Update: 2014-10-09 04:53 AM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

MC-indx.htm | Top

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{pak~Sa.} --> Pal: {pak~hka.}
{pa.nga.} : in {king:si:} form
{pa.a.} / {pi}

पङ्कपूर pankapura [ paṅka-pra ]
-- m. great quantity of mud, deep mud.


UKT notes :
Ashin Angulimala to the rescue
Mystery of Sri Ksetra aka Prome
Palatal and dental consonants with fricative character in BEPS

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See my note on the Mystery of Sri Ksetra aka Prome

{pak~Sa.} --> Pal: {pak~hka.}


पक्ष paksa [ paksh ] 
=  प क ् ष --> {pak~Sa.} --> Pal: {pak~hka.}
- m. (n. ) wing, pinion; feathers of an arrow; flank, side; half; half-month, fortnight (15 days); side, party, following, ally, partisans, family, race (sg. & pl.); host, troop, class; quantity (of hair); place; alternative; case; (p148c3-end-p149c1-begin)  opinion, proposition; prosecution (leg.); subject of an inference (logic); topic, subject under discussion: pakshe, in the other case; with regard to (--); atra --, in this case; tbhym mukte --, in a case other than these two.


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पक्षक paksaka  [ paksha-ka ]
-- m. wing (--); side; -kshaya, m. end of a fortnight; -gama, a. moving with wings, flying; -grahana, n. taking the side of (g.); -kara, m. elephant parted from the herd; -kkhid, a. having clipped the wings of the mountains, ep. of Indra; -t, f. alliance; being the subject of an inference.


पक्षति paksati  [ paksha-t ]
-- f. root of a wing; plumage.


पक्षत्व paksatva  [ paksha-tva ]
-- n. being a component part of (--); being the subject of a conclusion; prosecution; -dvra, n. side-door; -dhara, a. taking the side of (g.); attached to (lc.); m. bird; -pta, m. flight; partisanship, partiality, predilection for (ac.prati, g., lc., --); -pti-t, f. partiality or predilection for (lc. or --); -ptin, a. siding with, partial to (--); -puta, m. outspread wing; wing; -bala, n. strength of wing; -rakan, f. formation of a party; ()-vat, a. winged; having a large following; -vikala, a. paralyzed in the wings.


पक्षान्त paksanta [ paksha‿anta ]
-- m. end or last day of a fortnight; -‿antara, n. a particular case (lc. =supposing, if); another opinion; -‿bhsa, n. mock prosecution: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -‿ash- tam, f. eighth day in a fortnight; -‿hati, f. stroke with the wing.


पक्षित्व paksitva [ pakshi-tva ]
-- n. condition of a bird.


पक्षिन् paksin [ paksh-n ]
-- a. winged; on the side of, belonging to the party of (--); m. bird; winged creature; (n)-, f. hen-bird; night with the two contiguous days (sc. rtri).


पक्षिमृगता paksimrgata [ pakshi-mriga-t ]
-- f. condition of bird or beast; -rg, m., -rga, m. king of birds; -rgya, n. sovereignty of the feathered tribes; ep. of Garuda; -svaka, m. young of a bird, birdling; -svmin, m. ep. of Garuda.


-- make oneself master of Garuda .


पक्षीन्द्र paksindra [ pakshi‿indra ]
-- m. chief of birds, ep. of Garuda.


पक्षीय paksiya [ paksh-ya ]
-- a. siding with (--).


पक्ष्मन् paksman [ pksh-man ]
-- n. sg. & pl. eyelashes; pile (of deer); petal.


पक्ष्मपात paksmapata [ pakshma-pta ]
-- m. closure of the eyes.


पक्ष्मल paksmala [ pakshma-la ]
-- a. having long or fine eyelashes; long-haired; hairy, furry; downy: -dris, a. f. having eyes with beautiful lashes.

पक्ष्य paksya [ paksh-y ]
-- a. siding with (--).

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{pa.nga.} : in {king:si:} form

See my note on Ashin Angulimala to the rescue
in solving the mystery of missing ङ nga



पङ्क panka [ pṅka ]
= प ङ ् क
-- m. or n. (?) mud, mire, slough, quagmire, dirt, clay; --, ointment; -kkhid, m. a plant (with the fruit of which turbid water is clarified).


पङ्कज pankaja [ paṅka-ga ]
-- n. flower of the day lotus ( Nelumbium speciosum ) which closes in the evening: -nbha, a. having a lotus in his navel (Vishnu), -netra, a. lotus-eyed, -mlin, a. adorned with a wreath of lotuses, epithet of Vishnu; -‿aksh, f. lotus-eyed woman; -‿aṅghri, a. whose feet are adorned with lotuses (Vishnu).


पङ्कजिन् pankajin [ paṅkag-in ]
-- a. furnished with a lotus: -, f. lotus; lotus group.


पङ्कता pankata [ paṅka-t ]
-- f. condition of mud; -magna, pp. sunk in the mire.


पङ्कय pankaya [ paṅka-ya ]
-- den. P. besmear. ( end p149c1 )

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पङ्करुहिणी pankaruhini [ paṅka-ruhin ]
-- f. lotus; --group; -lagna, pp. stuck in a bog; -vat, a. muddy, miry; -vartman, n. miry road.


पङ्किल pankila [ paṅk-ila ]
-- a. miry, dirty, bedaubed with (in.): -bhava, a. growing in swampy soil.


पङ्केरुह् pankeruh [ paṅke-ruh ]
-- n. flower of the day lotus: -a, n., -in, f. id.


पङ्क्ति pankti [ paṅk-t ]
-- f. set of five (penta/s), series of fives; a metre: 5 X 8, later 4 X 10 syllables; the number ten; line, row; multitude; company, society; -krama, m. succession: in. in a row; -pvana, a. purifying a society; -ratha, m. N.=Dasa-ratha.


पङ्क्तिशस् panktisas [ paṅkti-sas ]
-- ad. in rows.

पङ्क्ती pankti [ paṅkt ]
-- f. metrical for paṅkti.


पङ्गु pangu [ paṅg-u ]
-- a. (v-) lame: -ka, a. id.; -t, f., -tva, n., -bhva, m. lameness.

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See my note on Palatal and dental consonants with fricative character in BEPS


-- pka , cook, bake, boil, roast; . cook for oneself; burn, bake (gricks, etc.); digest; ripen, mature (tr.); ...





पच paca [ paka ]
-- a. cooking, baking (--).

पचन pacana [ pk-ana ]
-- a. id. (--); n. cooking utensil: -kriy, f. cooking.


पचेलिम pacelima [ pak-elima ]
-- a. being quickly cooked, maturing rapidly.

पच्छस् pacchas [ pak-khs ]
-- ad. [pad-sas] by pdas; - khauka, n. [pad-sauka] cleansing of the feet.

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[PAG], [PAG]
-- fasten, enclose

पज्र pajra [ pag-r ]
= प ज ् र
-- a. stout, portly.

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{pa.a.} / {pi}

In Bur-Myan, there's a word with a similar (or same) pronunciation to Pal-Myan {pi} (refer to the pronunciation of {pi~a} 'education' -- MED2006-249. {pi~a} is usually written in the horizontal conjunct-form as {pi~a}. )
  The Bur-Myan word I am referring to is {pyi} 'timber, or plank' -- MED2006-284
   MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) transcription given in MED2006 for both the words are the same: /pjin/. [Note: MLC /j/ is the same as IPA /j/] -- UKT120623


-- spread out, manifest


-- - = pakan


पञ्चक pancaka [ paka-ka ]
= प ञ ् च क
-- a. consisting of five; five days old; with sata, n. five per cent; n. the number five (penta/s); (pka)-kapla, a. () distributed in five dishes; -kritvas, ad. five times; -gavya, n. sg. & pl. five products of the cow (milk, curds, butter, urine, dung); -guna, a. five times greater than (ab.); -grm, f. group of five villages; -katvr imsat, f. forty-five; -kandra, m. N.; -kda, a. having five tufts of hair; -gan, m. pl. the five races or kinds: gods, men, Gandharvas and Apsarases, serpents, and Manes; sg. man: -ya, a. sacred to the five races; -tantra: -ka, n. T. of a collection of fables in five books; -tapas, a. (ascetic) exposing himself to five fires (one at each cardinal point, with the sun above); -taya, a. () fivefold; -t, f. fivefold amount; dissolution of the body into the five elements, death; -trth, f. the five sacred bathing-places; N. of a Trtha; -trimsat: -, f. thirty-five; -tva, n. fiveness; the five elements, earth, water, five, air, and ether; dissolution into the five elements, death: -m gam, die; -das, a. () fifteenth; consisting of fifteen; increased by fifteen; , f. fifteenth day in a half-month; -dasan, a. pl. fifteen; -dasa-vrshika, a. fifteen years old; -dasa‿aha, m. period of fifteen days: i-ka, a. lasting fifteen days; -dh&asharp;, ad. in five parts, fivefold; -dhtu, n. sg. the five elements.

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पञ्चन् pancan [ pk-an (or -n) ]
-- a. pl. five; T. of the 14th Lambaka in the Kathsaritsgara.


पञ्चनख pancanakha [ paka-nakha ]
-- a. having five claws; m. beast with five claws; -nada, n. land of the five rivers, Panjb; m. pl. inhabitants of the Panjb; sg. N. of a river; -pad, a. f. having (taken) five steps; f. five steps; the five strong cases; -na dyate, does not accompany him even five steps; -pala, a. weighing five palas: , f. weight of five palas; -purnya, a. worth five purnas (a coin); -pushpa maya, a. () consisting of five flowers; -phut- tika, a. weaving five phuttikas in a day; m. N.; -bandha, m. fifth part of the value of a thing; -bna, m. the five-arrowed god, Kma; -bindu-prasrita, n. kind of figure in dancing.


पञ्चम pancama [ paka-m ]
-- a. (&isharp;) fifth; with amsa, m. a fifth part: -m, ad. for the fifth time; fifthly; m. fifth (later seventh) note of the Indian scale; a musical mode; fifth consonant of a class, nasal; , f. fifth day in a fortnight; terminations of the fifth case, word in the ablative; terminations of the imperative.


पञ्चमय pancamaya [ paka-maya ]
-- a. () consisting of five (elements); -mshaka (or ika), a. consisting of or amounting to five mshas; -msya, a. needing five months for its development (seed); -mukha, a. five-faced; having five points (arrow); -mla, m. N. of an attendant on Durg; -yma, a. having five courses; -yogan, f. distance of five yoganas; -rtra, n. period of five days; a. () lasting five days; n. general designation of the sacred book of Vishnuite sects: -ka, a. lasting five days; -lakshana, a. having five characteristics; -lambaka, m. T. of the 14th Lambaka in the Kathsaritsgara; -vata, m. N.; N. of a locality: , f. id.; -varga, m. group or series of five; -varna, a. five-coloured; of five kinds; -varsha: -ka, -varshya, a. five years old; -vrshika, a. recurring every five years; -vims, a. () twenty-fifth; consisting of or containing twenty-five; -vimsati, f. twenty-five: -tama, a. twenty-fifth; -vidha, a. fivefold; -vrit, ad. five times; -sata, n. pl. five hundred; consisting of five hundred panas (fine); paying a fine of five hundred (panas); five-hundredth: e kle, in the 500th year; n. 105; 500; , f. 500; -sara, m. (five-arrowed), Kma; -sikha, a. wearing five top-knots (ascetic); m. N. of an attendant of Siva; -srsha, a. five-headed.


पञ्चष pancasa [ paka-sha ]
-- a. five or six; -sattra, N. of a locality; -sahasr, f. 5000; -skand, f. sg. pl. the five Skandas of the Buddhists; -hasta, N. of a locality; -hyana, a. five years old.


पञ्चाक्षर pancaksara [ pka‿akshara ]
-- a. pentasyllabic; -‿khyna: -ka, n.=paka-tantra; -‿agni, a. maintaining the five sacred fires; allowing oneself to be scorched by five fires (four kindled towards the quarters, and the sun): -tva, n. aggregate of five fires (i. e. passions); -‿aṅga, n. five limbs, members, or parts (--); a. () consisting of five limbs or parts; -‿t maka, a. consisting of the five elements: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -‿nana, m. (five-faced, terrible), lion: , f. ep. of Durg; -‿apsaras: -a, n. N. of a lake; -‿abda‿khya, a. lasting for five years; (pka)-‿ara, a. five-spoked.


पञ्चाल pancala [ pakl ]
-- m. pl. N. of a people and of a dynasty; , f. doll.


पञ्चावयव pancavayava [ paka‿avayava ]
--a. five-limbed.


पञ्चाश pancasa [ pak-sa ]
-- a. fiftieth: -ka, a. pl. 50; i-k, f. collection of 50; -sak-khas, ad. by fifties.


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UKT notes

Ashin Angulimala to the rescue
in solving the mystery of missing ङ
- Devanagari akshara nga

-- UKT120615 

{pa.nga.} by itself is absent in Sanskrit. Instead, we find the {king:si:} -- a special vertical conjunct literally meaning 'ridden by a centipede'. It's glyph is standing for {pa.} followed by {king:si:}. It is the sound of {ping} /pɪŋ/ the modal, and may be pronounced with emphasis as {ping:} the emphatic. The Sanskrit speakers (IE linguistic group) have difficulty pronouncing the nasals {nga.} ङ /ŋa/, and {a.} ञ /ɲ/. [the scripts are: Myanmar, Romabama, Devanagari, IPA. ] We find the same to be with another IE-speakers the so-called "English-native" speakers.

Sanskrit speakers had gradually substituted the {king:si:} sound with the {::ting} 'small dot above' sound, so for example, {n~gu.li.ma-la.} has become {n-gu.li.ma-la.}.

The question now is which pronunciation is correct? If the famous Buddhist monk was a Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speaker his name would be {n~gu.li.ma-la.} [starting sound: अङ् /ɪŋ/ ], close to how we say in Myanmarland where we speak Tib-Bur languages: elsewhere it doesn't matter to Bur-Myan speakers. How would Gautama Buddha call him? Because, it is usual for kings and nobility, the class or caste from which the Buddha came, to speak to the non-Brahmins, in particular to the commoners most of whom are Sudras, to use the Prakrit Magadhi of north-eastern India, the Buddha would address him as {n~gu.li.ma-la.}.

Go back Angulimala-to-rescue-note-b

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The Mystery of Sri Ksetra aka Prome

-- UKT120616

I always had difficulty in remembering the English rendition 'Sri Ksetra' of the Bur-Myan name {a.r-hkt~ta.ra} aka {pr}. What is this <ks> I had wondered. Now the mystery is solved.

Refer to Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Ksetra_Kingdom 120616

After {pa.ka.}, I was expecting to see {pa.hka.}, instead I found only {pak~Sa.}. From the meanings of the entries I soon realized that it is a substitute for Pal-Myan {pak~hka.}. The reason: Sanskrit speakers being of the IE (Indo-European) linguistic group could not and still cannot articulate Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) sounds. So they had to substitute {pak~Sa.} (with a highly fricative-hissing sound) for Pali {pak~hka.} (non-fricative non-hissing). From this observation I have concluded that "Pali" or Magadhi spoken by the Buddha to be a Tib-Bur language just like Bur-Myan. Of course the modern International Pali, derived from SriLanka thanks to the IE phonologists has become an IE. It was not the original language spoken by the Buddha.

Go back mystery-ks-note-b

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Palatal and dental consonants
with fricative character in BEPS

To solve the need to differentiate the palatal plosive-stop and the dental fricative-sibilant in BEPS, Romabama has adopted the following method.
   They are written as {sa.} च, and {Sa.} ष respectively. However under {a.t} virama, the first becomes {c} च् and the other {S} ष्.
   I have given the Devanagari forms to clarify the matter further.
   Bur-Myan allows only the tenuis consonants and the nasal consonants be killed: {pic} & {pi}. From this we infer the pronunciation of {piz}. However, it came as a surprise to me to realized that {a.} has only a little or no nasal character because of the pronunciations {p:} arch. 'many, plenty' (MED2006-272) and {pr} 'country' (MED2006-289).
   The final form of graphemes with killed palatal plosive-stop and killed dental fricative-nasal are:
{pic} - vowel sound totally checked and stops.
{piS} - vowel sound partially checked and ends with a hissing sound.
-- UKT120615

Go back Pala-dent-conson-note-b

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End of TIL file