Update: 2012-07-19 03:32 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top

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{nir} : repha and more of {ni.ra.}
{ni.ru.} : {ni.roak~ta.} (no repha)


Macdonell has collected the compounds according to their headings. For those with many entries, he divides them into sub-groups to save space.
   See how I extract a particular entry -- tentatively marked -- from such a subgroup , e.g. [ -ukti ] from निरुक्त nirukta [ nir-ukta ] . I have to check the accuracy of picking -- based on meaning -- with the entry in Monier-Williams (p553 col3). Furthermore I use a reliable Skt dictionary to give me the Skt-Dev orthography. -- UKT120607

UKT notes :
Nighaṇṭu & Nirukta
Gautama Buddha: " anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanam pariyāpunitum

" "I permit you, O Monks, to learn the word of the Buddha in his own language."
Nirṛti & Nirṛta - goddess and god of death

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निरप nirapa [ nir-apa ]
-- a. waterless; -apatya, a. childless; -apatrapa, a. shameless; -apar dha, a. harmless, innocent; -apavda, a. blameless; subject to no exception; -apya, a. imperishable; unfailing; unharmed, safe; -apyin, a. imperishable; -apeksha, a. regardless of, indifferent to (lc. or --); caring ( end p141c3 )
( p142c1-top )
for nothing, indifferent to worldly objects; independent of (--): -m, ad. without having any regard, without troubling about a thing, -ka, a. independent, -t, f. regardlessness; indifference towards (lc.), -tva, n. indifference; independence; -apeksh, f. indifference towards (lc.); -apekshita, pp. disrearded; regardless of (--); indifferent towards (lc.); -apekshya, fp. not to be troubled about.

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निरभिप्राय nirabhipraya [ nir-abhi-prya ]
-- a. aimless; -bha va, a. not degrading or humiliating; -mna, a. free from pride; -lapya, a. unspeakable; -lsha, a. free from desire for, regardless of (--); -samdhin, a. disinterested.


निरभ्र nirabhra [ nir-abhra ]
-- a. cloudless; -amarsha, a. apathetic; -ambara, a. unclothed, naked.

निरय niraya [ nir-aya ]
-- m. (departure from life), hell.

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{nir} : repha


निरर्गल nirargala [ nir-argala ]
-- a. unchecked, undisturbed, free, irresistible.

निरर्थ nirartha [ nir-artha ]
a. useless; poor; unmeaning, senseless: -ka, a. failing of one's purpose, futile, unprofitable, useless; senseless, unmeaning: -m, ad. in vain; n. senseless objection; -ka-tva, n. futility; -t, f. senselessness.


निरवकाश niravakasa [ nir-avaksa ]
-- a. having no space; -place or scope; inopportune: -t, f. abst. ɴ.

-- remove from its place


निरवग्रह niravagraha [ nir-avagraha ]
-- a. unrestrained, uncontrolled, free, independent.

निरवद्य niravadya [ nir-avadya ]
-- fp. blameless.


निरवधि niravadhi [ nir-avadhi ]
a. boundless, unlimited; perpetual, endless: -ka, a. unlimited; -avayava, a. indivisible: -tva, n. -ness; -ava lamba, a. affording no support; unsupported, destitute of support; -avalambana, n. ownerless (wealth); not to be met with in any one; -avasesha, a. leaving no remnant; complete, whole: in., -tas, altogether, wholly; -ava sda, a. cheerful.


निरशन nirasana [ nir-asana ]
-- a. abstaining from food; -asva, a. horseless.

निरसन nirasana [ nir-asana ]
-- a. () casting out; n. driving away, expulsion; removal, abandonment, rejection: -ya, fp. to be expelled from (ab.); -asta, pp. of √as, throw; -astra, a. unarmed; -asya, fp. deserving expulsion.


निरहंकार nirahankara [ nir-aham-kra ]
-- a. free from egoism; -krin, a. free from consciousness of self; -krita, pp. impersonal; unselfish; unpretentious; -kriti, a. free from egoism; -kriya, a. impersonal; -kriy, f. freedom from egoism.

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निराकरण nirakarana [ nir-karana ]
-- n. expulsion; repudiation of a wife; removal; disproval; -karanya, fp. to be disproved; -kari shnu, a. repudiating (ac.); seeking to remove from (ab.); forgetful; -kartavya, fp. to be disproved; -kartri, m. contemner of (g.); a. disproving; -kṅksha, a. expecting nothing; having no desires; requiring no supplement; -kra, a. formless, bodiless; having no object, vacant; -kula, a. not crowded, unfrequented; not confused, orderly; unconcerned, calm; - kriti, a. formless; neglecting one's religious duties; -kranda, a. unprotected; affording no protection; m. or n. unsheltered place; -kri y, f. expulsion; disproval; -gas, a. guiltless; -graha, a. not obstinately insisting on any thing; -kikrshu, des. a. wishing to refute any one (ac.); -gvya, a. affording no livelihood; -dambara, ad. without much talk (--); -taṅka, a. free from ailment or anxiety;
causing no ailment or anxiety; --tapa, ( p142c2-top )
( end p142c1 )  a. sheltered from the heat of the sun, shady; -tapatra, a. destitute of an umbrella; -tithya, n. inhospitable (forest); -dara, a. showing no respect towards (lc.); -dhi, a. free from care; -nanda, a. joyless, sad; -ntra, a. disembowelled; -pad, a. free from adversity; -bdha, a. undisturbed; harm less; frivolous, futile; -maya, m. health, welfare; a. healthy, well; salubrious; in fallible; -marsha, a. putting up with every thing, apathetic; -misha, a. fleshless; hav ing no sensual desires: -‿sin, a. not eating flesh, not carnivorous; -yata-tva, n. lack of extension, shortness; -yati, a. having no future; -ysa, a. involving no trouble; causing no fatigue; -yudha, a. unarmed; -rambha, a. unenterprising, inactive; - lamba, a. having no support; suspended in the air; self-supported, isolated, affording no support; -lpa, a. not talking; -loka, a. devoid of light, dark; blind, foolish; -var ana, a. uncovered, manifest; -sa, a. having given up all hope or expectation, despairing (of, ac. with prati, d., ab., lc., or --): -kara, a. taking away all hope of, rendering impos sible, -tva, n. hopelessness; -saṅka, a. fear less; not afraid of (lc.); -saṅkya, fp. not to be feared; -s, f. renunciation of all hopes: -‿sanna, pp. verging on despair; -sitva, n. despair; -sin, a. having renounced all hope, hopeless; -sis, a. having no desires or hopes; -s-bh, lose all hope; -srama, a. being in none of the four stages of a Brh man: -pada, a. having no hermitages (forest); -sramin, a. id.; -sraya, a. shelterless, un supported; independent; unprotected; -sa, m. expulsion, exclusion, rejection, repudiation; -stha, a. taking no interest in, not caring about (--); -hra, m. fasting; a. abstaining from food, having nothing to eat: -t, f. abst. ɴ.

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निरिन्द्रिय nirindriya [ nr-indriya ]
-- a. impotent; barren; frail.

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निरीक्षक niriksaka [ nir-ksh-aka ]
-- a. seeing, beholding; intending to see (--); -ana, a. looking at (--); n. regarding; inspection, contemplation; look.


निरीति niriti [ nir-ti ]
-- a. not afflicted with calamities; -ha, a. motionless; inactive; indifferent to all things: -t, f. indifference, absence of desire to get anything.

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See how I pick out a particular entry, tentatively marked with , from such a subgroup , e.g. [ -ukti ] from निरुक्त nirukta [ nir-ukta ] . I have to check the accuracy of picking with the entry in Monier-Williams (p553 col3). -- UKT120607


निरुक्त nirukta [ nir-ukta ] {ni.roak~ta.}
= न ि र ु क ् त 
-- pp. √vak; n. explanation; etymological interpretation; esp. T. of Yska's commentary on the Nighantus; [UKT ]

UKT 120523: On pronunciation: since there's no repha, Macdonell rendition nir-ukta is not appropriate. It should be ni-rukta]
   Secondly, on Buddha's words: the word nirukta is important because it was used by the Buddha in connection with Sanskrit as a language.
" anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāya niruttiyā buddhavacanam pariyāpunitum

""I permit you, O Monks, to learn the word of the Buddha in his own language."
See Language Problem in Primitive Buddhism --
by Chi Hisen-lin, Journal of the Burma Research Society, XLIII, i, June 1960 quoted in http://www.tuninst.net/Romabama/Lang-Buddha/lang-problem-Buddh.htm 120523
See also my note on Nighaṇṭu {ni.GN~Tu.}

nirukti [ -ukti ],
Skt: निरुक्ति <-- न ि र ु क ् त ि -- http://www.sanskrita.org/wiki/index.php/nirukti 120704
Skt: f. etymological explanation; -- Mac-142c2
Skt: nir-ukti f. etymological interpretation of a word MBh. BhP. (in rhet.) an artificial explanation or derivation of a word Kuval. (in dram.) communication of an event that has taken place Sāh. N. of Yāska's Comm. on the Nighaṇṭus of a Comm. on the Tarka-saṃgraha &c -- MonWilli-553c3
Pal: {ni.roat~ti.}
- -- UHS-PMD0540

UKT from UHS - f. expression, expounding, deciding the meaning of sound [ {d~da} is 'sound'. The usual gloss 'grammar' is misleading. ] -- UKT120607

-ukhana, n. = n-rgana; -uttara, a. having no superior; unable to give an answer; -utsava, a. devoid of festivals; -utsha, a. destitute of energy, unenterprising, spiritless: -t, f. cowardice; -utsuka, a. unconcerned; having no desire for (prati); -utseka, m. modesty; a. unpretentious, modest; -udara, a. trunkless; -ud desam, ad. without making any statement; -udyama, a. avoiding exertion, indolent; -udyoga, a. id.; -udvigna, pp. untroubled, unagitated: -manas, a. having one's mind undisturbed; -udvega, a. free from agitation, calm; -unmda, a. free from arrogance; -upakrin, a. unable to render a service; -upakriya, a. rendering no service; -upa-drava, a. unassailed by mischances or calamities, prosperous, faring well; free from danger, safe: -t, f. security; -upadhi, a. free from guile, honest; blameless; -upapatti, a. un suitable; -upapada, a. unaccompanied by a secondary word; -upaplava, a. undisturbed, uninterrupted; -upabhoga, a. not enjoying; -upama, a. having no equal; -upayoga, a. useless; -upkhya, a. indescribable: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.; -upya, a. futile; -ushna-t, f. coldness: -m n, make cold, kill; -ushnsha, a. turbanless, bareheaded. ( end p142c2end )

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निरूढ nirudha [ 1. nir-dha ]
= (न ि) (र ू) (ढ) : no repha
-- pp. of √1. h.

निरूढ  nirudha [ 2. nir-dha ]
-- pp. of √vah.

निरूढि nirudhi [ nir-dhi ]
-- f. renown.


निरूपक nirupaka [ ni-rpaka ]
-- a. observant, contemplative; defining; m. observant man; -rp ana, a. determining; n. defining; investigation; shape; -rpya, fp. to be determined; questionable.


निर्ऋति‍‍ nirrti [ nr-riti ]
= न ि र ् ऋ त ि ‍ ‍ {nir-iRi.ti.}
-- f. (departure of life), dissolution, corruption; goddess of death (guardian of the south-west).

See Nirṛti is the goddess of death and corruption: the masculine form Nirṛta is a name of Rudra.
   UKT note: Compare the present day grapheme and that of a century ago -- in Mcdonell scanned page -- paying attention to 'repha' sign. In both cases, you will see the highly rhotic sound. -- UKT120524

निरेनस् nirenas [ nir-enas ]
-- a. guiltless.

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निरोध nirodha [ ni-rodha ]
-- m. confinement, imprisonment; enclosure; coercion, repression, subjection; obstruction; destruction; disappointment (dr.); -rdhana, n. imprisonment; coercion; refusal; disappointment (dr.).

See my note on Nirodha samāpatti {ni.rau:Da. a.ma-pt~ti.}.
   Note: It is the Ninth level of 'trance' and is the highest. The English gloss 'trance' is Pāli: jhāna aka {Za-na.}, Bur-Myan: {Zaan}. -- UKT120525


निरोष्ठ्य nirosthya [ nir-oshthya ]
-- a. lacking labials; n. absence of labials.

UKT: Labials are sounds of the row#5 aksharas:
{pa.} प , {hpa.} फ , {ba.} ब , {Ba.} भ , {ma.} म .
See my note on Lipogram and Pangrammatic lipogram . See an example in an medival Sanskrit novel: Dashakumaracharita (दशकुमारचरित Daśa-kumāra-carita .

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निर्गताखिलकल्मष nirgatakhilakalmasa [ nir-gata‿akhila-kalma- sha ]
= (न ि र ्  ग) त ा ख िलकल्मष
-- a. freed from all sin: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -gati, f. setting out; -gandha, a. scentless: -t, f. -ness; -gama, m. going out, departure, escape from (ab.); vanishing; outlet, exit; destination of an export; issue, conclusion; -gamana, n. going out of (--); -garva, a. free from pride; -garha, a. blameless; -gavksha, a. windowless; -gahana, a. knowing no precipices=intrepid; -guna, a. lacking a cord; stringless (bow); destitute of qualities; worthless, base, bad: -t, f., -tva, n. lack of all qualities; worthlessness, baseness, wickedness; -gulika, a. lacking a pill; -griha, a. () houseless; -gaurava, a. devoid ofreverence: -m, ad. condescendingly; -grantha, a. freed from all bonds; m. naked Jain mendicant; -granthika, m. naked Jain mendicant; -graha, m. ascertainment.


निर्घर्षण nirgharsana [ nir-gharshana ]
-- n. grinding: -ka, a. serving as a dentifrice for (g.); -ghta, m. removal, destruction; gust of wind, whirlwind; N. of a Dnava; -ghrina, a. unmerciful, cruel: -t, f., -tva, n. hard-heartedness; -ghosha, m. sound; a. soundless; noiseless.


निर्जन nirjana [ nir-gana ]
-- a. deserted, desolate, solitary; n. solitude: -t, f., -tva, n. id., -vana, n. lonely forest; -gaya, m. conquest; -gara, a. not aging, young; m. god; -gala, a. waterless; -galada, a. cloudless; -gigamishu, des. a. wishing to go out; -gita-varman, m. N.; -gita‿ari-gana, a. having conquered the host of his foes; -giti, f. conquest; -gihrshu, des. a. wishing to take out or remove; -gva, a. lifeless, dead; -gva-karana, n. death-blow (to, g.); -gvita, a. lifeless: -tva, n. -ness; -getri, m. vanquisher; -gna, a. ignorant, stupid.


निर्झर nirjhara [ nir-ghara ]
-- m. (rarely n.) cascade, torrent; -gharin, f. torrent.

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निर्णय nirnaya [ nir-naya ]
= न ि र ् ण य
-- m. removal; complete ascertainment; settlement, decision, judgment, sentence: -‿upam, f. comparison based on an inference; -nma, m. contortion, sinuosity.


निर्णिक्ति nirnikti [ nir-nikti ]
-- f. expiation; -ng, f. bright robe; -neka, m. cleansing, purifica tion; expiation; -negaka, m. washerman; -negana, n. cleansing; expiation, atonement; -netri, m. umpire; -noda, m. expulsion.

UKT: p142c3-b11 moved to next file

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UKT notes

Lipogram and Pangrammatic lipogram

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipogram 120525

A lipogram (from Ancient Greek: λειπογράμματος, leipogrmmatos, "leaving out a letter") is a kind of constrained writing or word game consisting of writing paragraphs or longer works in which a particular letter or group of letters is avoided usually a common vowel, and frequently "E", the most common letter in the English language.[1]

Writing a lipogram is a trivial task for uncommon letters like "Z", "J", "Q", or "X", but it is much more difficult for common letters like "E", "T" or "A". Writing this way, the author must omit many ordinary words. Grammatically meaningful and smooth-flowing lipograms can be difficult to compose.

A pangrammatic lipogram or lipogrammatic pangram is a text that uses every letter of the alphabet except one, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog", which omits "S."

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.
Below is a Sanskrit novel of the 7th century which contains a lipogram where no labials were used.

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashakumaracharita 120525

Dashakumaracharita (दशकुमारचरित Daśa-kumāra-carita - The narrative of ten young men) is a prose romance in Sanskrit, attributed to Dandin (दण्डिन) in the 7th century CE. However, as discussed below, there is some obscurity surrounding its textual tradition, the identity of the author and the date of composition.
... ... ...
The text contains a specimen of lipogrammatic writing (a species of constrained writing). At the beginning of the 7th chapter of Dsc., Mantragupta (मंत्रगुप्त) [one of the 10 princes] is called upon to relate his adventures. However, during the previous night of vigorous lovemaking, his lips have been nibbled several times by his beloved; as a result they are now swollen, making it painful for him to close them. Thus, throughout his narrative, he is compelled to refrain from using any labial consonants (प,फ,ब,भ,म).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Lipogram-note-b

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Nighaṇṭu & Nirukta

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nighantu 120524

Nighaṇṭu (निघण्टु {niGN~Tu.} a Sanskrit term for a traditional collection of words, grouped into thematic categories, often with brief annotations. Such collections share characteristics with glossaries and thesauri, but are not true lexicons, such as the kośa of Sanskrit literature. Particular collections are also called nighaṇṭava.

While a number of nighantavas devoted to specialized subjects exist, the eponymous Nighantu of the genre is an ancient collection, handed down from Vedic times [est. 1700 500 BCE, and 150 BCE ]. It was the subject of the Nirukta [1], a commentary, together with a treatise on etymology, by Yaska. Technically, Yaska's Nirukta should designate his commentary only, but traditionally the Nighantu has been understood to be included in it.
UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

On निरुक्त  {ni.roak~ta.}
[Notice: no repha, which is an example of Vedic being a non-rhotic language. It was mostly likely a Tibeto-Burman language whose sounds were very similar to the present day Bur-Myan. -- UKT120524]
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirukta 120524

Nirukta (निरुक्त = न ि र ु क ् त  {ni.roak~ta.} , explanation, etymological interpretation) is one of the six Vedānga disciplines of Hinduism, treating etymology, particularly of obscure words, especially those occurring in the Vedas.[1] [2] [3] The discipline is traditionally attributed to Yāska, an ancient Sanskrit grammarian. Yāska's association with the discipline is so great that he is also referred to as Niruktakāra or Niruktakrit ("Maker of Nirukta"), as well as Niruktavat ("Author of Nirukta"). In practical use, nirukta consists of brief rules (sūtras) for deriving word meanings, supplemented with glossaries of difficult or rare Vedic words.

Nirukta is also the name given to a celebrated commentary by Yāska on the Nighantu, an even older glossary which was already traditional in his time. Yāska's Nirukta contains a treatise on etymology, and deals with various attempts to interpret the many difficult Vedic words in the Nighantu. It is in the form of explanations of words, and is the basis for later lexicons and dictionaries. [4] The Nighantu is now traditionally combined with the Nirukta as a unified text.

A critical edition of the Nighantu and the Nirukta was published by Lakshman Sarup in the 1920s.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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- goddess of death and corruption

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirrti 120524

In Hinduism, Nirṛti {nir-iRi.ti.} is the goddess of death and corruption, one of the dikpāla (Guardians of the directions), representing the southwest (oraccording Monier-Williamss Sanskrit-English Dictionarythe south). The name nir−ṛt- has the meaning of "absence of ṛta, lawless". The masculine form of the name, Nirṛta, is a name of Rudra.

The following insert is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudra 120524
Rudra (रुद्र) is a Rigvedic God, associated with wind or storm,[1] and the hunt. The name has been translated as "The Roarer",[2][3] or "The Howler".[4]
The theonym Shiva originates as an epithet of Rudra, the adjective shiva "kind" being used euphemistically of the god who in the Rigveda also carries the epithet ghora "terrible".[5] Usage of the epithet came to exceed the original theonym and by the post-Vedic period (in the Sanskrit Epics), and the name Rudra has been taken as a synonym for the god Shiva and the two names are used interchangeably."
   UKT note: The south-west direction, to the direction-conscious Bur-Myan astrology, is the Saturday-corner - its ruling {groh}-god being Saturn the most feared Malefics. Geographically, to the country of Myanmar, it is the direction of storms during rainy-season which can bring on fierce winds and high waves. I was born in the Irrawaddy delta, and my father, U Tun Pe, who had to do his official tours in the 1920s and 30s in country boats would remark: "when the south-western sky becomes red - it is sign of {l-ni-krm:} 'the red-wind storm' ", and the boats had to seek shelter immediately. I remember an incidence in the late 1940s when we nearly lost our lives in the Rangoon River. It is the subject matter of one of my unpublished short stories "Dr. George caught a fish". -- UKT 120524

Nirṛti is mentioned in a few hymns of the Rigveda, mostly to seek protection from her or imploring for her departure. In one hymn (X.59), she is mentioned several times. This hymn, after summing up her nature, also asks for her departure from the sacrificial site. In the Atharva Veda (V.7.9), she is described as having golden locks. In the Taittiriya Brahmana (I.6.1.4), Nirṛti is described as dark, dressed in dark clothes and her sacrificial shares are dark husks. In the Shatapatha Brahmana (X.1.2.9), she is associated with pain and as the southwest quarter is her region, pain is associated with the southwest. But elsewhere in the same text (V.2.3.3.) she is mentioned as living in the south, the direction of the kingdom of the dead.[1][2]

Go back Nirrti-note-b

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Nirodha samāpatti
- The Cessation of Perception and Feeling

From Oxford Dictionary of Buddhism  -- http://www.answers.com/topic/nirodha-sam-patti 120524

nirodha-samāpatti (Pāli, attainment of cessation). [UKT ]

{ni.rau:Da. a.ma-pt~ti.}
 -- UHS-PMD0541

UKT from UHS: f. the state of cessation of the causes - such as attachment to sensual pleasure - of the cycle of happenings [samsara - not necessarily to birth-death-rebirth]; cessation of mental bodies [Note: there are five bodies or aggregates: 4 mental and 1 physical.].
   Please note that as a material scientist, I explain the 'samsara' as happenings within the present living state -- from birth, old age, and finally to death. What comes after the physical death, if there is such a happening, is beyond the present-day science of Mass-Space-Time continuum. My view is based on my own experience of Theravada-Buddhist meditation. However, I must emphasize that I have never been to the state of nirodha-samāpatti . I can hardly say that I have been even to the first level of 'trance'. -- UKT120524 
Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/dhyana#ixzz1vr1UbImP

Ninth level of trance which was added to the scheme of the eight trances (dhyāna). [UKT ]

dhyāna :  (Sk: 'trance, absorption') (Pāli: jhāna {Za-na.}) [Bur: {Zaan} -- UHS-PMD0420]. A state of deep meditative absorption characterized by lucid awareness and achieved by focusing the mind on a single object (see citta-ekāgratā). A prerequisite for its attainment is the elimination of the five hindrances (nīvaraṇa). A scheme of eight stages of dhyāna was gradually evolved, with four lower assigned to the rūpa-dhātu and four higher ones assigned to the ārūpya-dhātu. In dhyāna all sense-activity is suspended, and as the meditator passes from the lower to the higher levels, mental activity becomes progressively more attenuated. Thus, in the first dhyāna, conceptualization (vitarka) and reflection (vicāra) occur, but in the second they do not. In the fifth dhyāna various supernormal powers can be attained (see ṛddhi). The names of the Ch'an and zen schools are both derived from the word dhyāna. -- http://www.answers.com/topic/dhyana 120525

In this ninth stage, all mental activity is suspended and bodily functions are greatly attenuated. The subject [meditator] remains in a state of suspended animation in which it is difficult to detect any vital signs. In due course the meditator emerges spontaneously from this condition. Stories are told of monks who remained in this state while there was great tumult around them, even to the extent of being absorbed in trance in the middle of a village that was on fire. The state is also known as the cessation of ideation and feeling (Pāli, saā-vedayita-nirodha). See also pratisaṃkhyā-nirodha; apratisaṃkhyā-nirodha.

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