Update: 2012-06-22 08:47 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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UKT notes :
Licchavi Nidana

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नि ni [ n ]
-- ad. down; in, into; backwards (except once, in the AV., only combined with verbs or ( end p139c3 ) ( p140c1-top )
compounded with nouns: in the latter case sometimes=nis).


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[NIMS] II. .
-- nimste , kiss, greet


निःक˚ nihka [ nih-ka- ]
-- v. ����� nishka-.

निःक्षत्रिय nihksatriya [ nih-kshatriya ]
-- a. having no warrior caste; -kshepa, m. sending away, removal.

[nih-pa-] [-pha-]
-- v. nishpa- , -pha- .

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निकक्ष nikaksa [ ni-kaksh ]
-- m. arm-pit.

निकट nikata [ ni-kata ]
-- a. being at one's side, near; n. proximity: -m, near, to (g. or --); ab. from the neighbourhood of, away from; lc. near, beside, to; -ga, -vartin, -stha, a. standing near, being at hand.

-- approach (g.), be near


निकर nikara [ ni-kara ]
-- m. dense mass, multitude; -kartana, n. cutting off; robbing; -karsha, m. diminution, depreciation; low degree; -kasha, m. rubbing in, friction; harrow; touchstone; n. streak of gold on the touch stone: -grvan, m. touchstone; -kashana, m. n. touchstone; -kash, in. ad. near (ac.).


निकषाय nikasaya [ nikash-ya ] den. . be a touchstone: -mna, pr. pt. being a touchstone for (--).


निकाम nikama [ ni-km ]
-- m. desire, pleasure: --, -m, -tas, ad. according to wish, at pleasure; one's fill, sufficiently, abundantly; altogether; -ky, m. assemblage, class, society; multitude; body; -kra, m. humiliation, insult.


-- f. N., or possibly two names

निकाश nikasa [ ni-ksa ]
-- m. sight; neighbourhood; -- a. appearance (=like, similar); -ksha, m. scratching; rubbing, friction.

निकुञ्ज nikunja [ ni-kuga ]
-- m. thicket; -kumbha, m. a plant ( Croton polyandrum ); N. of an attendant of Siva; -kuramba or -kurumba, m. n. multitude: -ka, m. n. id.

निकुम्भ nikumbha -- m. Croton polyandrum
निष्कुम्भ niṣkumbha -- m. Croton polyandrum
-- SpkSkt

Croton polyandrum Roxb. is a synonym of Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh
   The record derives from WCSP which reports it as a synonym and as an illegitimate name (record 50873) with original publication details: Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 3: 682 1832.
-- http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-50873 120520


निकृत nikrta [ ni-krita ]
-- pp. √kri; n. fraud; -kri ti, a. dishonest; base; f. dishonesty, fraud, baseness: -praga, a. versed in fraud, -mat, a. dishonest; -krtvan, a. delusive; -krint ana, a. cutting off, destroying; n. slaughter, destruction of (g. or --); -krishta, pp. √krish: -‿saya, a. having a base disposition: -t, f. abst. ɴ.; -‿updhi, a. conditioned by something lower: -t, f. abst. ɴ.


निकेत niketa [ ni-keta ]
-- m. (n.) mansion, dwelling; -ketana, n. id.; temple.

निकोच nikoca [ ni-koka ]
-- m. contraction; -kokana, n. id.

निक्रमण nikramana [ ni-kramana ]
-- n. stepping, treading; footstep; -krda, m. play; *-kvana, m. sound; -kvna, m. id.


-- nksha , pierce


निक्षेप niksepa [ ni-kshepa ]
-- m. putting down, throwing or casting on; directing (the gaze) to wards (lc.); deposit, pledge, object given in trust; -kshepana, n. putting down; place for keeping anything; -ksheptri, m. depositor; -kshepya, fp. to be put down; to be placed in (lc.).

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निखनन nikhanana [ ni-khanana ]
-- n. burying, hiding in the ground; -kharva, n. a hundred thousand millions: -ka, a thousand millions; -khta, pp. √khan: -tusha‿aṅgra‿di mat, a. with buried husks, coal, etc.


निखिल nikhila [ ni-khila ]
-- a. [without a gap, entire, ( end p140c1 ) (p140c2-top )
all, complete: -‿artha , a. containing all requisites, complete.


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निगड nigada [ ni-gada ]
-- n. foot-chain; fetter; -gada na, n. putting in irons.

निगडय nigadaya [ nigada-ya ]
-- den. P. put in irons: pp. nigadita, fettered.


निगद nigada [ ni-gad ]
-- m. reciting aloud; prayer recited aloud; mention; -gama, m. insertion, esp. of gods' names in a ritual formula; passage (in which a word occurs); root from which a word is derived; Vedic text, holy writ; sacred ordinance; doctrine; -gamana, n. being quoted; conclusion (of a syllogism); -garana, n. swallowing; -gdha-krin, a. walking in disguise; -gdha-tara, cpv. well concealed; -ghana, n. hiding; -grabhtri, m. seizer, binder (of sacrificial animal); -gra ha, m. seizure; repression, suppression; keeping back from (ab.); restraint, coercion; chastisement; reprimand; -grahana, n. repression, suppression; punishment; -grah tri, m. seizer; -grahtavya, fp. to be punished; -grhya, fp. id.; oppressed, injured, by (--).


निघण्ट nighanta [ ni-ghanta ]
-- m. glossary; N. of a Dnava; -ghantu, m. glossary: pl. Vedic glossary.

निघर्ष nigharsa [ ni-gharsha ]
-- m. friction; -ghta, m. blow; stroke; falling accent; -ghtin, a. striking down, destroying (--); -ghna, a. (--) dependent; being in the power of, ruled by; devoted to.

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निचमन nicamana [ ni-kamana ]
-- n. sipping; -kaya, m. accumulation, heap, crowd, multitude; store, provision; -kayin, a. multitudinous; -kula, m. a tree; N. of a poet (rival of Klidsa): -ka, m. a tree; case, covering; -kulita, pp. covered with a case; covered with (--).


-- m. observer; -ketr , observer of (ac.); -keya , fp. to be heaped up; -kola , m. wrapper, cloak; cover: -ka , n. id.

निच्छिवि nicchivi [ ni-kkhivi ]
-- m. a mixed caste (off spring of Vrtya Kshatriya).

See my note on Licchavis in the category of Vratya Kshatriyas .

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-- intv. nenekti , nenikt , cleanse; . wash oneself: pp. nikt , washed, cleansed; sprinkled. ...



निज nija [ ni-ga ]
-- a. inborn, indwelling; constant; domestic (foe); own (often=possessive pronoun); m. pl. one's own people: -varna-dhar ma, m. rules of his own caste: -tas, ad. from --.

निजुर् nijur [ ni-gr ]
-- f. burning, scorching.

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निटाल nitala [ nitla ]
-- n. forehead.

निटिल nitila [ nitila ]
-- n. id.: -‿kshana, m. ep. of Siva.

निण्य ninya [ ni-ny ]
-- a. inward; secret, hidden: -m, ad.; n. secret.

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नितम्ब nitamba [ ni-tamba ]
Skt: -- m. posterior: du. buttocks (esp. of a woman); slope of a mountain: -vat, a. having beautiful buttocks, kallipygian; f. woman with beautiful buttocks; N.; -sthala, n., -sthal, f. hind quarters. -- Mac140
Pal: {ni.tm~ba.}
 - UHS-PMD0525

UKT from UHS: m. buttocks, cliffs on the banks of a river, curvaceous well-formed buttocks

callipygian also callipygous - adj. 1. Having beautifully proportioned buttocks. [From Greek kallipugos kalli- beautiful ( from kallos beauty) pugē buttocks] -- AHTD


नितम्बिन् nitambin [ nitamb-in ]
-- a. kallipygian; concealing beautiful buttocks (garment); having beautiful slopes: -, f. woman with beautiful buttocks.


नितराम् nitaram [ ni-tarấm ]
-- (cpv.) ad. below; in a lowered tone; completely, quite; at all events; especially, greatly; too much; expressly. ( end p140c2 )

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नितान्त nitanta [ ni-tnta ]
--pp. (√tam) excessive: --, -m, ad. excessively, highly, very.

नितोदिन् nitodin [ ni-todn ]
-- a. goading, piercing.


नित्य nitya [ n-tya ]
-- a. inward, innate; own (V.); constant, perpetual, eternal; always abiding in, devoted to (--); regular, essential, necessary: -or -m, ad. constantly, perpetually, always; invariably; na nityam, not always; never; -samsa, m. necessary or fast compound, i. e. one that cannot be resolved with out destroying the meaning; -svarita, m. necessary, i. e. independent svarita.


नित्यकर्मन् nityakarman [ nitya-karman ]
-- n. necessary duty or rite; -klam, ad. always, invariably; -kritya, n., -kriy, f. regular ceremony, daily routine; -gati, a. constantly moving; m. wind; -gta, pp. being constantly born; -t, f., -tva, n. perpetuity, eternity; necessity; perseverance in, devotion to (--); -d, ad. perpetually; -parkshana, n. constant inspection; -bhva, m. eternity.


नित्ययुक्त nityayukta [ nitya-yukta ]
-- pp. ever occupied in, constantly applied or attentive to (lc.); -yug, a. ever concentrated; -vyaya, a. always expending; -vrata, n. life-long observance; -saṅkita, pp. perpetually alarmed, constantly suspicious.

नित्यशस् nityasas [ nitya-sas ]
-- ad. constantly.


नित्यसेवक nityasevaka [ nitya-sevaka ]
-- a. constantly serving; -snyin, a. constantly performing ablutions; (ntya)-hotri, m. constant sacrificer.


नित्यानुगृहीत nityanugrhita [ nitya‿anugrihta ]
-- pp. constantly tended (fire); -‿udaka, -‿udakin, a. always supplied with water; -‿udita, pp. spontaneously arisen (knowledge).

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-- (V. and only in the forms nids , nidn , nidymna ) = NIND


निदर्शक nidarsaka [ ni-darsa-ka ]
-- a. seeing; announcing; -darsana, a. () showing; announcing; teaching; n. seeing, sight; reference to (--); showing, authority, evidence; instance, example, illustration; symptom; prognostic; system; contradictory instance; -darsin, a. (--) seeing, understanding; pleasing; -dgh, m. heat, hot season, summer: -dhman, m. sun, -‿avadhi, m. hot season; -dna, n. rope, halter; prime cause, original form; cause; a class of Buddhistic works: in. originally, essentially, really; -didrsu, des. a. sleepy; -didhysana, n. profound meditation; -di dhysitvya, fp. to be profoundly meditated on; -desa, m. command, order; neighbour hood: e sth, be at any one's (d.) command.

See my note on Nidana  {ni.da-na.}


निद्रा nidra [ ni-drấ ]
-- f. sleep; sleepiness: -m tyag, blossom (of flowers); -kara, a. soporific, -‿gama, m. drowsiness, -daridra, a. suffering from sleeplessness: -kri, deprive of sleep.


निद्रान्तरित nidrantarita [ nidr‿antarita ]
-- pp. fallen asleep; -‿andha, a. blinded with sleep; -‿alasa, a. drowsy, sleepy, sluggardly; -‿lasya, n. sleepiness, sloth.

निद्रालु nidralu [ nidr-lu ]
-- a. sleepy.

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निधन nidhana [ ni-dhna ]
-- n. [putting down], abode; conclusion, end; annihilation; death; musical finish of a Sman.

निधनता nidhanata [ ni-dhana-t ]
-- f. poverty.


निधा nidha [ ni-dhấ ]
-- f. snaring net; -dhtavya, fp. to be put down; -kept; -entrusted to (lc.); -directed to (lc.); -dhấna, n. putting down; receptacle (-- a. ); (hidden) treasure.

UKT: p140c3-b12 moved to the next folder


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UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licchavi-clan 120521

The Licchavis were the most famous clan amongst the ruling confederate clans of the Vajji mahajanapada of ancient India. Vaishali, the capital of the Licchavis, was the capital of the Vajji mahajanapada also. It was later occupied by Ajatashatru, who annexed the Vajji territory into his kingdom.[1]

Kautilya in his Arthaśāstra (ch. XI), describes the Licchavis as a tribal confederation (gaṇa sangha), whose leader uses the title of rājā (rājaśabdopajīvinah). [UKT ]

UKT: Kautilya and Chānakya चाणक्य (c. 370283 BCE) were the same person.
   "He is generally called Chanakya (derived from his father's name "Chanak")[9] but, in his capacity as author of the Arthaśhāstra, is generally referred to as Kautilya derived from his gotra's name Shakaldweepi." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kautilya 120521

A Buddhist text, the Mahāparinibbāna Suttanta refers them as Kshatriyas and one of the claimants of the relics of Buddha. According to the Dīgha Nikāya, the Licchavis were of the Vasiṣṭha gotra.[2] In the Manusmriti (X.22), the Licchavis are placed in the category of the Vratya Kshatriyas.[3]

Buddhaghośa in his Paramatthajotikā, traced the origin of the Licchavis to Benaras. The date of the establishment of the Licchavi domination over the area consisting of present day north Bihar and terai region of Nepal is not known. By the time of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha this clan was already well settled in the area around their capital Vaiśālī. Buddhist tradition has preserved the names of a number of eminent Licchavis, which include prince Abhyaya, Oṭṭhaddha (Mahāli), generals, Sīha and Ajita, Dummukha and Sunakkhata. The Kalpasūtra of Bhadravāhu refers to the nine Licchavi gaṇarājas (chieftains) who along with the nine Malla gaṇarājas and the eighteen Kāśī-Kośala gaṇarājas formed a league against Magadha. The leader of this alliance was Cheṭaka, whose sister Triśalā was the mother of Mahavira.[4]

Licchavi administration

Only scattered reports of the Licchavi government system survive. The introductory portions of the Cullakalinga Jātaka and the Ekapaṇṇa Jātaka mention the Licchavi as having 7,707 Rājās. The number is one of convention, and unlikely to have been exact. It does demonstrate that Licchavi, unlike most of its neighbours, was not an absolute monarchy. Ultimate authority rested with the 7,707 raja who met each year to elect one of their member as ruler and a council of nine to assist him. It was far from a democracy as only a small portion of the Licchavi population qualified to vote. [UKT ]

UKT 120521: The word 'democracy' is a loaded word. Can this word be applied to ancient Athens which is supposed to the first democracy? See excerpts below from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenian_democracy 120521
   "Athenian democracy developed in the Greek city-state of Athens, comprising the central city-state of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, around 508 BC. Athens is one of the first known democracies. ... ... ...
   "Only adult male Athenian citizens who had completed their military training as ephebes had the right to vote in Athens. The percentage of the population (of males) that actually participated in the government was about 20%. This excluded a majority of the population, namely slaves, freed slaves, children, women and metics.[clarification needed] The women had limited rights and privileges and were not really considered citizens. They had restricted movement in public and were very segregated from the men."

Those with raja status were only the male heads of households who belonged to the kshatriya varna.[5]

The seat of the Licchavi administration was in Vaiśālī, the capital of the Vajjiian confederacy. The Rājā was the highest executive and judicial authority.[6] The introductory portion of the Bhaddasāla Jātaka mentions about a tank, the water of which was used for the Abhiṣeka (the coronation) of the Gaṇarājas of Vaiśālī. The assembly hall where these Gaṇarājas met for discussion was known as the Santhāgāra.[7]

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

Go back Licchavi-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nidana 120522

Nidana is a Skt (from ni = down, into + the verbal root da = to bind). It means 'chain of causation,' and is attributed to Shakyamuni Buddha. It has two specific meanings within Buddhism. The more common use refers to the Twelve nidanas or "a concatenation [UKT: chain links] of cause and effect",[1] which is the cycle of rebirth as described by Gautama upon which a re-becoming is thought by Buddhists to rest, which is also called the twelve links of 'dependent origination'.[2]

UKT: The doctrine of dependent origination or dependent arising (from Skt: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, pratītyasamutpāda ; Pal: paticcasamuppāda -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_Origination 120522  

The term is also less commonly used with reference to the jhanas or stages of Buddhist meditation. Though they are both chains of causation, the Twelve nidanas of samsara are regarded by Buddhists as driving beings helplessly by the force of karma, into successive rebirths, based upon ignorance, while the nidana of the jhanas, by contrast, is driven by the force of spiritual practice and is thus under an individual's control. In this sense, they are opposites of each other, like ladders, one leading 'down' into incarnational life and the other leading 'up' towards nirvana.

Regarding this second type of nidana, as the western Buddhist, Sangharakshita so ably puts it:
[UKT: See Sangharakshita - (born in 1925 as Dennis Philip Edward Lingwood) is a Buddhist teacher and writer, and founder of the Triratna Buddhist Community. He is regarded as a controversial teacher, and is accused of sexual relations with Order members. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sangharakshita 120521]

In dependence on rapture arises tranquillity.
In dependence on tranquillity arises bliss.
In dependence on bliss arises samadhi.
These four Nidanas: rapture, tranquillity, bliss, samadhi, represent the process of what we usually call meditation.
Meditation, that is to say, in the sense of an actual experience of higher states of consciousness, not meditation just in the sense of preliminary concentration."[3] [UKT]

This latter sequence of 'positive nidanas' represents a definite progression and is also regarded as a chain of causation, not a negative one, of bondage and attachment, but one that leads to freedom.

As a Buddhist says, "through our actions we create the world in which we live, through our actions we may purify ourselves, free ourselves of our delusions and make ourselves able to truly act for the welfare of all beings."[4] Equally, we are at liberty through bad actions and the force of karma to create cycles of endless rebirths.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twelve_Nid%C4%81nas 120522

The Twelve Nidānas (Pali/Sanskrit nidāna "cause, foundation, source or origin") are an application of the Buddhist concept of pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination). They identify the origin of dukkha (suffering) to be in avijja (ignorance).[a]

Pali literature

Several series of Nidanas are described in the suttas.

Dīgha Nikāya Sutta 1, the Brahmajala Sutta, verse 3.71 describes six Nidanas:

[...] [T]hey experience these feelings by repeated contact through the six sense-bases; feeling conditions craving; craving conditions clinging; clinging conditions becoming; becoming conditions birth; birth conditions aging and death, sorrow, lamentation, sadness and distress.[1][2][b]

Dīgha Nikāya Nikāya, Sutta 14 describes ten links , and in Sutta 15 nine links are described, but without the six sense-bases .[3]


The Twelve Nidānas are explained in detail in the Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa, the central text of the Mahāvihāra commentarial tradition. Buddhaghosa recounts four methods to interpret the Twelve Nidanas:

1. Working from "bottom to top",
2. Working from the "middle to the top",
3. Working from "top to bottom",
4. Working from the "middle to the source".[c]

The first method begins with ignorance and proceeds to sickness, old age, and death. The second method begins with attachment and proceeds to birth. The third method begins with birth and proceeds back to ignorance. The fourth method begins with attachment and proceeds to ignorance.[citation needed]

The Twelve-fold chain (cause --> effect)

01. Ignorance - (Avijjā) --> Fabrications (volitional tendencies) - (Saṅkhāra)
02. Fabrications (volitional fabrications) - (Saṅkhāra) --> Consciousness - (Viāṇa)
03. Consciousness - (Viāṇa) --> Name-and-form - (Nāmarūpa)

04. Name-and-form - (Nāmarūpa) --> Six sense media - (Saḷāyatana)
05. Six sense media - (Saḷāyatana) --> Contact[6] - (Phassa)
06. Contact - (Phassa) --> Feeling - (Vedanā)

07. Feeling (Sensation) - (Vedanā) --> Craving - (Taṇhā)
08. Craving - (Taṇhā) --> Clinging/sustenance - (Upādāna)
09. Clinging/sustenance - (Upādāna) --> Becoming (Bhava)

10. Becoming - (Bhava) --> Birth - (Jāti)
11. Birth - (Jāti) --> Aging, death, and this entire mass of dukkha) - (Jarāmaraṇa)

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back Nidana-note-b

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