Update: 2012-06-22 08:52 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{nu.da.} --> {noad}

UKT notes :
Mid-vowels in Bur-Myan : a divergence from both Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev
Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan

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नीली nili [ nl- ]
-- f. indigo: -bhnda, n. vessel with indigo; -rasa, m. fluid indigo; -var- na, a. indigo-coloured.


नीलोत्पल nilotpala  [ nla‿utpala ]
-- n. blue lotus (Nymphaea cyanea): -maya, a. consisting of blue lotuses; ‿upala, m. sapphire.

See my note on Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan


-- m. a tree

नीवार nivara  [ nvra ]
-- m. wild rice; sg. the plant, pl. the grain: -kana, m. grain of rice.

नीवि nivi [ nv ]
-- f. (also ) apron, waist-cloth, esp. one worn by women; hostage; , f. capital (money).


नीहार nihara  [ nhr ]
-- m. mist (sts. pl.); -kara, m. moon; -maya , a. consisting of mist.

-- turn into mist.

नीळ [nl] - [UKT: Skt-Dev rendition is mine]
-- V. = nd .

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{na.} /na/ (front open, spread), {ni.} /ni/ (front close, spread),
{nu.} /nu/ (back close, round), {nau:} /nɑ/ (back open, round)


नु n, नू nu nu, nu [ n&usharp; ]
-- indecl. now, still; even, already; then, therefore (concluding or exhorting); never (V.); indeed, just, certainly; with inter. pray: in double questions the second nu is sts. replaced by svid or yadi v; nu nu, either--or; n&usharp; kid, henceforth, for ever; forthwith; nevermore.


[1. NU] II. P.
-- nauti (only with pra ); I. P. . nva (V.), VI. P. nuv , (V.) roar, shout; exult; praise (ac.); pp. nuta , praised. abhi , about to (ac.). , sound; cry. pra ( -nauti , -nava ), roar, shout; mutter the syllable om. vi , praise. sam , roar or shout together.


[2. NU] I. .
-- nva (RV.) II. P. (with apa ) -nauti (S.); cs. P. nvaya , remove. ati , cs. P. avert, apa , lay aside. vi , . turn (int.) in different directions.


[nuta-mitra ]
-- m. N.

नुति nuti [ nu-ti ]
-- f. praise.

नुत्ति nutti [ nut-ti ]
-- f. expulsion, removal.

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{nu.da.} --> {noad}

When {nu.} is checked by the killed-{da.}, we get {noad}. However, if we restrict ourselves to simple transliteration we get nud, and we mispronounce it as {nd}. The sound {nd} is no stranger to the World at large: it is the very-voiced form of the familiar Bur-Myan Nat {nt} 'spirit'. For articles on Nat-worship in Myanmar see online in http://www.tuninst.net/Myanmar/index_myanmar.htm#Cont-this-pg 120611
Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism - indx-folk.htm
- by Maung Htin Aung (Dr.) with notes added by U Kyaw Tun
Nat Worship - indx-natworship.htm
- by U Kyaw Tun, a collection from various sources


नुद् [NUD] VI. = न ु द ्
-- nud , push, thrust; drive on, impel, propel; drive away; dispel, remove; pp nutt , nunn , pushed away; incited, urged on; divorced (wife); cs. P. ...






-- dispelling, removing (-)


नूतन nutana [ n&usharp;-tana ]
-- a. new; young; fresh; youthful (age); recent; present; novel, strange; -tna, a. id.; future.


नूनम् nunam  [ n-n-m ]
-- ad. now, just, at present; forthwith; henceforth; then, therefore (V.); most probably, assuredly, certainly.

नूपुर nupura [ npura ]
-- m. n. anklet (esp. of women); -vat, a. provided with an anklet.

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-- man; masculine (gr.): pl. men, people, mankind

नृकलेवर nrkalevara [ nri-kalevara ]
-- n.(?) human body or corpse; -kukkura, m. dog of a man; -k kshas, a. observing men.


[NRIT], IV. P.
-- nrtya , dance; act, play (tr. & int.) on the stage; cs. nart-ya , cause to dance or move about, induce to caper (peacocks): pp nartita ; intv. na- ( end p147c1-b12 ) ( p147c2-top )
rnarti , P. ...




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नृता nrta  [ nri-t ]
-- f. male sex, manhood.

नृति nrti  [ nrit- ]
-- f. dance; gracefulness.


नृतु nrtu  [ nrit- ]
-- a. lively, active.

नृतू nrtu  [ nrit-&usharp; ]
-- m. dancer, actor.


नृत्त nrtta  [ nrit-t ]
-- (pp.) n. dance: -maya, a. () consisting of dancing.

नृत्य nrtya  [ nrit-ya ]
-- n. dance; mimicry, pantomime.


नृदुर्ग nrdurga  [ nri-durga ]
-- a. inaccessible, i. e. well fortified, by men; n. well-garrisoned place; -deva, m. prince, king: , f. queen.

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नृप nrpa  [ nri-pa ]
-- m. (guardian of men), prince, king: -krya, n. business of a king; -kriy, f. rule, dominion; -griha, n. palace; -gana, m. sg. (coll.) the princes.


नृपति nrpati  [ nri-pti ]
-- m. prince, king, ruler: -kanyak, f. princess, -patha, m. king's road, highway, -ssana, n. decree of the king.


नृपत्व nrpatva  [ nripa-tva ]
-- n. sovereignty; -dpa, m. prince like a lamp; -nti, f. kingcraft; -mandira, n. palace; -liṅga, n. royal emblem.

नृपशु nrpasu  [ nri-pasu ]
-- m. beast of a man.


नृपवल्लभ nrpavallabha  [ nripa-vallabha ]
-- m. royal favourite; -sreshtha, spv. best of kings; -suta, m. prince: , f. princess; -snush, f. king's daughter-in-law.


नृपाङ्गण nrpangana  [ nripa‿aṅgana ]
-- n. royal court; ‿aṅ gana, n. id.: , f. princess, queen; ‿tmaga, m. prince: , f. princess; ‿aryaman, m. sun among princes.


नृपाल nrpala  [ nri-pla ]
-- m. prince, king.

नृपालय nrpalaya  [ nripa‿laya ]
-- m. palace; ‿sana, n. throne; ‿spada, n. palace; ‿ikkh, f. royal pleasure.


नृप्रजा nrpraja  [ nri-prag ]
-- f. pl. children of men; -mmsa, n. human flesh.

नृम्ण nrmna [ nri-mn ]
-- n. manliness, courage; strength, ability.


नृयज्ञ nryajna [ nri-yaga ]
-- m. sacrifice to men, i.e. hospitality; -loka, m. world of men, earth; -vt, a. manly; belonging to or consisting of men; -vara, m. best of men, prince, king; -samsa, a. injurious to mankind, noxious, malicious, base: -t, f. mischievousness, baseness; -samsita, n. malignity, baseness; -shd, a. sitting among men; -simha, m. man-lion, great hero; half man half lion, the fourth Avatr of Vishnu; N.: -ka, m. man-lion, Vishnu; -soma, m. moon among men, i. e. distinguished man; -hari, m. man-lion, the fourth Avatr of Vishnu.

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See my note on Mid-vowels in Bur-Myan:
a divergence from both Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev.


नेजक nejaka [ neg-aka ]
-- m. washerman; -ana, n. washing.


नेतव्य netavya [ ne-tavya ]
-- fp. to be led; -taken or conveyed, to (ac.); to be employed; -investigated.


-- m. 1. nm., 3 sg. ft. he will lead; 2. ( -tri ) leader, guide (of, g. or -); inflicter of punishment ( dandasya ); leading character, hero in a drama; -mat , a. containing the word 'netri.'

UKT: The following is an orphan which obviously belongs to this section:

नेत्री netri [ ne-tr&isharp; ] f. (of netr) leader or guide of (g, --ree;).


-- - a. leader, guide; n. guidance; eye; veil; cord which causes a churning-stick or top to revolve; root; -kosa , an apple of the eye; -kauthala , n. passionate longing ( end p147c2 ) ( p147c3-top )
of the eyes; -ga , a produced from the eyes; ...





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[NED] I. P.
-- nda , [go]. ati , overflow.

UKT: The above spelling, नेद् = न े द ् , must be compared to {hkt} 'age, period in time'.


नेद् ned [ na&halfacute;id ]
-- pcl. not (emphatic); that not, lest (ne), with sbj., impv., or pot.; nt t, but not, but by no means.


नेदिष्ठ nedistha [ nd-ishtha ]
-- spv. nearest, next; quite near: -m, ad. next; quite close; first; ab. from the nearest place; -yas, cpv. nearer; quite near: ac. ad.; (-yo) -marana, a. having death close at hand, moribund.


नेपथ्य nepathya [ ne-pathya ]
-- n. [suitable for acting: naya], ornament, attire; stage costume; tiring-room, space behind the scenes: lc. behind the scenes; -griha, n. tiring-room.


नेपाल nepala [ nepla ]
-- m. Nepal: pl. the Nepalese.


नेम nema [ nma ]
-- a. [na‿ima, not this, another], the one; many a one: repeated, the one - the other; --, half.


नेमि nemi [ nem- ]
-- f. [na-nam-, complete bend], felly of a wheel; rim, circumference; (i) ghosha, m., -dhvani, m. sound of wheels; -ninada, m. id.; -vritti, a. moving in the track of (g.).

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नेय neya [ ne-ya ]
-- fp. to be guided, led, or conducted, to (lc.); amenable; to be inflicted (punishment); to be brought or reduced to a condition (ac.); to be passed (time); to be guessed.


-- m. leading priest at the Soma sacrifice, who brings the sacrificer's wife and prepares the surd.


नेष्ट्रीय nestriya [ neshtr-ya ]
-- a. relating to the Neshtri.

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नैक naika [ na‿eka ]
-- a. more than one, many a: pl. various, many: -kara, a. gregarious (animal)


नैकटिक naikatika [ naikat-ika ]
-- a. neighbouring; -ya, n. nearness (cp. nikata).


नैकदुःखद naikaduhkhada [ na‿eka-duhkha-da ]
-- a. causing many sorrows; -bhva‿sraya, a. fickle, unsteady; -varna, a. many-coloured; -vikalpa, a. manifold; -vidha, a. id.; -sas, ad. repeatedly.


नैकृतिक naikrtika [ naikriti-ka ]
-- a. dishonest, deceitful; base (cp. nikriti).


नैगम naigama [ naigama ]
-- a. () relating to Vedic quotations (nigamas); Vedic; m. Vedic exegete; trader, merchant.

exegesis  n. plexegeses 1. Critical explanation or analysis, especially of a text. [Greek exēgēsis  from exēgeisthai  to interpret  ex- ex- hēgeisthai  to lead; See s āg- in Indo-European Roots.] -- AHTD


नैघण्टुक naighantuka [ naighantu-ka ]
-- a. incidentally mentioned; n. index of words, specifically the Vedic glossary.


नैतल naitala [ naitala ]
-- a. relating to the hell Nitala(?).

नैत्यक naityaka [ naitya-ka ]
-- a. to be performed regularly, obligatory (opp. naimittika); ika, a. id.


नैदाघ naidagha [ nadgha ]
-- a. () belonging to the hot season; m. summer.


नैद्र naidra [ naidra ]
-- a. () producing sleep.

नैधन naidhana [ naidhana ]
-- a. final; relating to death: perishable; funeral (fire); n. death.

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नैपुण naipuna [ naipuna ]
-- n. dexterity, skill; experience, in (g., --); completeness, totality of (g.); whole science of, strict adherence to (--): in. completely, exactly.

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UKT notes

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Mid-vowels in Bur-Myan :
a divergence from both Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev

-- UKT 120612

I have no idea how these mid-vowels are spelled in the most prominent of Bur-Myan dialects: the Rakhine {ra.hkein}, and Dawei {hta:w}. It is to be noted here that the older English rendition 'Tavoy' of the Bur-Myan {hta:w}, is very close to the Bur-Myan spelling if you note that English <t> is pronounced very close to {hta.}, <v> is the labio-dental substitute for {wa.}, and <y> shows the killed {ya.}. Of course 'Dawei' is closer to the local pronunciation.

Another place name involving a nasal ending is 'Prome' which had stood for {pr} . It is very easy to see that <pr> is {pra.}. However, it is the killed-{a.} that had baffled me until I realized that <m> was probably meant to show the {} which the English doesn't have. Moreover it is the 'magic-E' at the end of the word 'Prome' that had added the confusion.

The nasal vowel {n} is probably the easiest of all Bur-Myan vowels to pronounce by the non-natives. Since it is more close than open, I would say it is very close to the English pronunciation of <nay> /neɪ/ (DJPD16-361). Note the /e/ -- not /a/. The English <nay> is a diphthong, whereas the Burmese is a monophthong. I wait for input from my peers.

Go back Mid-vow-note-b

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Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan

UKT 120610

A woman is expected to sing in a nasal voice whereas a man in a deep throaty voice as per saying {main:ma. nha/ yauk-kya: aa//}. I expect a study of Bur-Myan nasals might throw light on the origin of the Bur-Myan language and point to origin of the ancient {mrn-ma} peoples. Did they come into the north of the country from the north-west or from the north-east?

If you compare the two words {ba.ma} and {mrn-ma}, there is a world of difference in the pronunciation. Though both {ba.} and {ma.} are labials, {ba.} is non-rhotic and non-nasal whereas {mrn} is definitely rhotic and nasal. Moreover the people of the land, particularly those of the Irrawaddy basin, themselves tend to drop the rhoticity in {mrn} and pronounce it almost as if / {myn}/, and the sound has become almost non-rhotic.

When the British colonialists came into contact with {mrn-ma} country, they being unused to nasals -- they have only two /n/ and /m/, whereas we have 5 -- took up the name as {ba.ma} and named the country "Burma" putting in a little bit of rhoticity /r/. Even if there were those who had tried to pronounce {myn}, it could not come out right because they tend to insert a schwa /ə/ into the {ya.ping.}-sound: {ma.yn} /mə.jʌn/ and they found that the coda /n/ is almost silent.

A description of colours of the rainbow in Bur-Myan would be of help in solving our problem. Here we find the <indigo> and <blue lotus>

{m:n} 'indigo' -- MED2006-345)
{kra-o} 'blue lotus' -- MED2006-037

Note the word {m:} alone can mean 'black' in which case, the spelling changes to {m:} with a nasal colouration. {m:} alone is non-nasal. A dark red colour is described as {ni-o} a compound of {ni} 'red' & {o} 'dark'.

Go back nasals-Bur-note-b

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