Update: 2017-08-25 08:41 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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UKT notes :
Double tongued snake Dvapara yoga The number twelve (12)

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द्वयस dvayasa [ dvaya-sa ]
-- a. () having the height, depth, or length of, reaching to (-- ).


द्वयहीन dvayahina [ dvaya-hna ]
-- pp. of the neuter gender.

द्वयाविन् dvayavin [ dvay-vn ]
-- a. double, dishonest.

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द्वा dva [ dv ]
-- old nm. du. of dva ( --).


द्वाचत्वारिंशत् dvacatvariṃsat [ dv-katvrimsat ]
-- f. forty-two: -i, f. id.; -trims, a. () thirty-second; -trim sat, f. thirty-two.


द्वादश dvadasa [ dv-das ]
-- a. (&isharp;) twelfth; consisting of twelve, having twelve parts; increased by twelve; -- , making twelve with; , f. twelfth day of the fortnight.

See my note on the Number-12


द्वादशक dvadasaka [ dvdasa-ka ]
-- a. twelfth; consisting of or amounting to twelve; n. twelve; -ka pla, a. distributed in twelve bowls; -dh, ad. twelvefold.


द्वादशन् dvadasan [ dvấ -dasan (or n) ]
-- a. pl. twelve.


द्वादशपद dvadasapada [ dvdasa-pada ]
-- a. consisting of twelve words; -rtra, n. period of twelve days; -vrshika, a. () twelve years old; lasting twelve (years); -vidha, a. twelvefold; -sata, n. 112: , f. 1200; -shasra, a. () consisting of 12,000 years.


द्वादशाब्द dvadasabda [ dvdasa‿abda ]
-- a. lasting twelve years; -‿ara, a. having twelve spokes; -‿ah, a. lasting twelve days; m. period of twelve days; a certain twelve days' (Soma) feast.


द्वापञ्चाश dvapancasa [ dv-paks ]
-- a. () fifty-second; -paksat, f. fifty-two.

द्वापर dvapara [ dv-pra (or ) ]
-- m. n. die or side of die marked with two points; also personified; third cosmic age (lasting 2000 years).

See my note on the Dvapara Yoga - the third cosmic age

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द्वार् dvar [ dvấ r ] f. door, gate, entrance; egress, opportunity; expedient, way, means: in. dvr, by means of, through, by (-- ).

द्वार dvara  [ dvấ ra ] n. (m.1) id.; aperture (esp. those of the body); way to, means of attaining (g., -- ); --  a. effected by: in. (e-na), by (means of), in consequence of (-- ).


द्वारक dvaraka [ dvra-ka ]
-- n. door, gate; --  a. effected by; , f. City of many gates on the west point of Gujerat, supposed to have been swallowed up by the sea, N. of Krishna's residence.


द्वारता dvarata [ dvra-t ]
-- f. access: -m gam, become the occasion of (g.) to (g.); -darsin, m. janitor, porter; -nyaka, m. janitor, chamberlain; -pa, m. janitor; -paksha, m. fold of a door; door: -ka, n. id.: -ubhayatas ka dv rapakshakayoh, on both sides of the door: -patta, m. id.; -pati, m. janitor, chamberlain; -pla, m. door-keeper: -ka, m., i-k, f. id.; -pidhna, n. door-bolt; -phalaka, n. fold of a door; -bhu, m. door-post; -rakshin, m. door-keeper; -vamsa, m. lintel of a door; -vat, a. many-gated: -, f. N. of Krishna's residence; -stha, a. standing at the door or gate; m. janitor.


द्वाराधिप dvaradhipa [ dvra‿adhipa ]
-- m. janitor, chamberlain.

-- dvr-in, m. id.

-- employ as a mediator


द्वार्य dvarya [ dvr-ya ]
-- a. belonging to the door; , f. door-post.


द्वाविंश dvaviṃsa [ dv-vims ]
-- a. twenty-second.

द्वाविंशति dvaviṃsati [ dvấ -vimsati ]
-- f. twenty-two.

द्वासप्तति dvasaptati [ dvấ -saptati ]
-- f. seventy-two.


द्वाःस्थ dvahstha [ dvh-stha ]
-- a. standing at the door; m. janitor. ( end p128c1 )

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-- two

द्विक  dvika [ 1. dvi-ka ]
= द ् व ि क 
-- a. consisting of two; two; increased by two: w. satam, n. 102=2 per cent.

द्विक dvika  [ 2. dvi-ka ]
-- m. crow (having two k's in its name kka).


द्विकर्मक dvikarmaka [ dvi-karma-ka ]
-- a. having two objects, governing two accusatives; -gava, a. yoked with two oxen; -gu, m. numeral compound (the first member being a numeral); () guna (or ), a. double, twofold; twice as great or much as (ab., -- ); folded double: -tara, cpv. id., -t, f., -tva, n. duplication.


द्विगुणय dvigunaya [ dviguna-ya ]
-- den. P. double, multiply by two: pp. ita, doubled, put round double.

-- . be doubled

-- double, put on double; enfold doubly; -bh , be doubled, become twice as great


द्विगोत्र dvigotra [ dvi-gotra ]
-- a. belonging to two families.

-- m. kind of posture


द्विज dvija [ dvi-g ]
-- a. twice-born; m. member of the three upper castes (reborn by investiture); (invested) Brhman; bird (as being first produced in the egg); tooth (because renewed): -tva, n. state of a Brhman; -gnman, a. having a double birth or birthplace; m. member of the three upper castes; esp. Brhman.


द्विजमय dvijamaya [ dviga-maya ]
-- a. () consisting of Brhmans; -mukhya, m. chief of the twice born, Brhman; -rga, m. moon; -‿rishi, m. priestly sage (=brahmarshi); -liṅgin, a. bearing the distinctive marks of a Brhman; -vara, m. best among the twice-born, Brhman; -sreshtha, -sattama, m. id.; -‿agrya, m. chief of the twice-born, Brhman.


द्विजाति dvijati [ dvi-gti ]
-- a. having two births; m. member of the three upper castes; esp. Brhman: -mukhya, m. chief of the twice-born, Brhman.


-- present (ac.) to Brahmans

द्विजिह्व dvijihva [ dv-gihva ]
-- a. double-tongued (-t, f. abst. n.); deceitful; m. serpent.

See my note on double-tongued snake


द्विजेन्द्र dvijendra [ dviga‿indra ]
-- m. lord of the twice-born, Brhman; -‿svara, m. id.; moon; -‿uttama, m. highest of the twice-born, Brhman.

द्विट्सेविन् dvitsevin [ dvit-sevin ]
-- a. serving=being in secret alliance with the enemy; m. traitor.


द्वित dvita [ dvi-t ]
-- m. N. of a god (second form of Agni: cp. Trita); N. of a seer.

द्वितय dvitaya [ dvi-taya ]
-- a. twofold, double; both (pl. if both parts are regarded as pl.); n. pair.

द्विता dvita [ dvitấ  ]
-- in. ad. (only in RV.) likewise, equally, so also.


द्वितीय dvitiya [ 1. dvi-t&isharp;ya ]
-- a. second: -m, ad. secondly; a second time; m. companion, friend; foe; --  a. accompanied by, furnished with; , f. female companion; second day of the fort night; (terminations of the) second case, accusative; word in the accusative case (gr.);
2. -tya, a. with bhga, m. half; n. half.


द्वित्र dvitra [ dvi-tra ]
-- a. pl. two or three.

द्वत्रिचतुरम् dvatricaturam [ dvi-tri-katur-am ]
-- ad. twice, thrice or four times; -tri-katush-pakaka, a. increased by two, three, four, or five; with satam, n.=two, three, four, or five per cent.


द्वित्व dvitva [ dvi-tva ] n. two; duality; dual; re- ( end p128c2 )
( p128c3-top )
duplication; -devaty, a. sacred to two deities; *-drona, n. sg. two dronas (measure): in. two dronas at a time.


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द्विध dvidha [ dvi-dha ]
-- a. split, forked.

द्विधा dvidha [ dv-dh ]
-- ad. twofold, in two (parts); in two ways: -kri, divide in two; -bh or gam, be divided, break.

द्विधाकार dvidhakara [ dvidh‿kra ]
-- a. twofold, of two kinds.


द्विनेत्रभेदिन् dvinetrabhedin [ dvi-netra-bhedin ]
-- a. knocking out both eyes.


द्विप dvipa [ dvi-pa ]
-- m. elephant (drinking twice, with trunk and mouth).

द्विपञ्चविंश dvipancaviṃsa [ dvi-paka-vimsa ]
-- n. du. twice twenty-five; -paksa, a. fifty-second; n. du. twice fifty.


द्विपद् dvipad [ dv-pad (or -pd: strong base -pd) ]
-- a. two-footed; having two pdas (verse); m. biped, man; n. coll. men; m. metre containing two pdas.


द्विपद dvipada [ dvi-pada ]
-- a. id.; m. man; n. a metre; , f. verse containing two pdas.

द्विपदान dvipadana [ dvipa-dna ]
-- n. temple juice of elephants in rut.


-- f. a metre; king of song

द्विपदी dvipadi [ dvi-pad- ]
-- f. a metre containing two pdas; kind of song in this metre: -khanda, m. n. kind of stanza.


द्विपपति dvipapati [ dvipa-pati ]
-- m. lord of elephants; lordly or full-grown elephant.

द्विपाद dvipada [ dv-pda ]
-- a. () two-footed.

द्विपायिन् dvipayin [ dvi-pyin ]
-- m. elephant (drinking twice, i. e. with trunk and mouth).


द्विपारि dvipari [ dvipa‿ari ]
-- m. (foe of elephants), lion; -‿indra, m. lord of elephants; lordly or full-grown elephant.


द्विप्रव्राजिनी dvipravrajini [ dvi-pravrgin ]
-- a. f. running after two men, unchaste; -bhu, a. two-armed; m. man; -bhga, m. half; -bhdra, a. having two months of Bhdra; -bhuga, a. two-armed; -mtra, a. twice as great; containing two morae; -mukha, a. () two-mouthed; -mrdhan, a. two-headed; -rada, a. having two tusks; m. elephant; -rtr, a. lasting two days; m. feast lasting two days.


द्विरुक्त dvirukta [ dvir-ukta ]
-- pp. said twice, repeated; reduplicated; n. reduplication; -ukti, f. repetition, doubling.


द्विरूप dvirupa [ dvi-rp ]
-- a. two-coloured; having two forms, twofold; -rets, a. (ass) impregnating doubly (i. e. mare and she-ass); -repha, m. kind of bee (lit. containing two r's in its name bhramara).


द्विर्भाव dvirbhava [ dvir-bhva ]
-- m. doubling, reduplication; duplicity; -vakana, n. reduplication.


द्विलक्ष dvilaksa [ dvi-laksha ]
-- n. distance of two hundred thousand yoganas; -lakshana, a. of two descriptions, twofold; -laya, m. (?) double time (in music); -vakana, n. (terminations of the) dual; -varna, a. two-coloured; -varsha, a. two years old; -varshaka, a. (ik) id.; -vastra, a. clothed in an upper and an under garment; -vidha, a. twofold, of two kinds; -vidh, ad. twofold.

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द्विशत dvisata [ dvi-sata ]
= द ् व ि श त
-- a. () consisting of 200; 200th; n. 200 or 102; -sapha, a. cloven-hoofed; m. animal with cloven hoofs; -sas, ad. by twos; -siras, a. two-headed; -sriṅga, a. having two horns or peaks.

UKT: p128c3-b15 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

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Double-tongued snake

UKT: The snake's double tongue is well cited in English literature, even though we do not know whether the snakes are liars or not. -- 120421

From Shakespeare's  A Midsummer Night's Dream  , Act II, Scene 2
http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/play_view.php?WorkID=midsummer&Act=2&Scene=2&Scope=scene 120421

[Enter TITANIA, with her train] 

Titania. Come, now a roundel and a fairy song;   --  650
  Then, for the third part of a minute, hence;
  Some to kill cankers in the musk-rose buds,
  Some war with rere-mice for their leathern wings,
  To make my small elves coats, and some keep back
  The clamorous owl that nightly hoots and wonders   --  655
  At our quaint spirits. Sing me now asleep;
  Then to your offices and let me rest.
  [The Fairies sing]
  You spotted snakes with double tongue,
  Thorny hedgehogs, be not seen;   --  660
  Newts and blind-worms, do no wrong,
  Come not near our fairy queen.
  Philomel, with melody
  Sing in our sweet lullaby;
  Lulla, lulla, lullaby, lulla, lulla, lullaby: --  665
  Never harm,
  Nor spell nor charm,
  Come our lovely lady nigh;
  So, good night, with lullaby.
  Weaving spiders, come not here;   --  670
  Hence, you long-legg'd spinners, hence!
  Beetles black, approach not near;
  Worm nor snail, do no offence.
  Philomel, with melody, &c.

Fairy. Hence, away! now all is well:   --  675
  One aloof stand sentinel.

[Exeunt Fairies. TITANIA sleeps]

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Dvapara Yoga - the third cosmic age

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvapara_Yuga 120420

Dvapara Yuga or Dwapara Yuga[1] (Skt: द्वापर युग) is the third out of four yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. This yuga comes after Treta Yuga and is followed by Kali Yuga. According to the Puranas this yuga ended at the moment when Krishna returned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. The average lifespan in the Dvapara Yuga is 8,64000 years.[2]

There are only two pillars left of religion in the Dvapara Yuga: Kama and Artha. Lord Vishnu assumes the yellow color and the Vedas are categorized into four parts that is Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva. During these times the Brahmins are knowledgeable of two, sometimes three Vedas, but rarely have studied all the four Vedas thoroughly. Accordingly, because of this categorization, different actions and activities come into existence.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

UKT 120420: Browsing the Net for Dvapara Yoga or Yoga in general, I came across the following article:
   The Wild Boar and the Bear - by Rem Gunon [1]
Source: Studies in Comparative Religion, Vol. 1, No.1. World Wisdom, Inc.
   Suspecting that this journal has ceased to be published, I look in Wikipedia. The following is from Wikipedia:
" Studies in Comparative Religion (ISSN 0039-3622) was a quarterly academic journal published from 19631987 that contained essays on the spiritual practices and religious symbolism of the world's religions. The journal was notable for the number of prominent Perennialists who contributed to it. It was also notable for being the first English-language journal focused on the subject of traditional studies and comparative religion." -- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studies_in_Comparative_Religion 120420
   The following are the first two paragraphs of the essay the Wild Boar and the Bear :

AMONGST the Celts, the wild boar and the bear symbolise respectively spiritual authority and temporal power, that is to say, the two castes of the Druids and Knights, the equivalents, at least originally and in their essential attributes, of the Brahmins and the Kshatriyas. This symbolism in origin clearly Hyperborean, is one of the marks of the direct connection between the Celtic tradition and the primordial tradition of the present Mahayuga (cycle of four "yugas" or ages) whatever other elements from previous but already secondary and derivative traditions may have come to be added to this main current and be, as it were, reabsorbed into it. The point to be made here is that the Celtic tradition could well be regarded as constituting one of the "links" between the Atlantean and Hyperborean traditions, after the end of the secondary period when this Atlantean tradition represented the predominant form and became the "substitute" for the original centre which was already inaccessible to the bulk of humanity.[2] As regards this point also, the very symbolism we have just mentioned can provide some not uninteresting evidence.

Note, in the first place, the importance given to the symbol of the boar by Hindu tradition, which was itself the direct issue of the primordial tradition, and which affirms expressly in the Vda its own Hyperborean origin. The boar (varāha), as is well known, not only represents the third of the ten avatāras of Vishnu in the present Mahayuga, but our entire Kalpa, that is, the whole cycle of manifestation of our world, is designated as Shwtavarāha-Kalpa, the "cycle of the white boar." This being so, and if the analogy which necessarily exists between the great cycle and subordinate cycles is taken into consideration, it is natural that the emblem of the Kalpa, if it may be expressed thus, is to be found once more at the starting point of the Mahayuga. This is why the polar "sacred land," seat of the primordial spiritual centre of this Mahayuga, is also called Vārāhi, or the "land of the boar."[3] Moreover, since it is here that the first spiritual authority dwelt, of which all other legitimate authority of the same order is but an emanation, it is no less natural that representatives of such an authority should have received from it the symbol of the boar also, as their distinctive emblem, and should have kept it throughout. This is why the Druids designated themselves "boars," although since symbolism has always many aspects, we may well have here also an allusion to the isolation in which they kept themselves with regard to the outside world, the wild boar always being regarded as the "solitary" one. Moreover, it must be added that this isolation itself, which took the form, with the Celts as with the Hindus, of a forest retreat, is not unconnected with the characteristics of "primordiality," of which at least some reflection should be maintained in all spiritual authority worthy of the function it fulfils.

UKT: Though what follows is interesting read, I have to stop here.

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The number twelve (12)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/12-number 120420

12 (twelve is the natural number following 11 and preceding 13.

The word "twelve" is the largest number with a single-morpheme name in English. Etymology suggests that "twelve" (similar to "eleven") arises from the Germanic compound twalif "two-leftover", so a literal translation would yield "two remaining [after having ten taken]".[1] This compound meaning may have been transparent to speakers of Old English, but the modern form "twelve" is quite opaque. Only the remaining tw- hints that twelve and two are related.

A group of twelve things is called a duodecad. The ordinal adjective is duodenary, twelfth. The adjective referring to a group consisting of twelve things is duodecuple.

The number twelve is often used as a sales unit in trade, and is often referred to as a dozen. Twelve dozen are known as a gross. (Note that there are thirteen items in a baker's dozen.)

As shown below, the number twelve is frequently cited in the Abrahamic religions and is also central to the Western calendar and units of time.

In mathematics

Twelve is a composite number, the smallest number with exactly six divisors, its divisors being 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12. Twelve is also a highly composite number, the next one being 24. It is the first composite number of the form p2q; a square-prime, and also the first member of the (p2) family in this form. 12 has an aliquot sum of 16 (133% in abundance). Accordingly, 12 is the first abundant number (in fact a superabundant number) and demonstrates an 8 member aliquot sequence; {12,16,15,9,4,3,1,0} 12 is the 3rd composite number in the 3-aliquot tree. The only number which has 12 as its aliquot sum is the square 121. Only 2 other square primes are abundant (18 and 20).

Twelve is a sublime number, a number that has a perfect number of divisors, and the sum of its divisors is also a perfect number. Since there is a subset of 12's proper divisors that add up to 12 (all of them but with 4 excluded), 12 is a semiperfect number.

If an odd perfect number is of the form 12k + 1, it has at least twelve distinct prime factors.

Twelve is a superfactorial, being the product of the first three factorials. Twelve being the product of three and four, the first four positive integers show up in the equation 12 = 3 4, which can be continued with the equation 56 = 7 8.

Twelve is the ninth Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 5, 7, 10, and also appears in the Padovan sequence, preceded by the terms 5, 7, 9 (it is the sum of the first two of these). It is the fourth Pell number, preceded in the sequence by 2 and 5 (it is the sum of the former plus twice the latter).

A twelve-sided polygon is a dodecagon. A twelve-faced polyhedron is a dodecahedron. Regular cubes and octahedrons both have 12 edges, while regular icosahedrons have 12 vertices. Twelve is a pentagonal number. The densest three-dimensional lattice sphere packing has each sphere touching 12 others, and this is almost certainly true for any arrangement of spheres (the Kepler conjecture). Twelve is also the kissing number in three dimensions.

Twelve is the smallest weight for which a cusp form exists. This cusp form is the discriminant Δ(q) whose Fourier coefficients are given by the Ramanujan τ-function and which is (up to a constant multiplier) the 24th power of the Dedekind eta function. This fact is related to a constellation of interesting appearances of the number twelve in mathematics ranging from the value of the Riemann zeta function function at −1 i.e. ζ(−1) = −1/12, the fact that the abelianization of SL(2,Z) has twelve elements, and even the properties of lattice polygons.

There are twelve Jacobian elliptic functions and twelve cubic distance-transitive graphs.

The duodecimal system (1210 [twelve] = 1012), which is the use of 12 as a division factor for many ancient and medieval weights and measures, including hours, probably originates from Mesopotamia.

In base thirteen and higher bases (such as hexadecimal), twelve is represented as C. In base 10, the number 12 is a Harshad number.

In religion

There are twelve 'Jyotirlingas' (epitome of God Shiva) in Hindu Shaivism. The shaivites (orthodox devotees of God Shiva) treat them with great respect and these are visited by almost every pious Hindu at least once in a lifetime. The number 12 is very important in many religions, mainly Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and also found in some older religions and belief systems.

UKT: Is the number 12, important in Bur-Myan and Theravada traditions? I simply don't know! -- 120420

In Antiquity there are numerous magical/religious uses of twelves.[2] Ancient Greek religion, the Twelve Olympians were the principal gods of the pantheon. The chief Norse god, Odin, had 12 sons. Several sets of twelve cities are identified in history as a dodecapolis, the most familiar being the Etruscan League. In the King Arthur Legend, Arthur is said to have subdued 12 rebel princes and to have won 12 great battles against Saxon invaders. [source: Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, 3d ed]

The importance of 12 in Judaism and Christianity can be found in the Bible. The biblical Jacob had 12 sons, who were the progenitors of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, while the New Testament describes twelve apostles of Jesus; when Judas Iscariot was disgraced, a meeting was held (Acts) to add Matthias to complete the number twelve once more. (Today, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.)

The Book of Jude contains much numerical symbolism, and a lot of the numbers mentioned have 12 as a divisor. 12:1 mentions a woman interpreted as the people of Israel, the Church or the Virgin Mary wearing a crown of twelve stars (representing each of the twelve tribes of Israel). Furthermore, there are 12,000 people sealed from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, making a total of 144,000 (which is the square of 12 multiplied by a thousand).

In Orthodox Judaism, 12 signifies the age a girl matures (bat mitzvah)

There are 12 days of Christmas. The song Twelve Days of Christmas came from the traditional practice of extending Yuletide celebrations over the twelve days from Christmas day to the eve of Epiphany; the period of thirteen days including Epiphany is sometimes known as Christmastide. Thus Twelfth Night is another name for the twelfth day of Christmas or January 5 (the eve of Epiphany). Similarly, Eastern Orthodoxy observes 12 Great Feasts.

In Twelver Shi'a Islam, there are twelve Imams, legitimate successors of the prophet Muhammad. These twelve early leaders of Islam areAli, Hasan, Husayn, and nine of Husayn's descendants.

Imāmah (Arabic: إمامة‎) is the Shīah doctrine of religious, spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The Shīah believe that the A'immah ("Imams") are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muḥammad, and Twelver and Ismāīlī Shīah further that Imams are possessed of supernatural knowledge, authority, and infallibility (Iṣmah) as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad.[1] Both beliefs distinguish the Shīah from Sunnis.

In Hinduism, the sun god Surya has 12 names. Also, there are 12 Petals in Anahata (Heart Chakra.)

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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