Update: 2012-06-22 08:27 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

MC-indx | Top

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UKT notes :
Denarius - the Roman coin Divodasa - founder of Ayuveda

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दिवसकर divasakara [ divasa-kara ]
-- m. (day-maker), sun; -kshaya, m. decline of day, evening; -kara, a. moving by day (animal); -ntha, m. (lord of day), sun; -bhartri, m. id.; -mukha, n. day-break; -vra, m. week-day; -vigama, m. decline of day; -vypra, m. daily functions (such as ablutions etc.).


-- turn into day

दिवसेश्वर divasesvara [ divasa‿svara ]
-- m. (lord of day), sun.

दिवस्पति divaspati [ divas-pati ]
-- m. ep. of Indra or Vishnu.

-- a. reaching heaven

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दिवा diva [ dv ]
Skt: -- ad. by day: sts. subject of a sentence or --,=day. -- Mac120c1
Pal: {di.wa}
- - UHS-PMD0472

UKT from UHS: during the day, during the course of the day

दिवाकर divakara [ div-kar ]
-- m. (day-maker), sun; -krti, m. Kandla (so called because allowed to appear in public only during the day-time); -krty, a. to be recited by day; n. certain chants; m. Kandla; -kara, a. going about by day; -krin, a. id.


दिवातन divatana [ div-tana ]
-- a. () diurnal.

दिवातिथि divatithi [ div‿atithi ]
-- m. guest arriving by day.

दिवादि divadi [ diva‿di ]
-- m. morning.


दिवानक्तम् divanaktam [ div-naktam ]
-- ad. by day and night; -nidr, f. sleeping by day; -nisam, ad. day and night.

दिवान्ध divandha [ diva‿andha ]
-- a. blind by day; m. owl.


दिवाभीत divabhita [ div-bhta ]
-- m. owl; thief.

दिवारात्रम् divaratram [ div-rtram ]
-- ad. by day and night; -saya, a. sleeping by day: -t, f. abst. n.; -svapna, m. n. sleeping by day.

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दिविगत divigata [ divi-gata ]
-- pp. celestial; -kara, a. moving in heaven; -krin, a. id.; m. celestial.

दिविर divira [ divira ]
-- m. scribe.


दिविषद् divisad [ divi-shd ]
-- a. dwelling in heaven; m. god: -adhvan, m. path of the gods, sky.

-- a. touching heaven


-- m. N.

See my note on Divodasa - the founder of Ayuveda.

दिवौकस् divaukas [ diva‿okas ]
-- m. heaven-dweller, god.


दिव्य divya [ div-y ]
Skt: -- a. celestial; divine; magical; heavenly; magnificent; n. the divine (pl. the heavens); ordeal, oath. -- Mac120c1
Pal: {di.wya.}
- - UHS-PMD0473

UKT from UHS: mfn. come into existence in {nt p} 'deva country'.


दिव्यक्रिया divyakriya [ divya-kriy ]
-- f. employment of an ordeal; -kakshus, n. divine eye transcending time and space; a. having a divine eye, for (--); -gna, a. possessed of divine knowledge; -t, f. divine nature; -darsin, -dris, a. having a divine eye transcending time and space; -nad, f. celestial river; -nr, f. celestial woman, Apsaras; -purusha, m. demi-god, spirit; -pragna-slin, a. possessed of divine knowledge; -mnusha, m. demi-god; -rpa, a. having a divine form; -vi gna-vat, a. possessed of divine knowledge; -samksa, a. resembling or reminding of heaven; -str, f. divine woman, Apsaras.


दिव्याकृति divyakrti [ divya‿kriti ]
-- a. of divine form, divinely beautiful; -‿aṅgan, f. divine woman, Apsaras; -‿aushadha, n. magical spell or potion.

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p120c1-b12 & p120c2-top


-- dis , III. P.  dideshti , (V.) point out, show; produce (witness); assign, grant; pay (tribute); direct, command; bid (inf.): pp.  ...



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-- f. direction, point of compass, quarter (four, N. S., E., W.; eight, the same + ...




-- a. making for the distance, taking to his heels; -yyin , a spreading in all directions.

दिश्य disya [ ds-ya ]
-- a. belonging or referring to the quarters or horizon; foreign (ware).


दिष्ट dista [ dish-ta ]
-- pp. √dis; n. direction, order; destiny, fate; place designated: -para, a. trusting to fate; m. fatalist; -bhva, m. destined state, death; -‿anta, m. destined end, death.

दिष्टि disti [ dish-ti ] f. direction, order; luck: only in. dishty, by good luck=ij. thank heaven!

दिष्टिवृद्धि distivrddhi [ dishti-vriddhi ]
-- f. congratulation.


[DIH] II. P.
-- dg-dhi , smear, anoint; pp. digdh , anointed; smeared; soiled; defiled, by (in. or --); poisoned; touched by (in.). upa , pp. overlaid with ( --). pra , smear ...
( end p120c2 )
(p120c3-top )



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-- f. N.

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UKT: Phonemically, {di} is the middle pitch-register of Bur-Myan series:

creak {di.};  modal {di};  emphatic {di:}.

Keeping in mind the Two-three tone problem between Eng-Lat and Bur-Myan as our guide in pronunciation, we can say that this series would correspond to Skt-Dev:

short दि d i ;  long दी d ī
note the diacritic over < i >.

Also please bear in mind that in Bur-Myan, it is usually the {di.} that is checked by killed-consonants. However in Pal-Myan and Skt-Myan both {di.} and {di} can be checked.
   Please note that this position is mine is being formed in my mind in developing a reliable Skt-Myan language (speech and script) which I would need when I go into the voluminous literature (?) on Nakshatra Astrology written in Bur-Myan. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT120408

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दी [1. DI] IV. P.
-- dya , fly, soar, nis , fly forth. pari , fly around

दी [2. DI]
-- . shine, did . ni , beam down (ac.) on (d., lc.)


[DIKSH] I. .
-- diksha , consecrate oneself (esp. for the Soma sacrifice); pp. dikshita , q.v.; cs. dikshya , P. . hallow


दीक्षण diksana [ dksh-ana ]
-- n. consecration; -anĩya, fp. relating to consecration; -ayi-tri, m. consecrator.

दीक्षा diksa [ dksh- ] {diik~Sa}
= द ी क ् ष ा
Skt: -- f. consecration; (undergoing) a religious observance for a particular purpose; solemn preparation; devotion to (--); first acquaintance with (--); personified as wife of Soma. - Mac120c3
Pal: {daik~hka}
- - UHS-PMD0468

UKT from UHS: f. act of worship, sacrificial worship
UKT note: Observe the change in orthography in:
   Skt: {diik~Sa} --> Pal: {daik~hka}
It is such changes which has led me to suggest that Pali is more open than Sanskrit.


दीक्षागुरु diksaguru [ dksh-guru ]
-- m. teacher initiating in (--); -pla, m. guardian of consecration, ep. of Agni and Vishnu.


दीक्षित diksita [ dksh-it ]
-- pp. consecrated or prepared for (in., d., --); often at beg. and end of names: -m kri, initiate; -vimit, n. hut for those to be consecrated for the Soma rite.

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-- dideti , shine

दीदिवि didivi [ dĩ-div-i ]
-- a. shining.

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-- ddhe , didhi , appear; perceive. abhi , consider. , bethink onself. ud , look longingly up to.


दीधिति didhiti [ 1. dĩdhi-ti ]
-- f. devotion.

दीधिति didhiti [ 2. dĩdhi-ti ]
-- f. sheen, brightness; ray; splendour, lustre.


दीध्यान didhyana [ dĩdhi‿na ]
-- pr. pt. (of ddhi) looking towards.

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दीन dina [ d-n ]
-- a. scanty; weak; wretched, miserable, pitiful: -m, ad. -ly; n. wretchedness.

दीनक dinaka [ dna-ka ]
-- a. very pitiful: -m, ad.; -kitta, a. dejected, miserable; -ketana, a. id.; -t, f. scantiness; weakness; ()-dak sha, a. dull-witted; -dsa, m. a Sdra N.; -dna, a. being in a most wretched plight; -manas, -mnasa, a. sad-hearted, sorrowful; -rpa, a. of sad mien; -vadana, a. sad-faced; -sattva, a. low-spirited.


-- m. a gold coin (denarius)

See my note on Denarius - the Roman coin
and compare it to Bur-Myan {dn~ga:} (MED2006-213) - the royal Burmese gold coin.


दीनास्य dinasya [ dna‿sya ]
-- a. sad-faced.

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[DIP] IV. .
-- dĩpya , flame, blaze; beam, burn : pp. dipta , blazing; shining; brilliant;




दीप dipa [ dp-a ]
-- m. lamp, lantern: -ka, a. in flaming; illuminating; m. lamp.

-- f. T. of a commentary on Ygavalkya.

दीपन dipana [ dp-ana ]
-- a. () inflaming, exciting; promoting digestion; n. setting on fire; il luminating.

UKT: p120c3-b16 moved to the next file.

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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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See this page in simple ASCII
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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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Denarius - the Roman coin

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denarius 120408

In the Roman currency system, the denarius (plural: denarii) was a small silver coin first minted in 211 BC. It was the most common coin produced for circulation but was slowly debased until its replacement by the antoninianus. The word denarius is derived from the Latin dēnī "containing ten", as its value was 10 asses; it may also be the origin of the word dinar (see that page for further discussion).

UKT: The only mention of {daung:} {dn~ga:} in Wiki is given below:
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_kyat 120408

In 1852, King Mindon, the second last king of Burma, established the Royal Mint in Mandalay (Central Burma). The dies were made in Paris. Silver coins were minted in denominations of 1 pe {p:}, 1 mu (2 pe) {mu:}, 1 mat (4 pe) {mt}, 5 mu (10 pe) [UKT: note below on 'half kyat'] and 1 kyat {kyp} , with gold 1 pe and 1 mu. [UKT ]

UKT note on {nga:mu:} 'half-kyat' : I was raised on this system under the British Raj in my childhood up to the outbreak of Second World War. Half a kyat was equal to 4 mu and not 5. We call this the {kyp p: pra:} system. Earlier when my parents were young, they had the {kyp p: ping} system where the {ping} was the subunit of {pya:}

We were told that the traditional Burmese decimal system became corrupted under the British colonizer who imported the idea from Britain where they used fractions instead of decimals.

The obverses bore the Royal Peacock Seal, from which the coins got their name. The reverse contained the denomination and mint date (in the Burmese era, which starts from AD 638). In the 1860s and 1870s, lead coins were issued for ⅛ and pya, with copper, brass, tin and iron pe (1 pya) and copper 2 pya. Further gold coins were issued in 1866 for 1 pe, 2 mu and 1 kyat, with 5 mu issued in 1878.

Go back Denarius-note-b

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Divodasa - founder of Ayuveda

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divodasa 120407

Divodāsa ("heaven's servant") is a name of a tribal king in the Rigveda (celebrated for his liberality and protected by Indra and the Ashvins in the Rigveda, RV 1.112.14; 1.116.18), the son of Vadhryashva RV 6.61.5. He is the father of the famous Sudas (RV 7.18.28) (of the Battle of the Ten Kings).

It is also the name of a king of Kashi surnamed Dhanvantari as per the hymn (RV 10.179.2). The founder of the Indian school of medicine called Ayurveda.[1]

UKT: We only think of Ayurveda as a herbal medicine. However, I have read somewhere that there was also a surgical branch which was frowned upon beginning with King Asoka becoming  against the taking of life. Though Asoka was a war-loving expansionist, he was shocked when he  realized that he was the cause of great loss of life during his campaign in Talingana. From then on he became a Buddhist being guided by his queen Devi. He abolished the death penalty in his kingdom. Read the many sources on the Internet such as: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashoka 120407, to check what I have said above. -- UKT120407

From http://ayurvedaayurveda.com/salya_chikilsa 120407

Salya Chikilsa is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the removal of foreign matter through surgery (the term Salya means foreign body). This branch, otherwise known as Dhanwantariya Sampradaya and one of the two main schools of Ayurveda, was founded by Divodasa Dhanwanthari. It was later developed by his student the great Maharishi Susrutha.

The first known surgeon in the world and the father of surgery, Susrutha was the first to describe the anatomy of the human body by dissecting cadavers. He also documented his knowledge in Susruta Samhita, the magnum opus of ancient Indian surgery. It gives a clear picture of the theory and practice of surgery at that time.

His book on surgery, Salya Chikilsa, describes various surgical operations and the devices used in performing them. In it he classified surgical instruments into two: yantra (blunt) and shastra (sharp). The yantras were further divided into one hundred and one instruments and classified into six types.

01. Svastika (Curved). 02. Samdamsa (Forceps)
03. Tala (Flat edged). 04. Nadi (Tubular)
05. Salaka (Rod like). 06. Upayantras (Accessories)

He also defined eight kinds of surgical techniques or Sastrakarma:

01. Incising. 02. Excising
03. Scraping. 04. Puncturing
05. Probing. 06. Extracting
07. Draining. 08. Suturing

Even now, all surgical operations are performed by making use of one or more of these eight techniques.

Susrutha made use of wine as an anaesthetic to make the patient insensible to pain. This is considered by many to be one of the oldest references to the use of Anaesthesia. He is also credited with dividing operative procedures into three distinct stages:

01. Pre-operative or Purvakarma
02. Operation proper or Pradhana karma
03. Post-operative procedure or Paschatkarma

The concept of postoperative wards, where the patients were taken care of in a sterile environment, was first recommended by Susrutha. This showed his understanding of the possibilities of complications that could arise otherwise. He also described 14 kinds of bandages suitable for different parts of the body.

Parasurgical measures conceptualized by him show that Susrutha was not keen on recommending surgery as the immediate resort and advocated safer and simpler techniques.

Susrutas contribution to plastic surgery is outstanding. Reconstruction of mutilated nose (Rhinoplasty), ear (Otoplasty) and lips (Oroplasty), grafting of healthy skin from cheek, rotation of the pedicle flap transfer to the nose, ear or lips and reconstruction- all have been described by Sushruta in vivid detail. Susruthas concept of Rhinoplasty is used even now.

Ayurveda also has surgical treatment for diseases like:

Hemorrhoids. Fistula inano or bhaganda
Urinary calculi or Asmari. Hernia or anthravriddhi
Intestinal obstruction or baddhadara. Perforation of abdominal viscera or Chidrodara
Tumors or Gulma. Benign tumors or Granthi
Obstructed labour or mudhagarbha

Go back Divodasa-note-b

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