Update: 2012-06-22 08:28 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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{d:} दुः duh : Note to html editor: bookmark as {du13}
{dur} : repha

दोषावस्तर् dosavastar [ dsh-vastar ]
-- m. vc. illuminer of gloom (RV.).

UKT notes
Generally repha in Skt-Dev is changed into same consonant-conjunct in Pal-Myan. However there are exceptions. An example is given below:

दीर्घ dirgha [ drgh ] =  द ी र ् घ --> {diir~Ga.}
Skt: -- a. long (in space and time): -m, ad.; m. long vowel. -- Mac121c1
Pal: {di-Ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0473

UKT from UHS: mfn. long (length), tall (height), long (duration). m. snake

Two-three tone problem of back vowel /u/ and {du.wicsa} दुः duh 
- though I have come across this orthography while doing
http://www.tuninst.net/SED-TIL/SED-con-r4/du1/du1-084b2-3.htm 120410 (e.g. Skt: दुःख (duHkha) 'sorrow' - OnlineSktDict, and Skt: दुःख duhkha 'suffering' - SpkSkt ), I had not paid close attention because I was pressed for time. I had simply pointed its similarity to Pal: dukkha (UPMT-PED112) and {doak~hka.} - - UHS-PMD0472 . This is the first-time I am paying attention to this problem. -- UKT120410

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दीपपादप dipapadapa [ dpa-pdapa ]
-- m. lamp (stand); ( end p120c3 ) (p121c1-top )
-bhgana, n. lamp; -ml, f. row of lamps; -mlik, f. id.; -varti, f. lamp-wick.

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दीपालोक dipaloka [ dpa‿loka ]
-- m. lamp-light; -‿vali, f. row of lamps.

दीपिका dipika [ dp-ik ]
-- f. lamp; often -- in titles of books: -dhrin, f. female lamp-bearer.

दीपिन् dipin [ dp-in ]
-- a. inflaming, kindling (--).


दीप्तकिरण diptakirana [ dpta-kirana ]
-- a. hot-rayed.

दीप्तांशु diptaṃsu [ dpta‿amsu ]
-- a. id.; m. sun; -‿aksha, a. () having flaming eyes; m. N. of an owl.


दीप्ति dipti [ dĩp-ti ] f. radiance; brilliance, grace; N. of a god ( one of the Visvedevas ) [ विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ ].

See my note on Visvedeva (Skt: विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ "all-gods") are the various Vedic gods taken together as a whole.


दीप्तिमत् diptimat [ dpti-mat ]
-- a. radiant, brilliant.

दीप्तौजस् diptaujas [ dpta‿ogas ]
-- a. of fervent energy; hot-blooded.


दीप्र dipra [ dp-ra ]
-- a. shining, radiant.

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दीर्घ dirgha [ drgh ] {diir~Ga.}
=  द ी र ् घ
Skt: -- a. long (in space and time): -m, ad.; m. long vowel. -- Mac121c1
Pal: {di-Ga.}
- - UHS-PMD0473

UKT from UHS: mfn. long (length), tall (height), long (duration). m. snake


दीर्घकर्ण dirghakarna [ drgha-karna ]
-- m. Long-ear, N. of a cat; -klam, ac. ad. for a long time; -gaṅ gha, m. Long-shanks, N. of a Yaksha; -gvin, a. long-lived; -tapas, m. N. of a Rishi; () tamas, m. N. of a sage; -t, f. length; -tva, n. id.; -tkshna-mukha, a. () having a long and pointed mouth; -darsi-t, f. far-sightedness, providence; -darsin, a. far-seeing; -nidr, f. long sleep; sleep of death; -bhu, a. long-armed; -mukha, a. () long-mouthed, long-beaked; -rva, m. Long-yell, N. of a jackal; -rosha, a. whose wrath lasts long, bearing a lingering grudge: -t, f. abst. n.; -roshana, a. id.; -lokana, a. long-eyed; -sriṅga, a. long-horned; -srt, a. audible afar; far-famed; -sattr, n. Soma sacrifice of long duration; a. engaged in a --; -sattrn, a. id.; -samdhya, a. praying long at the Samdhys: -tva, n. long continuance of prayer at the Samdhys; -stra, a. (long-threaded), dilatory, procrastinating: -t, f. dilatoriness, procrastination [UKT: putting things off due to laziness]; -strin, a. id.


दीर्घाक्ष dirghaksa [ drgha‿aksha ]
-- a. long-eyed.

दीर्घाधी dirghadhi [ drgh-dh ]
-- a. of far-reaching care.

दीर्घायु dirghayu [ drgha‿yu ]
-- a. long-lived: -tv, n. longevity; ayus, a. long-lived.


दीर्घिका dirghika [ drgh-ik ]
-- f. oblong pond.

-- lengthen; prolong

दीर्घोच्छ्वासम् dirghocchvasam [ drgha‿ukkhvsam ]
-- ad. with a deep sigh.


दीवन divana [ dv-ana ]
-- n. playing with dice.

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Two-three tone problem of back vowel /u/

Skt-Dev:   दु du (short),  दू dū (long), दुः duh (?)
Bur-Myan: {du.} (creak), {du} (modal), {du:} (emphatic)

Since Skt-Dev must have been spoken in ancient Myanmar of Pagan period, or even before that, during the time of King Abiraja in Tagaung (before the birth of Gautama Buddha in India), the syllable दुः duh would have been pronounced by the local population.
   Phonemically would I say Skt-Dev दुः duh is the same as Bur-Myan {du:} (emphatic) ? What is the influence of Skt-Dev visarga ः on pronunciation? I am not even sure how to call {du.}-wicsa. Tentatively, I will call this by its generic-name "{du.}-wicsa". Moreover how would I, a modern Tib-Bur speaker pronounce it?
   I am proposing to represent Skt-Dev orthographies such as दुः with 'acute diacritics', i.e. {d:} (alt+0250). I am waiting for input from my peers. -- UKT120411


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दु [DU], V.P.
-- duno , IV. (P.) , dya , burn; be pained, be consumed with sorrow or remorse; tr. duno , burn, cause pain to, torment, afflict : pp. ...


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{d:} दुः duh


दुःकृत duhkrta [ duh-krita ]
-- pp., v. dush-krita.

दुःख duhkha [ duh-kh ]  {d:hka.}
Skt: -- a. unpleasant, fraught with hardship, wretched; n. pain, hardship, misery, suffering: -m, in., ab., -, with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, reluctantly; -m s, stand sorrow fully. -- Mac121c1
Skt: दुःख (duHkha) 'sorrow' - OnlineSktDict
Skt: दुःख duhkha 'suffering' - SpkSkt
Pal: {doak~hka.}
- - UHS-PMD0472

UKT from UHS: mfn. suffering, being despised, being hurt. n. financial straits, physical suffering. adj. being despised.



दुःखकर duhkhakara [ duhkha-kara ]
-- a. afflicting (g.); -gata, n. adversity, misfortune; -graha, a. hard to comprehend; -kkhedya, fp. hard to destroy; -gvin, a. living in distress; -tara, cpv. more unpleasant or distressing; n. greater affliction, hardship, or evil; -t, f. discomfort, distress,
( end p121c1 ) (p121c2-top )
affliction; -duhkha, n. in. with great difficulty; -prya, a. abounding in woe; -bhgin, a. having misfortune for one's lot, unfortunate; -bhg, a. id.


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दुःखमोह duhkhamoha [ duhkha-moha ]
-- m. despair.

दुःखय duhkhaya [ duhkha-ya ]
-- den. P. afflict, distress (ac.).


दुःखयन्त्र duhkhayantra [ duhkha-yantra ]
-- n. torture; -yoga, m. infliction of pain; -vega, m. violent pain; -sla, a. whose character is difficult to deal with, hard to please, exacting; -sparsa, a. unpleasant to the touch; -han, a. destroying misery.


-- m. afflictor

दुःखाकर duhkhakara [ duhkha‿kara ]
-- m. multitude of afflictions.

दुःखाकुल duhkhakula [ duhkha‿kula ]
-- a. sorrowful; -‿anta, m. end of suffering; final liberation.


-- cause pain to, afflict, distress

दुःखाय duhkhaya [ duhkh-ya ]
-- den. . feel pain; be afflicted.

दुःखार्त duhkharta [ duhkha‿rta ]
-- a. distressed.


दुःखित duhkhita [ duhkh-ita ]
-- pp. suffering, afflicted, distressed.

दुःखिता duhkhita [ duhkhi-t ]
-- f. suffering, affliction, distress.

दुःखिन् duhkhin [ duhkh-in ]
-- a. suffering; afflicted.


दुःखीय duhkhiya [ duhkh-ya ]
-- den. P. suffer pain, be harassed.

दुःखोपघात duhkhopaghata [ duhkha‿upaghta ]
-- m. violent pain; -‿upakarya, a. hard to get on with, difficult to please; -upasamana, n. alleviative of pain, anodyne.

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दुकूल dukula [ dukla ]
-- m. a plant; n. kind of cloth; garment made of this cloth.

दुग्ध dugdha [ dug-dh ]
-- pp. √duh; n. milk; sap.

दुग्धद dugdhada [ dugdha-da ]
-- a. yielding milk; -‿abdhi, m. ocean of milk.

दुघ dugha [ dugh-a ]
-- a. milking, yielding (--); dgh, f. milch cow.


दुच्छुना ducchuna [ dukkhn ]
-- f. calamity; demon.

दुधि dudhi [ ddhi ]
-- a. impetuous, wild.

दुधुक्षु dudhuksu [ du-dhuk-shu ]
-- des. a. wishing to milk.


दुध्र dudhra [ dudhr ]
-- a. impetuous, wild.

दुध्रुक्षु dudhruksu [ du-dhruk-shu ]
-- a. wishing to hurt, treacherously inclined.


दुन्दुभ dundubha [ dundubha ]
-- m. kind of aquatic animal.

दुन्दुभि dundubhi [ dundubh ]
-- m. f. (kettle) drum; , f. id.: i‿ght, m. drummer.


दुर् dur [ dr ]  {dur}
-- f. door.


दुरतिक्रम duratikrama [ dur-atikrama ]
-- a. hard to get over, overcome, or escape from; -atyaya, a. id.; -adhiga, a. hard to attain; -adhigama, a. id.; hard to be learned; -adhyaya, a. hard to obtain; -adhyavasya, m. foolish under taking; -anushtheya, fp. hard to carry out.


दुरन्त duranta [ dur-anta ]
-- a. whose end is hard to find, endless; ending badly: -deva, m. god of what is hard to end, Ganesa; -apavda, m. slander; -abhiprya, a. evil-intentioned; -abhibhava, a. hard to overcome or surpass; -abhimnin, a. unpleasantly arrogant; -abhiraksha, a. difficult to guard; -abhisamdhi, m. evil in tent; -avagama, a. hard to understand; -ava gha, a. hard to penetrate; -avagraha, a. hard to check, irresistible; -avabodha, a. hard to understand; -avaroha, a. hard to descend
(end p121c2 ) (p121c3-top )
to; -avpa, a. hard to obtain, acquire, fulfil, or realise.


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दुराकृति durakrti [ dur-kriti ]
a. mis-shapen, deformed, ugly; -kranda, a. having bad friends, friendless; -gama, m. dishonest acquisition; -kara, a. () hard to practise; difficult to treat or cure; -kra, m. bad conduct or custom; a. ill-behaved, of bad conduct, impious; -tma-t, f. wickedness, baseness; -tman, a. evil-minded, wicked, base, impious; -tma vat, a. id.; -dhara, a. hard to check, irresistible; hard to obtain; hard to guard; - dhrsha, a. hard to attack; dangerous; -na ma, a. hard to bend (bow); -pa, a. hard to come up with; hard to attain; -rdhya, fp. hard to conciliate; hard to worship; -ruha, a. hard to climb; -ropa, a. hard to string; -roha, a. hard to climb or ascend to: -t, f. abst. n.; -lakshya, fp. hard to perceive; -lamba, a. hard to gain a footing on; -lam bha, a. hard to grasp; -loka, a. hard to perceive; -vara, a. hard to close or protect; -vaha, a. hard to conduct to (--); -vra, a. hard to close; difficult to check; -vsin, a. having bad quarters; -v, a. hard to pass (v. l. duryya).


दुराशय durasaya [ dur-saya ]
-- a. having evil thoughts; -s, f. vain --, false hope; despair of (lc.); -sis, a. having evil wishes or intentions; -sada, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to find; difficult to accomplish.


दुरित durita [ dur-it ] (pp.)
-- n. faring ill, distress, harm; misdeed, foul means, sin; a. difficult, evil, bad.

दुरितात्मन् duritatman [ durita‿tman ]
-- a. ill-disposed.

दुरीक्ष duriksa [ dur-ksha ]
-- a. hard to see: -t, f. abst. n.; -sa, m. evil master; -ha, a. ill intentioned.


दुरुक्त durukta [ dur-ukt ]
-- pp. spoken falsely, rashly, or offensively (n. word --); harshly addressed; n. false, rash, or offensive word; -ukti, f. harsh or offensive word; -ukkheda, a. hard to exterminate; -uttara, a. hard to overcome; -utsaha, a. hard to bear; -resist; -udhara, a. hard to utter; -udvaha, a. hard to bear; -upakra, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to deal with; -upadishta, pp. badly instructed; -upadesa, m. bad advice; -upapda, a. hard to bring about or manage; difficult to prove; -upalaksha, a. hard to perceive; -upasarpin, a. approaching incautiously.


दुरूह duruha [ dur-ha ]
-- a. hard to comprehend.

दुरोण durona [ duron ]
-- n. house, dwelling.

दुरोदर durodara [ durodara ]
m. dice-player; die; n. game of dice.

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{dur} : repha


दुर्ग durga [ dur-g ]
-- a. hard to pass, impassable, in accessible (to or owing to, --); m. N.; , f. N. of Siva's wife; N. of a princess; m. n. difficult road; place inaccessible owing to (--); shunned spot; difficulty, danger; n. un evenness, height; fastness, stronghold.

See my note on Goddess Durga -- the first Hindu goddess introduced to me at Ramakhishna Society in Thompson St., East Rangoon. I was still in my pre-teens.


-- m. N. of a fortress

दुर्गत durgata [ dur-gata ]
-- pp. faring ill, being in a bad way or in distress, poor: -t, f. ill plight, misery, poverty.

दुर्गति durgati [ dur-gati ]
-- a. id.; f. distress, misfor tune, poverty.

दुर्गदेश durgadesa [ durga-desa ]
-- m. impassable region.

दुर्गन्ध durgandha [ dur-gandha ]
-- m. bad smell; a. malodorous: -t, f. bad odour; -gandhi, a. ill smelling, stinking.

दुर्गपति durgapati [ durga-pati ]
-- m. commander of a for tress; -pla, m. id. ( end of p121c3 )


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UKT notes

Visvedeva  विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ

UKT: Do not get confused because of the colon-like double dot and the English-plural <s>.
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visvedevas 120408

The Visvedevas (Skt: विश्वेदेवाः viśve-devāḥ "all-gods") are the various Vedic gods taken together as a whole. In the Rigveda a number of hymns are addressed to them, including (according to Griffith) 1.89, 3.54-56, 4.55, 5.41-51, 6.49-52, 7.34-37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 8.27-30, 58, 83 10.31, 35, 36, 56, 57, 61-66, 92, 93, 100, 101, 109, 114, 126, 128, 137, 141, 157, 165, 181.

RV 3. 54.17 addresses them as headed by Indra,

This is, ye Wise, your great and glorious title, that all ye Deities abide in Indra. (trans. Griffith)

The dichotomy between Devas and Asuras is not evident in these hymns, and Devas are invoked together with Asuras such as Mitra and Varuna.

In later Hinduism, they form one of the nine ganadevatas (along with the Adityas, Vasus, Tushitas, Abhasvaras, Anilas, Maharajikas, Sadhyas, and Rudras). [UKT ]

UKT: The <s> at the end of the names seems to be the English-plural <s> and will be removed in due course. -- UKT120408

According to the Vishnu Purana, they were the sons of Vishvā, a daughter of Daksha, enumerated as follows: 1. Vasu 2. Satya 3. Kratu 4. Daksha, 5. Kala 6. Kama 7. Dhrti 8. Kuru 9. Pururavas 10. Madravas, with two others added by some, 11. Rocaka or Locana, 12. Dhvani Dhuri .

Sometimes it is unclear whether a reference to vishve-devas refers to all Devas collectively, as in the Rigveda, or to the specific group as enumerated in the Puranas.

According to Manu (iii, 90, 121), offerings should be made daily to the Visvedevas. These privileges were bestowed on them by Brahma and the Pitri as a reward for severe austerities they had performed on the Himalaya.[1]

The Visvedevas are the most comprehensive gathering of gods. They answer to the concern that no divinity should be omitted from praise.[2]

UKT: End of Wiki stub.

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