Update: 2017-10-29 11:54 PM -0500


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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{pht} पठ्

UKT notes :
Five arrows of Kamadeva The p-nasals of BEPS 
Trichosanthes dioica {p:ling:mrw}

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पञ्चाशत् pancasat [ pak-st ]
-- f. [paka-dasat] 50: -a, n., -i, f. id.; -ka, a. fifty years old; -tama, a. 50th; -panika, a. consisting of 50 panas (fine); -palika, a. weighing 50 palas; (d) bhga, m. 50th part; (d)-varsha, a. fifty years old.


पञ्चास्य pancasya [ paka‿sya ]
-- a. five-faced; five-pointed (arrow); m. lion; -‿aha, m. period of five days.


पञ्चिन् pancin [ pak-in ]
-- a. consisting of five parts.


पञ्चीकरण pancikarana [ pak-karana ]
-- n. reduction to five, combination with the five subtle elements.

-- reduce to five, combine a gross element with all the five subtle elements


पञ्चेषु pancesu [ paka‿ishu ]
-- m. (five-arrowed), Kma; -‿na, a. less by five.

See my note on the Five arrows of Kāma deva


-- m. N.


पञ्जर panjara [ paga-ra ]
-- n. cage (also fig. of anything that confines); grated enclosure, net (pl.); skeleton; body: -ka, n. (?) cage; -kesarin, m. caged lion; -klana-nyya, m. principle of eleven birds combined though differing in their individual action setting a cage in motion; -bhg, a. caged; -stha, a. id.


पञ्जिका panjika  [ pag-ik ]
-- f. commentary explaining and analysing every word.

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[PAT] I. P.
-- pata , split, slit, open (int.); tear along, flow rapidly, ...




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पट pata [ pata ]
-- m. woven stuff, (piece of) cloth; garment; veil, screen; canvas (for writing or painting on); picture (--).

Note on deeper meaning: Though Macdonell has not mentioned 'net' in these entries, consider 'net' as 'woven stuff' which is cast over a flock of birds to catch them. Casting a net in a body of water to catch fish. -- UKT120623


पटच्चर pataccara [ patak-kara ]
-- m. thief, robber; n. (?) worn-out garment, rag.


पटभाक्ष patabhaksa [ pata-bhksha ]
-- m. spying instrument; -mandapa, m. tent; -maya, n. (made of canvas), tent.


पटल patala [ pata-la ]
-- n.(?) roof (also , f.); n. cover, veil; basket, hive; m. n. strip; section (of a book); n. (also , f.) heap, multitude; m. diseased membrane on the eye, cataract: -ka, m. n. cover; casket.


पटवास patavasa [ pata-vsa ]
-- m. scented powder; -vesman, n. tent.


पटह pataha [ pata-ha ]
-- m. (n.) [striking or sounding on a membrane], drum, kettle-drum, tabor: -m bhramaya, d, or dpaya, proclaim by beat of drum; -ghoshaka, m. one who proclaims publicly by beat of drum; -ghosha- n, f. public proclamation by beat of drum: -m d or bhramaya, proclaim by beat of drum; -t, f. condition or function of a drum; -pra‿udghoshana, n., -bhramana, n. id.


पटान्त patanta [ pata‿anta ]
-- m. hem of a garment.


पटि pati [ pat-i ]
-- f. kind of cloth; -ik, f. woven stuff.


पटी pati [ pat- ]
-- f. strip of cloth; stage curtain: -kshepa, m. drawing aside the curtain (on the stage): e-na pra-vis, enter the stage hurriedly.


पटीयस् patiyas [ pat-yas ]
-- cpv. very skilful in (--); well suited for (lc. or --).
( end of p150c1 )

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पटीर patira [ pat-ra ]
-- m. sandal-tree; sieve.


पटु patu [ pat-u ]
-- a. sharp; dazzling; shrill, clear (sound); acute; clever, dexterous, skilful; skilled in, fitted for (lc.); intense, fierce, violent; -karan a, a. having sound organs; -t, f., -tva, n. keenness (of sight); cleverness, dexterity, skill; craft; -mati, a. of keen intellect.


पटोल patola [ patola ]
-- n. kind of cucumber (Trichosanthes dioeca); m. the plant.

See my note on Trichosanthes dioeca -
UKT: The nearest I can find is {p:ling:mrw} , Trichosanthes anguina


पट्ट patta [ patta ]
-- m. [pattra] tablet, plate (for writ ing or painting on); strip of cloth, bandage; frontlet, diadem; cloth; -ka, m. board; plate (for inscription); bandage; n. document (in scribed on a plate); -karma-kara, m. weaver; -karman, n. weaving; -ga, n. kind of cloth; -dev, f. princess adorned with a diadem; chief consort of a prince.


पट्टन pattana [ pattana ]
-- n. town.

पट्टनिवसन pattanivasana [ patta-nivasana ]
-- m. townsman.


पट्टव pattava [ patta-va ]
-- kind of cloth.

पट्टवस्त्र pattavastra [ patta-vastra ]
-- n. cloth garment; -sl, f. tent; -‿amsuka, n. kind of garment (Pr.).


पट्टाय pattaya [ patt-ya ]
-- den. . resemble a tablet of (--).


पट्््टिका pattika  [ patt-ik ]
-- f. plate, tablet; bandage, strip of cloth.

पट्टिश pattisa [ pattisa ]
-- m. sharp-edged spear; weapon with three points.


पट्टोपाध्याय pattopadhyaya  [ patta‿updhyya ]
-- m. engraver of documents (grants etc.).

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{pht} पठ्


पठ् [PATH] I.P. (E. also )
-- patha , recite aloud; repeat to oneself, study, read; propound, mention, or quote (in a book), designate as, declare to be (ac.); cs. ...



पठन pathana [ path-ana ]
-- n. reciting; studying, reading; mentioning; -anya, fp. to be read.

पठितसिद्ध pathitasiddha [ pathita-siddha ]
-- pp. taking effect as soon as repeated.

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See my note on the p-nasals of BEPS


[PAN] I. (P.) .
-- pna [par-na, IX. from √pri], buy; bargain; ...



पण pana [ pan-a ]
-- m. play for a stake (g., lc., --); bargain, stipulation, compact; stake; wage; a coin of a certain weight: -m kri, bet; e ni‿as, stake; -kla, m. time for play; -kri y, f. staking; wager for (--): -m kri, stake in play; -bandha, m. conclusion of a compact, contract: -na, n. id.


-- m. seller

पणव panava [ panava ]
-- m. kind of drum.


पणस्त्री panastri [ pana-str ]
-- f. venal woman, prostitute.

पणाय panaya [ pan-ya ]
-- den. sell.


पणि pani [ pan- ]
-- m. [bargainer], niggard, miser: said esp. of those who are stingy at the sacrifice and of unbelievers who keep their property to themselves (V.); also designation of certain malevolent demons, guardians of treasure, overcome by the gods and the Aṅgirases (V., P.); thief, -in the guise of a Purohita (P.).


पणित panita [ pan-ita ]
-- (pp.) n. wager, for (lc.); stake at play or in a wager.

-- m. trader.
( end p150c2 )

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पण्ड panda [ panda ]
-- m. eunuch, impotent man: -ka, m. id.


पण्डित pandita [ pandit ]
-- a. learned; wise, shrewd; skilled in (--); m. scholar, learned or wise man, Pandit: -t, f., -tva, n. wisdom; skill in (--); -buddhi, a. philosophic-minded; -mnika, -mnin, -m-manya, a. considering oneself wise; -sabh, f. assembly of Pandits.


पण्य panya [ 1. pan-ya ]
-- fp. to be praised: -t, f. praiseworthiness.


पण्य panya [ 2. pn-ya ]
-- fp. to be bought; purchasable; venal; n. article of merchandise, ware; trade; shop; -gana, m. trader; -ds, f. hired servant; -yoshit, f. venal woman, prostitute; -vat, a. abounding in merchandise; -vils in, f. prostitute; -vthik, -vth, f. market; shop; -str, f. venal woman, prostitute; -‿aṅgan, f. id.

UKT: p150c3-b04 moved to the next file.


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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.


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The Five arrows of Kāma deva

Excerpts from: Krishna's flute, kama-bija and Kamadeva's five arrows
-- http://jagadanandadas.blogspot.ca/2011/07/krishnas-flute-kama-bija-and-kamadevas.html 120623

The next section of SKK is the Vaṁśī-khaṇḍa; it is the second to last in the book, comparatively long with a total of 42 songs. It does not appear that any pages (169-189) from this section were lost. The plot is not particularly complex, but stands out for having some of the most powerful songs in the entire work.

UKT insert:
Shreekrishna Kirtana Kabya
(Bengali: শ্রীকৃষ্ণকীর্তন কাব্য) or Sri Krishna Kirtana Kabya is a pastoral Vaishnava drama in verse composed by Boru Chandidas. It is considered to be the most significant work after Charyapada in the history of Bengali literature. These verses are believed to be written in the pre-Chaitanya era of the later half of 14th century CE. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shreekrishna_Kirtana 120623

The principal subject of the chapter is the effect of Krishnas flute on Radha and it ends with her theft of the flute, with the attendant consequences.

... ... ...

The two syllables, om and klīṁ are equated in the Gopāla-tāpinī Upaniṣad (klīm oṁkārasyaikyatvaṁ paṭhyate brahma-vādibhiḥ GTU 2.57) where the mantra is broken down to equate it with the universal creation. Other interpretations of the distinctively named kāma-bīja, such as this from the Gautamīya-tantra, however, draw a more explicit connection to śṛṅgāra-rasa.

ka-kāraḥ puruṣaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ |
ī-kāraḥ prakṛtī rādhā nitya-vṛndāvaneśvarī ||
laś cānandātmakaṁ prema-sukhaṁ ca parikīrtitam |
cumbanāśleṣa-mādhuryaṁ bindu-nāda-samīritam ||

The letter k is the Supreme Purusha, who has a form of being, consciousness and joy;
the vowel ī represents Radha, who is the Supreme Prakriti, the eternal mistress of Vrindavan.
The letter l is their joyful union in love;
the bindu-nāda represent the sweetness of their kisses and embracing.

The equation of the flute sound to the kāma-bīja conjures up thought of the relationship of Krishna to Kama, which has been visited on these pages before, though it is a subject which is by no means exhausted. But even in the verses related to the flute, one characteristic of Kamadeva's five arrows can be seen.

Kamadeva has five arrows which are sometimes associated with five flowers (puṣpa-bāṇa), but are also associated with five effects that desire has on one afflicted by it. It is hard to find a consistent set of such characteristics. In Prabodhananda's commentary to Gīta-govinda, he gives the following verse:

sammohanaḥ kṣobhanaś ca dahanaḥ śoṣaṇas tathā |
uccāṭanaś ca kāmasya bāṇāḥ paca prakīrtitāḥ ||

Kamadeva's five arrows are said to be
fascination, disturbance, burning, dessication and destruction.

Amara gives the following set of five:

unmādanas tāpanaś ca śoṣaṇaḥ stambhanas tathā |
saṁmohanaś ca kāmasya paca bāṇāḥ prakīrtitāḥ ||

Intoxication, inflicting of heat or pain, dessication, immobilization and bewilderment.

... ... ...

Go back Five-arrows-note-b

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The p-nasals of BEPS

-- by UKT120623

There are 3 nasals with {pa.}-onset unknown or not well known to most Europeans: the velar {ping}, the palatal {pi} and the retroflex {pN}. Each of the nasal can have (at least theoretically) 3 pitch-registers in Bur-Myan, which gives a theoretical 9 sounds.

The onset {pa.} itself is a tenuis consonant which is not well known in English: English being more used to the 'aspirated' voiceless {hpa.}. The tenuis {pa.} is realized in English only when preceded by the highly fricative dental-sibilant {Sa.} which is unknown in Bur-Myan.

In order to handle all the four BEPS languages, Romabama has to introduce: a velar {S~ping}, a palatal {S~pi}, and a retroflex {S~piN} .

In addition to the above, there is one which does not seem to have any definite POA (Place of Articulation): {pn} (medial) and its creak {pn.}. There is no emphatic for this sound.

Last but not the least important are the palatals with codas very peculiar to Bur-Myan: {p.}, {p}, {p:}.

The following is a summary for transcription of Eng-Lat and Skt-Dev into Bur-Myan. I have included Skt-Dev graphemes after the medial pitch-register to mitigate the Two-three tone problem.

Go back p-nasals-note-b

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Trichosanthes dioeca

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichosanthes_dioica 120623
UKT: No illustration in Wiki.

Trichosanthes dioica is also known as the pointed gourd, parwal/parval (from Hindi), or potol (from Assamese, Oriya or Bengali (পটল) pţol) and "Paror" in Maithili. Colloquially, in India, it is often called green potato. It is widely cultivated in the eastern part of India, particularly in Orissa, Bengal, Assam, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh. It is a good source of carbohydrates, vitamin A, and vitamin C. It also contains major nutrients and trace elements (magnesium, potassium, copper, sulfur, and chlorine) which are needed in small quantities, for playing essential roles in human physiology.

It is a vine plant, similar to cucumber and squash, though unlike those it is perennial. It is a dioecious (male and female plants) vine (creeper) plant with heart-shaped leaves (cordate) and is grown on a trellis. The fruits are green with white or no stripes. Size can vary from small and round to thick and long 2 to 6 inches (5 to 15 cm). It thrives well under a hot to moderately warm and humid climate. The plant remains dormant during the winter season and prefers a fertile, well-drained sandy loam soil due to its susceptibility to water-logging.

It is used as ingredients of soup, stew, curry, sweet, or eaten fried and as potoler dorma or dolma (dolma) with fish, roe or meat stuffing.

UKT: The nearest I can find in Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65 is:
   #37-0963, {p:ling:mrw} , Snake gourd, Trichosanthers anguina  , fam. Cucurbitaceae
The Index gives altogether five Trichosanthes species:
   Trichosanthes anguina -- Cucurbitaceae -- {p:ling:mrw} 37-0963
   Trichosanthes cordata -- Cucurbitaceae -- {kyi:a-kri:} 06-0143
   Trichosanthes cucumerina -- Cucurbitaceae -- {pon-lon} 39-1030
   Trichosanthes cucumerina -- Cucurbitaceae -- {tha.pwut-hka:} {tha.pwut} 58-1536
   Trichosanthes palmata -- Cucurbitaceae -- {kyi:a} 06-0142
Language-wise, T. anguina and T. cucumerina are considered synonymous, and when a curry is made to be offered to the Myan-Buddhist monks, we have to say it is {pon-lon} because the monks are forbidden by their monastic rules to eat 'snake'.
   In our family we usually eat a curry made of {p:ling:mrw} stuffed either with chopped pork or shrimp, and cooked rice. -- UKT120623

Go back T-dioeca-note-b

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