Update: 2012-06-22 08:38 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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{Do} / {Dau:}
{Dau:} / {Dau}
{D~ma.} (= - as a conjunct) : See {Da.ma.} on p130.htm
{Drau} : {Dr} not listed

UKT notes :
Medial formers

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{DRi.} : highly rhotic voiced sound with deep-h shading


-- has only pf. P. . & pp.; C. also ft., inf., gd.; the c. dhrya is used as pr. base; hold, bear, carry (on, in., lc.); wear; convey to (lc.); hold tight; . cling to (ac.); ( end p133c3end ) (p134c1-top ) keep, observe; support; design for, allot to (d.); tolerate; restrain, resist, withstand; retain; detain; have on one, possess, contain; owe to (d., g.); ...



















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धृक् dhrk [ dhrik ]
-- a. (--) only nm. sg.=dhrit.

धृत् dhrt [ dhri-t ]
-- a. holding, having, bearing (--).


धृतकनकमाल dhrtakanakamala [ dhrita-kanaka-mla ]
-- a. wearing a golden wreath; -krkaka, a. wearing a beard; -klesa, a. bearing hardships; -gar bh, f. a. pregnant; -tla, m.=vetla; -danda, a. wielding the rod, punishing; being punished by (in.); -dvaidh-bhva, a. being at variance; -dhanus, m. archer; -niskaya, a. firmly resolved on (d.); -prva, a. worn before; -praga, a. having offspring; () rshtra, m. (whose kingdom is enduring), N. of the blind son of Vysa and elder brother of Pndu [UKT: * ]; -vat, pp. act., v. √dhri; -vrata, a. whose law or ordinance is settled; maintaining ordinances; firmly resolved; devoted, attached; -sarra, a. whose body continues to exist, living on; -sr, a. whose fortune is steadfast; -samkalpa, a. firmly resolved on (lc.). ( end p134c1 )

* UKT note: Genealogy in Mahābhārata  महाभारत   is quite complex. Rishi Vysa was the "sperm donor" to impregnate the daughters-in-laws of his natural mother. The Rishi was not the legal father. The name of the blind son was धृतराष्ट्र, dhritarāshtra . He was the king of Hastinapur at the time of the Kurukshetra War, See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhritarashtra 120430

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धृतात्मन् dhrtatman [ dhrita‿tman ]
-- a. steadfast.


धृति dhrti [ dhr-ti ]
-- f. holding fast; standing still; firmness, steadiness; fortitude; constancy; resoluteness; satisfaction, contentment: -m kri, find satisfaction; stand one's ground; -m bandh, direct one's will towards (lc.).


धृतिमत् dhrtimat [ dhriti-mat ]
-- a. steadfast, firm, resolute; contented, satisfied; -maya, a. () consisting of strong will; -mush, a. robbing of steadfastness.

-- a. haughty


[DHRISH] I.P. dhrsha (V.), V.P. dhrishno , be bold or courageous; dare to (inf.), venture near (ac.): pp. dhrishit (V.), bold, brave; ...




धृष्टकेतु dhrstaketu [ dhrishta-ketu ] m. N.; -t, f., -tva, n. boldness; audacity; -dyumna, m. N. of a son of Drupada.

UKT 120501: Drupada द्रुपद  is a character in the epic Mahābhārata. He was the king of Pacāla पञ्चाल = {pi~sa-la.}, one of the 16 important kingdoms of ancient India of the 6th century BCE. He was the father of Kṛṣṇā draupadī कृष्णा द्रौपदी aka Draupadi , the common wife of five Pandava brothers, and therefore the father-in-law of the Pandavas.
   My message to my readers: Never be sure of a word's spelling from English transliterations. Spelling is important in phonetic scripts such as Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev. In phonetic scripts, the spelling tells us how to pronounce a word. The is not the case in English where the spelling and pronunciation can be expected to disagree. In the case of this word, are you sure the name is draupadī (long vowel sound ending) or draupadi (short vowel sound ending)? See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draupadi 120501

धृष्टि dhrsti [ dhrsh-ti ]
-- m. (sg. du.) fire-tongs; f. boldness.

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धृष्णु dhrsnu [ dhrish-n ]
-- a. bold, courageous, daring; doughty, strong, mighty; n. ad.

धृष्णुया dhrsnuya [ dhrishnu-y ]
-- (in.) ad. boldly, mightily.

धृष्य dhrsya [ dhrish-ya ]
-- fp. liable to be attacked by (g.).

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UKT note: We are to face the mid-vowel sounds formed from the consonant {Da.}. The idea of a series of modal register such as: {D}, {D:}, {Dau:}, {Do} has been forming in my mind for a long time. The full series can be realized in Bur-Myan, but not in Pal-Myan nor Eng-Lat. Can it be realized in Skt-Dev? -- UKT120501


[DHE] I. P.
-- dhaya , suck; drink; suck in, absorb: pp. dhit ; cs. dhpya , . suckle, nourish.


धेना dhena [ dh-n ]
-- f. milch cow: pl. libations of milk.

धेनु dhenu [ dhe-n ]
-- a. yielding milk; f. milch cow, cow; fig. earth: pl. milk.


धेनुका dhenuka [ dhnu-k ]
-- f. milch cow.

धेनुमत् dhenumat [ dhenu-mt ]
-- a. yielding milk; containing the word "dhenu".

धेन्वनडुह dhenvanaduha  [ dhenu‿anaduh ]
-- m. du. milch cow and bull.


धेय dheya [ dhe-ya ]
-- fp. that is created; n. assignment etc. of (--).

-- 2 s. impv. of √i. dh

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धैर्य dhairya [ dhair-ya ]
-- n. firmness, steadfastness, constancy, fortitude; gravity, resolute bear ing; obstinacy: -t, f. perseverance; -dhara, a. steady, constant, persevering; -vat, a. id.; -vritti, a. steadily conducted.

धैवत dhaivata [ dhaivata ]
-- n. the sixth note in the scale, a.

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{Do} / {Dau:}

Is this sound {Do}, or is it {Dau:}, or something in between?
If it is {Dau:}, we must include {Dau} in the series of mid-vowels.
Looking at the spelling in Skt-Dev (taking note of 'flags'), tells us that this series is:
धे , धै , धो , धौ . Then I must include {Dau} in my series and drop {Do} out. -- UKT120501


धोरणी dhorani [ dhoran ]
-- f. uninterrupted series.

-- f. uninterrupted series

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{Dau:} / {Dau}


धौत dhauta [ dhau-ta ]
-- pp. of √2. dhv; n. washing.

धौरेय dhaureya [ dhaur-eya ]
-- a. standing at the head of (g. or --): -ka, m. beast of burden, horse.


धौर्जट dhaurjata [ dhaur-gata ]
-- a. () belonging to Siva (Dhurgati).

धौर्त्य dhaurtya [ dhaurt-ya ]
-- n. fraud, roguery.

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ध्म dhma [ dhma ]
=  ध ् म  {D~ma.}
-- a. blowing, m. blower of (only --).

See my note on Medial formers : approximants and nasals

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[DHM] I. P.
-- dhma , blow (a conch, etc.), blow upon, kindle (fire); blow (ac.) into (lc.); melt in the blast;  throw; pp. dhamit , blown, inflated, puffed; cs. dhmpaya : pp. dhmpita , re-
( end p134c2 ) (p134c3-top
duced to ashes. , blow into (a conch); ps. be filled with air, swell: inflated (also fig.). upa , blow upon ...



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ध्माङ््क्ष dhmanksa [ dhmṅksha ]
-- m. crow (probably in correct for dhvṅksha).


ध्मातव्य dhmatavya [ dhm-tavya ]
-- fp. to be blown upon or kindled.

ध्मान dhmana [ dhm‿ana ]
-- n. inflation, swelling.

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ध्यातमात्रागत dhyatamatragata [ dhyta-mtra‿gata ]
-- pp. coming as soon as only thought of, -‿upagmin, a. id.

ध्यातव्य dhyatavya [ dhy-tavya ]
= ध ् य ा त व ् य
-- fp. to be thought of or meditated on; n. impl. one should think: -tva, n. abst. N.; -tri, m. one who reflects, thinker.


ध्यातोपनत dhyatopanata [ dhyta‿upanata ]
-- pp. present as soon as thought of; -‿upasthita, pp. id.


ध्ान dhyana [ dhy‿ana ]
-- n. meditation; religious contemplation: -tatpara, a. lost in thought; -dhra, a. absorbed in thought; -para, a. id.; -yoga, m. deep meditation, religious absorption; -vat, a. devoted to religious meditation; -sthita, pp. absorbed in thought.


ध्यानिक dhyanika [ dhyn-ika ]
-- a. proceeding from religious meditation; -in, a. devoted to religious meditation.

ध्याम dhyama  [ dhyma ]
-- n. kind of fragrant grass.


ध्यायम् dhyayam [ dhyy-am ]
-- abs. pondering (ac.).

ध्यायिन् dhyayin [ dhyy-in ]
-- a. lost in thought.

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ध्युषित dhyusita [ [a]dhy-ushita ]
-- pp. [√vas, shine], dazzling white: -‿asva, m. N. of a prince.

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ध्येय dhyeya [ dhye-ya ]
-- fp. to be meditated on; to be thought of as (nm.).

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-- dhyấya , II. P. dhy (E.), contemplate, meditate on (ac.); think, reflect; pp. ...




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ध्र dhra [ dhra ]
= ध ् र
-- a. () bearing (--)=dhara.


-- dhrga , glide, sweep, wander (wind, birds, etc.)

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ध्रुव dhruva [ dhru-v ]
-- a. [√dhri] firm, stable, const ant; permanent, perpetual, fixed, immutable; certain, inevitable: -m, ad. certainly, assuredly; m. polar star: personified as the son of Uttnapda and grandson of Manu.


ध्रुवशील dhruvasila [ dhruva-sla ]
-- a. permanently resident; not changing one's residence; -sam dhi, m. N.; -siddhi, m. (sure recovery), N. of a physician.


ध्रुवा dhruva [ dhruvấ ]
-- f. sacrificial ladle (the largest of the three kinds).

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We expect to see entries with {Dr}: Macdonell does not list any.


ध्रौव्य dhrauvya [ dhrauv-ya ]
-- n. immovableness; permanence; certainty, necessity.

UKT: p134c3-b17 moved to next file

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UKT notes

Medial formers : approximants and nasals

UKT: 120502

The glides (/j/ and /w/) and the liquids (/9r/ and /l/) in American English can be grouped together in a larger category called the approximants. This name comes from the fact that the articulators are brought into closer contact, or approximation, than in any of the vowels. However, the constriction is less than for the obstruents (fricatives and plosives).
-- http://speech.bme.ogi.edu/tutordemos/SpectrogramReading/cse551html/cse551/node38.html 120402

Modern Bur-Myan has 4 medial formers: {ya.}, {ra.}, {wa.}, and {ha.}. In ancient Bur-Myan and present day Tavoy-dialect we find another former: {la.}. Thus we say that there are 5 medial formers in Bur-Myan: {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.}, {wa.}, and {ha.}. These medial formers give rise to the sounds of {ya.ping.}, {ra.ric}, {la.hsw:}, {wa.hsw:}, and {ha.hto:}.

Now, let's see the action of a medial in actual practice, for which we will choose a well defined pulmonic obstruent /p/ realized in Bur-Myan as {pa.} & {p}, and in Skt-Dev as प & प् . (Notice the similarity in shapes of the graphemes, and also note the "flag" showing the viram.). Now {p} can form the 4 medials as: {pya.}, {pra.}, {pla.}, {pwa.}. Thus, I will define a medial former as one which can easily join a killed consonant to give an "intermediate" or medial sound. Here, {p} will not form a medial with {ha.} because, {p} already has an element of 'h'-sound.

In Skt-Dev I have found another "medial former" (or is it?): ध्म dhma =  ध ् म  {D~ma.} ( = when written as a conjunct). Borrowing a term from Bur-Myan, this conjunct may be is to be dubbed {ma.hsw:}. However, there is a catch. Because {ma.} is not an approximant, {D~ma.} ( = when written as a conjunct), is not pronounceable unless a schwa is inserted. See {Da.ma.} on p130.htm .

It reminds me of a wrong spelling in Bur-Myan which cannot be legally pronounced: {l~Ba.} in {l~Bak} a commonly used wrong spelling for {lak-Bak} 'tea'. Somebody working for the development of Bur-Myan Unicode had thought {l~Ba.} was a medial. He did posted a questioner on the Internet with the caption: "Where are the medials?" and I had answered. It was way back in the late 1990s and I have forgotten his name and the exact wording of his question. All I can remember of him is that he was from Rangoon (the former spelling for Yangon). I request the person to contact me if he were to come across this note.

However, we must not lightly dismiss the problem of {D~ma.} (= ). Let's look into the Sonority hiearchy:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonority_hierarchy 120502

Note: the Bur-Myan graphemes are mine.

From this table we note that the "liquids are semi-sonorants". Next comes the more obstructive consonants - the semi-obstruents and "nasals are semi-obsturents". So {ma.} may form a medial in Skt-Dev. However, in the case of {l~Ba.} in {l~Bak} is clearly a wrong spelling.

Go back medial-formers-note-b

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