Update: 2012-08-25 05:17 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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{Da.ma.} : see {D~ma.} on p134.htm
{Dar} : repha

UKT notes :
Dhanvantari - Ayurveda god Pronunciation of धन्य dhanya

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{Da.na.} --> {Da.n}  --> {Da.ns} 

Comparing the spelling {ns} to {hkt} (a very familiar word in Bur-Myan meaning 'period' or 'times' as in the "the Pagan period of the 11th century") shows that the rimes {s} & {t} do rhyme, especially if {s} is a plosive-stop similar to the plosive-stop {t}. The spelling below धनेच्छा dhaneccha shows the {s} to be the same as च् . And so the syllable {ns} must be pronounced without a hissing sound. -- UKT120424


धनेच्छा dhaneccha [ dhana‿ikkh ]
= ध न े च ् छ ा
-- f. desire for gold; -‿sa, m. possessor of wealth, rich man; ep. of Kubera; -‿svara, m. ep. of Kubera; n. ( end p129c3 )
( p130c1-top )
N. of a locality (?); -‿aisvarya, n. dominion of or lordship over wealth; -‿eshin, a. demanding his money; m. creditor; -‿ushman, m. (heat=) burning desire of riches.


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Pronunciation of धन्य dhanya

Macdonell indicated that the pronunciation should be [ dhn-ya ]. However, if I were to follow the Bur-Myan phonology it could very well be {Da.a.} which probably came from
   {Da.~ya.} -->

I must also note that the meaning of {Da.a.} in Pal-Myan is connected to 'rice' and cereal grains. See UHS-PMD0493. On the other hand, in the meanings of धन्य dhanya [ dhn-ya ] given by Macdonell there is no mention of 'rice' or other grains.

The reader might well ask, why am I so concerned about Bur-Myan phonology in pronouncing Sanskrit words. My basis is this. Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan are of Tibeto-Burman group of languages. Going through Sanskrit words has convinced me that Sanskrit and Pali are not separate languages but dialects. Sanskrit dialect with rhotic and hissing sounds was the dialect used by peoples of Indo-European origin whereas Pali or Prakrit was used by the original inhabitants of the foot-hills of Himalayas stretching from Afghanistan across Nepal, Sikkim and Butan into Myanmar. Based on this I have to ask:

Is the pronunciation similar to / {pi~a} 'knowledge' or 'education'?
Is similar to {ya.ping.} medials?
Are {ya.ping.} medials allowed for row#2 consonants which already have an element of  frication?

I have to answer these questions to arrive at a reliable transcription between Indo-European English and Tibeto-Burman Burmese. -- UKT120424

Go back pronun-nya-note-b



धन्य dhanya [ dhn-ya ]
= ध न ् य  {Da.~ya.} -->
-- a. wealthy; procuring wealth; auspicious, salutary; happy, fortunate; -- , abounding in; m. N.

धन्यक dhanyaka [ dhanya-ka ]
-- m. N. ; -tara, cpv. luckier (than, in.); -t, f. fortunate condition.


धन्यंमन्य dhanyammanya [ dhanyam-manya ]
-- a. deeming oneself happy.

[dhanya‿udaya]  [UKT: Is the name dhanyodaya ?]
-- m. N.

UKT: The name dhanyodaya is mentioned in Kings of Kashmir  translation by J. C. Dutt, vol.2, 1889  http://www.archive.org/stream/RajataranginiOfKalhana-English-JogeshChunderDuttVolumes12/Rajatarangini-JogeshChunderDuttVol2_djvu.txt -- UKT120424


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= dhnva , run

धन्व dhanva [ dhanva ]
-- n. bow (only -- ); m. N.

-- =dhanur-durga


धन्वन् dhanvan  [ 1. dhn-van ]
-- n. bow (in C. almost exclusively --  a.).

धन्वन् dhanvan [ 2. dhn-van ]
-- n.; m. (in C. only) dry land; desert.

-- m. a tree : n. its fruit


धन्वन्तरि dhanvantari [ dhanvan-tari ]
-- m. [moving in an arc] N. of a being worshipped as a god; ep. of the sun; N. of the physician of the gods, produced at the churning of the ocean: -yag- a, m. sacrifice to Dhanvantari.

See my note on Dhanvantari - Ayurvedic god


धन्वायन dhanvayana [ dhanvyana ]
-- m. archer.

धन्विन् dhanvin [ dhanv-in ]
-- a. armed with a bow; m. archer.

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We will come to a variation of this sound in p134.htm : {D~ma.}.
   ध्म dhma [ dhma ] =  ध ् म  {D~ma.}
   -- a. blowing, m. blower of (only --).
Because {ma.} is not an approximant, {D~ma.} is not pronounceable unless a schwa is inserted. -- UKT120501



धम् dham [ DHAM ]
-- v. ���� DHM.

धम dhama [ dham-a ]  {Da.ma.}
-- a. blowing, melting (-- ); -ana, a. blowing away, dispersing; m. reed; n. smelting; -ni, f. whistling; tube, pipe, vessel (in the body), vein (also ).


-- m. N.

-- f. N.

धम्मिल्ल dhammilla [ dhammilla ]
-- m. braided hair tied round the heads of women (--  a., f. or -k).

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धय dhaya [ dhay-a ]
-- a. sucking, sipping (-- , g.).

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धर dhara [ dhar-a ]
-- a. (gnly. -- ) bearing, holding; wearing; keeping, preserving; maintaining, supporting; observing, remembering, knowing; possessing; , f. earth.

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UKT: In the spelling of the word below, धरण dharana, repha is not involved as in the case of  धर्म & धर्ण .

धरण dharana [ dhr-ana ]
-- a. () bearing, preserving; n. holding, supporting; procuring (-- ); support; m. n. a certain weight (=10 plas).

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धरणि dharani [ dhar-ani ]
-- f. earth: *-tala-taitila, m. god on earth, Brhman; -dhara, a. supporting or preserving the earth, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; m. mountain; -pati, -bhug, -bhrit, m. prince, king.


धरणी dharani  [ dhar-an- ]
-- f. [supporter], earth: -dhara, a. supporting or preserving the earth; ep. of Krishna or Vishnu; m. mountain; king; N.; -dhra, m. mountain; -bhrit, a. supporting the earth; m. mountain; -mand ala, n. circle of the earth, orbis terrarum; -ruha, m. (growing in the earth), tree; -va rha, m. N. of a king.

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धराधर dharadhara [ dhar-dhara ]
-- a. a preserving or supporting the earth; ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; m. mountain: -‿indra, m. lord of mountains, the Himlaya; -dhava, m. king; -‿adhipa, m. lord of earth, king; -pati, m. lord of earth, ep. of Vishnu; prince, king; -bhug, m. (enjoyer of earth), king; -bhrit, m. (supporter of earth), mountain.


धरामर dharamara  [ dhar‿amara ]
-- m. god on earth, Brhman; -saya, a. sleeping on the ground.
( end p130c1 )

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धरित्री dharitri  [ dhar-i-tr ]
= ध र ि त ् र ी
-- f. supporter; earth.

धरिमन् dhariman [ dhar-i-man ]
-- m. balance: (-ima) meya, fp. measurable by weight.


धरुण dharuna [ dhar-na ]
-- a. () bearing, supporting; spacious; m. bearer, supporter; n. support, foundation; firm ground; n., , f. receptacle.

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{Dar} : repha


धर्णसि dharnasi [ dharnas ]
-- a. strong, vigorous.

-- m., -tri , f. supporter; preserver 

धर्त्र dhartra [ dhar-tr ]
-- n. support.


धर्म dharma [ dhr-ma ] {Dar~ma.}
-- m. established order, usage, institution, custom, prescription; rule; duty; virtue, moral merit, good works; right; justice; law (concerning, g. or -- ); often personified, esp. as Yama, judge of the dead, and as a Pragpati; nature, character, essential quality, characteristic attribute, property: in. dhrmena, in accordance with law, custom, or duty, as is or was right; -- , after the manner of, in accordance with; dharme sthita, observing the law, true to one's duty.


धर्मकर्मन् dharmakarman [ dharma-karman ]
-- n. virtuous action, good work; -krya, n. religious duty; -kritya, n. performance of duty, religious rite; -kosa, m. treasury of the law; -kriy, f. performance of meritorious acts; religious ceremonies; -kshetra, n. Field of Law (= Kurukshetra); -gupta, pp. N. (law-protected); -gopa, m. N. of a prince; -ghna, a. violating the law, illegal; -kakra, n. wheel of the law (as a symbol of far-reaching justice); -karana, m., -kary, f. fulfilment of duties; -krin, a. fulfilling one's duty, virtuous: (n), f. wife who is a companion in duty; -ga, a. begotten for the sake of duty; -gv ana, a. living by the performance of good works; -ga, a. knowing the law, -one's duty or what is right: -t, f. abst. N.; -gna, n. knowledge of the law, -of what is right.


-- ad. by right; according to the (sacred) law or rule; as regards or for the sake of spiritual merit; ...





धर्मन् dharman [ 1. dhar-mn ]
-- m. bearer, supporter.

धर्मन् dharman [ 2. dhr-man ]
-- n. (C. only -- ) support; settled order, law, usage, manner; law of a thing's being, characteristic, property; right conduct; duty towards (lc.): in. in order, duly.


धर्मनाथ dharmanatha [ dharma-ntha ] m. lawful protector; -nitya, a. persistent in duty; -pati, m. lord of order; -patn, f. lawful wife; -patha, m. path of duty or virtue; -para, -paryana, a. devoted to duty, righteous; -pthaka, m. teacher of law, jurist; -pd, f. violation of duty; -pta, pp. of unsullied virtue; -pratibh, a. for which justice is surety; -pravaktri, m. teacher of law, jurist; -pravritti, f. practice of virtue, virtuous con duct; -buddhi, a. righteous-minded; N.; -bhagin, f. woman admitted to the rights of a sister; sister in faith (Pr.); -bhgin, a. possessed of virtue, virtuous; -bhikshu-ka, m. beggar for virtuous reasons; -bhrit, a. maintaining the law, just (king); -bhrtri, m. brother in the sacred law, co-religionist; -mya, a. consisting of virtue; -mtra, n.
( end p130c2 ) ( p130c3-top )
the manner only; a. relating to attributes only; only attributive; -mrga, m. path of virtue; -mla, n. source of the sacred law or of justice; -yukta, pp. endowed with virtue, virtuous, just; harmonizing with the law; -yuddha, n. fair contest; -rakshit, f. N.; -rata, pp. delighting in virtue; -rati, a. id.; -rg, m. king of justice, ep. of Yama; -rga, m. just king, ep. of Yama; -rgan, m. ep. of Yudhishthira; -ruki, a. delighting in virtue; N. of a Dnava; -lopa, m. neglect of duty; absence of an attribute (rh.); -vat, a. virtuous, just: -, f. N.; -vardhana, a. increasing virtue (Siva); m. N.; -vda, m. discourse on virtue or duty; -vdin, a. discoursing on duty; -vahik, f. vehicle of religious merit = account-book of charitable gifts; -vigaya, m. triumph of virtue or justice; -vid, a. knowing the sacred law or one's duty; versed in customary law; -viplava, m. violation of the law; -vi vekana, n. discussion of the law or of duty; -vriddha, pp. rich in virtue; -vyatikrama, m. transgression of the law; -vyavasth, f. judicial decision; -vydha, m. N. of a virtuous hunter.

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धर्मशासन dharmasasana [ dharma-ssana ]
-- n. manual of law; -sstra, n. authoritative compendium of law; law-book; -sstrin, m. adherent of the law-books: pl. a certain school; -sla, a. just, virtuous; m. N.; -samyukta, pp. legal; -samsrita, pp. just, virtuous; -samka th, f. pl. discourses on virtue; -samg, f. sense of duty; -samaya, m. obligation entered into; -sdhana, n. fulfilment of duty; necessary means for the fulfilment of duty; -stra, n. stra treatise on customary law; -sena, m. N. of a merchant; -sevana, n. fulfilment of duty; -skandha, m. chapter on law; -stha, m. judge; -sthn-rga, m. main pillar of the law; -svmin, m. N. of a temple erected by king Dharma; -hantri, m. (-tr, f.) violator of the law; -hni, f. neglect of duty; -hna, pp. excluded from the pale of the law.


धर्माख्यान dharmakhyana [ dharma‿khyna ]
-- n. setting forth of duty; -‿krya, m. teacher of the law; -‿atikrama, m. transgression of the law; -‿tma-t, f. justice, virtue; -‿tman, a. having a virtuous nature, conscious of duty, just; -‿desaka, m. instructor in the law (v. l. for dharma-desaka); -‿adharma-ga, a. knowing right and wrong; -‿adharma parkshana, n. enquiry as to right and wrong; kind of ordeal; -‿adhikarana, n. law court: -‿adhishthita-purusha, m. law court official, -sthna, n. court of justice; -‿adhi kra, m. administration of justice; -‿adhi kranika, m. judge; -‿adhikrin, m. id.; -‿adhikrita, (pp.) m. id.; -‿adhishthna, n. court of justice; -‿adhyaksha, m. chief justice; -‿adhvan, m. path of virtue; -‿anu kṅkshin, a. striving after justice; intent on righteousness; -‿anushthna, n. fulfilment of the law; -‿abhisheka-kriy, f. prescribed ablution.


धर्मारण्य dharmaranya [ dharma‿aranya ]
-- n. forest for the performance of religious duties; hermit-wood; N. of a forest in Madhyadesa; N. of a city; -‿artha-yukta, pp. according with the good and the useful; -‿srita, pp. just, virtuous; -‿sana, n. judgment-seat; -‿asti-kya, m. category of virtue (with the Jains); -‿hrita, pp. legitimately acquired.


धर्मित्व dharmitva[ dharmi-tva ]
-- n. justice, virtue, devotion to duty; -- , obligation or duty of; possession of the characteristics of.


धर्मिन् dharmin [ dharm-in ]
-- a. observing the law, knowing one's duty, virtuous; having attributes; -- , observing the law of or having the rights of, having the nature, peculiarities, or characteristics of. ( end p130c3 )

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UKT notes

Dhanvantari - the Ayurveda god

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhanvantari 120424
Note: my additions are given in [...]

Dhanvantari (Skt: धन्वंतरि, Tamil: தன்வந்திரி,) is an Avatar [see below] of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods (devas), and the god of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantari seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others.

The earliest practitioner

Sri Dhanvantari is the primordial God (Avatar) of health care. As such, persons have taken the name "Dhanvantari" in connection with their attempts at medical interventions. One such Dhanvantari was an early Indian medical practitioner and one of the worlds first surgeons. [UKT ]

Based on Vedic traditions, he is regarded as the source of Ayurveda. He perfected many herbal based cures and natural remedies and was credited with the discovery of the antiseptic properties of turmeric and the preservative properties of salt which he incorporated in his cures.

Being a very skilled surgeon according to the standards of his time, he is widely believed to be the pioneer of modern medical practices like plastic surgery. Albeit his methods were a lot cruder and more painful and were used only in emergencies, such as on the injuries of war victims.

All his surgeries were performed without anesthetic [ Since alcohol and opium are known since early times this statement must be rechecked], however in spite of his crude methods he was reported to have had a very high success rate. As a result of the brilliance and achievements he displayed in the field of medicine he was chosen as one of the Nine Gems in early Indian ruler Vikramadityas court.

According to traditions, he taught surgery methods and procedures to Susrutha, the Father of Ayurvedic Surgery.

The legend

Dhanvantari is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding medical herbs in one hand and a pot containing rejuvenating nectar called amrita in another. The Puranas state that Dhanavantari emerged from the 'Ocean of Milk' and appeared with the pot of nectar during the story of the Samudra or Sagar manthan whilst the ocean was being churned by the devas and asuras, using the Mandara mountain [as the churn] and the serpent Vasuki [as the rope - with the Asuras holding the dangerous fire-breathing head of the serpent and the Devas holding the tail where there was no danger.]. The pot of Amrita was snatched by the Asuras or Demons, and after this event another avatar, Mohini, appears and takes the nectar back from the Asuras. [Vishnu taking on the form of a beautiful maiden cheated the Asuras of their share of amrita.]

UKT: The first time I came across the Avatars of Vishnu in my study of Sanskrit in Devanagari, I have noted the number to be 10. And this god Dhanvantari was not included.  To a Myan-Buddhist of Theravada tradition, it seems odd that even Gautama Buddha, a known Annata (belief in ever-changing) doctrine has been included as an avatar of Vishnu - a god of Atta doctrine: the exact opposite of Anatta.
   In the Wikipedia article on Avatars you will see other avatars - even a female - Mohini [BP 1.3.17] the enchantress. It must be remembered that Gautama Buddha was a historical figure whereas others have no historical or archeological basis. I have come to note that the Brahmins of Hindu faith would include any historical figure of note as a Avatar and probably this Dhanvantari was a human who had been made into a god. I wait for input from more knowledgeable persons. -- UKT120424

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avatar 120424.

Etymology and meaning

The Sanskrit noun avatāra is derived from the verbal root tṝ  "to cross over", joined with the prefix ava "off , away , down". The word doesn't occur in the Vedas, but is recorded in Pāṇini (3.3.120). Avatāra was initially used to describe different deities, then around the 6th century AD it began to be used primarily to describe the manifestations of Vishnu.[7] While earlier texts mention deities taking on different forms, the Bhagavad Gita (4.5-9) is the first text to discuss the doctrine associated with the term even though the word avatāra itself is not mentioned.[8]

According to some scholars like Parrinder, Oduyoye, Vroom and Sheth, the common translation "incarnation" due to its christological implications is somewhat misleading as the concept of avatar corresponds more closely to the view of Docetism in Christian theology, as different from the idea of God 'in the flesh' in mainstream Christology.[9][10][11]

Related to the idea of avatar is that of vibhūti, that is, the idea of manifestations of the divine in various aspects of human life and the natural world.[12]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Dhanvantari-note-b

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