Update: 2012-07-31 02:16 AM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{nak~Sa.} : note: it is not {nak~sa.}.
     {Sa.} ष & {sa.} च are written the same in Myanmar, but not in Devanagari.
{na.ga.} : {na.ga} , {na.ga:}

UKT notes :
Arjivika (extinct) religion - founder Makkhali Gosala
Exotic tribes of Ancient India

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{na.} has a short-form, , which reminds me of a coiled snake, or Nag as the Indians would call it. I am wondering whether, the ancient Burmese snake-worshippers had hidden their beloved Nag in the Myanmar akshara to escape the wrath of King Anawrahta in the 11th century.
   We must also note that as Buddhists we always have a great love and respect for Naga. [plural and singular are the same.] We would not even consider it to be an animal, because Naga had been the foremost among the lay disciples of the Buddha.
   We find the Bur-Myan Glass Palace Chronicle, vol. 1, p.170, mentioning the Naga and the most famous king of the Pyus of Myanmar, King Duttabaung {dwut~ta.Baung}. The king had Naga men and women serving him. The king had an ocean-going vessel made of Naga-scales manned by Naga sailors. The vessel did not need either wind-power nor man-power to propel it.
   I am suggesting that it might be some kind of parallel conducting plates which are being made positive and negative alternatively, rapidly, which would force the conducting salt-water of the sea through the plates propelling the vessel forward. A prototype was actually built in Japan on this principle in modern days. -- UKT120503
   See my work on the cult of the Naga in Myanmar:
-- http://www.tuninst.net/Myanmar/Folk-elements/ch07-naga/ch07-cult-naga.htm 120503
   See also my note on Exotic tribes of Ancient India

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न n [ 1. na ]
-- prn. stem in nau, nas.

न n [ 2. n (often --=2. a-) ]
-- pcl. not; less (with numerals=not quite by, in. or ab.: kay na vimsati, 19; ekn na trimsat, 29); lest (with pot.); V.: as, like (not exactly, almost; or as it does not coalesce metrically, it may have been an affirmative particle originally= Gk. nai/). When repeated it implies a very strong affirmation (exceptionally a strengthened negation). In a second or later clause it is sometimes replaced by ka, v, api v, or even dropped. It is often strengthened by api, api ka, u, ut, eva, khalu, ka, ka‿api, ka‿eva, ked, tu, tu‿eva, v, atha v, ha.

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-- V.2. NAS

-- (only nm.), night (V.)

नकार nakara [ na-kra ]
-- m. the sound n; the negative na .


नकिंचन  nakincana [ na-kim-kana ]
-- a. having nothing, beggarly.

नकिंचिद् nakincid [ na-kimkid ]
-- n. nothing: -api-sam kalpa, m. no desire for anything.


नकिस् nakis [ n-kis ]
-- indecl. no one; not, never.

नकीम्  nakim [ n-km ]
-- indecl. not, never.


नकुतश्चिद्भय nakutascidbhaya [ na-kutaskid-bhaya ]
-- a. not endangered from any quarter.

नकुल nakula [ nak-ul ]
-- m. mongoose (exterminator of serpents and mice); N. of a son of Pndu: i-k, , f. female mongoose.

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नक्त nakta [ nk-ta ]
= न क ् त
-- n. night; eating at night only (a penance): -m, ad. by night.


नक्तंचर naktancara [ naktam-kara ]
-- a. wandering at night; m. nocturnal animal; -goblin; , f. night goblin; -kary, f. wandering by night; -krin, a. wandering by night; -dina, n. sg. night and day: -m, ad. by night and by day.


नक्तभोजिन् naktabhojin [ nakta-bhog-in ]
-- a. eating only at night: (-i)-tva, n. abst. N.; -mla, m. a tree.

नक्तया naktaya [ naktayấ ]
-- (f. in.) ad. by night.


नक्ति nakti [ nk-ti ]
-- f. night.

नक्तोषस् naktosas [ nkta‿ushs ]
-- f. night and dawn.


नक्र nakra [ nak-ra ]
-- m. crocodile: -ketana, m. god of love.

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-- approach; reach, attain. abhi , come to, arrive at (ac.)


नक्षत्र naksatra [ nksha-tra ]
-- n. heavenly body; star; constellation; lunar mansion (originally 27, later 28 were enumerated: personified as
( end p135-2c1 ) ( p135-2c2-top )
 daughters of Daksha and wives of the moon): -ntha, m. (lord of the stars), moon; -patha, m. course of the stars, starry heavens; -pthaka, m. astrologer; -ml, f. wreath or group of stars; elephant's head-ornament.

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नक्षत्रमालाय naksatramalaya [ nakshatra-ml-ya ]
-- den. . look like an elephant's head-ornament.

नक्षत्रविद्या naksatravidya [ nakshatra-vidy ]
-- f. astronomy.

नक्षत्रशवस् naksatrasavas [ nakshatra-savas ]
-- a. equalling the stars in multitude.

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नख nakha [ nakh ]
-- m. n. nail (of finger or toe), claw; talon; spur of a cock: -khdin, a. biting the nails; -nysa, m. impact of the nails; -pada, n. nail-mark, scratch: -sukha, a. soothing to the scratches.


नखर nakhara [ nakha-r ]
-- a. claw-shaped; m. curved knife; n. nail, claw; nail-mark; -vishkira, m. bird that scrapes with its feet, gallinaceous bird.


नखाग्र nakhagra [ nakha‿agr ]
-- n. nail-tip; -‿ghta, m. nail wound; -‿aṅka, m. nail-mark.

नखानखि nakhanakhi [ nakh-nakhi ]
-- ad. nail to nail, =tooth and nail.

नखायुध nakhayudha [ nakha‿yudha ]
-- a. armed with claws; m. animal with claws: -tva, n. abst. N.


नखिन् nakhin [ nakh-n ]
-- a. furnished with nails, claws, or talons; m. beast with claws.

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There are 3 sounds, {na.ga.} : {na.ga} , {na.ga:} ,  which are very different in our ears. However they may appear to be allophones in the ears of the Westerners. It is the failure of the Westerners in appreciating the importance of the registers that is the cause of the unreliability of the English transcriptions. -- UKT120505

नग naga [ n-ga ]
-- m. mountain; tree.

नगनदी naganadi [ naga-nad ]
-- f. N. of a river (mountain river); -nimnag, f. mountain stream.


नगर nagara [ ngara ]
-- n. town, city: -gana, m. pl. townsfolk, citizens; -daivata, n. divinity of a town; -dvra, n. city gate; -mandan f. courtezan.

नगरन्ध्रकर nagarandhrakara [ naga-randhra-kara ]
-- m. mountain-cleaver, ep. of Krtikeya.


नगररक्षाधिकृत nagararaksadhikrta [ nagara-raksh‿adhikrita ]
--  (pp.) m. chief of the city watch; -rakshin, m. policeman; -vriddha, (pp.) m. city elder; -sammita, pp. equal to a town; -stha, a. living in a town; m. townsman; -svmin, m. head of the city; N.


नगराधिकृत nagaradhikrta [ nagara‿adhikrita ]
-- (pp.) m. chief of the city police; -‿adhipa, -‿adhipati, -‿adhyaksha, m. id.; -‿abhysa, m. neighbourhood of the or a city: lc. in the neighbourhood of the city.


नगरिन् nagarin  [ nagar-in ]
-- m. head of the city.

नगरी nagari [ nagar ]
-- f. town, city: -rakshin, m. city watchman, policeman.
( end p135c2 )

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नगरीय nagariya [ nagar-ya ]
= न ग र ी य
-- a. urban.

नगरोपान्त nagaropanta [ nagara‿upnta ]
= न ग र ो प ा न ् त
-- n. neighbourhood of the town.


नगरौकस् nagaraukas [ nagara‿okas ]
= न ग र ौ क स ्
-- m. citizen.


नगाग्र nagagra [ naga‿agra ]
-- n. mountain-top; -‿apag, f. mountain stream; -‿asman, m. rock.


नगेन्द्र nagendra [ naga‿indra ]
-- m. lord of mountains, ep. of Himlaya and Kailsa; -‿svara, m. ep. of the Himlaya; -‿udara, n. mountain ravine.


नग्न nagna [ nag-n ]
= न ग ् न
-- a. naked, bare; desert (region); m. naked mendicant; , f. girl before menstruation.


नग्नक nagnaka [ ngna-ka ]
-- m. naked mendicant, Buddhist ascetic.

नग्नक्षपणक nagnaksapanaka [ nagna-kshapana-ka ]
-- m. naked Jain mendicant; -gt, m. N. of a Gandhra prince; ()-t, f., -tva, n. nakedness.

UKT note: Buddhist monks were never naked (or sky-clad in flowery language). However there were two other religions whose ascestics (monks) were naked, and one of them was the Ājīvika. See my note on Ājīvika (also written Ajivika or Ajivaka) -- the contemporaries of Buddhist and the Jains.


नग्नंभावुक nagnambhavuka [ nagnam-bhấvuka ]
= न ग ् न ं भ ा व ु क
-- a. becoming naked, disrobing shamelessly.

नग्नाट nagnata [ nagna‿ata ]
-- m. naked Jain mendicant.


नग्निका nagnika [ nagn-ik ]
-- f. girl before menstruation.

-- turn into a naked mendicant


-- m. N. = Nahusha

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-- m. N.

नचिर nacira [ na-kira ]
-- a. not long (time): -m, for a short time; in., d., ab. shortly, soon.


-- the negative na ; -artha , m. the meaning of na

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[NAT] I. P.
-- nata , dance; cs. ntaya , represent (ac.) on the stage. vi , pp. natita , dancing about, swarming (bees)

नट nata [ nat-a ]
-- m. dancer, actor, mime; -, f. actress; -ana, n. dancing; dance, acting; -anya, fp. impl. one must dance.


नड nada [ nad- ]
-- m. reed.

नडकूबर nadakubara [ nad-kbara ]
-- m. N. of a son of Kubera; -vana, n. N. of a locality.


-- m. N. of an elephant

नड्वल nadvala [ nad-vala ]
-- n. reed bed.

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नत nata [ na-ta ]
-- pp. √nam: -‿aṅg, f. woman.

नतराम् nataram [ na-tarấm ]
-- ad. decidedly not; much less.


नति nati [ na-t ]
-- f. bow, courtesy; humility.

UKT: p135-2c3-b16 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

Ājīvika (also written Ajivika or Ajivaka)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajivika 120515

Ājīvika (also written Ajivika or Ajivaka) was an ancient philosophical and ascetic movement of the Mahajanapada period of the Indian subcontinent.

The Ājīvikas were contemporaries of the early Buddhists and historical Jains; the Ājīvika movement may have preceded both of these groups. The Ājīvikas may have been a more loosely-organized group of wandering ascetics (shramanas or sannyasins). Their leader was Makkhali Gosala.

The Ajivika movement is long extinct, and what information is known about its followers is primarily from historical evidence left behind in Jain and Buddhist sources. According to these sources, Ajivikas believed that the cycle of reincarnation was determined by a precise and non-personal cosmic principle called niyati "destiny, fate" and was completely independent of the person's actions. They are believed to have been strict fatalists, who did not believe in karma or the possibility of free will.

More recent work by scholars suggests that the Ajivika were perhaps misrepresented by Buddhist and Jain sources.

[Johannes Brockhorst's] claim is that, whereas the Jains teach that one can both stop the influx of new karma and rid oneself of old karma through ascetic practice, Gosāla taught that one could only stop the influx of new karma. [...] Ascetic practice can be effective in preventing further karmic influx, which helps to explain the otherwise inexplicable fact that the Ājīvikas did practice asceticism. [...] [T]he popularity of the Ājīvika doctrine in ancient times, such that it could rival that of both Jainism and Buddhism, also make sense if this doctrine was really not so radically different from these traditions as its presentation in Jain and Buddhist sources suggests.[1]

Several rock-cut caves belonging to this sect, built during the times of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (r. 273 BC to 232 BC) have been found at Barabar Caves, Jehanabad district, Bihar.[2]

UKT addition:
The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India,[1] mostly dating from the Mauryan period (322185 BCE), and some with Ashokan inscriptions, located in the Jehanabad District of Bihar, India, 24 km north of Gaya. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barabar_Caves 120616



Very little that is concrete is known about the Ajivikas. Their scriptures and history were not preserved directly instead, fragments of Ajivika doctrine were preserved in Buddhist and Jain sources, and they are mentioned in several inscriptions from the Mauryan empire. As a result, it is unknown to what degree the available sources reflect the actual beliefs and practices of the Ajivikas. Because most of what is known about them was recorded in the literature of rival groups, it is quite possible that accidental distortions or intentional criticism was introduced into the records. Even the name 'Ajivika' may have only been used by observers from outside the tradition.

Some regard Makkhali Gosala (Pali; Sanskrit: Goshala Maskariputra)(c. 484 BCE) as the founder of the Ajivika faith; other sources state that Gosala was a leader of a large Ajivika congregation, but not himself the founder of the movement. Gosala is believed to have been a friend of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. The Jain Bhagavati Sutra depicts Gosala as having been a disciple of Mahavira's for a period of six years, after which the two had a falling out and parted ways. Purana Kassapa was another leader of the Ajivikas.

The emperor Ashoka's father, Bindusara, was a believer of this philosophy, that reached its peak of popularity during Asoka's lifetime, and then declined into obscurity. The Ajivikasa may have continued to exist in India until as late as the 14th Century CE, but the extent to which the tradition survived is unclear. Inscriptions from southern India make reference to the 'Ajivikas' as late as the 13th Century CE, but by this point in history the term Ajivika may have been used to refer to ascetics from other traditions rather than followers of the Ajivika tradition that existed during earlier centuries.

It is interesting that the preceptor of Asoka's mother (or Bindusara's chief queen) Subhadrng was an Ajivika.[3]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Ajivika-note-b

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Exotic tribes of Ancient India

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exotic_tribes_of_ancient_India 120503

The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many exotic tribes, describing them as superhuman or subhuman. Narrations about these tribes are often mixed with mythology and fiction. These tribes include Gandharvas, Yakshas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas, Rakshasas, Nagas, Suparnas, Vanaras, Vidyadharas, Valikilyas, Pisachas, Devas (within them Vasus, Rudras, Maruts, Adityas) and Asuras (within them Danavas, Daityas, Kalakeyas and Nivatakavachas.)

Myth or history?

From an historical point of view, these exotic tribes simply may have been tribes that did not interact frequently with mainstream culture so that knowledge of them was very limited, which spurred the invention of fables about them.

In any case, Hindu religious texts describe these tribes as having a profound influence on Hindu culture, but remaining separate from said culture, perhaps due to their geographic isolation from the rest of the world. The texts describe the tribes' bases as ranging from high mountains (such as the Yaksas and Rakshasas) to deep forests (such as the Vanaras), or they were civilizations beyond the mainstream Indian civilization (as with the Devas and Asuras) which prevailed in the plains of Saraswati, Sindhu and Ganges.


Nagas were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata.The demi-god tribe called Suparnas (in which Garuda belonged) were arch-rivals of the Nagas. The Naga clans in Kerala and Kashmir seems to be the original and indigenous abode of all of them. Places like Thiru-Ananatha-Puram in Kerala and Anantnag in Kashmir attests these to be true.

1. The Great Serpent Ananta was the first among all the Naga kings. Thiru-Anantha-Puram is known as the adobe of Great Serpent Ananta. References are found as Kerala was mentioned as Patala the Nether world in far ancient history.[2] The Nair clan is known as the descendants of Great Serpent Ananta.

2. The second Naga chief Vasuki had the kingdom near Kailasa (hence the connection of Vasuki with lord Siva).

3. The third chief Takshaka, in Takshasila both not far from Anantnag. Takshashila is named after Taksh, son of Bharat and nephew to Ram. His brother Pushkar founded Pushkalvati modern Peshawar, they were not nagas. Bharat defeated Gandharvas who had killed his uncle and his sons established their rule over Gandharva kingdoms, Gandhara. Takshaka lost his kingdom of Khandava and may have taken Gandhara for Nagas post Mahabharata but finally lost it to Janamjeya.

4. The kingdoms of other Nagas like Karkotaka and Airavata (near Iravati River (Ravi, one among the five rivers of Punjab) were also not far away.

UKT: The main river in Myanmar, the Irrawaddy, might have been the original and the Indian Iravati named after it.

5. The Kingdom of Aryaka was on Ganges. His greatgrandchildren included Krishna and Pandavas.

Nagas had kingdoms in Nagaland and Andhra Pradesh. Arjuna's wife Ulupi was from one of such Naga kingdom (in Gangetic Plain) Arjuna's another wife Chitrangada who also was known to Ulupi was from Manipur located in Northeastern India. There are now many Naga worshiping places in South India, especially in Andhra Pradesh, coastal Karnataka and Kerala.

Naga race was almost exterminated by Janamejaya, the Kuru king in Arjuna's line, who conducted the massacre of Nagas at Takshasila. This massacre was stopped by Astika, a Brahmin whose mother was a Naga (Vasuki's sister Jaratkaru).

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Exotic-tribes-note-b

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