Update: 2012-06-22 08:37 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{Da-na.} : cf. {da-na.} दान

UKT notes :
Agnimitra Dhatri - the caregiver Dhavaka - the author Horse-gait Nauclea cordifolia 

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UKT: p132c1-top has been moved backward
to previous file - p131-2.htm


धा dha [ 2. DH ]
-- v. �� DHE.

धा dha  [ 3. dh ]
-- a. -- , placing etc.; giving, granting (v. √1. dh).

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धाटी dhati  [ dht ]
-- f. sudden attack, surprise.

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धातु dhatu  [ 1. dh-tu ]
-- m. layer; component part (--  a.); element (five are assumed: ether, air, fire, earth, water); elementary constituent of the body (seven are assumed: alimentary juice, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, semen; or five: ear, nose, mouth, heart, abdomen; or three=dosha: wind, gall, phlegm); elementary constituent of the earth or of mountains: ore, mineral, metal, esp. red chalk; verbal element, verbal root or base.

धातु dhatu [ 2. dhấ-tu ]
-- a. suitable for sucking.


धातुकुशल dhatukusala [ dhtu-kusala ]
-- a. skilled in metallurgy; -kriy, f. metallurgy; -garbha-kum bha, m. ash-pot; -ghosh, f. T. of a work on verbal roots; -krna, n. mineral powder; -ptha, m. list of verbal roots (ascribed to Pnini); -mat, a. containing elements; abounding in minerals: -t, f. richness in minerals; -maya, a. () consisting of or a bounding in metals or minerals; -vda, m. art of assaying, metallurgy; alchemy; -vd in, m. assayer; -visha, n. mineral poison; -vritti, f. (Syana's) commentary on the verbal roots.

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धातृ [dh-tri]  {Da-tRi.}
-- m. supporter, establisher; preserver; originator, creator; C.; Creator of the world (= Brahma); Fate; ...

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धात्र dhatra [ dh-tr ]  {Da-tra.}
= ध ा त ् र
-- a. relating to Dhtri.

See my note on Dhatri - the caregiver

धात्री dhatri [ dh-tr ]  {Da-tri}
= ध ा त ् र ी
-- f. nurse; midwife; waiting woman; mother; earth.

धात्रेयिका dhatreyika [ dhtrey-ik ]
= (ध ा) (त ् र े) (य ि) (क ा)  {Da-tr-yi.ka}
-- f. foster-sister; -, f. id.

धात्वाकर dhatvakara  [ dhtu‿kara ]
-- m. mineral mine.

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Compare this word to {da-na.} दान  'giving away'.


धान dhana [ dh‿ana ]
-- a. -- , containing; n. receptacle; abode, seat; , f. id.

धानक dhanaka [ dhna-ka ]
-- m. a coin (=4 krsh panas); n. coriander.


धाना dhana [ dhnấ ]
-- f. pl. grain.

धानुष्क dhanuska [ dhnush-ka ]
-- a. armed with a bow; m. bowman.

धान्य dhanya [ dhny ]
= ध ा न ् य
-- a. cereal; n. (m.) sg. pl. corn, grain.


-- -- a. = dhnya ; m. N.; n. corinder; ...




धान्यांश dhanyaṃsa [ *dhnya‿amsa ]
-- m. grain of corn; -‿ad, a. grain-eating; -‿amla, n. sour rice gruel; -‿argha, m. price of corn.

धान्व dhanva [ dhnv ]
-- m. pat. of Asita, chief of the Asuras.

धान्वन dhanvana [ dhnvan-a ]
-- a. situated in a desert. ( end p132c1 )

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धाम [dh-ma]
-- m. pl. kind of superhuman being

धामच्छद् dhamacchad [ dhma-kkhd ]
-- a. concealing his abode, ep. of an Agni and of a Vashatkra.


धामन् dhaman [ dhấ-man ]
-- n. fixed dwelling, abode, realm (of the gods); esp. place of the sacred fire and of Soma; post (also pl.); usage, law, order; power, majesty; light, splendour (also pl.); priyam dhấma, favourite abode, object; delight; madhyamam dhma vish- noh, middle abode of Vishnu=sky.


धामवत् dhamavat [ dhma-vat ]
-- a. mighty, powerful.

धामाधिप dhamadhipa [ dhma‿adhipa ]
-- m. sun.

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धाय dhaya [ dhya ]
-- m. layer.

धायस् dhayas [ dhấy-as ]
-- a. nourishing; n. only d. to sip or nourish.

धाय्या dhayya [ dhy-y ]
-- f. additional verse (in a litany).

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धार dhara [ dhr-a ]
-- a. holding, bearing, supporting (-- ): -ka, a. id. (-- ).


धारण dharana [ dhr-ana ]
-- a. (--  or g.) bearing, containing; possessing; preserving; n. (dhấr-) bearing, holding; wearing; maintaining, preserving; observance of (g.); mental retention; mental concentration, on (lc.); possession; suppression; endurance: -ka, a. containing (-- ); m. debtor.


धारणा dharana [ dhr-an ]
-- f. wearing (a dress); supporting, assistance; repression; mental retention; memory; mental concentration, suspension of the breath, immovable abstraction; settled rule; understanding.


धारणान्वित dharananvita [ dhrana‿anvita ]
-- pp. endowed with a good memory.


धारपूत dharaputa [ dhấra-pta ]
-- pp. pure as a jet of water.

धारयत् dharayat [ dhr-ayat ]
-- pr. pt. cs. (√dhri) possessing; versed in; maintaining.


धारयितव्य dharayitavya [ dhr-ay-i-tavya ]
-- fp. to be borne or held fast; to be regarded as (in. of abst. N.).

धारयिष्णुता dharayisnuta [ dhr-ay-ishnu-t ]
-- f. possession of a good memory.

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धारा dhara [ 1. dhấr- ]
-- f. [√1. dhv] torrent, stream; shower (also of arrows, flowers); drop: pl. paces of a horse (of which five kinds are assumed).

UKT 120428: I have never closely watched how a horse move. For those who are like me see my note on horse gait

धारा dhara [ 2. dhấr- ]
-- f. [√2. dhv] edge, blade; circumference of a wheel.


धाराकदम्ब dharakadamba [ dhr-kadamba ]
= (ध ा र ा क) (द म ् ब) {Da-ra-ka. dm~ba.}
-- m. a plant ( Nauclea cordifolia ); -griha, n. shower-bath room; -graha, m. cup filled from a stream of Soma.

UKT: I have 2 points to make in connection with this entry.
   #1. The compound word is made up of 2 (or 3) words: {Da-ra} and {dm~ba.}.
{Da-ra} means a 'swiftly flowing stream' or 'incessant flow', and {dm~ba.} means a tree - Kadam or Kadamba in Hindi. From where does the meaning Soma comes into the word -graha comes in?
   #2. Hinduism is strongly connected to Soma. What is this rejuvenating drink? Is it fermented juice from grapes, or toddy-palm? See my note on Nauclea cordifolia - a plant connected to Soma, or is it? Is the tree the same as Bur-Myan {ma.u ping}? If it is, it is probably the cup made of wood from this tree that is being referred to. I am waiting for input from my peers. -- UKT120428

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धाराराङ्कुर dhararankura  [ dhr‿aṅkura ]
-- m. hail.

धाराजल dharajala [ dhr-gala ]
-- n. blood dripping from the blade or edge (of a sword).

धाराञ्चल dharancala [ dhr‿akala ]
-- m. edge (of an instrument).


धाराधर dharadhara [ dhr-dhara ]
-- m. cloud: -‿gama, m. rainy season; -‿atyaya, m. (departure of the clouds), autumn.

धाराधिरूढ dharadhirudha [ dhr‿adhirdha ]
-- pp. standing on the very acme.


धारानिपात dharanipata [ dhr-nipta ]
-- m. downpour of rain; -patha, m. range of a sword-blade: -m prpaya, put to the sword by any one (g.); -pta, m. pl. shower; -yantra, n. fountain: -griha, n. shower-bath room; -vat, a. edged; -varsha, m. n. pouring rain.


धाराश्रु dharasru [ dhr‿asru ]
-- n. flood of tears.

धारासंपात dharasampata [ dhr-sampta ]
-- m. downpour of rain. ( end p132c2 )

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धारासार dharasara [ dhr‿sra ]
-- m. torrent of rain.

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धारि dhari [ dhr-i ]
-- a. bearing (-- ); m. cs. of √dhri (gr.).

धारिका dharika [ dhr-ik ]
-- f. support, pillar.


धारिन् dharin [ dhr-in ]
-- a. (--  or g.) bearing; wearing; having, possessing; keeping; maintaining; retaining, remembering; preserving, observing: n-, f. N. of Agnimitra's wife.

See my note on Agnimitra in Vishnu Purana, Bk 4, translated by H. H. Wilson , 1840. There are bound to be others by the name Agnimitra, but looking for a source before A. A. Macdonell's work, I found it in Vishnu Purana . -- UKT120428

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धार्तराष्ट्र dhartarastra [ dhrta-rshtra ]
-- a. () belonging to Dhritarshtra; m. Dhritarshtra's son, pat. of Duryodhana (pl.=the Kurus); kind of goose.


धार्मिक dharmika [ dhrm-ika ]
-- a. () righteous, virtuous; set on or conformable to virtue; m. devotionalist; magician (Pr.): -t, f., -tva, n. justice, virtue.


धार्य dharya [ dhr-ya ]
-- fp. to be worn or borne; -kept, -retained; -tolerated; -observed; inflicted (punishment); -directed (mind) to (lc.); -kept in view; -checked.

धार्ष्ट्य dharstya [ dhrsht-ya ]
-- n. boldness, impudence.

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[1. DHV] , I. P. (. rare)
-- dhấva , flow; run, -about, -up; -into, -after (ac.); -towards (abhimukkam); rust at (ac.), ride at (prati); glide over (lc.); flee: pp. -ita , running; ...







[2. DHV] , I.
-- dhấva , cleanse, rinse, wash, rub: pp. dhauta , cleansed, etc. : pure; washed away; polished, resplendent; ...



धावक dhavaka [ dhv-aka ]
-- m. washerman; N. of an author.

See my note on Dhavaka, the author .


धावन dhavana [ dhv-ana ]
-- n. 1. running, galoping; attack; 2. washing; rubbing.

धावल्य dhavalya [ dhval-ya ]
-- n. whiteness.


धाविन् dhavin [ dhv-in ]
-- a. 1. running (-- ); 2. washing (-- ).

[dh-s] (V.)
-- 1. f. abode, home; 2. m. nourishment, comfort

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धि dhi [ 1. dhi ] V. P.
-- dhinoti , satisfy; gladden

धि dhi [ 2. dhi ]
-- m. receptacle (only -- ).

धि dhi [ 3. dhi=adhi (in dhi-shthita ]
-- v. √sth).


धिक् dhik [ dhik ]
-- ij. of dissatisfaction, reproach, or lamentation; fie! woe! with nm., vc., g., gnly. ac., sts. aho --, h -( kashtam), ha h dhik; dhig astu, shame on --! fie on --! (ac. or g.); dhik kri, reproach (ac.); ridicule, belittle.


धिक्कृत dhikkrta [ dhik-krita ]
-- n. pl. disapprobation, reproaches.

धिग्दण्ड dhigdanda [ dhig-danda ]
-- m. reprimand.


-- m. a mixed caste

धित dhita [ dhi-ta ]
-- pp. of √dh and of √dhi.

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UKT notes


From Sacred-texts.com :  Vishnu Purana, Bk 4, translated by H. H. Wilson , 1840 :
http://merki.lv/vedas/Vishnu%20Purana%2004%20(eng).pdf  - 120428
   UKT: the following text contains words such as: Magadha kingdom Vidmisara Ajatas'atru Brahman Kautilya Chandragupta Vindusara As'okavarddhana -- which are of interest to Buddhists.

Chapter 24

Future kings of Magadha. Five princes of the line of Pradyota. Ten S'ais'unagas. Nine Nandas. Ten Mauryas. Ten S'ungas. Four Kanwas. Thirty Andhrabhrityas. Kings of various tribes and castes, and [ end p074. p075begin ] periods of their rule. Ascendancy of barbarians. Different races in different regions. Period of universal iniquity and decay. Coming of Vishnu as Kalki. Destruction of the wicked, and restoration of the practices of the Vedas. End of the Kali, and return of the Krita, age. Duration of the Kali. Verses chanted by Earth, and communicated by Asita to Janaka. End of the fourth book.

THE last of the Vrihadratha dynasty, Ripunjaya, will have a minister named Sunika [*1], who having killed his sovereign, will place his son Pradyota upon the throne [*2]: his son will be Palaka [*3]; his son will be Vis'akhayupa [*4]; his son will be Janaka [*5]; and his son will be Nandivarddhana [*6]. These five kings of the house of Pradyota will reign over the earth for a hundred and thirty-eight years [*7].

The next prince will be S'is'unaga [*8]; his son will be Kakavarna [*9]; his son will be Kshemadharman [*10]; his son will be Kshatraujas [*11]; his son will be Vidmisara [*12]; his son will be Ajatas'atru [*13]; his son will be Dharbaka [*14]; his son will be Udayas'wa [*15]; his son will also be Nandivarddhana; and his son will be Mahanandi [*16]. These ten S'ais'unagas will be kings of the earth for three hundred and sixty-two years [*17].

The son of Mahananda will be born of a woman of the S'udra or servile class; his name will be Nanda, called Mahapadma, for he will be exceedingly avaricious [*18]. Like another Paras'urama, he will be the annihilator of the Kshatriya race; for after him the kings of the earth will be S'udras. He will bring the whole earth under one umbrella: he will have eight sons, Sumalya and others, who will reign after Mahapadma; and he and his sons [*19] will govern for a hundred years. The Brahman Kautilya will root out the nine Nandas [*20]

Upon the cessation of the race of Nanda, the Mauryas will possess the earth, for Kantilya will place Chandragupta [*21] on the throne: his son will be Vindusara [*22]; his son will be As'okavarddhana [*23]; his son will be Suyas'as [*24]; his son will be Das'aratha; his son will be Sangata; his son will be S'alis'uka; his son will be Somas'armman; his son will be Sas'adharman [*25]; and his successor will be Vrihadratha. These are the ten Mauryas, who will reign over the earth for a hundred and thirty-seven years [*26].

The dynasty of the S'ungas will next become possessed of the sovereignty; for Pushpamitra, the general of the last Maurya prince, will put his master to death, and ascend the throne [*27]: his son will be Agnimitra [*28]; his son will be Sujyeshtha [*29]; his son will be Vasumitra [*30]; his son will be Ardraka [*31]; his son will be Pulindaka [*32]; his son will be Ghoshavasu [*33]; his son will be Vajramitra [*34]; his son will be Bhagavata [*35]; his son will be Devabhuti [*36]. These are the ten S'ungas, who will govern the kingdom for a hundred and twelve years [*37]. Devabhuti, the last S'unga prince, being addicted to, immoral indulgences, his minister, the Kanwa named Vasudeva will murder him, and usurp the kingdom: his son will be Bhumimitra; his son will be Narayana; his son will be Sus'arman. These four Kanwas will be kings of the earth for forty-five years [*38].

Sus'arman the Kanwa will be killed by a powerful servant named S'ipraka, of the Andhra tribe, who will become king, and found the Andhrabhritya dynasty [*39]: he will be succeeded by his brother Krishna [*40]; his son will be S'ri S'atakarni [*41]; his son will be Purnotsanga [*42]; his son will be S'atakarni (2nd) [*43]; his son will be Lambodara [*44]; his son will be Ivilaka [*45]; his son will be Meghaswati [*46]; his son will be Patumat [*47]; his son will be Arishtakarman [*48]; his son will be Hala [*49]; his son will be Talaka [*50]; his son will be Pravilasena [*51]; his son will be Sundara, named S'atakarni [*52]; his son will be Chakora S'atakarni [*53]; his son will be S'ivaswati [*54]; his son will be Gomatiputra [*55]; his son will be Pulimat [*56]; his son will be S'ivas'ri S'atakarni [*57]; his son will be S'ivaskandha [*58]; his son will be Yajnas'ri [*59]; his son will be Vijaya [*60]; his son will be Chandras'ri [*61]; his son will be Pulomarchish [*62]. These thirty Andhrabhritya kings will reign four hundred and fifty-six years [*63]. [ end p075 ]

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Dhatri - the caregiver

by UKT - 120427

In the following entries we find a family of four sounds connected to the front close-vowels:

{Da-tra.} धात्र ,  {Da-tRi.} धातृ ,  {Da-tri} धात्री ,  {Da-tr} धात्रे

This family of sounds can be viewed as a child's view of his world around him. To him, the mother is the provider, the comforter, the beginning & end of his world. This is denoted by the word {Da-tRi.} धातृ  .  [Notice the highly rhotic vowel.] Next in importance comes the nurse, {Da-tri} धात्री , followed by {Da-tr-yi.ka} the foster-sister. These three words are all connected to the word {Da-tra.} धात्र , the meaning of which is given as "a. relating to Dhtri". So what is "Dhtri"? We find it in "Devi Bhagavatam", Chapter 5,  "On the narrative of Hayagrva" : http://www.astrojyoti.com/devibhagavatam1-3.htm 120427

55. Thou art the vindu (m) over the Prnava (om) and thou art of the nature of semi-moon; Thou art Gyattri, Thou art Vyrhiti; Thou art Jay, Vijay, Dhtri (the supportress), Lajj (modesty), Krti (fame), Ichch (will) and Day (mercy) in all beings.

56-57. O Mother! Thou art the merciful Mother of the three worlds; Thou art the adorable auspicious Vidy (knowledge) benefitting all the Lokas; Thou destroyest the Universe and Thou skilfully residest (hidden) in the Vja mantras. Therefore we are praising Thee. O Mother! Brahm, Visnu, Mahesvara, Indra, Srya, Fire, Sarasvat and other Regents of the Universe are all Thy creation; so none of them is superior to Thee. Thou art the Mother of all the things, moving and non-moving.

58-61. O Mother ! When Thou dost will to create this visible Universe, Thou createst first Brahm, Visnu and Mahesvara and makest them create, preserve and destroy this universe; but Thou remainest quite unattached to the world. Ever Thou remainest constant in Thy one form. No one in this Universe is able to know Thy nature; nor there is any body who can enumerate Thy names. How can he promise to jump across the illimitable ocean, who cannot jump across an ordinary well.

O Bhagavat! No one amongst the Devas even knows particularly Thy endless power and glory. Thou art alone the Lady of the Universe and the Mother of the world.

We must also note that a young child has no idea of sex differentiation, nor gender in language. What are important to him is food and the food-provider especially the breast-feeder, and the comforter who gives him body-heat (or a cuddly teddy-bear for the Western child). The father is still a stranger to him. So the Datri is sexless, and could be a He, a She, or even It. I conjecture that this is the idea of a Universal Datri (neither a He, a She, nor It). If you look into the grammar of Bur-Myan, there is no gender. It is only to be found in English-Latin which was a real mental stumbling-block for me when I started to learn how to write (and speak) English correctly.

I wait for input from Sanskrit scholars, and others who know more than me. -- UKT120427
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Dhavaka, the author

-- UKT 120428

Searching on the name "Dhavaka, the author" has brought up the name of a king, Hasta, the patron of authors such as Dhavaka.
   " A king of this name, [Hasta] , and a great patron of learned men, reigned over Kashmir; he was the reputed author of several works, being, however, only the patron, the compositions bearing his name being written by Dhavaka and other authors. Raja Sekhar is the author of Prachanda Pandava, Biddhasalvanjika, and Karpura Manjari. Murari composed Anargha Raghava." -- http://wordincontext.com/en/dhavaka 120428

Further search brought up:
"to earn fame like Kalidasa and money like Dhavaka" -- http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/k-m-kavalam-madhava-panikkar/sri-harsha-of-kanauj-a-monograph-on-the-history-of-india-in-the-first-half-of-t-hci/page-5-sri-harsha-of-kanauj-a-monograph-on-the-history-of-india-in-the-first-half-of-t-hci.shtml 120428

One of the works attributed to him is Nagananda .

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Horse gait

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_gait 120427

Horse gaits are the various ways in which a horse can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training by humans.[1]

The animations below shows:
# walk - the 4 beat gait , # gallop , # pace - the 2 beat-gait


UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

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Nauclea cordifolia

From: Flora of Thailand, Flora of Thailand, http://homepage.univie.ac.at/christian.puff/FTH-RUB/FTH-RUB-Haldina_compl_WEB.htm 120428

Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale, Blumea 24: 361. 1978; Wong, Tree Fl. Mal. 4: 353. 1989. Nauclea cordifolia Roxb., Pl. Corom. 11: 40 & t. 53. 1795; Kurz, For. Fl. Burm. 2: 66. 1877. Adina cordifolia Hook. f. [in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. Pl. 2: 31. 1873] ex Brandis, For. Fl. N.W. & C. India: 263 & t. 33. 1874; Hook. f., Fl. Br. Ind. 3: 24. 1880; Pitard, Fl. Gn. I.-C. 3(1): 38 & fig. 3:18-22. 1922; Craib, Fl. Siam. En. 2(1): 9. 1932.

From: Missouri Botanical Garden, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-133153 120428

Nauclea cordifolia Roxb. is a synonym of Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale .

The record derives from WCSP which reports it as a synonym (record 133153) with original publication details: Pl. Coromandel 1: 49 1796.

Full publication details for this name can be found in International Plant Names Index (IPNI): urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:757080-1.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haldina 120428

Haldina cordifolia, syn. Adina cordifolia, also known as Kadam or Kadamba in Hindi, is a flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, the sole species in the genus Haldina. It is native to southern Asia, from India and Sri Lanka east to southern China and Vietnam.

It is a deciduous tree that can grow well over 20 metres high. The flowers may be insignificant individually but can be seen as attractive when they bloom together in balls with a circumference of 2 to 3 cm. They are usually yellow in colour often tinged with a shade of pink. Kadam is at its blossoming best during winter. The bark of the tree acts as an antiseptic.

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