Update: 2017-08-26 05:29 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top

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UKT notes :
Azadirachta indica  {ta.ma} Bhishma Sutta Nipāta
Vowel sounds checked by killed approximants in BEPS

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निधि nidhi [ ni-dh ]
-- m. putting down; food set down; receptacle; fig. embodiment; (hidden) treasure: apm --, receptacle of waters, ocean;
( end p140c3 ) ( p141c1-top )
 kalnm --, full moon; -guhyaka‿adhipa, m. ep. of Kubera; -datta, m. N. of a mer chant; -pa, m. guardian of treasure; -pati datta, m. N.; -pấ, -pla, m. guardian of a treasure; -plita, m. N.; -maya, a. () con sisting of treasures; -vda, m. art of finding treasure.

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निधुवन nidhuvana [ ni-dhuvana ]
-- n. copulation.

निध्यर्थिन् nidhyarthin [ nidhi‿arthin ]
-- a. treasure-seeking.

निध्रुवि nidhruvi [ n-dhruvi ]
-- a. constant, faithful.

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निनद ninada [ ni-nada ]
-- m. n. sound, noise, cry; -nayana, n. pouring out; performance of (--).

निनर्तिषा ninartisa [ ni-nart-ish- ]
-- f. desire to dance.


निनाद ninada [ ni-nda ]
-- m. sound, noise; cry; buzzing; -ndin, a. (--) sounding like; playing (an instrument); accompanied by the sound of.

निनिद्रासु ninidrasu [ ni-nidr-su ]
-- des. a. sleepy.


निनीषा ninisa [ ni-n-sh ]
-- f. desire to carry off (--); -shu, des. a. wishing to carry off (ac.); -to bring to (ac. prati).

निनृत्ति ninrtti [ ni-nritti ]
-- f. repetition.


[NIND] I. P. (E. also .)
-- ninda , deride, abuse, despise, blame; surprise: pp. nindita , reprehended, censured, blameworthy; despised; forbidden; inauspicious


निन्दक nindaka [ nind-aka ]
-- a. blaming; defaming; m. caviller, mocker, scorner, scoffer (gnly. --); -ana, n. blame; abuse; -ấ, f. defamation; cavilling; abuse; censure, blame, condemnation; disgrace.


निन्द्य nindya [ nnd-ya (or -y) ]
-- fp. blameworthy, contemptible; infamous, disgraceful; forbidden: -t, f. infamy, reproach.

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निपतन nipatana [ ni-patana ]
-- n. falling; flying, flight; -pta, m. fall; descent; cast (of a look); falling from (ab.) on (--); alighting (of a bird); fall (fig.); assault, attack; death; incidental mention; irregularity (gr.); particle (gr.); -ptana, n. causing to fall or descend; falling down; flying down (of a bird); beating, striking; destroying, killing; incidental mention, esp. of an irregular or rare form (gr.): -pratkra, m. repelling of assaults; -ptin, a. falling down; dropping; alighting, on (--); striking down, destroying, consuming; -pd, m. lowland, valley; -pna, n. drinking; trough; trench, tank, pool: -vat, a. abounding in pools, -saras, n. drinking-pool.

See my note on Sutta Nipāta in Sanskrit in Eastern Turkistan


निपुण nipuna [ ni-puna ]
-- a. skilful, adroit, clever, conversant (with lc., inf., or --); suitable for, capable of (--); perfect, complete: -m, ad. cleverly; delicately; absolutely, completely; exactly, thoroughly, carefully; -taram, ad. id.; -t, f. skill, cleverness; carefulness: in. carefully.

-- f. N.

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-- m. author; -bandha , m. fastening, binding; bondage; bond, fetter; ...






निबिड nibida [ nibida ]
-- a. [ni-vila, without interstices], dense, thick, impenetrable; uninter- (end p141c1 ) (p141c2-top )
rupted; rigid, firm; fast, close (embrace, etc.); full of (in. or --); low.


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निबिडय nibidaya [ nibida-ya ]
-- den. P. embrace closely: pp. nibidita, become dense; closely pressed.

निबोद्धव्य niboddhavya [ ni-boddhavya ]
-- fp. to be regarded as (nm.).

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निभ nibha [ ni-bha ]
-- a. like, resembling (--, often redundant after an adjective or with synonyms); ɴ. appearance, pretext (only in. and ab.); -bhrita, pp. √bhri: -m, ad. secretly, apart; out of sight; n. secrecy.

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निमज्जन nimajjana [ ni-maggana ]
-- n. immersion; -man trana, n. invitation; -mantrya, fp. to be invited; to be offered something (in.); -maya, m. [√m] barter, exchange (of, g., for, in.); -mtavya, fp. to be bartered or exchanged for (in.).


-- n. N. of various kings

निमित्त nimitta [ ni-mitta ]
-- n. aim, mark; sign, token; omen; cause, occasion; motive; instrument, efficient cause; -- a. having -as a cause, caused by: -m y, be the occasion, bear the blame; ac., in., d. on account of; -tas, ad. by a special cause; -tva, n. causality; -hetu, m. efficient cause: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.


-- turn into a cause; become the occasion of (lc.); ...



निमिष् nimis [ ni-msh ]
-- f. twinkling of the eye; -misha, n. twinkling of the eye; winking; moment; -mlana, n. closing of the eyes; closing of a flower; -mlik, f. id. (--); -mlin, a. closing the eyes; -mesh, m. winking, closing of the eye; moment.

निमृग्र nimrgra [ n-mrig-ra ]
-- a. subsiding, flowing away (waters).


निम्न nimrukti [ ni-mn ]
-- n. low ground, hollow; a. concave; low-lying, depressed, deep: -gata, pp. situated in hollows; n. low ground; -g, f. (going to the lowlands), river: -pati, m. lord of rivers, sea, -suta, pp. m. Bhshma (son of the river, i. e. of the Ganges); -‿un nata, pp. depressed and elevated; n. pl. hill and dale.

See my note on the birth of Bhishma - one of the most illustrious characters in Mahabharata


-- m. N. of a tree with bitter fruit ( Azadirachta indica ): -vat- , f. N.

See my note on {ta.ma} Azadirachta indica
See {ta.ma} in http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/TIL/r4c1ta/r4c1ta.htm#ta-ma 120522

निम्रुक्ति nimrukti [ n-mrukti ]
-- f. sunset, evening; -mrk, f. id.

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See my note on Vowel sounds checked by killed approximants in BEPS


नियत niyata [ ni-yata ]
-- pp. √yam: -m, ad. certainly, assuredly; n. pl. organs of sense (ph.); -kla, a. lasting for a limited time, temporary; -vasati, a. having his permament abode anywhere; -vishaya-vartin, a. steadily abiding in his appointed sphere; -vrata, a. faithful to one's vow; -‿tman, a. self-controlled.


नियति niyati [ ni-yati ]
-- f. fixed order of things, necessity, destiny; Fate.

नियतेन्द्रिय niyatendriya [ niyata‿indriya ]
-- a. having one's senses restrained.


नियन्तव्य niyantavya [ ni-yantavya ]
-- fp. to be restrained or held in check; -guided; -enforced; -yantr, m. restrainer, ruler; charioteer: -tva, n. faculty of restraining; -yantrana, n. restraining; limitation.


नियम niyama [ ni-yama ]
-- m. restraint, limitation; restriction to (lc. or prati with ac.); fixed rule, certainty, absolute necessity (in a particular case); contract, promise; vow; self-imposed (religious) observance, minor (occasional) duty: ab. necessarily, certainly; in. id.; with certain limitations; -yamana, n. restraining, subduing; restriction; -yama-vat, a. practising religious observances; -yamya, fp. to
( end p141c2 ) ( p141c3-top )
be restrained, -subdued; -limited; -re stricted; -yấna, n. going in, entry; -yma ka, a. (ik) restraining, checking; restricting.


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नियुक्त niyukta [ ni-yukta ]
-- pp. √yug; m. public functionary, official; -yukti, f. appointment, employment (for, -artham); -y-t, f. bestowal; series; team, steed, esp. of Vyu: pl. verses, poem; -yuta, pp. √yu; n. a certain large number, gnly. million; -yuddha, n. fight, esp. with fists.


नियोक्तव्य niyoktavya [ ni-yoktavya ]
-- fp. to be applied or directed to; -commissioned or appointed to (lc.); -called to account.


नियोग niyoga [ ni-yoga ]
-- m. fastening; appointed duty, function; employment, appointment, commission, business; order, injunction; necessity, certainty; destiny: in. necessarily, certainly; -krit, a. acting in one's behalf, agent; -samsthita, pp. being in office; -stha,a. being under the orders of (g.); -‿artha, m. commission.


नियोगिन् niyogin [ niyog-in ]
-- m. authorised person, deputy, agent, functionary; -i‿artha-graha‿u pya, m. resource of confiscating the property of public functionaries.


नियोजन niyojana [ ni-ygana ]
-- n. tying up; cord; injunction, commission; -yogayitavya, cs. fp. to be punished with (in.); to be urged to (lc.); -yogya, fp. to be fastened; -endowed with; -instructed in (in.); -commissioned; -entrusted; m. servant, dependent; -yodhaka, m. pugilist.

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-- = nis before soft letters

निरंशक niraṃsaka [ nir-amsa-ka ]
-- a. receiving no portion.


निरक्षर niraksara [ nir-akshara ]
-- a. illiterate; -agni, a. having no domestic fire; -agha, a. blame less; -aṅkusa, a. unfettered, unrestricted, perfectly free; extravagant: -tva, n. abst. ɴ.


निरङ्कुशय nirankusaya [ niraṅkusa-ya ]
-- den. P. unfetter, set free.

निरङ्ग niranga [ nir-aṅga ]
-- a. incomplete; devoid of expedients, resourceless, thrown on one's own resources; -aṅguli, a. fingerless; -agana, a. (without paint=) guileless, sincere.


निरति nirati [ ni-rati ]
-- f. addiction to (--).

निरतिशय niratisaya [ nir-atisaya ]
-- a. not to be surpassed, greatest, supreme; without distinctive marks; -atyaya, a. free from danger, safe; successful; infallible; -adhishthna, a. untenable; independent; -anukrosa, m. pitilessness (-tas, ad. pitilessly); a. pitiless (towards, lc.); -anuga, a. having no retinue; -anugraha, a. showing no favour or pity; -anuyogya, fp. irreproachable, valid (argument); -anurodha, a. regardless of, indifferent to (lc.); -anusaya, a. having no residuum of the consequences of action left.


निरन्तर nirantara [ nir-antara ]
-- a. having no interstice. contiguous, successive, continuous, uninterrupted, constant; dense; thickly set with, full of (in. or --); faithful (friend); without a difference, identical: -m, ad. tightly (embrace); continually; forthwith; -anna, a. having nothing to eat; fasting; yielding no food; -anvaya, a. having no descendants; unrelated, unconnected: -m, ad. behind any one's back.

UKT: p141c3-b11 moved to next file.


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UKT notes

Azadirachta indica

UKT: नीम Neem (Hindi-Devanagari: नीम Neem , Bangla-Bengali: নিম Nim )
Remember: Devanagari script and Bengali scripts are different - Wiki spellings have dropped out the viram at the end.
See also {ta.ma} in  http://www.tuninst.net/MyanMedPlants/TIL/r4c1ta/r4c1ta.htm#ta-ma 120522

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azadirachta_indica 120522

Azadirachta indica (Hindi-Devanagari: नीम Neem , Bangla-Bengali: নিম Nim ) [UKT: note Devanagari script and Bengali scripts are different - Wiki spellings have dropped out the viram at the end.] is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to India, Pakistan and Bangladesh growing in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.

Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 1520 metres (4966 ft), rarely to 3540 metres (115130 ft). It is evergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are wide spread. The fairly dense crown is roundish or oval and may reach the diameter of 1520 metres (4966 ft) in old, free-standing specimens.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

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- one of the most illustrious characters in Mahabharata

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhishma 120522

Bhishma (Bheeshma or Devavrata or 'Bhishma Pitamah') was the eighth son of Kuru King Shantanu who was blessed with wish-long life and had sworn to serve the ruling Kuru king.[1] He was one of the most prominent characters of the great Indian epic, the Mahabharata. He was the grand uncle of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas. An unparalleled archer, he once vanquished the mighty Parasurama.

The legend behind Bhishma's birth is as follows once the eight Vasus ("Ashtavasus") visited Vashishta's ashram accompanied by their wives. [UKT ]

The eight Vasus ("Ashtavasus") are included in the 33-devas the companions of Indra, and they were visiting Vashishta a powerful rishi.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasus 120522
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vashishta 120522

One of the wives took a fancy to Nandini, Vashishta's wish-bearing cow and asked her husband Prabhasa to steal it from Vashishta. Prabhasa then stole the cow with the help of the others who were all consequently cursed by Vashishta to be born in the world of men. [UKT ]

Upon the Vasus appealing to Vashishta's mercy, the seven Vasus who had assisted in stealing Nandini had their curse mitigated such that they would be liberated from their human birth as soon as they were born; however, Prabhasa being protagonist of the theft, was cursed to endure a longer life on the earth. The curse, however is softened to the extent that he would be one of the most illustrious men of his time. It was this Prabhasa who took birth as Devavrata (Bhishma).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Sutta Nipāta

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutta_Nipata 120522

The Sutta Nipata[1] is a Buddhist scripture, a sutta collection in the Khuddaka Nikaya, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. All its suttas consist largely of verse, though some also contain some prose. It is divided into five sections:

Uraga Vagga
Cula Vagga
Maha Vagga
Atthaka Vagga
Parayana Vagga

Some scholars[2] believe that it describes the oldest of all Buddhist practices. Others agree that it contains much very early material.


Tr V. Fausbll, in Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (?and by Dover, New York)

Buddha's Teachings, tr Lord Chalmers, Harvard Oriental Series, 1932

Woven Cadences, tr E. M. Hare, 1945, out of print

The Group of Discourses, tr K. R. Norman, 1984, Pali Text Society[1], Bristol; the original edition included alternative translations by I. B. Horner & Walpola Rahula; these are currently available in the paperback edition under the title The Rhinoceros Horn and Other Early Buddhist Poems; the current edition under the original title omits these, but includes instead the translator's notes, not included in the paperback

Tr Saddhatissa, Curzon, London/Humanities Press, New York, 1985

Tr N. A. Jayawickrama, University of Kelaniya, 2001

UKT: End of Wikipedia article

From: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/25189480?uid=3739448&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3737720&uid=4&sid=47699023436077 120522

The Sutta Nipata in a Sanskrit version from Eastern Turkestan -- A. F. Rudolf Hoernle

While preparing a descriptive register of the manuscript fragments recovered by Sir Aurel Stein from the sand-buried ruins of Khadalik in the course of his second tour of exploration in Eastern Turkestan, I have recently discovered a portion of the Sanskrit version of the Sutta Nipāta. It is contained in fragments of five consecutive folios. According to Fausbll, in the reasoned statement in the Introduction of his Translation of the Sutta Nipāta (in SBE., vol. x), certain portions of that work, including the Aṭṭhavagga, are "very old", containing as they do "some ramnants of the Primitive Buddhism" (loc. cit., p. xi). It is just the Aṭṭhavagga which happens to be preserved in the fragments, and it is this fact which imparts a particular interest to the discovery.

The fragments measure about 6x3 inches [UKT: what material were they made of ? palm-leaf, wood, ivory, brass, parchment? The size 6x3 is interesting.], and are corresponding parts of the middle of their respective folios. Their right and left ends are broken off, and with the left end the folio numbers and string-holes are lost. As may be seen from the first fragment (obv., II. 5, 6; rev., II. 1. 2, quoted below), the maximum number of the surviving akṣaras in a line is 21-3. The text of that fragment is written in śloka verses; and that fact enables us, by comparing the surviving Sanskrit text with the full Pāli text, to determine that the full number of akṣaras in [{p46end}]

By Sir A. Stein they are marked Kha. 0012.b; and belong to those Khadalik finds which he purchased from the Khotanese trader Badruddin; see his Ruins of Desert Cathay , vol. i, pp. 236-y. In the Register they are No. 517.

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Vowel sounds checked by killed approximants in BEPS

UKT 120610
This note will have to be updated again and again.

I am very much intrigued by vowels checked by killed approximants. In the inset above I have given the basic vowels. For this discussion the reader must use them to change {na.} into {ni.}, etc.

{na.} + {i.} --> {ni.}

The Bur-Myan nasals are very complex to non-natives. I myself got into trouble with them until I realized that the nasal-onsets in Bur-Myan phonology, CnV (where Cn is the nasal consonant and V the nuclear vowel), should be treated like the regular vowels.

{na.} /na/ (front open, spread), {ni.} /ni/ (front close, spread),
{nu.} /nu/ (back close, round), {nau:} /nɑ/ (back open, round)

{ni.} is the very first very-close front vowel. It is an allophone of /ni/, and {ya.} is the very first approximant-consonants of row(s) #6&#7: {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, {a.}, {ha.}. The vowel is to be checked by the 'killed' consonants to form the rime of the canonical form, V. When the intrinsic-vowel of the consonants are killed we get: {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {}, {h}.

There is perfect agreement on the first four members between Bur-Myan, Eng-Lat, and Skt-Dev. However on {a.}, there is serious disagreement between Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev because Burmese is thibilant whereas Sanskrit is sibilant, with English being both.

There is serious disagreement also on {ha.} between English (an IE (Indo-European) language), and Burmese (a Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language). The Burmese {ha.} comes from deep down the throat, whereas the English <h> can be both an aspirate (in Cockney dialect) and a non-aspirate (in Received Pronunciation).

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