having omitted investiture with the sacred cord; -sthita, pp. lying on the ground; -‿utthita, pp. shipwrecked and rescued.


पतित्व patitva [ pati-tv ]
-- n. matrimony, wedlock; -darsana-llasa, a. desirous of seeing her husband; -devat, a. f. making a god of --, idolizing her husband; -dharma, m. duty to a husband; -prn, a. f. whose life is her husband; -laṅghana, n. conjugal infidelity in a wife; -llasa, a. longing for her hus band; devoted to her husband; -loka, m. world or abode of the husband (after death); -vamsya, a. belonging to the husband's family; -vatn, a. f. having a husband; ɴ. married woman, wife; -vrata, n. fidelity to a husband: , a. f. faithful or devoted to her husband: -maya, a. consisting in a faithful wife; -suk, f. mourning for a husband; -sthna, n. husband's place; -sthnya, a. belonging to or being in the husband's place; m. husband's representative.


पत्तन pattana [ pat-tana ]
-- n. town.


पत्ति patti [ pat-t ]
-- m. pedestrian; foot-soldier: -karman, n. business of the infantry.


पत्‍त्र pattra [ pat-tra ]
-- n. wing; feather (also of an arrow); vehicle (car, horse, or camel); (plumage of a tree), leaf, petal; leaf prepared for writing on (-m ropaya=put on paper); letter, document; foil of metal; ornamental leaf painted with (--): -ka(ik)=pattra -- a.; -kkhedya, a. having its feathers plucked out; n. a kind of artistic skill (?); -pati, m. ep. of Garuda; -puta, m. n.: i-k, f. leaf rolled up into a funnel-shape; -bhaṅga, m. streaks painted with musk and other fragrant substances on the face or parts of the body; -ratha, m. (riding on wings), bird: -‿indra, m. lord of birds, ep. of Garuda: -ketu, m. having Garuda as his badge, Vishnu; -rekh, f.=-bhaṅga; -lat, f. id.; N.; -le kh, f. id.; N.; -vha, m. (borne on wings), bird; arrow; -viseshaka, m. (?) leaf-like painted mark; -veshta, m. kind of earring; -ska, n. vegetable with leaves; -‿l, f.= -bhaṅga; -‿hra, m. pl. feeding on leaves.


पत्‍ित्रका patitraka [ pattr-ik ]
-- f. leaf for writing on; letter, note; document.

पत्‍ित्रन् patitran [ pattr-in ]
-- a. winged; feathered, with (--); m. bird; arrow.


पत्‍त्रोर्ण pattrorna [ pattra‿rna ]
-- n. bleached silk; cloth or garment of bleached silk.


पत्नी patni [ pt-n- ]
-- f. mistress, lady; wife; female of animals: -ka, -- a. id.; -vat, a. possessed of a wife or wives; accompanied by his wife; -sấla, n., , f. shed on the sacrificial ground for the wives and domestic rites of the sacrificers.


पत्मन् patman [ pt-man ]
-- n. path, course.


पत्य patya [ PATYA ]
-- v. 2. PAT.

पत्वन् patvan [ pt-van ]
-- a. (r-) flying; n. flight.


-- ad. at the feet: -si , a. lying at the feet

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{pht} is not a Bur-Myan sound: our pronunciation is more sharp: {pt} /pʌt/ for transcriptions from English, or as MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) would have it: /pʌʔ/ with a glottal stop by residents of the Irrawaddy valley for everyday colloquial speech.


-- cs. api-pthaya , P. bring into a path (ac.)


( p151c2end )
( p151c3-top )



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पथ patha [ path-a ]
-- m. way, road, path (--).

पथातिथि pathatithi [ patha‿atithi ]
-- m. traveller.


पथिक pathika [ pathi-ka ]
-- m. wanderer, traveller: -srtha, m. company of travellers.


पथिकृत् pathikrt [ pathi-krt ]
-- a. preparing the way; -mat, a. containing the word 'pth;'  -rk shi, a. guarding the paths.


पथोपदेशक pathopadesaka [ patha‿upadesaka ]
-- m. guide (Pr.).


पथ्य pathya [ path-ya ]
-- a. (relating to or fit for the way or progress of a thing), customary, regular; proper, suitable; salutary; advantageous; tilda;, f. path, way: -revt, bounteous path, personified as genius of plenty.


पथ्यशन pathyasana [ pathi‿asana ]
-- n. victuals for the journey; -‿sin, a. eating wholesome diet; -‿odana, m. id.

UKT: p151c3-b07 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

Pronunciation of letter U

From: English Pronunciation Guide: Vowel based on Pronunciation Guide, Learn to Speak English Part 1 and English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones , 16th ed., ed. P. Roach, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003 (DJPD16.
http://www.tuninst.net/EngPronGuid/LSE1-EPG-vow/EPG-vow.htm#Vowel_Sounds_with_U 120623

From: DJPD16-555

p555. The vowel letter [u] has several strong pronunciations linked to spelling. 'Short' pronunciations include /ʌ/ and /ʊ/.

UKT: One of the first problem faced by a Myanmar ESL learner is pronouncing the letters [ut] in <put> /pʊt/ and <but> /bʌt/. The corresponding sounds in Burmese-Myanmar are {awt} /ʊt/ and {bt}/{bat} /ʌt/. The problem in Romabama is to represent /ʊt/ and /ʌt/. My suggestion is to represent /ʊ/ with /uu/ or /u/, and /ʌ/ with // (080121):
this would allow me to write English <but> as {bt}, <cut> as {ct}
and English <put> as {pwut}/{pwat}, <Tun> as {htun:}/{htuun:}/{htwan:}.

'Long' pronunciations include /uː/ and /juː/. In 'short' pronounced /ʌ/, the [u] is generally followed by a consonant letter which ends the word, or a double consonant before another vowel. Words containing /ʊ/ which end with a consonant sound often have two consonant letters finally, a notable exception being <put> /pʊt/, e.g.:

<tub> /tʌb/ {tpb} or {tb}
<tubby> /ˈtʌb.i/ {tp-bi}
<bull> /bʊl/ {bu:l}
<bully> /ˈbʊl.i/ {bu:li}

UKT: (see also pronunciation of letter <a>)
Because ʌ is not an ASCII letter, but is, I am proposing to use the latter in Romabama -- 080206
This would amount to saying that is a checked vowel and is followed by a killed {wag}-akshara. On the other hand, u is a free vowel which is not followed by a consonant, though it may be followed by an {a.wag}-akshara, {ya.} {ra.} {la.} {wa.} {a.} {ha.}
While keeping in mind that there are no spellings with {ba.t} and {la.t} in Bur-Myan, if we are to transcribe <tub> and <bull> to Bur-Myan, we would get {tb} and {bu:l}

The 'long' pronunciations usually mean the [u] is followed by a single consonant letter and then a vowel, e.g.:

<tube> /tjuːb/ (US) /tuːb/
<tubing> /ˈtjuː.bɪŋ/ (US) /ˈtuː-/
<supervise> /ˈsuː.pə.vaɪz/ (US) /-pɚ-/

UKT: It is interesting to note that in British English aka RP (Received Pronunciation), <u> influences both the onset-consonant and coda-consonant. The "influence" on the onset, amounts to {ya.ping.}-medial formation. As an example, in Myanmar, the English word <new> is pronounced as {nyu:} following the British English instead of {nu:} if we were to follow the US English aka General American.

In word initial position, the 'long' pronunciation is almost always pronounced /juː/, e.g.:

<unique> /juːˈniːk/
<useful> /ˈjuːs.fəl/

However, there are exceptions to these guidelines, e.g.:

<study> /ˈstʌd.i/
<sugar> /ˈʃʊg.əʳ/ (US) /-ɚ/
<truth> /truːθ/

When [u] is followed by [r], the strong pronunciation is one of several possibilities:
/jʊə , jɔː (US) jʊr/ ,
/ʊə , ɔː (US) ʊr/ ,
/ɜː (US) ɝː/ , or
/ʌ (US) ɝː/ , e.g.:

<cure> /kjʊəʳ , kjɔːʳ/ (US) /kjʊr/
<plural> /ˈplʊə.rəl , ˈplɔː-/ (US) /ˈplʊr.əl/
<burn> /bɜːn/ (US) /bɝːn/
<hurry> /ˈhʌr.i/ (US) /ˈhɝː.i/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [u] is realised as one of /jə/, /jʊ/, /ə/ or /ʊ/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<failure> /ˈfeɪ.ljəʳ/ (US) /ˈfeɪl.jɚ/
<accurate> /ˈk.jə.rət , -jʊ/ (US) /-jɚ.ət, -jʊ.rət/
<status> /ˈsteɪ.təs/ (US) /-stt̬əs/
<July> /ʤʊˈlaɪ/

It may also result in a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<hopeful> /ˈhəʊp.fəl , -fʊl/ (US) /ˈhoʊp-/

Go back letter-U-note-b

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