Update: 2012-06-18 07:30 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{dau:} / {do}
{dau:Sa} / alternate form {dau:Sa}
{dau} : modal register in Bur-Myan
{dauur} : repha

Long time ago, in the early 2000s, when I was studying the Myanmar medicinal plants, and their presentation on an akshara basis, I realized that the medials formed with the approximants {ya.} /j/, {ra.} /ɹ/, {la.} /l/, {wa.} /w/, and {ha.} /h/, form a family of sounds all by themselves. In this file and some files which follow, we see the most prominent medials formed with the voiced dental plosive-stop {da.} /d/ and the approximants. For a separate study of this subject we will have to include {ga.} /g/, {za.} /z/, and {ba.} /b/.

{dya.} : pronunciation problem due to POA (place of articulation)
{dyu.} /djŭ/
{dyu} /dju/

UKT notes :
Verbs and participles : from Online http://www.learnsanskrit.org/ends/verbs 120416

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दैव daiva [ daiva ]
-- a. () peculiar to, (p126c1-top ) coming from, or having to do with the gods, divine; royal; connected with or produced by fate; viv ha, m. or dharma, m. marriage rite of the gods (in which a daughter is given to the officiating ( end p125c3 ) priest); with trtha, n. part of the hand sacred to the gods (the finger-tips); n. deity; rite in honour of the gods; divine dispensation, fate, destiny; good luck: yukte daive, when fate is auspicious; daivam sikshayati, necessity teaches.

UKT: It is noteworthy that the two words,
{d-wa.} (present in both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan)
and {d:wa.} (absent in both Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan), are words referring to the same idea:
देव deva [ dev- ]
-- a. () heavenly, divine (also fig.); celestial, deity, god, divinity (sts. of malevolent beings); (god among men=) priest, Brhman; king, prince; --, chief among; voc. Sire, please your Majesty; , f. goddess; Svitr; Durg; queen, princess. -- Mac124c3


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दैवकृत daivakrta [ daiva-krita ]
-- pp. produced by fate, natural; -gati, f. course of fate; -kinta-ka, a. thinking about --, knowing human fate; m. astrologer; -ga, a. skilled in destiny; m. astrologer; -ga-tva, n. skill in astrology.


दैवत daivata [ daivata ]
-- a. () relating to a deity (worshipped or invoked); divine; n. deity or coll. deities (celebrated in a hymn); having or worshipping - as one's deity (--).


दैवतस् daivatas [ daiva-tas ]
-- ad. by fate, accidentally.

दैवत्य daivatya [ daivat-ya ]
-- a. having as deity, sacred or addressed to (--).


दैवदत्त daivadatta [ daiva-datta ]
-- pp. bestowed by fate, innate; -durvipka, m. ill-ripening dispensa tion=cruelty of fate; -para, a. to whom fate is the chief thing; m. fatalist; -paryana, a. m. id.; -yoga, m. dispensation of fate; -vasa, m. will of fate: ab. accidentally; -vid, a. acquainted with fate; m. astrologer; -vi dhi, m. fate; -sampanna, pp. favoured by fortune: -t, f. abst. n.; -hata-ka, a. buffeted by fortune, unfortunate; accursed; n. accursed fate (Pr.).



दैवादिक daivadika [ daiv-di-ka ]
-- a. belonging to the div or fourth class of verbs.

See my note on verbs and participles .


दैवाद्यन्त daivadyanta [ daiva‿di‿anta ]
-- a. beginning and ending with a rite in honour of the gods.


दैविक daivika [ daiv-ika ]
-- a. peculiar --, sacred to or coming from the gods; n. natural phenomenon.


दैवोढा daivodha [ daiva‿dh ]
-- f. woman married according to the Daiva rite; -‿upahataka, a. buffeted by fortune.


दैव्य daivya [ davya ]
-- a. ( and dav) divine.


दैशिक daisika [ dais-ika ]
-- a. relating to place or space; native; belonging to the country of (--); m. instructor.


दैष्टिकता daistikata [ daisht-ika-t ]
-- f. fatalism.


दैहिक daihika [ daih-ika ]
= द ै ह ि क
-- a. () bodily.


दैह्य daihya [ daih-ya ]
= द ै ह ् य
-- a. being in the body; m. soul.

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{dau:} / {do}

UKT: I am still undecided how to represent the following entries in Romabama. The pronunciation seems to be between {do} (close) & {dau:} (open). They are the mid back-vowels and are very close together. Refer to
   {kau:} / {ko} - p075.htm 
or, to a much earlier page - p059-3.htm
On the second page I have referred to I have written:

The phonemes represented by Skt-Dev ओ & औ have always been a problem in Romabama. This pair is one of the most back and the most open. Moreover, they can be pronounced with various degrees of lip rounding:
   {o} to {AU} - represented in Skt-Dev as ओ
   / {AU:} to {AU} - represented as औ
   The 'flags', ो ौ, on the aksharas should be compared to the those on े {} ै {}
The controversy is due primarily to absence of the series {o.}, {o}, {o:}. The Romabama spellings given below are tentative: they may have to be changed with deeper understanding of the problems involved. -- UKT120121

I will come back to this problem when I go through the whole of A. A. Macdonell later. -- UKT120416



दोग्धव्य dogdhavya [ dog-dhavya ]
-- fp. to be milked; -dhu kma, a. eager to milk, i. e. plunder (ac.); -dhr, m. milker; -dhr, a. f. giving milk; f. milch cow; -dhra, n. milk-pail.


-- n. a metre

-- RV. X. 119, 2

दोर्मूल dormula [ dor-mla ]
-- n. arm-pit.


दोल dola [ dol-a ]
-- m. swinging; (m.) , f. swing, often as symbol of doubt; dooly, bamboo litter (carried on four men's shoulders).

UKT: All I can get is a small snapshot of four men carrying a senior aged monk in a Bur-Myan {wau:}. There was no legend. From the dresses of the men, especially the gentleman following I guess the timeline to be 18th-19th century AD. -- 120416

Photo from Gandawun Shwe Bagan Travels and Tours, 67 Baho Rd, Sanchaung, Yangon.




दोलाय dolaya [ dol-ya ]
-- den. . sway like a swing; fluctuate, waver, be in doubt: pp. dolyita, swaying to and fro.

दोलायुद्ध dolayuddha [ dol-yuddha ]
-- n. wavering battle; -‿rdha, pp. sitting in a dooly; seated on a swing: iva=doubtful as to (--).


दोलोत्सव dolotsava [ dol‿utsava ]
-- m. swinging festival.

दोःशालिन् dohsalin [ doh-slin ]
-- a. strong-armed.

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दोष dosa [ dosh-a ]
-- m. (n.) defect, blemish, failing; bad quality or condition, taint; fault; transgression, crime, sin, guilt, vice; harm, damage, injury; evil; bad consequence; morbid affection, disorder, disease; bodily ( end p126c1 ) (p126c2-top )
humour (there are three such, phlegm, bile, and wind, which when disordered cause disease): in., ab. -tas, in consequence of a bad --, owing to the detrimental effect of (--); -tah saṅk, suspect of a transgression.

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दोषकर dosakara [ dosha-kara ]
-- a. harmful, injurious to (g.); -guna, n. sg. faults and merits; -gun in, a. possessed of faults and merits: (-i)-tva, n. abst. n.; -ga, a. knowing the faults of (--); knowing what is hurtful, wise; -tva, n. faultiness, defectiveness.


दोषन् dosan [ dosh-n ]
-- n. fore-arm; arm.

दोषफल dosaphala [ dosha-phala ]
-- n. effect of sin; a. sinful; -maya, a. consisting of faults.


दोषल dosala [ dosha-la ]
-- a. corrupt, spoilt.

दोषवत् dosavat [ dosha-vat ]
-- a. faulty, defective, blemished; guilty; blamable, sinful; detrimental.


दोषस् dosas [ dosh-s ]
-- n. evening, darkness.

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{dau:Sa} / alternate form {dau:Sa}


दोषा dosa [ dosh- ]
-- f. evening, darkness: -m, in. , in the evening, at night.

दोषाकर dosakara [ dosh-kara ]
-- m. (night-maker), moon.

दोषाक्षर dosaksara [ dosha‿akshara ]
-- m. accusation, reproach.


दोषातन dosatana [ dosh-tana ]
-- a. belonging to the evening, nocturnal.

दोषाय dosaya [ dosh-ya ]
-- den. . become or appear like a fault.

दोषारमण dosaramana [ dosh-ramana ]
-- m. moon.


दोषिन् dosin [ dosh-in ]
-- a. guilty of a transgression.

दोष्मत् dosmat [ dosh-mat ]
-- a. strong-armed, brave.

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दोस् dos [ ds ]
-- n. fore-arm; arm.

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दोह doha [ dh-a ]
-- a. milking, yielding (--); m. milking; milk; profiting by (--).


दोहद dohada [ dohada ]
-- m. [corruption of dau(r) hrida] longing of pregnant women; violent desire, for (lc., --); longing of plants for the touch of a beautiful maiden which elicits their blossoms: -duhkha-sla, a. suffering from mor bid longing during pregnancy: -t, f. morbid condition of longing during pregnancy; -lak shana, n. sign of pregnancy.


दोहदिन् dohadin [ dohad-in ]
-- a. having a violent longing for (lc., --).

दोहन dohana [ doh-na ]
-- a. yielding milk; n. milking; milk-pail (also , f.).

-- m. = dohada

दोहस् dohas [ dh-as ]
-- n. milking.


दोह्य dohya [ dh-ya ]
-- fp. to be milked; n. milk giving animal.

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UKT: The pitch-registers of Bur-Myan for this back-vowel sound are:
   creak: {dau.} / modal: {dau} / emphatic: {dau:}
If you look at the "flags" something seems to be amiss. Romabama solves this problem by adopting the system of "dots": single-dot for creak, zero-dot for modal, and two-dots for emphatic. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT120417


दौत्य  dat-ya, -˚क dautya daut-ya, -ka [ -ka ]
-- n. message, function of a messenger.


दौरात्म्य dauratmya [ daur-tm-ya ]
-- n. wickedness, baseness.

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{dauur} : repha

UKT: Checking a vowel sound with killed-r aka  {ra.t} simply imparts a rhotic sound without actually "stopping" the sound. It is (what I understand) the role of repha. In the present case we have two sounds, from दो & दौ . In A. A. Macdonell we find only the sound of दौ is checked. I wonder whether this has something do with the vowel lengths of the sounds. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT120417


दौर्ग daurga [ daurga ]  {dauur-ga.} (?) -->
-- a. relating to Durg.

दौर्गत्य daurgatya  [ daurgat-ya ]
-- n. distress, misery, poverty.


दौर्गन्ध्य daurgandhya [ daur-gandh-ya ]
-- n. bad odour, stench.

दौर्गह daurgaha [ daurgah ]
-- m. pat. of Purukutsa.


दौर्जन्य daurjanya [ daur-gan-ya ]
-- n. wickedness, baseness.

-- n. weakness


दौर्भाग्य daurbhagya [ dar-bhg-ya ]
-- n. misfortune.

दौर्मनस्य daurmanasya  [ daur-manas-ya ]
-- n. dejection, sadness.


दौर्मन्त्र्य daurmantrya [ daur-mantr-ya ]
-- n. bad counsel. ( end p126c2 )

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दौर्व्रत्य daurvratya [ dar-vrat-ya ]
-- n. disobedience.


दौर्हृद daurhrda [ daur-hrid-a ]
-- m. rogue; *n. longing of pregnant women.

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दौवारिक dauvarika [ dauvr-ika ]
-- m. janitor, chamberlain; , f. female janitor.

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दौश्चर्म्य dauscarmya [ daus-karm-ya ]
= द ौ श ् च र ् म ् य
-- n. skin-disease.


दौःशील्य dauhsilya [ dauh-sl-ya ]
-- n. badness of character, malignity.

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दौष्कृत्य dauskrtya [ daush-krit-ya ]
= द ौ ष ् क ृ त ् य
-- n. baseness, wickedness.

-- n. id.


दौष्यन्त dausyanta [ daushyanta ]
-- a. relating to Dushyanta; m. a mixed caste.

दौष्यन्ति dausyanti [ daushyant-i ]
-- m. pat. of Bharata.


दौःषन्ति dauhsanti [ dahshanti ]
-- older form of Daushyanti.

दौःस्थ्य dauhsthya [ dauh-sth-ya ]
-- n. sorry plight.

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दौहदिक dauhadika [ dauhad-ika ]
-- n. longing, desire.

दौहित्र dauhitra [ dauhitr-a ]
-- m. daughter's son; , f. daughter's daughter.

दौहृद dauhrda [ dauhrid-a ]
-- n. longing in pregnancy.

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UKT: This could have been a medial formed from {da.} /d/ and the medial former {ya.} /j/. The "medial" formed is written as a {ya.ping.} as {dya.} /dja/. Now, if you look into my mappings pulmonic consonants of Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev into the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) table http://www.tuninst.net/Eng-phon/Eng-phon-indx.htm#Map-con-note 120417 taking note of the POA (place of articulation), you will see that {da.} /d/ is dental-plosive and that {ya.} /j/ is palatal-approximant. These two POAs are quite far apart for your vocal apparatus (viz. the tip, the middle and the root of your tongue) to manipulate. The result is, {dya.} is pronounced as a disyllable and not as a medial. Most Bur-Myan, including me, pronounce it by insertion of a schwa: /də.ja/. We have seen the same phenomena in {tya.} formed from /t/ & /j/ . See p112.htm .

In entries with /u/ addition below, I find that I can articulate without addition of /ə/. Thus:
     creak {dyu.} /djŭ/ 
     modal  {dyu} /dju/ 
     emphatic  {dyu:} /djuː/
can be pronounced as monosyllables.
(Note for ease of transcription Romabama uses IPA suprasegmentals for pitch-registers)
-- UKT120417


द्यावा dyava [ dyv ]
= द ् य ा व ा
-- du. (of div) night and morning: -kshm, f. du. heaven and earth; -prithiv&isharp;, f. du. heaven and earth.

द्यावापृथिवीय dyavaprthiviya [ dyv-prithivya ]
-- a. relating or sacred to heaven and earth.

द्यावाभूमि dyavabhumi [ dyv-bh&usharp;mi ]
-- f. du. heaven and earth.

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The creak {dyu.} /djŭ/ , the modal  {dyu} /dju/ , and the emphatic  {dyu:} /djuː/ can be pronounced as monosyllables. Of course, if I would like to add a little bit of style of my own I can always insert a schwa, and pronounce them as disyllables. -- UKT120418


[DYU] II. P.
-- dyauti , rush at, attack

द्यु dyu [ dy ]
-- m. sky; brightness, glow; m. n. day (v. div).

द्युक्ष dyuksa [ dyu-ksh ]
-- a. heavenly, bright; -kara, a. moving in heaven; m. celestial.


द्युत् dyut [ 1. dyt ] I. (E. also P.) .
-- dyota , flash, gleam, shine; ...

द्युत् dyut [ 2. dyt ]
-- pp. dyutt , broken; cs. dyotya , P. break open

द्युत् dyut [ 3. dyt ]
-- f. splendour.


द्युतय dyutaya [ dyuta-ya ]
-- den. P. vi, flash, lighten.

द्युति dyuti [ dyut-i ]
-- f. radiance, splendour; beauty; dignity: -mat, a. brilliant, splendid, glorious; dignified.


-- n. sg. & f. du. day and night; -nisa , n. id.: only -m , for a day and a night, by day and by night; -pati , m. (lord of heaven), god; ...

द्युमार्ग dyumarga [ dyu-mrga ]
-- m. (sky-way), air, sky.


द्युम्न dyumna [ dyu-mn ]
-- n. splendour; vigour; wealth, property.

द्युम्निन् dyumnin [ dyumn-n ]
-- a. splendid; strong; spirited.


द्युयोषित् dyuyosit [ dyu-yoshit ]
= द ् य ु य ो ष ि त ्
-- f. celestial female, Apsaras; -loka, m. celestial world; -vadh, f. celestial female, Apsaras; -shad, m. (sky dweller), god; -saras, n. lake of heaven; -sarit, f. celestial river, Ganges; -sindhu, f. id.; -str, f. celestial female, Apsaras.


{dyu} /dju/


द्यू dyu [ dy&usharp; ]
= द ् य ू
-- a. playing (--); f. game of dice.

UKT: p126c3-b17 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

Verbs and Participles

UKT 120416: There are many online Sanskrit grammars. The following is one which seems to be easy to follow. I am giving only the first few pages:

From: http://www.learnsanskrit.org/ends/verbs 120416

In this chapter, we will bring our study of verbs to a close. First, we will study three endings that we have avoided throughout this guide: the second-person dual ("you two"), the second-person plural ("you all"), and the third-person dual ("the two of them"). Next, we will study some very rare verb forms, one of which hardly ever appears in Sanskrit texts. Finally, we will study a fourth kind of participle. Moreover, we will give a quick look to how verb prefixes behave in Vedic literature.

Three missing endings

All throughout this guide, we have avoided studying two endings from the second person and one ending from the third person. The simple reason for this exclusion is that these endings rarely occur occur. Before, it was simply not worth the time to study these three endings. But now that we're bringing our Sanskrit studies here to a close, we might as well learn them.

A verb is in one of two verb classes (simple / complex), takes one of two "modes" (parasmaipada / ātmanepada), and appears in four forms that rely on the verb's class (present tense, ordinary past tense, option mood, command mood). Since we have skipped 3 endings from each table, this gives us 48 endings to study in theory. But in practice, this number is lower. Moreover, regular correspondences make the endings easier to remember.

In the tables below, all endings are attached directly to the stem.
(UKT note to TIL editor: The tables below are the original tables. You may leave them as they are because they show perfectly well on the TIL webpage. -- 120416)

Present tense

Three endings (all verb classes, P)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   तः
Second Person   थः
Three endings (simple verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   ईते
Second Person   ईथे
Three endings (complex verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   आते
Second Person   आथे

The ī in the second set of endings produces forms like labhete


Ordinary Past Tense & Command Mood

Three endings (all verb classes, P)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   ताम्
Second Person   तम्
Three endings (simple verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   ईताम्
Second Person   ईथाम्
Three endings (complex verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   आताम्
Second Person   आथाम्


Option Mood

The endings for the option mood are the same as the ones for the ordinary past tense and the command mood. However, these endings use a special prefix to indicate that the option mood is in effect.

Simple para Complex para Simple & Complex ātma
  ī   yā   īyā

The prefix īyā replaces the ā/ī already at the front of these endings, and the 2nd-person plural is slightly different:

Three endings (all verb classes, A)
Singular Dual Plural
Third Person   ईयाताम्
Second Person   ईयाथाम्

UKT: There are more on this website.

Go back verbs-participles-note-b

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